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Environmental Fluid Mechanics (2006) 6: 341357 Springer 2006

DOI 10.1007/s10652-005-5664-9

Applications of Venturi Principle to Water


Aeration Systems

AHMET BAYLARa, and FAHRI OZKANb


a
Civil Engineering Department, Firat University, Elazig-TURKEY
b
Construction Education Department, Firat University, Elazig-TURKEY

Received 24 August 2005; accepted in revised form 1 December 2005


Abstract. The concentration of dissolved oxygen is an important indicator of water
quality because aquatic life lives on the dissolved oxygen in the water. Aeration can
increase dissolved oxygen when levels become decient. Hydraulic structures can signi-
cantly improve dissolved oxygen levels by creating turbulent conditions where small air
bubbles are carried into the bulk of the ow. Recent researches have focused on develop-
ing measurement and predictive techniques for oxygen transfer at hydraulic structures to
maintain and enhance water quality. However, reviewing existing studies on aeration per-
formance of hydraulic structures, it seems that there are not too many studies on venturi
aeration. The present paper shows applications of venturi principle to water aeration sys-
tems. The aeration characteristics of venturi nozzle, venturi conduit and venturi weir are
analyzed. The results indicate that venturi aeration might contribute signicantly to air
entrainment and aeration efciency. Therefore, venturi device can be used as highly effec-
tive aerator in aeration processes.

Key words: aeration efciency, air entrainment, conduit, nozzle, venturi, weir

1. Introduction
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a measure of the amount of oxygen freely avail-
able in the water. The concentration of dissolved oxygen is an important
indicator of water quality because aquatic life lives on the dissolved oxy-
gen in the water. The dissolved oxygen level can be an indication of how
polluted the water is and how well the water can support aquatic plant
and animal life. A higher dissolved oxygen level indicates better water qual-
ity. Many naturally occurring biological and chemical processes use oxygen,
thereby diminishing the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water. The
physical process of oxygen transfer from the atmosphere acts to replenish
the used oxygen. This process has been termed aeration.
Some hydraulic structures can increase dissolved oxygen levels by creat-
ing turbulent conditions where small air bubbles are carried into the bulk

Corresponding author, E-mail: abaylar@rat.edu.tr
342 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

Air flow (Q V )

O
O O
O O O O

Water Two phase flow


O O
O O
O O O
O

O
O O O
O OO OO O

flow (Q W) (Q W + Q V )
O
O
O O O
O O O O
O

O
O
O O O
O O
O O
O
O O O O O O
O O
O O O

D Dt O
O
O
O
O
O
O O
O O
O O O
O O
O
O O

Figure 1. Schematic design of venturi device.

of the ow. Aeration performance of hydraulic structures has been stud-


ied experimentally by a number of investigators and these are reviewed
by Wilhelms et al. [1], Chanson [2], Gulliver et al. [3], and Ervine [4].
However, reviewing existing studies on aeration performance of hydraulic
structures, it seems that there are not too many studies on venturi aera-
tion. Venturi system creates a pressure differential that forms a vacuum (air
suction) at air hole of venturi tube (Figure 1). This is accomplished when
a minimal amount of differential pressure (P ) exists between the inlet
and outlet sides of the venturi tube. When a pressurized operating (motive)
uid, such as water, enters the venturi tube inlet, it constricts toward the
throat portion of the venturi tube and changes into a high velocity jet
stream. The increase in velocity through the throat portion of the venturi
tube, as a result of the differential pressure, results in a decrease in pressure
in the throat portion. This pressure drop enables air to be injected through
the air hole and is dynamically entrained into the motive stream. As the jet
stream is diffused toward the venturi tube outlet, its velocity is reduced and
it is reconverted into pressure energy (but at a pressure level lower than
venturi tube inlet pressure). The venturi tubes are highly efcient, requir-
ing less than 20% differential pressure to initiate suction.
Recently, Baylar [5] investigated the free overfall jets from venturi and
rectangular notch weirs and their effect on the air entrainment rate. A ven-
turi weir was placed at the upstream channel end in order to increase the
ow velocity of the free overfall jet and hence to increase the air entrain-
ment. It was demonstrated that the air entrainment rate of the venturi weir
was signicantly better than for the rectangular notch weir and that this
advantage become more pronounced as the throat width of the venturi weir
was decreased. Baylar et al. [6] investigated the use of a venturi nozzle in
a plunging water jet aeration system, and, in particular, the effect of vary-
ing angles of converging and diverging cone and outlet length on the air
entrainment rate. A negative pressure drew air in through hole at the throat
portion of the venturi nozzle. The resulting aeration of the jet affected its
expansion and its surface roughness and hence affected the air entrainment
rate. It was demonstrated that the values of the air entrainment rate of
the venturi nozzle were signicantly higher than those for a circular nozzle.
APPLICATIONS OF VENTURI PRINCIPLE TO WATER AERATION SYSTEMS 343

