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Flat Slab compilation

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013

Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013

Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013

Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013

Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013

Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013

Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013

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MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

TECHNOLOGY

NTA LEVEL 7B SECOND SEMESTER

LECTURE 2 PART A

ENG. JULIUS J. NALITOLELA

CONTENT

1. Definition

2. Dimensional considerations

3. Analysis

6. Crack control

7. Deflection control

8. Design procedures

9. Example

1

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

1. Definition

FLAT SLABS are slabs with or without drops supported generally without beams

by columns with or without column heads.

The slabs may be solid or have recesses formed on the soffit to give waffle slab.

The slab is normally thicker than that required for normal solid floor slab

construction, but the omission of beams facilitates provision of a smaller storey

height for a given clear height, and the construction and provision of formwork

simpler.

Figure 1.1 illustrates the flat slab construction with its various features.

1. Definition

2

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

2. Dimensional Considerations

(i) The ratio of the longer to the shorter span should not exceed 2;

thereby guaranteeing two-way spanning behaviour.

equivalent frame method

simplified method

finite elements analysis.

(iii) The effective dimension lh of the column head is defined as the lesser of

the actual dimension, lho, or lh,max = lc + 2(dh 40)

in the same direction as lh for a flared head, lho is

measured 40 mm below the slab or drop.

2. Dimensional Considerations

(iv) The effective diameter of a column or a column head is defined as follows:

a. for a column, the diameter of a circle whose area equals the area of the

column

b. for a column head, the diameter of the column head based on the effective

dimensions defined in (iii) above.

The effective diameter of the column head shall be not more than of the

shorter span framing into the column.

(v) Drop panels only influence the distribution of moments if the smaller

dimension of the drop is at least equal to one-third of the smaller panel

dimension. Smaller drops, however, provide enhanced resistance against

punching shear.

(vi) The panel thickness is controlled by the deflection. The thickness should,

however, not be less than 125 mm.

3

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

2. Dimensional Considerations

3. Analysis

It is normally sufficient to consider only a single load case where all spans are subject to

maximum design load, viz:

The flat slab can then be analysed using either the Frame Analysis Method or the

Simplified Method.

The structure is divided longitudinally and transversely into frames consisting of columns

and strips of slab width of strips being the centre-line distance between adjacent

panels. The entire frame or sub-frame may be analysed by the moment distribution

approach.

4

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

3. Analysis

The Simplified Method

For a flat slab structure whose lateral stability is not dependent on the slab-column

connections, viz. it is braced by walls, the Table 3.19 in BS 8110 may be used

provided:

b. the structure has at least three rows of panel of approximately equal spans in

the direction considered.

If the situation is otherwise, the designer may use the Frame Analysis Method and

moment distribution.

3. Analysis

5

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

i) Division of Panels and Bending Moments

Flat slab panels are divided into column strips and middle strips as shown in Figure 1.3

(Fig. 3.12 of BS 8110). Drops should be ignored if the smaller dimension of the drop

is less than one-third of the smaller dimension of the panel.

Design moments obtained from Table 3.19 (BS 8110) are divided between column and

middle strips in accordance with Table 3.20 (BS 8110). Modifications to allow for

increased width of middle strip owing to existence of drops should be made where

necessary the design moments resisted by the middle strip should be increased

proportionately.

The design moments resisted by the column strip should then be adjusted such that the

total positive and total negative moments remain constant.

6

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

7

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

ii) Limitation of Negative Design Moments

Negative moments greater than those at distance hc/2 from the centre-line of the column

may be ignored providing the sum of the maximum positive design moment and the

average of the negative design moments in any one span of the slab for the whole

panel width is not less than:

If the above condition is not fulfilled, the negative design moments should be increased

to the value of the above.

iii) Design of Internal Panels

The column and middle strips should be designed to withstand the design moments based

on Tables 3.19 and 3.20 of BS 8110.

For an internal panel, two-thirds of the amount of reinforcement required to resist the

negative design moment in the column strip should be placed in a central zone of

width equal to one-half the column strip.

Detailing is then done in accordance with the simplified rules of Clause 3.12.10.3.1. No or

negligible moments need to be transferred to columns.

The design is similar to that of an internal panel. Moments are obtainable from Table 3.19

(BS 8110).

Since there are no edge beams, the capacity to withstand edge moments is limited by the

ability to transfer the edge moments to the column, viz. the moment transfer capacity.

8

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

. In flat slabs, moments will only be able to be transferred between a slab and an edge or

corner column through a column strip considerably narrower than that appropriate for

an internal panel. The breadth of this strip, be, for various typical cases is shown in

Figure 3.13 of BS 8110. The value of be should never be taken as greater than the

column strip width appropriate for an interior panel.

