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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages
Executive Summary 5

List of Tables
1- Local Government Areas surveyed in the 21
senatorial districts
2- Age distribution of the respondents 25
3- Educational attainment of households’ income 26
Earners
4- Major sources of water available to the 27
households in the communities
5- Ownership of house by the respondents 27
6- Toilet facilities in households 28
7- Primary occupation of the respondents 29
8- Monthly income from primary and secondary 30
Occupation
9- Methods of waste disposal by households 32
10- Membership of community organizations 33
11a- Distribution of respondents according to 35
whether differences in education, wealth,
landholding, social status and religious beliefs
tend to divide people in surveyed
communities
11b- Distribution of respondents according to 35
whether differences in political parties, ethnic
background, gender and age tend to divide
people in surveyed communities
12- Community ways of handling differences 36
13- Participation of respondents in previous 37
collective actions with respect to community
development
14- Success of previous collective actions with 38
respect to community development
15- Distribution of respondents according to their 38
responses to participation in their
communities
16- Distribution of respondents according to their 38
responses on whether or not they contribute
time and money towards common
developmental goals
17- Services where respondents are occasionally 39
Denied
18- Reasons why some people are excluded from 39
Services
19- Distribution of respondents on whether they 40
have done the following activities in the last
three years
20- Distribution of respondents on whether they 41

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were approached to do the following
activities in the last three years
SECTION ONE BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1.1 The Community and Social Development Project 11
1.2 Terms of Reference 12
1.2.1 Objectives of the Baseline Survey 13
1.2.2 Scope of the work 14
SECTION TWO SURVEY METHODOLOGY
2.1 Study Area 19
2.2 Survey Instruments 19
2.3 Sample Design and Sampling Procedure 19
2.4 Training of Enumerators 23
2.5 Data Collection Process 23
2.6 Supervision and Quality Control 24
2.7 Method of Data Analysis 24
SECTION THREE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Socioeconomic status of the respondents 25
3.2 Sanitation and waste management system in the 31
Communities
3.3 Membership of Community Based institutions 32
3.4 Social Exclusion 33
3.5 Community members methods of handling differences 36
3.6 Collective Action by community members 36
3.7 Participation of the respondents in civic duties 39
SECTION FOUR DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC
CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLED COMMUNITIES
4.1 NORTHERN SENATORIAL DISTRICT
4.1.1 Madagali Local Government Area 42
4.1.1.1 Bebel Community 42
4.1.1.2 Dar Community 45
4.1.1.3 Dzuel community 48
4.1.1.4 Gubla Community 51
4.1.1.5 Humshi (Vizik) community 53
4.1.1.6 Mayo Wandu 55
4.1.1.7. Kirchinga Community 57
4.1.1.8 Vapura (Mildow) Community 60
4.1.1.9. Wuroganyandi Kuda Community 62
4.1.1.10. Zhau Community 64
4.1.2. MUBI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT 66
4.1.2.1. Bagira Community 66
4.1.2.2. Bahuli Community 68
4.1.2.3. Betso Community 70
4.1.2.4. Kiriya Community 73
4.1.2.5. Lira Community 75
4.1.2.6. Mijilu Community 77
4.1.2.7 Muchalla Community 79
4.1.2.8. Muva Community 81
4.1.2.9. Muvur Community 83
4.1.2.10. Ribawa Community 85

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4.1.3 MUBI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT 86
4.1.3.1. Dribish Community 86
4.1.3.2. Duvu Community 89
4.1.3.3. Gella Community 91
4.1.3.4. Gude Community 93
4.1.3.5. Lamurde Community 95
4.1.3.6. Mijara Community 97
4.1.3.7. Mugulvu Community 100
4.1.3.8. Nduku Community 102
4.1.3.9. Suburum Community 105
4.1.3.10. Sahuda Community 108
4.2 SOUTHERN SENATORIAL DISTRICT 111
4.2.1 Mayo-Belwa Local Government 111
4.2.1.1. Binkola Community 111
4.2.1.2. Nassarawo Jereng Community 113
4.2.1.3. Sebore Community 115
4.2.1.4. Mayo-Farang Community 117
4.2.1.5. Sangere Community 119
4.2.1.6. Ndiyamjimtobe Community 121
4.2.1.7. Yolde Gubudo Community 123
4.2.1.8. Chukkol Community 125
4.2.1.9 Sindigawo Community 127
4.2.1.10. Kaurami Community 129
4.2.2 GUYUK LOCAL GOVERNMENT 131
4.2.2.1. Walu Community 131
4.2.2.2. Bodeno Community 133
4.2.2.3. Lokoro Community 135
4.2.2.4. Chikila Community 137
4.2.2.5. Boshikiri Community 139
4.2.2.6. Tudun Guyuk Community 141
4.2.2.7 Lakumna Community 143
4.2.2.8. Bobini Community 145
4.2.2.9 Gugu Community 147
4.2.2.10. Pondiwe Community 149
4.2.3. DEMSA LOCAL GOVERNMENT