Ozkan et al. [7] conducted experimental studies to investigate the effects of


inlet and throat diameters of venturi tube, pipe length downstream of ven-
turi tube, ow velocity at inlet portion of venturi tube on the air entrain-
ment rate and the aeration efciency. It was observed from the results that
the venturi tubes had high air entrainment rate and aeration efciency.
The aim of the present paper is to show applications of venturi principle
to water aeration systems and to review studies conducted by Baylar [5],
Baylar et al. [6] and Ozkan et al. [7].

2. AirWater Gas Transfer


The bulk transfer coefcient describes the rate of oxygen across an air
water interface with the equation [8]
 
dC C Pa
V = Do |z=0 = KA C , (1)
dt z H
where C = oxygen concentration in the water; V =volume over which C and
A are measured; t = time; Do = diffusivity of oxygen; z = distance from the
interface; A = air-water surface area contained in the volume V ; Pa = par-
tial pressure of oxygen in the air; H =Henrys law constant; and K = bulk
transfer coefcient, dened by Equation (1). The bulk transfer form of
Equation (1) is normally used in turbulent ow because the concentration
gradient C/z is so difcult to measure at, or near, the interface. The bulk
transfer coefcient is given as the inverse sum of resistances to transfer on
the two sides of the interface [9]
1 1 1
= + , (2)
K KL H Ka
where KL = bulk liquid lm coefcient; and Ka = bulk gas lm coefcient.
For many compounds, including oxygen, mass transfer is water-side con-
trolled because the resistance on the water side is much greater than that on
the air side, or KL  H Ka . Therefore K
= KL , and Equation (1) becomes
dC A
= KL (Cs C), (3)
dt V
where Cs = Pa /H = saturation concentration of oxygen in water, in equilib-
rium at local air pressure and temperature. The liquid lm coefcient var-
ies with the turbulence in the ow across the structure. The surface area
changes signicantly as air is entrained into the structure.
The integrated form of Equation (3) is obtained by integrating between
the limits of C = C0 and C = C and t = 0 and t = t as follows
 C  t
dC
= (KL a) dt, (4)
C0 Cs C 0
344 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

which, when solved yields


 
Cs Ct
ln = (KL a)t, (5)
Cs C0
where the term A/V is often called the specic surface area, a, or sur-
face area per unit volume; C0 and Ct = oxygen concentrations in the water
at the start and time t of aeration; and KL a = mass transfer coefcient.
Although other theories such as Higbie [10], Danckwerst [11], and Dobbins
[12] offer alternative models to the two-lm theory, leading to different the-
oretical values for KL a, there is nevertheless general agreement on a formu-
lation similar to Equation (5) to describe the overall process.
If Equation (5) is considered to be integrated across a hydraulic struc-
ture then the left side becomes the ratio of the upstream and downstream
dissolved oxygen decits and we have
 
Cs Cu
= r = e(KL a) t , (6)
Cs Cd
where u and d = subscripts indicating upstream and downstream locations,
respectively; and r = oxygen decit ratio.
Oxygen decit ratio r can be used to quantify the oxygen uptake at
hydraulic structures. However, the aeration performance of hydraulic struc-
tures often is express more conveniently in terms of oxygen transfer ef-
ciency E, as dened in Equation (7).
 
