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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (I)

INTRODUCTION-CONCEPT OF STRESS

Dr. Jung-San Chen


Department of Engineering Science
National Cheng Kung University
INTRODUCTION OF MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Statics Forces and motions

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Dynamics (particles and rigid bodys)
Mechanics of Materials a subject that deals with the
behavior of solid bodies subjected to various types of loading.
The principal objective of mechanics of materials is
to determine the
* Stresses
* Strains
* Displacements
in structures and their components due to the loads
acting on them J.S. Chen
MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY
analysis

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Structure Response
design
We must determine the properties of the structure in order that the
structure will support the loads and perform its intended functions

To provide the future engineer with the means of


analyzing and designing various machines and load
bearing structures.
Both the analysis and design of a given structure involve
the determination of stresses and deformations.

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IMPORTANT TERMS
Stiffness- refers to the ability of the structure to resist change in
shape.
Strength- the ability of a structure to resist loads
Stability - refers to the ability of the structure to resist buckling
under compressive stresses
Optimization - design the best structure to meet a particular goal
e.g. minimum weight, resistance of high temperature
Load - active forces
Reaction - passive forces
Free-body diagram - distinguish reactions from loads

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REVIEW OF STATICS The structure is designed to
support a 30 kN load

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Objective: what are the reaction
forces produced for supporting
this structure?

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METHOD OF JOINTS

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FB = 0
FAB FBC 30 kN
= =
4 5 3
FAB = 40 kN FBC = 50 kN
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Objective: Can the structure
safely support the 30 kN load?

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Stress analysis is needed!!!

FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

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AXIAL LOADING: NORMAL STRESS
The stress (force intensity) on that section is defined as

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the normal stress.

F P
= lim ave =
A 0 A A

[Note]: The equation is valid only if the stress is


uniformly distributed over the cross section of bar.
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DEFINITION OF NORMAL STRESS

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A

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STRESS DISTRIBUTION OF A SLENDER ROD SUBJECTED
TO EQUAL AND OPPOSITE CONCENTRATED LOADS

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The stress is found to vary
across the section
-- away from the ends (stress
variation is small)
-- close to the ends (stress
variation is noticeable)

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CENTRIC & ECCENTRIC LOADING

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A uniform distribution of stress is only
possible if the concentrated loads on the
end sections of two-force members are
applied at the section centroids. This is
referred to as centric loading.
P
C

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CENTRIC & ECCENTRIC LOADING
If a two-force member is eccentrically

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loaded, then the resultant of the stress
distribution in a section must yield an
axial force and a moment.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS - STRESS ANALYSIS
Recall:

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FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

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At any section through
member BC, the internal force

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is 50 kN with a stress of

P 50 103 N
BC = = = 159 MPa
A 314 10-6 m 2

dBC = 20 mm

From the material properties for steel, the allowable


stress is all = 165 MPa
Conclusion: the strength of member BC is adequate
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Design of new structures requires selection of
appropriate materials and component dimensions to

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meet performance requirements

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The choice is made to construct the rod from aluminum
(all= 100 MPa). What is an appropriate choice for the

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rod diameter?

P P 50 103 N
all = A= = = 500 10 6 m 2
A all 100 106 Pa
d2
A=
4

d=
4A
=
(
4 500 10 6 m 2 ) = 2.52 102 m = 25.2 mm

An aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter is adequate


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SHEARING STRESS

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Corresponding internal forces act in the plane of
section C and are called shearing forces.
P
The corresponding average shear stress is, ave =
A
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Single Shear Double Shear

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P F
ave = = P F /2 F
ave= = =
A A A A 2A
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BEARING STRESS IN CONNECTIONS
Corresponding average force intensity is called the

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bearing stress,
P P
b = = A is projected area
A td

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STRESS ANALYSIS & DESIGN EXAMPLE

From a statics analysis:

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FAB = 40 kN
(compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

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ROD & BOOM NORMAL STRESSES
The rod is in tension with an axial force of 50 kN.