4.2.3.1. Farai Community 151


4.2.3.2 Dwam Sakato Community 153
4.2.3.3 Bille Community 155
4.2.3.4. Bolon Community 157
4.2.3.5. Gejembo Community 159
4.2.3.6 Dong Community 161
4.2.3.7. Dem Community 163
4.2.3.8. Bwashi Community 165
4.2.3.9. Old Demsa Community 167
4.2.3.10. Farabuane Community 169
4.3. CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT
4.3.1. GIREI LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.3.1.1. Daneyel Community 171

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4.3.1.2. Kangling Community 173
4.3.1.3. Dakri Bobbo Community 175
4.3.1.4 . Koh Community 177
4.3.1.5. Njerenga Community 179
4.3.1.6. Jerra Boyo Community 181
4.3.1.7. Laide Danfulani Community 183
4.3.1.8. Dakri Alhaji Bakari Community 185
4.3.1.9 Bajabure Community 187
4.3.1.10 Karewa Community 189
4.3.2. GOMBI LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.3.2.1. Gadamaisaje Community 191
4.3.2.2. Parijo Community 193
4.3.2.3. Mijuwana Community 195
4.3.2.4. Bebe Community 197
4.3.2.5. Gudumiya Community 199
4.3.2.6. Jau Community 201
4.3.2.7. Sabon Gari Community 203
4.3.2.8 Korwa B Community 205
4.3.2.9. Kaulewa Community 207
4.3.2.10. Barda Community 209
4.3.3. FUFORE LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.3.3.1. Belichiuti Community 211
4.3.3.2. Wuro Sham Community 213
4.3.3.3. Wuro Ardo Community 215
4.3.3.4. Wuro Mallum Community 217
4.3.3.5. Dulo Bwatiye Community 219
4.3.3.6. Muninga Community 221
4.3.3.7. Mayo Sirkan Community 223
4.3.3.8. Wuro Yolde Community 225
4.3.3.9. Bengo Community 227
4.3.3.10. Wailare Community 229

SECTION FIVE
Highlights of Major Findings 231
Conclusion 232
Recommendations 232
Appendix I 233
Appendix II 234

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Executive Summary
Background
Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) is a scaled up of the pilot Community-
based Poverty Reduction Project (CPRP) and Local Empowerment and Environmental
Management Project (LEEMP). CSDP is therefore an intervention building on the CPRP and
LEEMP structures to effectively target socioeconomic and water resources management
infrastructural projects at the community level as well as improve Local Government Area
(LGA) responsibility to service delivery. The overall goal of the CSDP is to improve access
to services for human development. To enable proper documentation of the project impact,
there is need for baseline study. The baseline study results will serve as an initial measure to
assess the effect of CSDP interventions in Adamawa State. To this end, a Baseline Survey
was done to ascertain the present state of socio-economic development of participating
communities to ensure that at the end of the project, proper and acceptable impact assessment
studies could be carried-out in the state.

Objectives of the Baseline Survey


The broad objective of the survey is to collect and collate baseline information on sampled
communities in Nine (9) of the twenty-one (21) LGAs to be considered in the first instance.
This baseline is to assist in providing opportunities for intervention by the project and also to
provide a basis for impact based comparison of pre and post project situation in the CSDP
communities. The specific objectives of the proposed survey are to establish a baseline for
the socio-economic situation and existence or non-existence of basic infrastructural facilities
across sector. The sectors are education, health, water, transport, rural electrification,
socioeconomic, natural resources/environment and vulnerability/gender.

Scope of work
To achieve the objective of the proposed baseline survey, it would be necessary to obtain all
the relevant details of persons living in project affected area relating to families, resource
use/dependence and infrastructure of the area as specified in the TOR approved by the World
Bank.

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Methodology
Study area and method of data collection
The baseline survey was conducted in ninety (90) selected communities from nine LGAs.
The LGAs are Madagali, Mubi North and Mubi South in the North Senatorial District;
Gombi, Girei and Fufore in theCentral Senatorial District; and Demsa, Guyuk and Mayo
Belwa in the South Senatorial District. Two methods of data collection were adopted. These
were focus group discussion (FGD) and cross-sectional survey (CSS). The FGD was used to
obtain village level information while the CSS was used to obtain information from randomly
selected individuals from the communities. In addition, secondary information was obtained
from the LGA office on the existence of schools, water sources and health facilities.
Information were obtained by means of oral interviews and by the use of well structured
questionnaires.