1 Cd Cu
E =1 = (7)
r Cs Cu
A value of E > 1 means the downstream water has become supersaturated
(i.e., Cd > Cs ). A transfer efciency value of 1.0 means that the full transfer
up to the saturation value has occurred at the structure. No transfer would
correspond to E = 0.0. The saturation concentration in distilled, deionized
water may be obtained from charts or equations. This is an approximation
because the saturation DO concentration for natural waters is often differ-
ent from that of distilled, deionized water due to the impact of trace con-
taminants and salinity.
Oxygen transfer efciency is sensitive to water temperature, and inves-
tigators have typically employed a temperature correction factor. For
hydraulic structures, the most often used temperature correction factor has
been that of Gameson et al. [13], although some investigators have cho-
sen to use an Arrhenius-type of water temperature correction [14]. Gulliver
et al. [15] applied the theories of Levich [16], Hinze [17], and Azbel [18] to
mass transfer similitude and developed the relationship:
1 E20 = (1 E)1/f , (8)
APPLICATIONS OF VENTURI PRINCIPLE TO WATER AERATION SYSTEMS 345

where E = transfer efciency at the water temperature of measurement;


E20 = transfer efciency at the 20 C; and f = the exponent described by

f = 1.0 + 0.02103(T 20) + 8.261 105 (T 20)2 (9)

3. Air Entrainment and Oxygen Transfer Caused by Venturi Principle


3.1. VENTURI NOZZLES

Aeration implies adding air to water. Air contains 21% oxygen and
aeration adds oxygen vital to the sustained health of ponds and lakes,
reversing lake degradation. Water jet aeration is a very effective way of aer-
ation. It is well known that a water jet, which after passing through an air
layer plunges into a water bath, entrains into this an important amount
of air and forms a submerged two-phase region of considerable interfacial
area. This aeration system based on the air entrainment by a water jet is
attractive compared to conventional aeration systems for several reasons:
it doesnt need an air compressor; it is simple in construction and opera-
tion; and it is free of operational difculties such as clogging in air diffus-
ers, limitation of the installation of mechanical aerators by the tank width,
etc. Supported by these potential advantages, therefore, many studies have
been carried out on the ow characteristics of a plunging water jet [19].
Recently, Bagatur et al. [20], Bagatur and Sekerdag [21], Baylar and
Emiroglu [22, 23], Baylar et al. [6, 24] and Emiroglu and Baylar [25, 26]
investigated the effect of nozzle type on air entrainment by plunging water
jets. Baylar et al. [6] investigated whether a venturi nozzle can be used in
a plunging water jet aeration system. A schematic representation of the
experimental set-up is shown in Figure 2. Air ow meters installed on bub-
ble trap and venturi nozzles were used to measure air entrainment rate QA
and volumetric ow rate of air entering air hole on venturi nozzle QV . The
air entrainment rates were studied by varying the converging cone angle 1
and the diverging cone angle 2 of the venturi nozzles. Moreover, the air
entrainment rates of the circular nozzle were studied for comparison with
the venturi nozzles. A negative pressure (below atmospheric pressure i.e.,
a vacuum) occurred at the air holes with diameter of 5.0 mm on the ven-
turi nozzles, as shown in Figure 3. The resulting aeration of the jet affected
its expansion (Figure 4) and its surface roughness and hence affected the
air entrainment rate QA (Figure 5). In all tests, the venturi nozzles had
signicantly higher values of the air entrainment rate and are thus clearly
superior to the circular nozzle. Since circular nozzles had lower values of
air entrainment rate than venturi nozzles, venturi nozzles should be recom-
mended for aeration instead of circular nozzles.
346 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

Air
QA flowmeter
Air QV Water feed line
flowmeter
Venturi nozzle Qw
Bubble trap
Water Flow

j
L
QA Water jet
level o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
direction
o o o o o
o o o o o oo o o o
o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o
o o
o o o
o
o o o o
o o o
o o

o
o

o
o
o

o
o

o
o

o o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o

o
o o
o
Impact Water
o

flowmeter
Scale

o o o o

point
o o o
1.2 m

o o
o
o o o
o
o o o o
o o o
o o
o
o o
Submerged
o

Inlet valve
two-phase region

P Water
pump
Release Water tank
valve
2.0 m
Figure 2. Schematic representation of venturi nozzle experimental apparatus.

