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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE) THE BRITISH UNIVERSITY IN EGYPT (BUE) FACULTY OF PHARMACY

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Testing hypotheses about the difference between two population parameters

Two-sample t test: Student's t test for independent, un-paired samples:

Used to test whether or not the difference between two independent population means is zero (i.e. the two means are equal).

The null assumption is that it is.

Independent: means that an individual in one sample is unrelated to any particular individual in the other sample.
Matched or Paired
To use this test:
1.

Both variables must be metric and normally distributed (this is parametric test).

a

2. In addition the two population standard deviations should be similar (but for larger sample sizes this becomes less important).

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

STEP 1: TO TEST FOR EQUALITY OF VARIANCES (F TEST):

Calculate F(calc) = S 1 2 (large) / S 2 2 (small) this is called the variance ratio test (or F test).

F(tab) at p=0.05 and (n 1 -1) & (n 2 -1) i.e:

F(calc) should be

less than

NOT significantly different. If not follow the steps in page 3.

If this assumption is satisfied then calculate the common variance which is the weighted mean S 2 of the two variances:

S 2 = (n 1 -1) S 1 2 + (n 2 -1) S 2 2 / (n 1 +n 2 -2)

STEP 2: TO TEST THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLE MEANS:  2

Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

If the two variances are SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT, i.e: F(calc) is

equal to or more than

F(tab), we have two situations:

A- If sample size is large; i.e. both n 1 and n 2 ≥ 20  3

Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

B- If sample size is small; i.e. either n 1 or n 2 < 20, and (F is significant) (Will be explained later)

N.B.

1- NOTE that after ln or log transformation, the conclusion SHOULD be written as follows:

The difference is/is not significant after log (or Ln) transformation(The antilog/ anti Ln of the mean & SD should be calculated in this case).

2- The EXACT P-value can be determined using Statistical Software Programs.

3- In all the above cases, if the difference between the two means is significant, you can test if its highly significant or not, by comparing or using T(tab), at p = 0.01, two tailed and df = n 1 +n 2 -2

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7  5

Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

WORKING EXAMPLES

Example 1:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

 Sample 1 2 Number 9 19 Mean 22 27 Variance 30 56

1- F(calc)= 56/30= 1.87

F(tab) = 3.15 therefore, NOT Significant.

2- S 2 = [(8*30)+(18*56)]/(9+19-2) = 48

3- T(calc) = (27-22)/√48(1/9+1/19) = 1.78

T(tab) = 2.056 therefore, NOT Significant.

4- 95%CL= 5 ± 2.06*2.8= - 0.77 – 10.77

which includes zero NOT Significant.

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Example 2:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

 Sample 1 2 Number 9 19 Mean 22 29 Variance 30 56

1- F(calc)= 56/30= 1.87

F(tab) = 3.15 therefore, NOT Significant.

2- S 2 = [(8*30)+(18*56)]/(9+19-2) = 48

3- T(calc) = (29-22)/√48(1/9+1/19) = 2.497

T(tab) = 2.056 therefore, SIGNIFICANT

4- 95%CL= 7 ± 2.06*2.8= 1.23 – 12.77

Both are positive, does not include zero, therefore SIGNIFICANT.

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Example 3:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

 Sample 1 2 Number 20 22 Mean 22 27 Variance 30 69

F(calc) = 2.3 which is significant compared with F(tab) = 2.12.

Both sample sizes are 20 or more:

T(calc) = 5/ √(30/20)+(69/22) = 5/2.15 = 2.322

T(tab) = 2.02 it is SIGNIFICANT

95% CL = 5 ± √2.02*2.15 = 0.65 – 9.35 it is SIGNIFICANT

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Example 4:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

 X 1 X 2 LnX 1 LnX 2 85 4.4427 80 4.3820 81 195 4.3944 5.2730 87 186 4.4659 5.2257 79 209 4.3694 5.3423 65 208 4.1744 5.3375 90 240 4.4998 5.4806 94 274 4.5433 5.6131 80 267 4.3820 5.5872 91 227 4.5109 5.4250 81 274 4.3944 5.6131 90 225 4.4998 5.4161 95 251 4.5539 5.5255 Number 13 11 13 11 Sum 1098 2556 57.613 59.839 Mean 84.46 232.36 4.4318 5.4399 Variance 65.44 984.05 0.0102 0.0185 SD 8.09 31.37 0.1008 0.1361 CV% 9.58 13.50 2.2753 2.5017 15.04 1.822 F(tab) 2.75 sig Not-sig

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

F(calc) = 984/65.4 = 15.04;

F(tab) = 2.75; significant

Both n 1 & n 2 are less than 20.

Therefore, we should try to transform data to Ln

Ln-transformed data, shows:

F(calc) = 0.0185/0.0102 = 1.822

which is less than F(tab) NOT SIGNIFICANT after ln transformation.

Common variance = (12*0.0102)+(10*0.0185)/(13+11-2) = 0.014

T(calc) = (5.4399-4.4318)/√0.014(1/13+1/11) = 1.008/0.048 = 20.82

T(tab)

=

1.717

significant

&

very

transformation at p<0.001

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

highly

significant

after

ln

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Lecture checklist:

Student's t test for independent, un-paired samples

Testing for equality of variances (Step 1)

Testing for the difference between 2 sample means (Step 2)

Summary