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BIOSTATISTICS (L-7) Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE) THE BRITISH

BIOSTATISTICS (L-7)

Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE) THE BRITISH UNIVERSITY IN EGYPT (BUE) FACULTY OF

THE BRITISH UNIVERSITY IN EGYPT (BUE) FACULTY OF PHARMACY

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Testing hypotheses about the difference between two population parameters

Two-sample t test: Student's t test for independent, un-paired samples:

Used to test whether or not the difference between two independent population means is zero (i.e. the two means are equal).

The null assumption is that it is.

Independent: means that an individual in one sample is unrelated to

any particular individual in the other sample. Matched or Paired To use this test: 1.
any particular individual in the other sample.
Matched or Paired
To use this test:
1.

Both variables must be metric and normally distributed (this is parametric test).

a

2. In addition the two population standard deviations should be similar (but for larger sample sizes this becomes less important).

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

STEP 1: TO TEST FOR EQUALITY OF VARIANCES (F TEST):

Calculate F(calc) = S 1 2 (large) / S 2 2 (small) this is called the variance ratio test (or F test).

F(tab) at p=0.05 and (n 1 -1) & (n 2 -1) i.e:

F(calc) should be

less than

NOT significantly different. If not follow the steps in page 3.

If this assumption is satisfied then calculate the common variance which is the weighted mean S 2 of the two variances:

S 2 = (n 1 -1) S 1 2 + (n 2 -1) S 2 2 / (n 1 +n 2 -2)

STEP 2: TO TEST THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLE MEANS:

STEP 2: TO TEST THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLE MEANS : 2 Mohey Elmazar Professor of
2
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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

If the two variances are SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT, i.e: F(calc) is

equal to or more than

F(tab), we have two situations:

A- If sample size is large; i.e. both n 1 and n 2 ≥ 20

sample size is large; i.e. both n 1 and n 2 ≥ 20 3 Mohey Elmazar
sample size is large; i.e. both n 1 and n 2 ≥ 20 3 Mohey Elmazar

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

B- If sample size is small; i.e. either n 1 or n 2 < 20, and (F is significant)

(Will be explained later)
(Will be explained later)

N.B.

1- NOTE that after ln or log transformation, the conclusion SHOULD be written as follows:

The difference is/is not significant after log (or Ln) transformation(The antilog/ anti Ln of the mean & SD should be calculated in this case).

2- The EXACT P-value can be determined using Statistical Software Programs.

3- In all the above cases, if the difference between the two means is significant, you can test if its highly significant or not, by comparing or using T(tab), at p = 0.01, two tailed and df = n 1 +n 2 -2

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Biostatistics - Lecture 7 5 Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)
Biostatistics - Lecture 7 5 Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

WORKING EXAMPLES

Example 1:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

Sample

1

2

Number

9

19

Mean

22

27

Variance

30

56

Answer:

1- F(calc)= 56/30= 1.87

F(tab) = 3.15 therefore, NOT Significant.

2- S 2 = [(8*30)+(18*56)]/(9+19-2) = 48

3- T(calc) = (27-22)/√48(1/9+1/19) = 1.78

T(tab) = 2.056 therefore, NOT Significant.

4- 95%CL= 5 ± 2.06*2.8= - 0.77 – 10.77

which includes zero NOT Significant.

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Example 2:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

Sample

1

2

Number

9

19

Mean

22

29

Variance

30

56

Answer:

1- F(calc)= 56/30= 1.87

F(tab) = 3.15 therefore, NOT Significant.

2- S 2 = [(8*30)+(18*56)]/(9+19-2) = 48

3- T(calc) = (29-22)/√48(1/9+1/19) = 2.497

T(tab) = 2.056 therefore, SIGNIFICANT

4- 95%CL= 7 ± 2.06*2.8= 1.23 – 12.77

Both are positive, does not include zero, therefore SIGNIFICANT.

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Example 3:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

Sample

1

2

Number

20

22

Mean

22

27

Variance

30

69

Answer:

F(calc) = 2.3 which is significant compared with F(tab) = 2.12.

Both sample sizes are 20 or more:

T(calc) = 5/ √(30/20)+(69/22) = 5/2.15 = 2.322

T(tab) = 2.02 it is SIGNIFICANT

95% CL = 5 ± √2.02*2.15 = 0.65 – 9.35 it is SIGNIFICANT

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Example 4:

The table shows number, mean and variance of two independent samples. Test the significance of difference between the two means.

 

X

1

X

2

LnX 1

LnX 2

 

85

 

4.4427

 

80

 

4.3820

81

195

4.3944

5.2730

87

186

4.4659

5.2257

79

209

4.3694

5.3423

65

208

4.1744

5.3375

90

240

4.4998

5.4806

94

274

4.5433

5.6131

80

267

4.3820

5.5872

91

227

4.5109

5.4250

81

274

4.3944

5.6131

90

225

4.4998

5.4161

95

251

4.5539

5.5255

Number

13

11

13

11

Sum

1098

2556

57.613

59.839

Mean

84.46

232.36

4.4318

5.4399

Variance

65.44

984.05

0.0102

0.0185

SD

8.09

31.37

0.1008

0.1361

CV%

9.58

13.50

2.2753

2.5017

   

15.04

 

1.822

F(tab)

2.75

sig

 

Not-sig

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Answer:

F(calc) = 984/65.4 = 15.04;

F(tab) = 2.75; significant

Both n 1 & n 2 are less than 20.

Therefore, we should try to transform data to Ln

Ln-transformed data, shows:

F(calc) = 0.0185/0.0102 = 1.822

which is less than F(tab) NOT SIGNIFICANT after ln transformation.

Common variance = (12*0.0102)+(10*0.0185)/(13+11-2) = 0.014

T(calc) = (5.4399-4.4318)/√0.014(1/13+1/11) = 1.008/0.048 = 20.82

T(tab)

=

1.717

significant

&

very

transformation at p<0.001

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)

highly

significant

after

ln

Biostatistics - Lecture 7

Lecture checklist:

Student's t test for independent, un-paired samples

Testing for equality of variances (Step 1)

Testing for the difference between 2 sample means (Step 2)

Summary

Answered examples

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Mohey Elmazar Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology Dean of Pharmacy (BUE)