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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013

Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013
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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND


TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN AND DETAILING II (CEH7422)


NTA LEVEL 7B SECOND SEMESTER
LECTURE 2 PART A
ENG. JULIUS J. NALITOLELA

TOPIC 2 (A): FLAT SLABS


CONTENT
1. Definition

2. Dimensional considerations

3. Analysis

4. Design and Detailing for Bending Moments

5. Shear force and Shear resistance

6. Crack control

7. Deflection control

8. Design procedures

9. Example

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1. Definition

FLAT SLABS are slabs with or without drops supported generally without beams
by columns with or without column heads.

The slabs may be solid or have recesses formed on the soffit to give waffle slab.

The slab is normally thicker than that required for normal solid floor slab
construction, but the omission of beams facilitates provision of a smaller storey
height for a given clear height, and the construction and provision of formwork
simpler.

Figure 1.1 illustrates the flat slab construction with its various features.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

1. Definition

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2. Dimensional Considerations
(i) The ratio of the longer to the shorter span should not exceed 2;
thereby guaranteeing two-way spanning behaviour.

(ii) Design moments may be determined by:


equivalent frame method
simplified method
finite elements analysis.

(iii) The effective dimension lh of the column head is defined as the lesser of
the actual dimension, lho, or lh,max = lc + 2(dh 40)

Where; lc (= hc) = actual column dimension measured


in the same direction as lh for a flared head, lho is
measured 40 mm below the slab or drop.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

2. Dimensional Considerations
(iv) The effective diameter of a column or a column head is defined as follows:

a. for a column, the diameter of a circle whose area equals the area of the
column

b. for a column head, the diameter of the column head based on the effective
dimensions defined in (iii) above.

The effective diameter of the column head shall be not more than of the
shorter span framing into the column.

(v) Drop panels only influence the distribution of moments if the smaller
dimension of the drop is at least equal to one-third of the smaller panel
dimension. Smaller drops, however, provide enhanced resistance against
punching shear.

(vi) The panel thickness is controlled by the deflection. The thickness should,
however, not be less than 125 mm.

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2. Dimensional Considerations

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

3. Analysis
It is normally sufficient to consider only a single load case where all spans are subject to
maximum design load, viz:

The flat slab can then be analysed using either the Frame Analysis Method or the
Simplified Method.

The Frame Analysis Method

The structure is divided longitudinally and transversely into frames consisting of columns
and strips of slab width of strips being the centre-line distance between adjacent
panels. The entire frame or sub-frame may be analysed by the moment distribution
approach.

Each of the strips is assumed to carry uniformly distributed load equivalent to .

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3. Analysis
The Simplified Method

For a flat slab structure whose lateral stability is not dependent on the slab-column
connections, viz. it is braced by walls, the Table 3.19 in BS 8110 may be used
provided:

a. the design is based on a single load case

b. the structure has at least three rows of panel of approximately equal spans in
the direction considered.

If the situation is otherwise, the designer may use the Frame Analysis Method and
moment distribution.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

3. Analysis

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4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment


i) Division of Panels and Bending Moments

Flat slab panels are divided into column strips and middle strips as shown in Figure 1.3
(Fig. 3.12 of BS 8110). Drops should be ignored if the smaller dimension of the drop
is less than one-third of the smaller dimension of the panel.

Design moments obtained from Table 3.19 (BS 8110) are divided between column and
middle strips in accordance with Table 3.20 (BS 8110). Modifications to allow for
increased width of middle strip owing to existence of drops should be made where
necessary the design moments resisted by the middle strip should be increased
proportionately.

The design moments resisted by the column strip should then be adjusted such that the
total positive and total negative moments remain constant.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment

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4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment

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4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment


ii) Limitation of Negative Design Moments
Negative moments greater than those at distance hc/2 from the centre-line of the column
may be ignored providing the sum of the maximum positive design moment and the
average of the negative design moments in any one span of the slab for the whole
panel width is not less than:

Where: l1 = panel length parallel to span, measured from column centres

l2 = panel width measured from centres of columns.

If the above condition is not fulfilled, the negative design moments should be increased
to the value of the above.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment


iii) Design of Internal Panels

The column and middle strips should be designed to withstand the design moments based
on Tables 3.19 and 3.20 of BS 8110.