Socioeconomic characteristics of respondents

Age distribution of respondents

The age category ranges from 10 to over 60 years. The sample of respondents was designed
to capture a wide profile of the people in the communities (the young and the old inclusive).

Educational attainment of the households’ income earners and the Education Sector
The educational qualification of the household heads (as presented in Table 3) shows that
majority (about 34.11%) of the respondents attained the basic primary education. Those with
higher level of education were 42.55 percent of the sampled population. The universal policy
on education makes it compulsory for all to have basic education which runs from primary
one to junior secondary school. As shown in the table only 13.56 percent of the respondents
attained the junior secondary education.

In most of the communities sampled there are primary schools for pupils. Some of the
schools, however, are far from the communities and would require considerable time for
pupils to trek daily. There are also many incidences of high teacher to students ratio in the
schools an indication that most of the schools are understaffed. In many communities these
schools operate from dilapidated structures and occasionally pupils operate from buildings
without roof There are also absence of basic facilities such staff rooms, toilets, water supply,
desks and tables for the pupils and teachers. Instructional materials are in short supply and
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school attendance in some of the remote communities fluctuates remarkably during the
cropping season when children are drafted to do farm chores. The environment of the schools
in many cases are not conducive for learning and teaching.

Occupation of respondents
Occupational prestige is one component of socioeconomic status that encompasses both
income and educational attainment. Occupational status reflects the level of educational
attainment of the respondents. The primary occupations of the respondents include farming,
civil service, petty trading and paid labour among others. Majority of the respondents are
independently employed in the private sector. The occupational distribution of the
respondents reveals that farming is the most important activity in most of the communities
surveyed. The implication of this is that there is need for increased investment in the
agricultural sector in order to ensure its sustainability, growth and development.

Income from primary and secondary occupations


The respondents were predominantly low income earners. In view of the fact that most of
them are farmers, their monthly income distribution shows that they are mainly subsistence
farmers who produce principally for family consumption. Low income families focus on
meeting immediate needs and do not accumulate wealth that could be passed to future
generations, thus increasing income inequality.

Health Sector
The primary health clinics are available in most of the communities; however, these clinics
are not stocked with drugs and other requisite facilities for health care delivery. Also, in some
of the communities there are dispensaries without drugs and the people have to travel long
distances to access health care. The PHC clinics do not have facilities for in-patients. The
PHCs are managed by paramedics.

It takes an appreciable time to get to where health care can be accessed in most of the
communities. In most cases the people have to travel to the local government headquarters to
access health care services.

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Sanitation and waste management system in the communities
In most cases the people dispose waste into vacant plots, rivers/streams/drainage systems.
About 47.1 percent of the respondents dispose waste into vacant plots (empty, undeveloped
plots of land within their neighborhood). The second most common method of waste disposal
in the communities is by disposing solid waste into rivers/streams and drainages.

There are no incinerators in the communities for waste management and waste disposal
system is rudimentary. The people dispose wastes in a fashion that predisposes them to risk
of deadly epidemics.

Water Sector

The major sources of water available to the inhabitants of the sampled communities include
wells, boreholes and streams/rivers. The survey revealed that about 64 percent of the
households have wells as their major source of water for both drinking and domestic
purposes. There are however communities where people scoop water from ditches for
drinking and domestic purposes. People and livestock share same sources of water in many of
the communities. The quality of many of these water sources is suspect as revealed by the
water sample laboratory analysis.

Transport Sector
There are no feeder roads in many of the communities. Most of the roads are seasonal roads
and can only be used during the dry season. There are no bridges as foot paths wind through
river beds, valleys and troughs. Erosion from heavy storm has done devastating damage to
many feeder roads where a number of culverts are cut off; thus rendering the roads very
difficult for vehicular and human movement. People however ply the existing roads in the
course of carrying out daily economic activities.

Rural Electrification Sector


In most of the communities sampled there is no public source of power and households rely
on kerosene lantern. The rural electrification service is not functional in many of the
communities. Small businesses established in the communities include rice milling, grain,
grinding and artisans. Electronic gadgets are not common in most of the communities. People
employ services of generators to be able operate electronics where available.

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Socio-Economic Sector
There are no multipurpose halls in most of the communities sampled but there are market
stalls. The market stalls are temporary structures which are made by posting sticks and
placing thatched roof over. Goods sold in these markets range from agricultural produce to
basic household items such as matches and firewood. There are no skill acquisition centers in
most of the sampled communities for the youth and unemployed. Social activities in the
communities however are very vibrant and this varies from one place to another.