The maximum design moment, Mt,max, that can be transferred to a column through the strip

is given by:

Mt,max 50% the design moments obtained using the equivalent frame analysis,

or 70% of value from the grillage or finite element analysis. If Mtmax is found to be

less than this, the structural arrangements should be changed.

Mt,max Mapplied; otherwise Mapplied in the slab should be reduced to the limiting

value of Mt,max, and the positive moments in the span adjusted accordingly.

Moments in excess of Mt,max may only be transferred to a column if an edge beam or strip

of a slab along the free edge is reinforced in accordance with Section 2.4 of BS 8110

(Part 2) to carry extra moments into the column by torsion.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

(i) Punching shear around the column is the critical consideration in flat slabs.

(ii) Shear stresses at slab / internal column connections may be increased to allow for

effects of moment transfer as stipulated below:

(a) The design effective shear force Veff at the interface perimeter should be taken

(b) In the absence of calculations for internal columns in braced structures of

approximately equal panel dimensions, the design effective shear force Veff;

may be taken to be:

;Vt corresponds to the case with maximum design load on all panels adjacent to the

column considered.

(iii) Shear stress at other slab-column connections may be obtained as stipulated below:

(a) For bending about an axis parallel to the free edge at corner and edge columns;

Veff = 1.25Vt

(b) For bending about an axis perpendicular to free edge (edge columns only); or

Veff = 1.4Vt; for approximately equal spans.

The maximum shear stress at column or column head face should not exceed the lesser

of 0.8 fcu or 5 N/mm2.

10

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

(iv) Shear under concentrated loads (punching shear) is governed by the following

considerations:

(depending on whether load shape is circular or rectangular);

where; uo is the effective length of the perimeter which touches a loaded area.

consideration

(e) Provision of shear reinforcement, in form of castellated links, in the failure zone

is made for thickness exceeding 200 mm, if v vc thus:

between shear reinforcement and plane of slab.

The design procedure entails the successive checking starting from the

inner-most, as illustrated in Figure 3.17 (BS 8110).

distance less than 6d (d being the effective depth of the slab) from the edge of a

concentrated load, then part of the perimeter which is enclosed by radial

projections from the centroid of the loaded area to the openings is

considered ineffective in resisting shear.

Where a single hole is adjacent to the column and its greatest width is less than one-

quarter of the column side or one-half of the slab depth, whichever is the lesser, its

presence may be ignored.

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

11

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

(vi) Effective perimeter close to a free edge:

Where a concentrated load is located close to a free edge, the effective length of

a perimeter should be taken as the lesser of the two illustrated in Figure 3.19 (BS

8110). The same principle may be adopted for corner columns.

5.

12

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

5.

5.

13

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

5.

6. Deflection control

For slabs with drops of width greater than one-third the respective spans, treatment

should be similar to that for normal solid slabs.

14

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

7. Crack control

8. Design procedures

15

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

9. Example

1 The floor of a building constructed of flat slabs is 30.0 m x 24.0 m. The column centres

are 6.0 m in both directions, and the building is braced with shear walls. The panels

are to have drops of 3.0 m x 3.0 m. The depth of the drop panel is 250 mm and the

slab depth is 200 mm. The internal columns are 450 mm square and the column

heads are 900 mm with depth of 600 mm.

Dead load = self weight + 2.50 kN/m for screed, floor finishes, partitions and finishes

Design an internal panel next to an edge panel on two sides and show the

reinforcement details.

9. Example

16

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

9. Example

9. Example

17

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

9. Example

Moments based on Tables 3.19 and 3.20 of the Code

Column strip:

Middle strip:

CEH7422; TOPIC 2A-FLAT SLAB DESIGN

9. Example

Design of Reinforcement

At the drop, the effective depth for the inner layer is:

Width b for design calculations for the column and middle strips, b = 3000 mm

18

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

9. Example

9. Example

19

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

9. Example

9. Example

Deflection

Calculations are made for the middle strip using the total moment at mid-span and

the average of the column and middle strip tension steel. The basic span/d ratio = 26

from the code.

The modification factor is: 0.55 + (477 - 150.8) / [120(0.9 + 1.61)] = 1.63 (Table 3.11

BS 8110)

20

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

9. Example

9. Example

21

MBEYA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

9. Example

9. Example

22

Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-

fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of

the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-

ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-

sign is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97)

for reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To learn more

about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key

Features and Terminology manual.

SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the

design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained

by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal dis-

placement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the

applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at spe-

cific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the

element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of

those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load

combination involves the following:

These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated

for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top

and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding

controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.

For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-

gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then add-

ed to get the strip moments.