For an internal panel, two-thirds of the amount of reinforcement required to resist the
negative design moment in the column strip should be placed in a central zone of
width equal to one-half the column strip.

Detailing is then done in accordance with the simplified rules of Clause 3.12.10.3.1. No or
negligible moments need to be transferred to columns.

iv) Design of Edge Panels

The design is similar to that of an internal panel. Moments are obtainable from Table 3.19
(BS 8110).

Since there are no edge beams, the capacity to withstand edge moments is limited by the
ability to transfer the edge moments to the column, viz. the moment transfer capacity.

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4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment


. In flat slabs, moments will only be able to be transferred between a slab and an edge or
corner column through a column strip considerably narrower than that appropriate for
an internal panel. The breadth of this strip, be, for various typical cases is shown in
Figure 3.13 of BS 8110. The value of be should never be taken as greater than the
column strip width appropriate for an interior panel.

The maximum design moment, Mt,max, that can be transferred to a column through the strip
is given by:

Mt,max = 0.15bed2fcu; where d is that appropriate for top reinforcement.

Mt,max 50% the design moments obtained using the equivalent frame analysis,
or 70% of value from the grillage or finite element analysis. If Mtmax is found to be
less than this, the structural arrangements should be changed.

Mt,max Mapplied; otherwise Mapplied in the slab should be reduced to the limiting
value of Mt,max, and the positive moments in the span adjusted accordingly.

Moments in excess of Mt,max may only be transferred to a column if an edge beam or strip
of a slab along the free edge is reinforced in accordance with Section 2.4 of BS 8110
(Part 2) to carry extra moments into the column by torsion.
CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

4. Design and detailing for Bending Moment

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5. Shear force and Shear resistance

(i) Punching shear around the column is the critical consideration in flat slabs.

(ii) Shear stresses at slab / internal column connections may be increased to allow for
effects of moment transfer as stipulated below:

(a) The design effective shear force Veff at the interface perimeter should be taken

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

5. Shear force and Shear resistance


(b) In the absence of calculations for internal columns in braced structures of
approximately equal panel dimensions, the design effective shear force Veff;
may be taken to be:

;Vt corresponds to the case with maximum design load on all panels adjacent to the
column considered.

(iii) Shear stress at other slab-column connections may be obtained as stipulated below:
(a) For bending about an axis parallel to the free edge at corner and edge columns;

Veff = 1.25Vt

(b) For bending about an axis perpendicular to free edge (edge columns only); or
Veff = 1.4Vt; for approximately equal spans.

The maximum shear stress at column or column head face should not exceed the lesser
of 0.8 fcu or 5 N/mm2.

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5. Shear force and Shear resistance


(iv) Shear under concentrated loads (punching shear) is governed by the following
considerations:

(a) Punching shear occurs on inclined faces of truncated cones or pyramids


(depending on whether load shape is circular or rectangular);

(b) It is practical to adopt rectangular failure perimeters;

c) The maximum design shear stress,

vmax = V/(uod) 0.8 fcu 5 N/mm2

where; uo is the effective length of the perimeter which touches a loaded area.

(d) Nominal design shear stress, v, is given by ;

v = V/(ud); u is the effective length of the outer perimeter of zone under


consideration

first is at 1.5d from the face.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

5. Shear force and Shear resistance


(e) Provision of shear reinforcement, in form of castellated links, in the failure zone
is made for thickness exceeding 200 mm, if v vc thus:

(Asvsin ) [(v vc)ud] / 0.87fyv; v-vc 0.4 Mpa ; where; is angle


between shear reinforcement and plane of slab.

The reinforcement is to be distributed evenly on at least two perimeters.

The design procedure entails the successive checking starting from the
inner-most, as illustrated in Figure 3.17 (BS 8110).

(v) Modification of effective perimeter to allow for holes:

When openings in slabs or footings (Figure 3.18 BS 8110) are located at a


distance less than 6d (d being the effective depth of the slab) from the edge of a
concentrated load, then part of the perimeter which is enclosed by radial
projections from the centroid of the loaded area to the openings is
considered ineffective in resisting shear.

Where a single hole is adjacent to the column and its greatest width is less than one-
quarter of the column side or one-half of the slab depth, whichever is the lesser, its
presence may be ignored.
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5. Shear force and Shear resistance


(vi) Effective perimeter close to a free edge:

Where a concentrated load is located close to a free edge, the effective length of
a perimeter should be taken as the lesser of the two illustrated in Figure 3.19 (BS
8110). The same principle may be adopted for corner columns.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

5.

