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You are on page 1of 16

1. In an experiment to determine the mass ( M p ) of a piece of plasticine, the apparatus was set

up as in Figure 1 below.

(i) The plasticine was hung from different positions (p) on the metre rule.

(ii) For each position (p) the 50g mass was moved until the metre rule was horizontal and

the position (q) of the 50g mass was noted.

TABLE 1:

p/cm q/cm

10.0 86.0 40.0 36.0

20.0 76.2 30.0 26.2

30.0 66.0 20.0 16.0

35.0 62.8 15.0 12.8

40.0 57.9 10.0 7.9

45.0 53.6 5.0 3.6

1

1(b) To plot a graph of y against x (ANIMATE EACH POINT BELOW)

Scale for x-Axis: 1 cm = 2.5 cm

46.0

44.0

42.0

40.0

38.0

36.0

34.0

32.0

30.0

28.0

26.0

24.0

y / cm 22.0

20.0

18.0

16.0

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

0 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 43 45

x /cm

I. AXES

The second variable mentioned (x) goes on the X axis.

2

II. LABELS

The Y axis must be drawn on the edge of the vertical grid and labelled y / cm.

The X axis must be drawn on the edge of the horizontal grid and labelled x / cm.

Both axes must be numbered at least every 2cm.

III. SCALES

Choose the scale for each axis so that it is easy to plot and read off the co-ordinates of

all the points.

The chosen scale should ensure that the plotted points spread over more than half of the

graph page on both X and Y axes.

The best scales are 1cm = (any ONE of the numbers 1, 2, 25 or 5, with a decimal place

and zeroes before or zeroes after the number).

The Y axis is 23 cm long and a maximum value for y of 36.0 must be plotted on it. If 23

cm = 36.0, then 1cm = 1.56, which is rounded up to the best scale of 2.

Label the top right hand side of the graph page: Scale for y: 1cm = 2.

The X axis is 18 cm long and a maximum value for x of 40.0 must be plotted on it. If

18 cm = 40.0, then 1cm = 2.22, which is rounded up to the best scale of 2.5.

Label the top right hand side of the graph page: Scale for x: 1cm = 2.5.

Start the graph at (0,0).

IV. PLOTTING

The points used to plot the graph must be thin, small crosses or fine dots with a tiny circle

around them. The lengths of the crosses or diameters of the tiny circles around the plots

should not occupy more than the smallest block on the grid.

The points must be accurately plotted [to half of the 2mm block on the grid].

3

2

For the Y axis 1cm = 2 2mm = = 0.4

5

2.5

For the X axis 1cm = 2.5 2mm = = 0.5

5

The best fit line of y against x is one thin, straight line, passing through the origin.

The best fit line is drawn so that the total perpendicular distance of the points above the

line balances the total below.

1(c) GRADIENT

4

Graph of y vs. x Scale for y-Axis: 1 cm = 2 cm

Scale for x-Axis: 1 cm = 2.5 cm

46.0

44.0

42.0

40.0

38.0

36.0

34.0

32.0

30.0

28.0

26.0

24.0

y / cm 22.0

20.0

18.0

16.0

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

0 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 43 45

x /cm

5

Draw the largest possible right angled triangle, with the vertical and horizontal sides

represented by broken lines and the hypotenuse represented by at least half of the best fit

STRAIGHT line.

The co-ordinates should be points that are easily read off. (e.g. use points on intersections

of grid-lines).

Since the best fit line passes through the origin, let the horizontal side begin at the origin.

Find the EXACT POINT where the vertical side of the triangle cuts the hypotenuse and

read off (to half of the 2mm block on the grid), the coordinates (x, y) = (40.0,

34.8)

Find the EXACT POINT where the horizontal side of the triangle cuts the hypotenuse

and read off (to half of the 2mm block on the grid), the coordinates (x, y) = (0, 0)

The units for the gradient are found by dividing the unit ( cm ) for the quantity on the

Y-axis by the unit ( cm ) for the quantity on the X-axis. The units cancel, so slope (z)

has no units.

