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# MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (I)

INTRODUCTION-CONCEPT OF STRESS

## Dr. Jung-San Chen

Department of Engineering Science
National Cheng Kung University
INTRODUCTION OF MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Statics Forces and motions

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Dynamics (particles and rigid bodys)
Mechanics of Materials a subject that deals with the
The principal objective of mechanics of materials is
to determine the
* Stresses
* Strains
* Displacements
in structures and their components due to the loads
acting on them J.S. Chen
MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY
analysis

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Structure Response
design
We must determine the properties of the structure in order that the
structure will support the loads and perform its intended functions

## To provide the future engineer with the means of

analyzing and designing various machines and load
bearing structures.
Both the analysis and design of a given structure involve
the determination of stresses and deformations.

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IMPORTANT TERMS
Stiffness- refers to the ability of the structure to resist change in
shape.
Strength- the ability of a structure to resist loads
Stability - refers to the ability of the structure to resist buckling
under compressive stresses
Optimization - design the best structure to meet a particular goal
e.g. minimum weight, resistance of high temperature
Reaction - passive forces
Free-body diagram - distinguish reactions from loads

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REVIEW OF STATICS The structure is designed to

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Objective: what are the reaction
forces produced for supporting
this structure?

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METHOD OF JOINTS

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FB = 0
FAB FBC 30 kN
= =
4 5 3
FAB = 40 kN FBC = 50 kN
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Objective: Can the structure
safely support the 30 kN load?

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Stress analysis is needed!!!

FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

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The stress (force intensity) on that section is defined as

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the normal stress.

F P
= lim ave =
A 0 A A

## [Note]: The equation is valid only if the stress is

uniformly distributed over the cross section of bar.
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DEFINITION OF NORMAL STRESS

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A

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STRESS DISTRIBUTION OF A SLENDER ROD SUBJECTED
TO EQUAL AND OPPOSITE CONCENTRATED LOADS

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The stress is found to vary
across the section
-- away from the ends (stress
variation is small)
-- close to the ends (stress
variation is noticeable)

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A uniform distribution of stress is only
possible if the concentrated loads on the
end sections of two-force members are
applied at the section centroids. This is
P
C

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If a two-force member is eccentrically

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loaded, then the resultant of the stress
distribution in a section must yield an
axial force and a moment.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS - STRESS ANALYSIS
Recall:

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FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

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At any section through
member BC, the internal force

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is 50 kN with a stress of

P 50 103 N
BC = = = 159 MPa
A 314 10-6 m 2

dBC = 20 mm

## From the material properties for steel, the allowable

stress is all = 165 MPa
Conclusion: the strength of member BC is adequate
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Design of new structures requires selection of
appropriate materials and component dimensions to

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meet performance requirements

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The choice is made to construct the rod from aluminum
(all= 100 MPa). What is an appropriate choice for the

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rod diameter?

P P 50 103 N
all = A= = = 500 10 6 m 2
A all 100 106 Pa
d2
A=
4

d=
4A
=
(
4 500 10 6 m 2 ) = 2.52 102 m = 25.2 mm

## An aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter is adequate

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SHEARING STRESS

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Corresponding internal forces act in the plane of
section C and are called shearing forces.
P
The corresponding average shear stress is, ave =
A
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Single Shear Double Shear

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P F
ave = = P F /2 F
ave= = =
A A A A 2A
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BEARING STRESS IN CONNECTIONS
Corresponding average force intensity is called the

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bearing stress,
P P
b = = A is projected area
A td

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STRESS ANALYSIS & DESIGN EXAMPLE

## From a statics analysis:

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FAB = 40 kN
(compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

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ROD & BOOM NORMAL STRESSES
The rod is in tension with an axial force of 50 kN.