10.0
1 = 20O; 2= 5 O

1 = 20 O; 2= 10 O
8.0 1 = 20 O; 2= 20 O
Q V x 10 -4(m 3 /s)

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
-3 3
Q Wx 10 (m /s)

Figure 3. Variation in volumetric ow rate of air entering air hole on venturi nozzle
with water discharge.
APPLICATIONS OF VENTURI PRINCIPLE TO WATER AERATION SYSTEMS 347
0.06
1 = 20 O; 2 = 5 O

1 = 20O; 2 = 10O
0.05
1 = 20 O; 2 = 20O

Circular Nozzle
0.04
J E (m)

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.00
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
-3
QWx 10 (m3/s)

Figure 4. Variation in water jet expansion with water discharge.

3.2. VENTURI CONDUITS

Air can be injected into a pressurized pipe using the venturi principle.
Ozkan et al. [7] investigated aeration efciency of pressurized pipe with
venturi tube considering the effects of inlet diameter of venturi tube, D and
pipe length downstream of venturi tube, L. Schematic representations of
the experimental set-ups are shown in Figures 6 and 7. When a minimal
amount of differential pressure existed between the inlet and outlet sides of
the venturi tube, a vacuum (air suction) occurred at air holes with diameter
of 5.0 mm on venturi tube. Air that was entrained into the water from the
air holes at the throat portion of the venturi tube was momentarily forced
downstream in the form of small air bubbles. The solution of oxygen into
the water resulted from small air bubbles injected. The solution of oxygen
into the water usually is greater in systems with ne bubbles than systems
with coarse bubbles. This results because ne bubbles present a greater sur-
face area to the surrounding water than larger bubbles. Oxygen diffuses
into the water at the surface, so a large surface area facilitates greater oxy-
gen absorption. Moreover, high pressure in pipe with the venturi tube also
facilitated the solution of oxygen into the water.
348 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

150.0
1 = 20 O; 2 = 5 O

1 = 20 O; 2 = 10O
125.0
1 = 20 O; 2 = 20O

Circular Nozzle
100.0
Q A x 10 -4 (m3/s)

75.0

50.0

25.0

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
-3 3
QW x 10 (m /s)

Figure 5. Variation in air entrainment rate with water discharge.

QV

Air
flowmeter

QV
o o o o o o o o o o o
o o o o o
o o
o o o o o o
o o o o
o o
o o o o o o o o
o o
o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o
o o o o
o o
o o o o
o o

QV /2
o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o
o o
o o o
o o o o o o
o o o
o o o
o o o o
o o o
o
o o o o o
o o o o o
o o
o o
o o o o o o

Venturi Water feed line


o o o o
o o o
o o o o o
o oo
o o o o

Bubble
o o o oo o
o
o oo o o o
o
o oo o o o
o o o oo oo
o o ooo o
oo

Release trap
valve Pump
Water tank Flow Flowmeter
QV /2
control
valve
Figure 6. Determination of air injection rate by means of bubble trap.

The results indicated that the venturi conduits had high air entrainment
and aeration efciency, as illustrated in Figures 810. Figure 8 showed that
QV /QW rst increased with VW then it decreased. This is primarily because
for the high values of VW , air entrainment velocity at the throat portion
of the venturi tube is lower than water velocity. Moreover, it was observed
APPLICATIONS OF VENTURI PRINCIPLE TO WATER AERATION SYSTEMS 349
Mixer
Deoxgenation
DO chemical input
meter

Weir DO Thermometer
meter
QV /2
Flow direction Venturi

Flow Flow Water tank


Downstream Pump
channel QV /2 meter control
valve
L

Figure 7. Laboratory venturi conduit apparatus.