Calculate the slope or gradient (z) from:

dy y 2 y 1 ( 34.80 ) cm

z= = = =0.870

dx x2 x1 ( 40.00 ) cm

[Insert animation to show how readings for y may be obtained from the GRAPH]

6

Graph of y vs. x Scale for y-Axis: 1 cm = 2 cm

Scale for x-Axis: 1 cm = 2.5 cm

46.0

44.0

42.0

40.0

38.0

36.0

34.0

32.0

30.0

28.0

26.0

24.0

y / cm 22.0

20.0

18.0

16.0

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

0 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 43 45

x /cm

Starting at the X - axis, draw a vertical broken line from x = 27.5cm to cut the best fit

line.

At the point of intersection, draw a horizontal broken line to the Y - axis and read off the

y - coordinate y = 23.8cm.

7

1(e)The Principle of Moments states: When a body is in EQUILIBRIUM under a system of

forces the sum of THE CLOCKWISE MOMENTS about a POINT equals the sum of THE

ANTICLOCKWISE MOMENTS about the POINT.

Mass (M) = 50g = 0.05kg

Calculate the weight of the mass ( W m ) from

1

W m =Mg where mass ( M )=0.05 kg( g )=10 N kg

W m = 0.05 kg 10 N kg1 = 0.5N

Determine the weight of the plasticine ( W p ) from:

W p = z W m where z=Gradientslope=0.870

W p=0.870 0.5 N=0.435 N

to make M p the subject

0.435

Mp = = = 0.0435kg

g 10

2(a) (i) Table 2 below shows the symbols for the five FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES and the

symbols for their BASE SI units.

TABLE 2

Mass m Kg

Time t s

Current I A

Temperature T K

Length l m

(ii) A linear scale is one in which equal changes in the physical quantity being measured are

indicated by equal divisions on the scale.

A Non-Linear scale is one in which equal changes in the physical quantity being measured are

indicated by unequal divisions on the scale.

8

(iii) Out of the three measuring instruments - metre rule, clinical thermometer and conical flask

the only one with a non-linear scale is a conical flask. This is because it does not have a constant

cross-sectional area.

2(b)

2(b)(i)

Calculate the volume of the container from

Volume (V) = Length Breadth Depth

= 2 m1.1 m 2.5 m=5.5 m3

Determine the density () of the cement from

m

= where mass (m) = 15 000 kg and volume (V) = 5.5 m3

V

15000 kg

= = 2727 kgm3

5.5 m3

(ii)

Calculate the area of the base of the container from

Area (A) = Length Breadth = 2 m1.1 m=2.2 m3

Calculate the weight (W) of the cement from

W =Mg=15 000 kg 10 Nkg1=150 000 N

Force (F) on the base of the container = the weight of cement = 150 000N

The pressure (P) the cement exerts on the base of the container is determined from:

F 150 000 N

P= =

A 2.2 m

= 68182 PaN /m2

Where E=energy , m=change of mass , c=speed of light a vacuum

The cost of running a nuclear power plant is cheaper than a conventional power plant

using fossil fuels.

A nuclear power plant generates more electricity than a conventional power plant using

fossil fuels.

A nuclear power plant does not emit greenhouse gases

It is not renewable we will eventually run out of Uranium ore.

9

The nuclear reactor can blow up, spewing out radioactive waste and radiation.

There are problems with the disposal of radioactive waste.

The nuclear reactor gives off dangerous radiation.

1 235 A 90 n

0 n + U

92 56 Ba + Z Kr + 3 ( 1 + energy

0

(i) Equating all the mass numbers, which are the upper numbers:

1+235= A+ 90+3 ( 1 ) A=143

Equating all the atomic numbers, which are the lower numbers:

0+92=56+ Z+3 ( 0 ) Z=3

2

(ii) E= mc

E 1.8 1012

m= = 8

=2 1029 kg

c (3.0 10 )

n+ 10

H + 21 3

H

1 X + QP energy

Equating all the mass numbers, which are the upper numbers:

2+3=P+1 P=4

Equating all the atomic numbers, which are the lower numbers:

1+ 1= Q + 0 Q=2

4

X= 2H e

X is Helium

10

The following points explain how the d.c. motor works:

The magnet creates a magnetic field in which the field lines go from North to South.