Natural Resources/Environment Sector


No forest reserve or communal forest area was found in the surveyed community clusters
across the nine LGAs, however, illegal deforestation practice is actively going on in all the
LGAs surveyed. Trade in fire wood is fast becoming a booster to the economy of many
households of late. Forest trees and other economic trees are being destroyed at a rate much
faster than trees are planted to regenerate them.

There are no public toilets in the communities. Human waste liters the environment as people
are left with no choice than to freely use the bush and other empty plots of land in the
neighborhoods. There are erosion sites in all the LGAs surveyed. There are no drainages in
the communities.

Organization Density and characteristics


Community institutions (sometimes known as community-based organizations) are civil
society that are not profit oriented but operate within a single local community. They are
essentially a subset of the wider group of non-profit organizations that are often run as a
voluntary and self funding basis. There are many local level community- based organisations
across the state. These organisations range from socio-religious to occupational groups. Many
of the people living in these communities are members of these organisations. Their degree of
participation is very high as it is a form of social capital for the people.

Social Exclusion
There is not much of social exclusion. The people talked about harmonious relationship and
mutual cooperation and participation in community development process.

Collective Action
Collective action is the pursuit of a goal or set of goals by more than one person.The people
cited instances in the past when they collectively participated in solving some challenges that

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faced their communities. This they did through contribution in cash and materials towards
executing community projects. In all, about 68.11 percent of them have taken part in
community services in the past. This is an indication that the communities can be mobilized
for collective action. The awareness of the relevance of collective action to community
development is already widespread among the people. Decision making by the government
and donor agencies relative to development projects in communities are usually taken in most
cases without any input by the people for whom the projects were planned.

Vulnerability/Gender Sector
There are orphans, widows, physically challenged and other vulnerable children in all the
communities but there are however no orphanages. There are no orphans and vulnerable
children receiving books and other instructional materials as support either from government
or from development partners.

Conclusion and recommendation


In conclusion, it is evident that the sampled communities in the nine LGAs of Adamawa State
selected for the baseline survey are involved in both farming (crop and livestock) and non-
farming activities which constitute their main source of livelihood. More importantly, the
sampled communities are deficient in infrastructural facilities both in terms of available
numbers and adequacy of the existing ones. Similarly, continued exploitation of the fragile
natural resources and poor infrastructural facilities would further reduce agricultural
productivity and increase uncertainties and vulnerability of the rural dwellers to food
insecurity and extreme poverty.

Therefore, it is recommended that CSDP initiative is necessary by bringing sustainable


existing interventions that would address the priority issues in respect of general
infrastructural development and farming and non-farming interventions in all the
participating communities. Focus should be tailored in areas such as: (1) provision of
infrastructural facilities such as additional classroom blocks in schools, renovation of health
centers and supply of necessary facilities, skill acquisition centers, etc (2) empowerment of
the rural poor in all the participating communities to enhance their capacity to generate
income through small-scale activities, (3) strengthening of linkages between relevant
institutions within the participating communities most especially trade associations and
cooperative societies, and (4) full integration of women into the development process is an
important precondition for the sustainability and success of CSDP development efforts.

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Chapter One

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

1.1 The Community and Social Development Project


Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) is a scale up of the pilot Community-
based Poverty Reduction Project (CPRP) and Local Empowerment and Environmental
Management Project (LEEMP). CSDP is therefore an intervention building on the CPRP and
LEEMP structures to effectively target socioeconomic and water resources management,
infrastructural projects at the community level as well as improve Local Government Area
(LGA) responsibility to service delivery. One of the key highlights of the CSDP is that clear-
cut supportive roles and responsibility provided by the key actors in the project cycle.

Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) is generally a new intervention that
would effectively target social and environmental infrastructure at the community level as
well as improve local government area (LGA) responsibility to service delivery. One of the
key highlight of the CSDP is that clear–cut supportive roles and responsibility provided by
the key actors in the project cycle. The overall goal of the CSDP is to improve access to
services for human development. In order to achieve this goal, the project development
objective (PDO) is to support empowerment of communities and LGAs for sustainable
increase access of poor people to improved social and natural resource infrastructure.

To enable proper documentation of the project impact, there is need for baseline study. The
baseline study results will serve as an initial measure to assess the impact of CSDP
interventions in Adamawa State. In addition, the baseline study will be a reference point for
the impact assessment that will document changes in key project indicators that occur as a
result of CSDP interventions. Data from the baseline study also fit directly into the
programmatic decision-making process so as to ensure that interventions target the specific
supply and demand needs of the local context. According to World Bank (2008) the objective
of the Community and Social Development Project for Nigeria is to sustainably increase
access of poor people to social and natural resource infrastructure services. There are three
components to the project.

