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# CSEC JANUARY 2012 PAPER 2

1. In an experiment to determine the mass ( M p ) of a piece of plasticine, the apparatus was set
up as in Figure 1 below.

## The following procedure was followed:

(i) The plasticine was hung from different positions (p) on the metre rule.
(ii) For each position (p) the 50g mass was moved until the metre rule was horizontal and
the position (q) of the 50g mass was noted.

TABLE 1:

## Position of Plasticine, Position of 50g mass x/cm y/cm

p/cm q/cm
10.0 86.0 40.0 36.0
20.0 76.2 30.0 26.2
30.0 66.0 20.0 16.0
35.0 62.8 15.0 12.8
40.0 57.9 10.0 7.9
45.0 53.6 5.0 3.6

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1(b) To plot a graph of y against x (ANIMATE EACH POINT BELOW)

## Graph of y vs. x Scale for y-Axis: 1 cm = 2 cm

Scale for x-Axis: 1 cm = 2.5 cm
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
y / cm 22.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 43 45

x /cm

I. AXES

## The first variable mentioned (y) goes on the Y axis.

The second variable mentioned (x) goes on the X axis.

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II. LABELS

## On the top of the graph page write: Graph of y against x.

The Y axis must be drawn on the edge of the vertical grid and labelled y / cm.
The X axis must be drawn on the edge of the horizontal grid and labelled x / cm.
Both axes must be numbered at least every 2cm.

III. SCALES

## GRAPH STARTING AT (0,0):

Choose the scale for each axis so that it is easy to plot and read off the co-ordinates of
all the points.
The chosen scale should ensure that the plotted points spread over more than half of the
graph page on both X and Y axes.
The best scales are 1cm = (any ONE of the numbers 1, 2, 25 or 5, with a decimal place
and zeroes before or zeroes after the number).
The Y axis is 23 cm long and a maximum value for y of 36.0 must be plotted on it. If 23
cm = 36.0, then 1cm = 1.56, which is rounded up to the best scale of 2.
Label the top right hand side of the graph page: Scale for y: 1cm = 2.
The X axis is 18 cm long and a maximum value for x of 40.0 must be plotted on it. If
18 cm = 40.0, then 1cm = 2.22, which is rounded up to the best scale of 2.5.
Label the top right hand side of the graph page: Scale for x: 1cm = 2.5.
Start the graph at (0,0).

IV. PLOTTING

## Plot all the pairs of values from the table.

The points used to plot the graph must be thin, small crosses or fine dots with a tiny circle
around them. The lengths of the crosses or diameters of the tiny circles around the plots
should not occupy more than the smallest block on the grid.
The points must be accurately plotted [to half of the 2mm block on the grid].

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2
For the Y axis 1cm = 2 2mm = = 0.4
5
2.5
For the X axis 1cm = 2.5 2mm = = 0.5
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## V. BEST FIT LINE

The best fit line of y against x is one thin, straight line, passing through the origin.
The best fit line is drawn so that the total perpendicular distance of the points above the
line balances the total below.

1(c) GRADIENT

## [Insert animation to use co-ordinates from graph to calculate gradient]

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Graph of y vs. x Scale for y-Axis: 1 cm = 2 cm
Scale for x-Axis: 1 cm = 2.5 cm
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
y / cm 22.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 43 45

x /cm

## To calculate the SLOPE or gradient (z) of the graph.

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Draw the largest possible right angled triangle, with the vertical and horizontal sides
represented by broken lines and the hypotenuse represented by at least half of the best fit
STRAIGHT line.
The co-ordinates should be points that are easily read off. (e.g. use points on intersections
of grid-lines).
Since the best fit line passes through the origin, let the horizontal side begin at the origin.
Find the EXACT POINT where the vertical side of the triangle cuts the hypotenuse and
read off (to half of the 2mm block on the grid), the coordinates (x, y) = (40.0,
34.8)
Find the EXACT POINT where the horizontal side of the triangle cuts the hypotenuse
and read off (to half of the 2mm block on the grid), the coordinates (x, y) = (0, 0)
The units for the gradient are found by dividing the unit ( cm ) for the quantity on the
Y-axis by the unit ( cm ) for the quantity on the X-axis. The units cancel, so slope (z)
has no units.
Calculate the slope or gradient (z) from:

dy y 2 y 1 ( 34.80 ) cm
z= = = =0.870
dx x2 x1 ( 40.00 ) cm

## 1(d) Read-off from Y - axis, given the x - coordinate: -

[Insert animation to show how readings for y may be obtained from the GRAPH]

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Graph of y vs. x Scale for y-Axis: 1 cm = 2 cm
Scale for x-Axis: 1 cm = 2.5 cm
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
y / cm 22.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 43 45

x /cm

Starting at the X - axis, draw a vertical broken line from x = 27.5cm to cut the best fit
line.
At the point of intersection, draw a horizontal broken line to the Y - axis and read off the
y - coordinate y = 23.8cm.