Current moves in the long limbs of the coil, up the left side and down the right side as

shown in figure 3.

The magnetic fields ( due to the magnet and the current in each side of the coil ) interact,

causing a force to be exerted on each side of the coil.

The direction of the force on each side of the coil can be found using Flemings Left

Hand Rule.

In Flemings Left Hand Rule, the First finger represents the magnetic Field, the seCond

finger represents the conventional Current and the Thumb represents the Thrust or force.

When the long sides of the coil are in the horizontal position, using Flemings Left Hand

Rule to find the direction of the force on each side of the coil, the left side experiences a

downward force and the right hand side experiences an upward force.

These equal and opposite parallel forces rotate the coil, in an anticlockwise direction, to

the vertical.

In the vertical position the brushes are in line with the gaps in the commutator and no

current flows.

The coil continues to move, due to its momentum and returns to a new horizontal

position, where the commutator halves change from one brush to the other.

The current continues to move up the left side and down the right side as shown in figure

3 and the coil continues to rotate anticlockwise.

(b) A.C. WAVEFORM [animate the period in (i) below and peak to peak in (ii) below]

11

(i) The period (T) of the wave is the time for one cycle. Reading from Figure 4, T= 30 ms.

1 1

Calculate the frequency (f) from f = = = 33.3 Hz

T 0.03

(ii) Reading the peak to peak current (I0) from Figure 4, I0 = 8A.

V0 = I0 R = 8A x 45 = 360 V.

I0 8

(iii) Calculate the maximum power (P) from P = I2R where Peak current I= = =

2 2

4A

and R = 45

P = 42 x 45 = 720 W

V0 360

OR P = V I where Peak voltage V = = 180 V

2 2

P = 180 x 4 = 720 W.

12

5. (a) (i) Figure 5 shows two blocks of copper at different temperatures.

The direction of net heat transfer is from high temperature Block B to low temperature Block A.

T = 52 + 273 = 325 K.

13

(i) The energy absorbed by the solar collector = 300 kJ

E = m c

E

= where mass (m) = 2kg and specific heat capacity (c) = 4.2 103 Jkg-

mc

1

K-1

3

120 10 J

3 = 14.3 K = 14.3 C

2 kg (4.2 10 Jkg1 K1)

(ii)

the principle

Heat transfer by convection The hot water in the collector is less dense than

the cold, so it rises to the tank. The hot water in

the tank is less dense than the cold so it rises to

the top of the tank.

The green house effect The glass cover allows high frequency or short

wave length Infrared from the sun to enter but

does not allow low frequency or long wave

length Infrared, given off by the water, to

leave.

14

Good heat transfer by conduction Copper Tubing

surroundings

6. (a) (i) In a longitudinal wave the particles vibrate to and fro along the direction of movement

of the wave.

In a transverse wave the particles vibrate at right angles to the direction of movement of

the wave.

(ii) To calculate the frequency (f), rearrange the formula, v = f to make f the subject.

v

f= where speed of light in air (v) = 3.0 108 ms-1 and wavelength ( =

700 109 m.

f= = 4.29 x 1014 Hz

700 109 m

(b) Figure 7 shows a ship using a sonar pulse to determine the depth of an oil plume.

(ANIMATE PULSE)

15

(b)(i) The depth is determined as follows:

The pulses are reflected by the oil plume to create an echo which returns to the ship a

time (t) after leaving the ship.

The time (t) is recorded.

distance travelled by sound

Speed (v) of sound in sea water = time takenby sound

plumeback travel plumeback

twice the depth 2 h

= =

time t

Rearrange the formula to make the depth of the plume (h) the subject:

vt

h=

2

vt

(ii) h= where speed of sound in sea water (v) = 1450 ms-1 and time (t) = 0.3 s.

2

1450 0.3

h = = 218 m

2

16

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