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The first component is the federal level- coordination and program support. At the federal
level, this component will be supervised by the federal ministry of finance, while the direct
responsibility for implementation will rest with the existing Federal Project Support Unit
(FPSU). The FPSU will be responsible for providing technical backstopping to state agencies
on procurement, financial management, gender, environment, and local government capacity
issues. The unit will organize the appropriate technical assistance based on requests from
state agencies or needs identified by the monitoring and evaluation system.

The second component is the Local Government Authority (LGA)/sectoral ministries


capacity and partnership building. This component will be implemented by the state agency
in all participating states and will provide funding for capacity building, skills training and
hardware types of investments. The objective of this component is to establish and strengthen
a partnership between LGA and communities.

Finally, the third component is the community-driven investment. State agencies will
manage this component. Funding will be provided for Community Development Plans
(CDPs) of selected communities, based on specific criteria, including broad based community
participation in plans formulation, micro-project identification and preparation, and a
matching contribution from communities.

The overall goal of the CSDP is to improve access to services for human development. To
achieve this goal, the Project Development Objective (PDO) is to support empowerment of
communities and LGAs for sustainable increase access of poor people to improved social and
natural resource infrastructure. To enable proper documentation of the project impact, there is
need for baseline study. The baseline study results will serve as an initial measure to assess
the effect of CSDP interventions in Adamawa State. In addition, the baseline study will be a
reference point for the impact assessment that will document changes in key project
indicators that occur as a result of CSDP interventions. Data from the baseline study also feed
directly into the programmatic decision-making process to ensure that interventions target the
specific supply and demand needs of the local context.

1.2 Terms of reference


The Terms of Reference (TOR) for the Baseline Survey defined the objectives of the survey
as well as the scope of the work to be done. These are presented as follows.
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1.2.1 Objectives of the Baseline Survey
The broad objective of the survey is to collect and collate baseline information on sampled
communities in Nine (9) of the twenty-one (21) LGAs to be considered in the first instance.
This baseline is to assist in providing opportunities for intervention by the project and also to
provide a basis for impact based comparison of pre and post project situation in the CSDP
communities. The specific objectives of the proposed survey are to:

1. Provide community level information such as name of LGA and communities,


distance of community to the LGA and State capital, population of community
disaggregated into gender/adult/children/ethnicity/religion, average household size
(family) disaggregated into gender/adult/children, socio-cultural features that
influence community economic development such as market days and frequency,
local festivals and historic events and existing village organizations such as CDAs etc.
2. Access aspects of socio-economic conditions of the project beneficiaries’ households across
sectors.

3. Describe the present status of infrastructural facilities in the selected communities.


4. Identify the vulnerable sections and individuals of the affected population.
5. Collect details of the persons living in project affected area in terms of their
demographic features like age, sex, educational status, occupation, degree of
dependence on local natural resources (that are likely to be affected by the project),
employment status (if self employed, then number of days of employment per year)
and their source of income.
6. Estimate the income consumption and indebtedness of the households.
7. Assess the ownership of land holding pattern and its use related particulars.
8. Estimate the households’ production from the land in the project vicinity.
9. Assess their dependence on local resources other than privately owned land like
forests, water resources, pasture land and other common property resources.
10. Assess the extent of possession of immovable assets like houses, trees, agricultural
land and commercial assets etc.
11. Assess the employment potentials of the area with the help of educational status, skill
levels, unemployed personnel (with education level and skill levels) available for
work.

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1.2.2 Scope of the Work
To achieve the objectives of the baseline survey the research team visited the nine (9) LGAs
and obtained the following general information in respect of all the LGAs and communities.
1. Name of the LGA and communities;
2. Distance of the community to the LGA headquarters and state capital;
3. Population of community disaggregated into ender/adult/children/ethnicity/religion
4. Natural resources features such as land, water and forests;
5. Occupation (cropping pattern, crops, yields, domestic animals such as sheep, goats,
cattle and others)
6. Available infrastructure (schools, health centres and their status, water supply etc);
7. Average household size (family) disaggregated into gender/adult/children;
8. Average household income distribution
9. Sources of household income/economic activities;
10. Socio cultural features that influence community economic development such as
market days and frequency, local festivals and historic events;
11. Existing village organizations such as CDAs, CBOs etc.