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d=20mm

FBC = 50 kN
At the rod center, the average normal stress in the circular cross-
section (A = 314x10-6m2) is
BC = FBC /A=+159 MPa.
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ROD & BOOM NORMAL STRESSES
At the flattened rod ends, the smallest cross-sectional

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area occurs at the pin centerline,

P 50 103 N
BC ,end = = 6
= 167 MPa
A 300 10 m 2

## The boom is in compression with an axial force of 40

kN and average normal stress of 26.7 MPa.
P 40 103 N 40 103 N
AB = = = 3 2
= 26.7 MPa
A (30mm)(50mm) 1.5 10 m

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PIN SHEARING STRESSES

## The cross-sectional area for

pins at A, B, and C,
2
25 mm 6 2
A =r =
2
= 491 10 m
2

## The force on the pin at C is equal to the force exerted by

the rod BC, P 50 103 N
C , ave = = 6 2
= 102 MPa
A 49110 m
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PIN SHEARING STRESSES
The pin at A is in double shear with
a total force equal to the force

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exerted by the boom AB,

P 40 kN/2
A,ave= = 6
= 40.7 MPa
A 49110 m 2

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PIN SHEARING STRESSES
Determine the section with the

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largest shear force,
PE = 15 kN
50

PG = 25 kN (largest)

## Evaluate the corresponding average

shearing stress,
PG 25 kN
B, ave = = 6 2
= 50.9 MPa
A 49110 m

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PIN BEARING STRESSES
Front view
Bearing stress in member AB at A

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P 40 kN
= = = 53.3MPa
b
t1d ( 30 mm )( 25mm )

## Bearing stress in the bracket at A

Top view
P 40 kN/2
= = = 32.0 MPa
b
t2 d ( 25mm )( 25mm )

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t = 10mm Pins: d A = 10mm
d C = 6mm

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t = 6mm

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Single shear

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Double shear

t = 10mm

t = 6mm

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t = 10mm

t = 6mm

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STRESS ON AN OBLIQUE PLANE

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p m

q n

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STRESS ON AN OBLIQUE PLANE
Resolve P into components normal and tangential to

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the oblique section,
F = P cos V = P sin
The average normal and shear stresses on the oblique
plane are
F P cos P x
= = = cos =
2
(1 + cos 2 )
A A0 A0 2
cos
V P sin P x
= = = sin cos=
sin 2
A A0 A0 2
cos J.S. Chen
MAXIMUM STRESSES
The maximum normal stress occurs when the reference

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plane is perpendicular to the member axis,
P
m = = 0
A0

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MAXIMUM STRESSES
The maximum shear stress occurs for a plane at + 45o
with respect to the axis,
P P
m = sin 45 cos 45 = =
A0 2 A0

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STRESS COMPONENTS UNDER GENERAL

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STRESS COMPONENTS UNDER GENERAL

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The distribution of internal stress components may be

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defined as,
F x
x = lim (or it can be written as xx )
A0 A

Vyx Vzx
= xy lim
= xz lim
A0 A A0 A

## Indicate which Indicate the

surface direction of the
component

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STATE OF STRESS (9 COMPONENTS)
( x , y , z , xy , xz , yz , yx , zx , zy )

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( yy )

( zz ) ( xx )

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STATE OF STRESS
Small cube

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3D 2D

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The combination of forces generated by the stresses must
satisfy the conditions for equilibrium:

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Fx = Fy = Fz = 0
Mx = My = Mz = 0
Consider the moments about the z axis:
M z =0=( xy A) a ( yx A) a
yx similarly, yz = zy and yz = zy
xy =
It follows that only 6 components of stress are required
to define the complete state of stress
( x , y , z , xy , xz , yz , yx , zx , zy ) reduces to
( x , y , z , xy , xz , yz )
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STRESS-STRAIN TEST (CHAP 2)

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FACTOR OF SAFETY
Importance index: avoid permanent deformation

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FS = Factor of safety
Y yield strength
=
FS = for ductile materials
all allowable stress ( working stress )
u ultimate stress
= =
FS
all allowable stress for brittle materials

u u
FS for tension = FS for shear =
all all
all = u FS for tension all = u FS for shear
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rod

pin
bracket
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C

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Double shear
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Bracket
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