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5.

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5.

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5.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

6. Deflection control

For slabs with drops of width greater than one-third the respective spans, treatment
should be similar to that for normal solid slabs.

Otherwise span/effective depth should be modified by a factor of 0.9

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7. Crack control

Limit reinforcement spacing as per rules stipulated in Cl. 3.12.11 of BS 8110.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

8. Design procedures

1st Dimensional considerations;

2nd Load analysis;

3rd Design moments;

4th Design of reinforcement;

5th Deflection control

6th Punching shear;

7th Crack Control.

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9. Example
1 The floor of a building constructed of flat slabs is 30.0 m x 24.0 m. The column centres
are 6.0 m in both directions, and the building is braced with shear walls. The panels
are to have drops of 3.0 m x 3.0 m. The depth of the drop panel is 250 mm and the
slab depth is 200 mm. The internal columns are 450 mm square and the column
heads are 900 mm with depth of 600 mm.

The loads are as follows:

Dead load = self weight + 2.50 kN/m for screed, floor finishes, partitions and finishes

Imposed load = 3.50 kN/m

The materials are grade 30 concrete and grade 250 reinforcement.

Design an internal panel next to an edge panel on two sides and show the
reinforcement details.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example

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9. Example

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example

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9. Example
Moments based on Tables 3.19 and 3.20 of the Code

First interior support:

-0.063 x 580.7 x 5.35 = -195.7 kNm

Centre of interior span:

+0.071 x 580.7 x 5.35 = +220.6 kNm

Moment apportionment in the panels

Column strip:

Negative moment: -0.75 x 195.7 = -146.8 kNm

Positive moment: 0.55 x 220.6 = 121.3 kNm

Middle strip:

Negative moment: -0.25 x 195.7 = -48.9 kNm

Positive moment: 0.45 x 220.6 = 99.3 kNm


CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example
Design of Reinforcement

Assume cover c = 25 mm, and 16 mm bar

At the drop, the effective depth for the inner layer is:

d = 250 25 16 16/2 = 201 mm

In the slab, the effective depth for the inner layer is

d = 200 25 16 16/2 = 151 mm

Width b for design calculations for the column and middle strips, b = 3000 mm

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9. Example

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example

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9. Example

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example
Deflection
Calculations are made for the middle strip using the total moment at mid-span and
the average of the column and middle strip tension steel. The basic span/d ratio = 26
from the code.

M/bd2 = 220.6 x 106/(6000 x 1512) = 1.61

fs = 5 x 250 x 3782.5 / (8 x 3919.5) = 150.8 N/mm2 (Table 3.11 BS 8110)

The modification factor is: 0.55 + (477 - 150.8) / [120(0.9 + 1.61)] = 1.63 (Table 3.11
BS 8110)

Allowable span/d ratio = 1.63 x 26 = 42.4

Actual span/d ratio = 6000/151 = 39.7

The slab is satisfactory with respect to deflection

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9. Example

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example

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9. Example

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example

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Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-
sign is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97)
for reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To learn more
about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key
Features and Terminology manual.

SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal dis-
placement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the
applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load
combination involves the following:

Determine factored moments for each slab strip.

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated
for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.

For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then add-
ed to get the strip moments.
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earli-
er (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when
drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted ac-
cordingly.

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a


slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.12.5.3, BS Table 3.25) with interpo-
lation for reinforcement of intermediate strength:

0.0024bh if fy 250MPa
As (BS 3.12.5.3)
0.0013bh if fy 500MPa

In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression


reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area
(BS 3.12.6.1).

The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
Slab Punching Shear Check in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.

The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.7.6.4) and at a
critical section at a distance of 1.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.7.7.6).
For rectangular columns and concentrated loads, the critical area is taken as a
rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point
loads (BS 3.7.7.1). Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered
by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i.e., interior,
edge, corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punch-
ing Check Overwrites.