The following specific information were also provided:


i. Economic environment of the communities in the LGAs. This included the economic
activities, the social and cultural factors that influence economic development and
sharing of common property resources, sources of livelihood of families and their
income per capita. Specific attention was placed on gender and vulnerable groups
(men, women, youth, and disabled, minorities etc)
ii. Water quality and changes in parameter within the LGA. Water and soil samples were
collected from different sources such as streams, wells, boreholes etc and tested both
at the field and at the laboratory.
iii.Structure of formal and informal institutions and their current roles in community
development activities.
iv. Agricultural production systems, cropping patterns, yields, households income and
constraints to agricultural productivity
v. Identify and assess status of resources (land, forests, water etc) within the LGAs and
identify indicators that could be used to monitor changes

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vi. Availability and quality/condition of infrastructural facilities in all sectors such as
education, health, water, environmental/natural resources, rural electrification,
socioeconomic and transport/ roads. All project types should be covered including
those executed by the government, NGOs, the community or other development
agencies.
vii. Environmental problems of concern to the community and mitigation
measures being adopted
viii. Ranking of communities within LGAs on basis of availability and
functionality of infrastructural facilities
ix. Provide information on how to develop measureable indicators to be used in impact
evaluation for each sector
x. Prepare a comprehensive report on each of the communities by LGAs based on the
above.

The following sectoral indicators were considered in the development of survey instruments
for baseline survey:
Education Sector

• Existence or non-existence of primary/secondary school/classrooms and their physical


state in the community.

• Average time/distance traversed to the nearest primary/secondary school in the


community.

• Number of school age children (male/female) currently enrolled in existing


primary/secondary school in the community; and anticipated enrolment
(disaggregated into male/female) in the event of establishing new school or building
extra classroom blocks.

• Average school attendance by gender (male/female)

• Availability/non-availability of instructional materials, desks etc. in existing


community school.

• Existence or non-existence of teachers’ quarters in community primary/ secondary


school and their physical state in community.

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• Number of teachers (disaggregated by gender & qualification) teaching in existing
community school.

• General environmental condition (conducive for learning; toilet facility) around


existing school in community.

Health Sector

• Existence or otherwise of health facility in the community and its physical state in the
community.

• Type of health facility in community and Source of supply of drugs.

• Number of surrounding communities and estimated population using existing health


facility.

• Number of current in-patients/out-patients (disaggregated by gender and age range) in


attendance in existing community facility.

• Estimate time/distance to access existing health centre from the nearest and farthest
distance in the community.

• Common ailments afflicting community members.

• Number of health workers (types and qualifications) posted in existing community


health facility.

• Existence or otherwise of incinerator and toilets and other forms of waste disposal
facilities existing in community health facility.

• Source of water in-use in community health facility.

Water Sector

• Community source of water (motorized borehole/hand pumps well/concrete


well/rainwater harvest facility) or otherwise.

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• Quality of existing water source.
• Cost/distance/time spent to access nearest water source in community.
• Number of cases/types of water borne diseases reported in the community.
• General personal hygiene in community.

Transport Sector

• Existence or non-existence of feeder road/bridge/culvert and their physical state in the


community.
• Average time/distance spent commuting from one point to another in the community.
• Number of persons/vehicles plying existing community road per week.

Rural Electrification Sector


• Establish existence or non-existence of electricity and its functionality in the
community.
• Number of households in community connected to electricity and using electronic
gadgets.
• Number of small scale businesses established in community because of electricity.
• Types of social activities in community.

Socio-Economic Sector

• Existence or non-existence of multi-purpose community centre/market stall/skill


acquisition centre/security post etc. and their physical state in the community.
• Number of social activities in community.
• Number and variety of goods sold in the market.
• Number of persons trained and utilizing skill acquisition acquired skills.
• Number of enterprises established.

Natural Resources/Environment Sector

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• Existence or non-existence of public toilet/incinerator in health facility,
school/erosion, flood sites/forest reserve/communal forest area/water catchment area,
and their physical state in the community.
• Number of people using public toilets
• Number of people defecating in bushes, open plots and river banks.
• Number of reported cases of environmentally induced ill health
(children/male/female).
• Current sanitation practices in community.
• Number and length of drainages constructed.
• Hectares of wind breaks/shelterbelt/on-farm tree planting and type of trees

Organisation Density and characteristics


• Membership of CBOs and CDAs
• Degree of participation in the CBOs and CDAs.

Exclusion
• Differences that exist between the different groups of people
• Reasons for exclusion

Collective Action
• Previous collective action
• Decision making process at community level
• Decision making relative to development projects
• Contributions in form of time and materials towards community projects

Vulnerability/Gender Sector
• Existence or non-existence of orphanage/skill acquisition centre/leprosy
colony/charity homes in the community and their physical state in the community.
• Number of orphans sheltered (by gender) in orphanage in the community.
• Number of persons trained and utilizing skills.
• Number of vulnerable children receiving free food/books/uniform/health services.
• Number and type of socio-economic engagement by vulnerable.