0.35

0.30

0.25
QV / Q W

0.20

0.15
Venturi Conduit

0.10 L=0.25 m

D = 36 mm
0.05
D = 42 mm
D = 54 mm
0.00
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
VW (m/s)
Figure 8. Plot of QV /QW versus VW for different values of venturi tube inlet
diameter.

from Figure 9 that QV /QW decreased with increasing pipe length down-
stream of the venturi tube L. The reason of this is the decreased pres-
sure differential between inlet and outlet sides as L increased. On the other
hand, the aeration efciency E20 increased with decreasing pipe length
downstream of the venturi tube L, as shown in Figure 10. The reason of
this is that air that is entrained into the water decreases with increasing L.
350 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

0.35
Venturi Conduit

0.30 D=36 mm

L = 2.5 m

0.25 L = 5.0 m
L = 7.5 m
0.20
QV / Q W

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
VW (m/s)
Figure 9. Plot of QV /QW versus VW for different values of pipe length downstream
of venturi tube.

The results reveal that using a pressurized pipe with venturi tube would sig-
nicantly increase the solution of oxygen into the water.

3.3. VENTURI WEIRS

Before breaking up into drops, the ow over a weir or waterfall is classi-


ed as a free overfall jet. The most classic example of a hydraulic struc-
ture where gas transfer occurs is a weir. The transfer of gasses between
the atmosphere and river water can occur in a free overfall jet from a
weir. A free overfall jet from a weir plunging into downstream water causes
entrainment of the air bubbles if the free overfall jet velocity exceeds a cer-
tain critical value and hence aeration occurs.
Venturi effect is dened as the increase in the velocity of a uid stream
as it passes through a constriction in a channel, pipe or duct. Venturi weir
produces an effect similar to that of venturi nozzle or conduit (Figure 11).
The discharge through venturi weir constriction can be described by the
Bernoulli equation (energy) and continuity equation, similar to the evalu-
ation of ow through a closed conduit venturi. A venturi weir consists of
APPLICATIONS OF VENTURI PRINCIPLE TO WATER AERATION SYSTEMS 351
0.75
Venturi Conduit

D=36 mm

0.60 L = 2.5 m
L = 5.0 m
L = 7.5 m
0.45
E 20

0.30

0.15

0.00
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
VW (m/s)
Figure 10. Plot of E20 versus VW for different values of pipe length downstream of
venturi tube.

Flow

g
Divergin
ing
verg
w n
F lo Co Throat

(a) Side view (b) Plan view (c) Elevation view


Figure 11. Free overfall jet over venturi weir (a) side view; (b) plan view; (c) eleva-
tion view.
352 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

Movable Venturi weir


Grid
point gauge
Free overfall jet

Flow Direction Upstream


channel QA Air Drop
flow height, h
Flow meter Weir
control Q. A
valve Receiving Tailwater
pool depth, ht
Water Stilling tank
flow Release
Bubble valve
meter
P trap
Water feed line
Water
pump

Figure 12. Sketch of venturi weir experimental apparatus.