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1(e)The Principle of Moments states: When a body is in EQUILIBRIUM under a system of
forces the sum of THE CLOCKWISE MOMENTS about a POINT equals the sum of THE
ANTICLOCKWISE MOMENTS about the POINT.

## Divide the mass (M) by 1000 to convert from g to kg:

Mass (M) = 50g = 0.05kg
Calculate the weight of the mass ( W m ) from
1
W m =Mg where mass ( M )=0.05 kg( g )=10 N kg
W m = 0.05 kg 10 N kg1 = 0.5N
Determine the weight of the plasticine ( W p ) from:
W p = z W m where z=Gradientslope=0.870
W p=0.870 0.5 N=0.435 N

## To calculate the mass of the plasticine ( M p ), rearrange the formula W p = Mp g

to make M p the subject

0.435
Mp = = = 0.0435kg
g 10

2(a) (i) Table 2 below shows the symbols for the five FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES and the
symbols for their BASE SI units.

TABLE 2

## Quantity Name Quantity Symbol Base SI Unit

Mass m Kg
Time t s
Current I A
Temperature T K
Length l m

(ii) A linear scale is one in which equal changes in the physical quantity being measured are
indicated by equal divisions on the scale.
A Non-Linear scale is one in which equal changes in the physical quantity being measured are
indicated by unequal divisions on the scale.

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(iii) Out of the three measuring instruments - metre rule, clinical thermometer and conical flask
the only one with a non-linear scale is a conical flask. This is because it does not have a constant
cross-sectional area.

2(b)

2(b)(i)
Calculate the volume of the container from
Volume (V) = Length Breadth Depth
= 2 m1.1 m 2.5 m=5.5 m3
Determine the density () of the cement from
m
= where mass (m) = 15 000 kg and volume (V) = 5.5 m3
V
15000 kg
= = 2727 kgm3
5.5 m3
(ii)
Calculate the area of the base of the container from
Area (A) = Length Breadth = 2 m1.1 m=2.2 m3
Calculate the weight (W) of the cement from
W =Mg=15 000 kg 10 Nkg1=150 000 N
Force (F) on the base of the container = the weight of cement = 150 000N
The pressure (P) the cement exerts on the base of the container is determined from:
F 150 000 N
P= =
A 2.2 m
= 68182 PaN /m2

## 3(a) (i) Einstein's Energy-Mass Relationship is E= mc 2

Where E=energy , m=change of mass , c=speed of light a vacuum

## (ii) Arguments for the utilization of nuclear energy are:

The cost of running a nuclear power plant is cheaper than a conventional power plant
using fossil fuels.
A nuclear power plant generates more electricity than a conventional power plant using
fossil fuels.
A nuclear power plant does not emit greenhouse gases

## Arguments against the utilization of nuclear energy are:

It is not renewable we will eventually run out of Uranium ore.

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The nuclear reactor can blow up, spewing out radioactive waste and radiation.
There are problems with the disposal of radioactive waste.
The nuclear reactor gives off dangerous radiation.

## (b) One equation for fission of Uranium is:

1 235 A 90 n
0 n + U
92 56 Ba + Z Kr + 3 ( 1 + energy
0

(i) Equating all the mass numbers, which are the upper numbers:
1+235= A+ 90+3 ( 1 ) A=143
Equating all the atomic numbers, which are the lower numbers:
0+92=56+ Z+3 ( 0 ) Z=3
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(ii) E= mc

E 1.8 1012
m= = 8
=2 1029 kg
c (3.0 10 )

## (c) One equation for a fusion reaction is

n+ 10
H + 21 3
H

1 X + QP energy

Equating all the mass numbers, which are the upper numbers:
2+3=P+1 P=4

Equating all the atomic numbers, which are the lower numbers:
1+ 1= Q + 0 Q=2
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X= 2H e

X is Helium

## 4. (a) D.C. MOTOR (animate as in instructions below)

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The following points explain how the d.c. motor works:

The magnet creates a magnetic field in which the field lines go from North to South.
Current moves in the long limbs of the coil, up the left side and down the right side as
shown in figure 3.
The magnetic fields ( due to the magnet and the current in each side of the coil ) interact,
causing a force to be exerted on each side of the coil.
The direction of the force on each side of the coil can be found using Flemings Left
Hand Rule.
In Flemings Left Hand Rule, the First finger represents the magnetic Field, the seCond
finger represents the conventional Current and the Thumb represents the Thrust or force.
When the long sides of the coil are in the horizontal position, using Flemings Left Hand
Rule to find the direction of the force on each side of the coil, the left side experiences a
downward force and the right hand side experiences an upward force.
These equal and opposite parallel forces rotate the coil, in an anticlockwise direction, to
the vertical.
In the vertical position the brushes are in line with the gaps in the commutator and no
current flows.
The coil continues to move, due to its momentum and returns to a new horizontal
position, where the commutator halves change from one brush to the other.
The current continues to move up the left side and down the right side as shown in figure
3 and the coil continues to rotate anticlockwise.

(b) A.C. WAVEFORM [animate the period in (i) below and peak to peak in (ii) below]

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(i) The period (T) of the wave is the time for one cycle. Reading from Figure 4, T= 30 ms.

## Divide by 1000 to convert ms to s T = 0.03 s.

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Calculate the frequency (f) from f = = = 33.3 Hz
T 0.03

(ii) Reading the peak to peak current (I0) from Figure 4, I0 = 8A.

## Given that R = 45 , calculate the peak to peak voltage (V0) from:

V0 = I0 R = 8A x 45 = 360 V.

I0 8
(iii) Calculate the maximum power (P) from P = I2R where Peak current I= = =
2 2
4A

and R = 45

P = 42 x 45 = 720 W

V0 360
OR P = V I where Peak voltage V = = 180 V
2 2

P = 180 x 4 = 720 W.

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5. (a) (i) Figure 5 shows two blocks of copper at different temperatures.

## (ANIMATE THE ARROW)

The direction of net heat transfer is from high temperature Block B to low temperature Block A.

## (ii) To convert a temperature of 52 C to K, add 273.

T = 52 + 273 = 325 K.

## (b) Figure 6 shows a solar water heating system.(ANIMATE THE CONVECTION)

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(i) The energy absorbed by the solar collector = 300 kJ

E = m c

## Rearrange the formula to make the subject

E
= where mass (m) = 2kg and specific heat capacity (c) = 4.2 103 Jkg-
mc
1
K-1
3
120 10 J
3 = 14.3 K = 14.3 C
2 kg (4.2 10 Jkg1 K1)

(ii)

the principle

## Good Absorption of Heat Black Surface

Heat transfer by convection The hot water in the collector is less dense than
the cold, so it rises to the tank. The hot water in
the tank is less dense than the cold so it rises to
the top of the tank.

The green house effect The glass cover allows high frequency or short
wave length Infrared from the sun to enter but
does not allow low frequency or long wave
length Infrared, given off by the water, to
leave.

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Good heat transfer by conduction Copper Tubing

## Reduction of heat transfer by conduction to the Insulation

surroundings

6. (a) (i) In a longitudinal wave the particles vibrate to and fro along the direction of movement
of the wave.

In a transverse wave the particles vibrate at right angles to the direction of movement of
the wave.

(ii) To calculate the frequency (f), rearrange the formula, v = f to make f the subject.

v
f= where speed of light in air (v) = 3.0 108 ms-1 and wavelength ( =

700 109 m.

## 3.0 108 ms1

f= = 4.29 x 1014 Hz
700 109 m

(b) Figure 7 shows a ship using a sonar pulse to determine the depth of an oil plume.

(ANIMATE PULSE)

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(b)(i) The depth is determined as follows:

## Sonar pulses are sent down to the oil plume.

The pulses are reflected by the oil plume to create an echo which returns to the ship a
time (t) after leaving the ship.
The time (t) is recorded.
distance travelled by sound
Speed (v) of sound in sea water = time takenby sound
plumeback travel plumeback

twice the depth 2 h
= =
time t
Rearrange the formula to make the depth of the plume (h) the subject:
vt
h=
2

vt
(ii) h= where speed of sound in sea water (v) = 1450 ms-1 and time (t) = 0.3 s.
2

1450 0.3
h = = 218 m
2

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