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d=20mm

FBC = 50 kN
At the rod center, the average normal stress in the circular cross-
section (A = 314x10-6m2) is
BC = FBC /A=+159 MPa.
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ROD & BOOM NORMAL STRESSES
At the flattened rod ends, the smallest cross-sectional

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area occurs at the pin centerline,

A = (20 mm )(40 mm 25 mm ) = 300 10 6 m 2


P 50 103 N
BC ,end = = 6
= 167 MPa
A 300 10 m 2

The boom is in compression with an axial force of 40


kN and average normal stress of 26.7 MPa.
P 40 103 N 40 103 N
AB = = = 3 2
= 26.7 MPa
A (30mm)(50mm) 1.5 10 m

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PIN SHEARING STRESSES

The cross-sectional area for


pins at A, B, and C,
2
25 mm 6 2
A =r =
2
= 491 10 m
2

The force on the pin at C is equal to the force exerted by


the rod BC, P 50 103 N
C , ave = = 6 2
= 102 MPa
A 49110 m
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PIN SHEARING STRESSES
The pin at A is in double shear with
a total force equal to the force

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exerted by the boom AB,

P 40 kN/2
A,ave= = 6
= 40.7 MPa
A 49110 m 2

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PIN SHEARING STRESSES
Determine the section with the

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largest shear force,
PE = 15 kN
50

PG = 25 kN (largest)

Evaluate the corresponding average


shearing stress,
PG 25 kN
B, ave = = 6 2
= 50.9 MPa
A 49110 m

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PIN BEARING STRESSES
Front view
Bearing stress in member AB at A

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P 40 kN
= = = 53.3MPa
b
t1d ( 30 mm )( 25mm )

Bearing stress in the bracket at A


Top view
P 40 kN/2
= = = 32.0 MPa
b
t2 d ( 25mm )( 25mm )

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t = 10mm Pins: d A = 10mm
d C = 6mm

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t = 6mm

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Single shear

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Double shear

t = 10mm

t = 6mm

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t = 10mm

t = 6mm

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STRESS ON AN OBLIQUE PLANE

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p m

q n

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STRESS ON AN OBLIQUE PLANE
Resolve P into components normal and tangential to

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the oblique section,
F = P cos V = P sin
The average normal and shear stresses on the oblique
plane are
F P cos P x
= = = cos =
2
(1 + cos 2 )
A A0 A0 2
cos
V P sin P x
= = = sin cos=
sin 2
A A0 A0 2
cos J.S. Chen
MAXIMUM STRESSES
The maximum normal stress occurs when the reference

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plane is perpendicular to the member axis,
P
m = = 0
A0

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MAXIMUM STRESSES
The maximum shear stress occurs for a plane at + 45o
with respect to the axis,
P P
m = sin 45 cos 45 = =
A0 2 A0

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STRESS COMPONENTS UNDER GENERAL
LOADINGS

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STRESS COMPONENTS UNDER GENERAL
LOADINGS

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STRESS UNDER GENERAL LOADINGS
The distribution of internal stress components may be

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defined as,
F x
x = lim (or it can be written as xx )
A0 A

Vyx Vzx
= xy lim
= xz lim
A0 A A0 A

Indicate which Indicate the


surface direction of the
component

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STATE OF STRESS (9 COMPONENTS)
( x , y , z , xy , xz , yz , yx , zx , zy )

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( yy )

( zz ) ( xx )

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STATE OF STRESS
Small cube

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3D 2D

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The combination of forces generated by the stresses must
satisfy the conditions for equilibrium:

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Fx = Fy = Fz = 0
Mx = My = Mz = 0
Consider the moments about the z axis:
M z =0=( xy A) a ( yx A) a
yx similarly, yz = zy and yz = zy
xy =
It follows that only 6 components of stress are required
to define the complete state of stress
( x , y , z , xy , xz , yz , yx , zx , zy ) reduces to
( x , y , z , xy , xz , yz )
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STRESS-STRAIN TEST (CHAP 2)

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FACTOR OF SAFETY
Importance index: avoid permanent deformation

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FS = Factor of safety
Y yield strength
=
FS = for ductile materials
all allowable stress ( working stress )
u ultimate stress
= =
FS
all allowable stress for brittle materials

u u
FS for tension = FS for shear =
all all
all = u FS for tension all = u FS for shear
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rod

pin
bracket
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C

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Double shear
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Bracket
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