a converging level inlet section with vertical sidewalls and a diverging level
outlet section also with vertical sidewalls. There is the sharp connection
between the converging section and the diverging section. Venturi weir does
not have any parallel walls forming a straight throat. The narrow throat
produces a differential head which under the proper conditions is propor-
tional to ow rate (Figure 11).
Baylar [5] investigated the free overfall jets from venturi and rectangu-
lar notch weirs and their effect on the air entrainment rate QA . The val-
ues of the air entrainment rate were obtained depending on drop height h,
unit discharge q and weir type. A schematic representation of the exper-
imental set-up is shown in Figure 12. A venturi weir was placed at the
upstream channel end in order to increase the ow velocity of the free
overfall jet and hence to increase the air entrainment, as shown in Figures
13 and 14. The crest widths of the venturi and the rectangular notch weirs
were kept constant at 20 cm in all experiments. It was demonstrated that
the air entrainment rate of the venturi weir was signicantly better than
for the rectangular notch weir and that this advantage became more pro-
nounced as the throat width of the venturi weir, B was decreased (Figure
14). The reason for this increase in the air entrainment rate QA of the ven-
turi weirs can be found by the increased ow velocity over the venturi weirs
and the increased contacting perimeter between the jet ow and the water
surface due to the increase in the free overfall jet expansion. On the other
hand, although the free overfall jet expansion JE for all unit discharges
increased, decreased, or remained constant with increasing drop height, the
air entrainment rate QA always increased as drop height and unit discharge
increased, as shown in Figures 13 and 14. This is primarily due to the
increased momentum of the jet ow with increasing drop height and unit
discharge. The results point that venturi weirs can be used as highly effec-
tive aerators.
APPLICATIONS OF VENTURI PRINCIPLE TO WATER AERATION SYSTEMS 353
0.50 0.50
q=5 x 10
-3
m3 /s.m (a) q=10 x 10-3m 3 /s.m (b)
Venturi weir; B=5 cm Venturi weir; B=5 cm
0.40 Venturi weir; B=10 cm 0.40 Venturi weir; B=10 cm
Venturi weir; B=15 cm Venturi weir; B=15 cm
Rectangular notch weir Rectangular notch weir
0.30 0.30
J E (m)

J E (m)
0.20 0.20

0.10 0.10

0.00 0.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
h (m) h (m)
0.50 0.50
q=20 x 10-3 m3 /s.m
q=15 x 10-3m3 /s.m (c) (d)
Venturi weir; B=5 cm
Venturi weir; B=5 cm
0.40 0.40 Venturi weir; B=10 cm
Venturi weir; B=10 cm
Venturi weir; B=15 cm
Venturi weir; B=15 cm
Rectangular notch weir
Rectangular notch weir
0.30 0.30
J E (m)

J E (m)

0.20 0.20

0.10 0.10

0.00 0.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
h (m) h (m)

Figure 13. Free overfall jet expansion at impact point as a function of drop height
for venturi and rectangular notch weirs; (a) q = 5 103 m3 /s.m, (b) q = 10 103
m3 /s.m, (c) q = 15 103 m3 /s.m, (d) q = 20 103 m3 /s.m.

Conclusions
The present paper shows applications of venturi principle to water aeration
systems using weir, water jet and pressurized pipe aerators. Because charac-
teristic ow properties and application areas of these aerators are different
from each other, a comparison is not carried out between these aeration
devices. Based on the ndings of this paper, the following conclusions can
be drawn:
The venturi nozzles were shown to have signicantly higher values of
the air entrainment rate than the circular nozzles and are thus clearly
superior to the circular nozzles. The results indicated that the diverg-
ing cone angle of the venturi nozzle was an important factor inu-
encing the air entrainment rate. The air entrainment rate increased
with increasing the diverging cone angle. Therefore, venturi nozzles
should be recommended for aeration instead of circular nozzles in a
354 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

100.0 100.0
q=5 x 10-3m3 /s.m q=10 x 10-3m3 /s.m
(a) (b)
Venturi weir; B=5 cm Venturi weir; B=5 cm
80.0 Venturi weir; B=10 cm 80.0 Venturi weir; B=10 cm

Venturi weir; B=15 cm Venturi weir; B=15 cm


Q A (m 3 /s) x 10- 4

Q A (m 3 /s) x 10 - 4
Rectangular notch weir Rectangular notch weir
60.0 60.0

40.0 40.0

20.0 20.0

0.0 0.0
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
h (m) h (m)

100.0 100.0
q=15 x 10-3 m3 /s.m q=20 x 10-3m3 /s.m
(c) (d)
Venturi weir; B=5 cm Venturi weir; B=5 cm
80.0 Venturi weir; B=10 cm 80.0 Venturi weir; B=10 cm
Venturi weir; B=15 cm Venturi weir; B=15 cm
Q A (m 3 /s) x 10 - 4