18
• Number of vulnerable individuals benefiting from fee waiver/scholarship or other
support interventions children enrolled/attending schools who are fed/provided
books/uniforms.

19
Section Two

SURVEY METHODOLOGY
2.1 Study area
The baseline was conducted in nine local government areas of Adamawa State (latitude 7o
and 11o N of the equator and longitude 11o and 14o E of Greenwich Meridian). The state
shares boundary with Taraba State to the south and west, Gombe State to its Northwest and
Borno to the North. The state has an international boundary with the Cameroun republic
along its eastern end. The state has a land area of about 38,741 square kilometers.

Administratively, Adamawa State consists of 21 local government areas (LGAs). Each LGA
is further divided into a number of state development areas. The state was created in 1991
from the defunct Gongola State and has been governed by both military and civilian
administrators at different times. The state government has the three arms namely the
executive, the legislative and the judiciary. Each local government administration is presided
over by a chairman and councilors. The total population of Adamawa State is 3,168,101
according to the 2006 National Census figures.

2.2 Survey Instruments


Two main instruments were designed for use during the survey. They included the
Household Questionnaire and the Community Interviewer’s Checklist. The Household
Questionnaire served as the main data collection instrument and captured the minimum
information that allowed for identification of basic welfare indicators for measuring poverty
and information which measure access, utilization and satisfaction of services. Both the
Household Questionnaire and Community Interviewer’s checklist served as instructional
materials during the training of field staff. The Interviewer’s manual documented the survey
design, data collection techniques, the role of the field staff during the fieldwork and how to
complete the questionnaire. The Supervisor’s manual, additionally, documented the roles of
the supervisors and field edit check procedures.

2.3 Sample Design and Sampling procedure


The survey covered nine Local Government Areas in the state. The nine LGAs comprised
three LGAs each from each of the three Senatorial Districts. All the nine Local Government
Areas were canvassed with the coverage cutting across both the urban and rural areas. The
20
survey was designed with the Local Government Area (LGA) serving as the reporting
domain. Data were then aggregated to derive estimates at Local Government Area level and
Senatorial District level.

Basically, a 2-stage cluster sample design was adopted in each LGA. Enumeration Areas
(EAs) formed the 1st stage or Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) while Housing Units (HUs)
formed the 2nd stage or Ultimate Sampling Units (USUs). The EAs as demarcated by the
National Population Commission (NPC) for the 2006 Population Census served as the
sampling frame for the selection of 1st stage sample units. In each LGA, a systematic
selection of 10 EAs was made. A complete listing of Housing Units (and of Households
within Housing Units) was done prior to the second stage selection at each of the selected 1st
stage units. These lists provided the frames for the second stage selection. Ten (10) HUs
were then systematically selected per EA and all households in the selected HUs were
interviewed.

The projected sample size was 100 HUs at the Local Government Area level. Table 1 shows
the overall sample drawn. The baseline survey was conducted in selected communities from
the participating 9 LGAs that have established Local Government Review Committee
(LGRSs) which is a required condition to participate in the project. A two-stage sampling
procedure was employed in selecting the sample. The LGAs Demsa, Guyuk, Mayo-Belwa,
Fufore, Girei, Gombi, Madagali, Mubi South and Mubi North constituted the sample frame.
From the list of communities obtained from the Local Government Review Committee
(LGRSs) office in each of the 9 local governments random sampling was used to select 90
communities for the survey. These LGAs cover the three senatorial zones of the state. Table 1
shows the list of communities that were selected for the survey. Ten communities were
randomly selected for inclusion in the survey from each of the LGAs bringing the total
number of communities to 90. From each community 10 households were randomly selected
and questionnaires were administered to them. Thus the total number of households sampled
was 900 across the 9 LGAs in the tree Senatorial districts.

21
Table 1: Local Government Areas surveyed in the Senatorial Districts, the communities that
were visited and the number of households sampled with the FGDs
S/N Senatorial District Selected LGAs Communities covered by the Number of Number of
survey households FGDs held
sampled
1. Northern Madagali Zhau 30 3
Senatorial District
Mayo wandu 30 3
Dzuel 30 3
Vizik 30 3
Wurongayandi-kuda 30 3
Lumadu 30 3
Bebel 30 3
Kirchinga 30 3
Vapura mildow 30 3
Dar 30 3
Mubi North Bagira 30 3
Muchalla 30 3
Lira 30 3
Sahuda 30 3
Muva 30 3
Bahuli 30 3
Ribawa 30 3
Mijulu 30 3
Kirya 30 3
Betso 30 3
Mubi South Gella 30 3
Gude 30 3
Duvu 30 3
Mijara 30 3
Dribishi 30 3
Suburum 30 3
Lamorde 30 3
Mugulvu 30 3
Nduku 30 3
Sahuda 30 3
2. Central Senatorial Gombi Gudumya 30 3
District
Sabongari 30 3
Kaulewa 30 3
Bebe 30 3
Mijuwana 30 3
Barda 30 3
Jau 30 3
Gadamaisaje 30 3
Parijo 30 3
Korwa B 30 3
Girei Dakri Bobbo 30 3
Kangling 30 3
Koh 30 3
Daneyel 30 3
Karewa 30 3
Jerra Boyo 30 3
Laide Danfulani 30 3
Njerenga 30 3
Dakri Alhaji Bakari 30 3