The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending

moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earli-

er (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-

sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across

the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs

the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using

its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-

tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the

design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when

drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted ac-

cordingly.

slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.12.5.3, BS Table 3.25) with interpo-

lation for reinforcement of intermediate strength:

0.0024bh if fy 250MPa

As (BS 3.12.5.3)

0.0013bh if fy 500MPa

reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area

(BS 3.12.6.1).

The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled

Slab Punching Shear Check in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.

The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.7.6.4) and at a

critical section at a distance of 1.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.7.7.6).

For rectangular columns and concentrated loads, the critical area is taken as a

rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point

loads (BS 3.7.7.1). Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered

by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i.e., interior,

edge, corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punch-

ing Check Overwrites.

1.5d

1.5d 1.5d

1.5d

1.5d 1.5d

The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.7.7.4, 3.7.7.6):

1 1

3 4

0.79k1k 2 100 As 400

vc (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)

m bd d

and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.8)

1

3 1

3

fcu 40

k2 = ,1 k2 (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)

25 25

m = 1.25 (BS 3.4.5.2)

100 As

0.15 3 (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)

bd

1

4

400

0.67 (unreinforced) or 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.4.5.4)

d

implementation.

Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-

centricity of shear about the bending axis, the nominal design shear stress, vmax,

is calculated as:

1.5 M x

V V f (BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)

eff , x Vy

1.5M

y

Veff , y V f (BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)

Vx

Veff , x

ud

vmax max (BS 3.7.7.3)

Veff , y

ud

where,

x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the

axis of bending

Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the

column at the connection

taken as:

f 1.25 for edge columns (BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)

1.25 for corner columns

The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress

capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio

exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-

lowing section.

that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS

3.7.7.5). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching

shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased

by the user.

The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used

when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for

Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earli-

er sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is

carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.

The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear

reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows

(BS 3.7.7.5).

If v 1.6v c ,

Av v - vc ud 0.4ud

= , (BS 3.7.7.5)

s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

Av 5 0.7v - vc ud 0.4ud

= , (BS 3.7.7.5)

s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should

be increased in size.

arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-

tances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of

shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner

column.

The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement

shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the

first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a

direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6).

Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where

there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of

lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-

umns respectively.

(only first and last peripheral line peripheral line

studs shown) of studs of studs Free

edge

d 2 d 2 Iy

gy

gx

s0 s0 s0

Iy x x gx

Iy

Critical d 2

section

centroid Free

edge y x

y Free edge Ix Critical section

centroid

Ix

Ix

critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should

not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diame-

ter of the flexural reinforcement.

in 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, and 20-millimeter diameters.

When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the

first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing

between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-

ceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are

specified as:

so 0.5d (BS 3.7.7.6)

Compare the shear stress distribution with the shear capacity. The

comparison is reported as a ratio for the worst combination. A value

above 1.0 indicates failure.

SAFE designs rebar ties or stud rails when such options are activated in

the punching shear design overwrites. The details of rebar ties or stud

rails are documented in the Reinforced Concrete Design Manual and the

Post-Tensioned Concrete Design Manual.

shear perimeter, openings in the slab, and reinforcement pattern, when

the punching shear parameters computed need to be changed.

used:

drop panel. SAFE also checks the drop panel punching through a slab.

The effect of column capitals is included in the punching shear calcu-

lation.

SAFE uses the effective depth for computing the punching shear. The

concrete cover to rebar is taken from the design preferences unless a

design strip is present. In that case, the rebar cover is taken from the

design strip.

ed in the punching shear calculations. The slab edge within the punch-

ing zone radius is subtracted from the punching shear perimeter.

The vertical component of prestressing force is currently ignored in

computing the punching shear capacity.

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the

beam moments, shears, torsion, and load combination factors. The beam

design is executed on an element-by-element basis considering the mo-

ments, shears, and torsion at each nodal point of the element. Following

are some of the assumptions associated with the beam design:

The beams are designed for major axis moment, shear, and torsion on-

ly. Design for axial force or minor axis moment and shear that may

exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

viceability requirements.

bottom for unfactored service level loads. Stresses are checked at the

transfer of the prestress load without losses, with all service loads after

losses, and with sustained service loads after losses. These checks are

done assuming a linear strain variation through the section depth. If

necessary, reinforcement is added to carry tensile stresses. Any added

reinforcement is used with the user-defined post-tensioning tendons to

calculate a nominal moment capacity, which is checked against the

factored moments from the strength combinations.

The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maxi-

mum negative factored moment envelopes obtained from all strength

combinations.

Negative beam moments produce tension in the top fibers. For all but

the inverted flanged beam, the beam is designed as a rectangular sec-

tion.

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