Q A (m 3 /s) x 10- 4

Rectangular notch weir Rectangular notch weir


60.0 60.0

40.0 40.0

20.0 20.0

0.0 0.0
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
h (m) h (m)

Figure 14. Air entrainment rate as a function of drop height for venturi and rectan-
gular notch weirs; (a) q = 5 103 m3 /s.m, (b) q = 10 103 m3 /s.m, (c) q = 15 103
m3 /s.m, (d) q = 20 103 m3 /s.m.

wide variety of environmental situations. There are many advantages


of using venturi nozzles in the water aeration systems. A venturi noz-
zle doesnt require external power to operate. It does not have any
moving parts, which increases its life and decreases probability of fail-
ure. Venturi nozzle is usually constructed of plastic and it is resistant
to most chemicals. It requires minimal operator attention and main-
tenance. Since the device is very simple, its cost is low. It is easy to
adapt to most of new or existing systems providing that there is suf-
cient pressure in the system to create the required pressure differential.
The results indicated that the venturi conduits had high aeration ef-
ciency. Air that was entrained into the water from the air holes at the
throat portion of the venturi conduit was momentarily forced down-
stream in the form of small air bubbles. The solution of oxygen into
the water resulted from small air bubbles injected. Moreover, high
pressure in the pipe with the venturi tube also facilitated the solution
APPLICATIONS OF VENTURI PRINCIPLE TO WATER AERATION SYSTEMS 355

of oxygen into the water. Thus, using a simple venturi conduit would
signicantly increase the solution of oxygen into the water. Venturi
conduits can be used as highly effective aerator in ponds, lakes, sh
hatcheries, water treatment plants, etc.
The venturi weirs were shown to have a signicantly better air entrain-
ment rate than the rectangular notch weir. The air entrainment rate
increased as the throat width of the venturi weirs was decreased.
Therefore, using a simple venturi weir would signicantly increase air
entrainment rate. Venturi weirs can be used as highly effective aerators
in streams, rivers, constructed channels, etc. For very wide channels,
multiple venturi weirs can be used instead of single venturi weir. Ven-
turi weir with its level oor and simple inlet and exit would be easily
constructed and installed in almost any eld situation. Moreover, low
construction, operation and maintenance costs of venturi weir would
give it the clear advantage in aeration processes.

In summary, the results indicate that venturi aeration is one of the ideal
forms to increase air entrainment and oxygen content in water body for
hydraulic and environmental engineering.

Symbols
a surface area per unit volume
A surface area associated with the volume V , over which transfer
occurs
B throat width of venturi weir
C dissolved oxygen concentration
C0 dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water at the start of aeration
Cd dissolved oxygen concentration downstream of a hydraulic structure
Cs saturation concentration
Ct dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water at the time t of
aeration
Cu dissolved oxygen concentration upstream of a hydraulic structure
D inlet diameter of venturi tube
Do diffusivity of oxygen
Dt throat diameter of venturi tube
DO dissolved oxygen
E oxygen transfer efciency at the water temperature of
measurement
E20 oxygen transfer efciency at the 20 C
f term to adjust from 20 C to T C
h drop height of free overfall jet from weir
H Henrys law constant
356 AHMET BAYLAR AND FAHRI OZKAN

ht tailwater depth
K bulk transfer coefcient
Ka bulk gas lm coefcient
KL bulk liquid lm coefcient
KL a mass transfer coefcient
L pipe length downstream of venturi tube
LJ length of water jet issued from venturi and circular nozzles
JE jet expansion
Pa partial pressure of oxygen in the air
q unit discharge
QA air entrainment rate
Qw water discharge
QV volumetric ow rate of air entering air hole on venturi tube
r oxygen decit ratio
t time
T water temperature
V volume of liquid
Vw ow velocity at inlet portion of venturi tube
z distance from the interface
P differential pressure
plunge angle of water jet issued from venturi and circular nozzles
1 converging cone angle of venturi nozzle
2 diverging cone angle of venturi nozzle

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