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GRAMMAR SUMMARY

PRESENT SIMPLE/CONTINUOS:

I work, He works, etc...


Be+verb+ing (actions in progress at the time of speaking)

FUTURE FORMS

BE GOING TO + INF: I'm not going to go to New York tomorrow. The


meeting is cancelled (future plans and intentions, predictions, when
you see some evidence)
PRESENT CONTINUOUS: Be+verb+ing (emphasizes that you have
made the arrangements)
WILL/SHALL + INF: instant decisions, promises, offers, predictions,
future facts or suggestions

PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

Have/has + past participle: past experiences, when we don't say


exactly when they happened, recent past actions ofen with just, yet
and already. We don't specify a time
Past simple: for finished past actions: worked, stopped, went,
had. The time is mentioned or understood.

PRESENT PERFECT + FOR/SINCE AND PRESENT PERFECT


CONTINUOUS

Present perfect + for/since with non-action verbs to talk about


something which started in the past but is still true now.
Present perfect continuous: Have/has been + verb ing with
for/since with action verbs: actions which started in the past and
are still true now

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Comparing two people, places, things, etc...old>older


big>bigger easy>easier. Irregular: good>better bad>worse
far>further. One syllable adjectives endins in -ed: more bored,
more stressed, more tired. as+adjective+as to make comparisons
Comparing two actions: we use comparative verbs to compare two
actions: Regular: Fast>faster Slowly> more slowly carefully> more
carefully. Irregular comparatives: well>better badly> worse
Superlatives: We use adverbs and adjectives to compare people,
things or actions with all of their group: Kevin is the tallest player in
the team, Oslo is the most expensive capiral city in Europe, The
small bad is the least expensive, the worst we have ever played
ARTICLES: A/AN, THE, NO ARTICLE

A/AN: singular countable noun: we saw an old man with a dog


THE: when we talk about something we have already mentioned,
places, towns..
NO ARTICLE: general things (plural and uncountable) I love
flowers....

CAN, COULD, BE ABLE TO (ABILITY AND POSSIBILITY)

CAN: It only has a present form and a past conditional (could)

BE ABLE TO + INF: for ability and possibility, especially where there is no


form of can (future, present perfect, infinitive and gerund)

HAVE TO, MUST, SHOULD

Have to/must: to talk about obligations or something that it is


necessary to do
Don't have to: you don't have to pay - this museum is free
Should/shouldn't + infinitive: to give an advice or opinion. Also you
can use ought to or ought not to be more polite meaning.

PAST TENSES

Past simple: worked, stoppedwent, had


Past continuous: was/were + verb + ing : whith while in 2 actions at
the same time, the beginning of a story or anecdote, an action in
progress in the past
Past perfect: had + past participle: we use the past perfect when we
are talking about the past and we don't want to talk about an earlier
past action.
Using narrative tenses toghther : It was a cold night and it was
raining. I was watching TV in the sitting room. Suddenly I heard a
knock at the door. I got up and opened the door. But there was
nobody there. the person who had knocked the door had
dissapeared....

PRESENT AND PAST HABITS AND STATES: usually and used to

Usually + present simple: to talk about present habits


Used/didn't use to + infinitive to talk about past habits

THE PASSIVE: BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

A lot of films are shot on location


Our car is being repaired today
The director died when the film was being made
You'll be picked up at the airport
The bill has to be paid tomorrow