1.5d

1.5d 1.5d

Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column

1.5d
1.5d 1.5d

Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column

Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters

The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.7.7.4, 3.7.7.6):
1 1
3 4
0.79k1k 2 100 As 400
vc (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
m bd d

k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression,


and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.8)
1
3 1
3
fcu 40
k2 = ,1 k2 (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
25 25
m = 1.25 (BS 3.4.5.2)

However, the following limitations also apply:

100 As
0.15 3 (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
bd
1
4
400
0.67 (unreinforced) or 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.4.5.4)
d

v min(0.8 fcu , 5MPa) (BS 3.7.6.4)

For light-weight concrete, vmax is defined as:

v min(0.63 fcu , 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.4)

fcu 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (BS 3.4.5.4)

As = area of tension reinforcement, which is taken as zero in the current


implementation.

Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the bending axis, the nominal design shear stress, vmax,
is calculated as:

1.5 M x
V V f (BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
eff , x Vy

1.5M
y
Veff , y V f (BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
Vx

Veff , x
ud
vmax max (BS 3.7.7.3)
Veff , y
ud
where,

u is the perimeter of the critical section

x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the
axis of bending

Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the
column at the connection

V is the total punching shear force

f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is


taken as:

1.00 for interior columns


f 1.25 for edge columns (BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
1.25 for corner columns

The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.

The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided


that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS
3.7.7.5). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching
shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased
by the user.

The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earli-
er sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of:

vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(BS 3.7.7.5).

If v 1.6v c ,
Av v - vc ud 0.4ud
= , (BS 3.7.7.5)
s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6v c v < 2.0vc ,


Av 5 0.7v - vc ud 0.4ud
= , (BS 3.7.7.5)
s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared. (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should
be increased in size.

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be


arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.

The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.

Typical Studrail Outermost Outermost


(only first and last peripheral line peripheral line
studs shown) of studs of studs Free
edge
d 2 d 2 Iy
gy
gx
s0 s0 s0
Iy x x gx
Iy
Critical d 2
section
centroid Free
edge y x
y Free edge Ix Critical section
centroid
Ix
Ix

Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and


critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is


close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diame-
ter of the flexural reinforcement.

Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available


in 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, and 20-millimeter diameters.

When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are
specified as:
so 0.5d (BS 3.7.7.6)
Compare the shear stress distribution with the shear capacity. The
comparison is reported as a ratio for the worst combination. A value
above 1.0 indicates failure.

SAFE designs rebar ties or stud rails when such options are activated in
the punching shear design overwrites. The details of rebar ties or stud
rails are documented in the Reinforced Concrete Design Manual and the
Post-Tensioned Concrete Design Manual.

Design overwrites are available to modify the location type, punching


shear perimeter, openings in the slab, and reinforcement pattern, when
the punching shear parameters computed need to be changed.

For computing the punching parameters, the following assumptions are


used:

Punching shear is calculated for columns punching through a slab or a


drop panel. SAFE also checks the drop panel punching through a slab.
The effect of column capitals is included in the punching shear calcu-
lation.

SAFE uses the effective depth for computing the punching shear. The
concrete cover to rebar is taken from the design preferences unless a
design strip is present. In that case, the rebar cover is taken from the
design strip.

Openings within 10 times the slab thickness are automatically includ-


ed in the punching shear calculations. The slab edge within the punch-
ing zone radius is subtracted from the punching shear perimeter.
The vertical component of prestressing force is currently ignored in
computing the punching shear capacity.

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the re-
quired areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the
beam moments, shears, torsion, and load combination factors. The beam
design is executed on an element-by-element basis considering the mo-
ments, shears, and torsion at each nodal point of the element. Following
are some of the assumptions associated with the beam design:

The beams are designed for major axis moment, shear, and torsion on-
ly. Design for axial force or minor axis moment and shear that may
exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

The required reinforcement reported by SAFE does not consider ser-


viceability requirements.

If post-tensioning is present, stresses are checked at the beam top and


bottom for unfactored service level loads. Stresses are checked at the
transfer of the prestress load without losses, with all service loads after
losses, and with sustained service loads after losses. These checks are
done assuming a linear strain variation through the section depth. If
necessary, reinforcement is added to carry tensile stresses. Any added
reinforcement is used with the user-defined post-tensioning tendons to
calculate a nominal moment capacity, which is checked against the
factored moments from the strength combinations.

The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maxi-
mum negative factored moment envelopes obtained from all strength
combinations.

Negative beam moments produce tension in the top fibers. For all but
the inverted flanged beam, the beam is designed as a rectangular sec-
tion.