22
Bajabure 30 3
S/N Senatorial District Selected LGAs Communities covered by the Number of Number of
survey households FGDs held
sampled
Fufore Muninga 30 3
Wuro Yolde 30 3
Wuro Mallum 30 3
Wuro Ardo 30 3
Dulo Bwatiye 30 3
Mayo Sirkan 30 3
Wuro sham 30 3
Wailare 30 3
Bengo 30 3
Belichiuti 30 3
3. Southern Guyuk Bobini 30 3
Senatorial District
Bodeno 30 3
Gugu 30 3
Boshikiri 30 3
Lokoro 30 3
Lakumna 30 3
Tudun Guyuk 30 3
Pondiwe 30 3
Walu 30 3
Chikila 30 3
Demsa Farai 30 3
Dwam 30 3
Farabuare 30 3
Dwam sakato 30 3
Old Demsa 30 3
Gejembo 30 3
Bolon 30 3
Dong 30 3
Bile 30 3
Bwashi 30 3
Mayo Belwa Yolde Gubudo 30 3
Nasarawo Jereng 30 3
Sebore 30 3
Chukkol 30 3
Kaurami 30 3
Sindigawo 30 3
Sangere 30 3
Ndiyamjintobe 30 3
Mayo Farang 30 3
Binkola 30 3
Total 900 270

23
Training of Enumerators
A total of 39 officers were trained comprising 30 enumerators and 9 field supervisors on the
application of the survey instrument. The training was for one day. The training exercise was
intensive to ensure that enumerators and field supervisors did a thorough job in the field.
Thereafter; there was a field trial of the instrument. The objective of the field trial was to (i)
ascertain the ability of the enumerators and supervisors to use the survey instrument
adequately, (ii) use the findings of the trial to fine tune the training process and to make up
for any observed gaps and (iii) cross-check the adequacy of field arrangements and logistics.

2.5 Data Collection Process


Data collection was done by three teams of field enumerators. Each team was composed of
ten enumerators and three supervisors. The teams covered three local government areas each.
Ten EAs were surveyed per local government area. From each EA ten households were
interviewed thus bringing the total number of households covered in the 9 LGAs during the
survey to 900. Data collection process lasted for 9 days.

Two methods of data collection were adopted. These are focus group discussion (FGD) and
cross-sectional survey (CSS). The FGD was used to obtain village level information while the
CSS was used to obtain information from randomly selected members of the communities.
Simple random sampling technique was adopted. However, at least 15 respondents were
randomly selected in each community. A total of 900 households were used for the CSS.
Data was obtained from the households by means of well structured questionnaire. These
include disaggregated information on village population size and structure, economic
activities, the social and cultural factors that influence economic development and sharing of
common property resources, sources of livelihood of families and their income per capita
with specific attention on gender and vulnerable group consideration (men, women, youth,
disabled, minorities, etc). Other relevant information collected include educational and health
status of households in the community, availability and quality/condition of infrastructural
facilities in all sectors such as education, health, water, environment/natural resources, rural
electrification, transport/roads. In addition, information on agricultural production systems,
cropping pattern, yields, household income and constraints to agricultural productivity were
collected. Finally, information on the status of resources (land, forest, water, etc) within the

24
community were also collected. Laboratory analysis of water samples were conducted on the
samples collected from the sampled communities.
2.6 Supervision and Quality Control
A number of measures were put in place to ensure that the Baseline Survey data were of good
and acceptable quality. The planning, training of enumerators/supervisors and execution of
the survey was done in collaboration with staff of the Adamawa State ADP. Secondly, a
customized Questionnaire was employed as the data collection instrument. Thirdly, a
supervisor was attached to each team to observe interviews and confirm the pre-selected
households and to verify and edit completed questionnaires. A monitoring team went to the
field for spot assessment of the quality of work from commencement to end of the survey.

2.7 Method of Data Analysis


The method of data analysis employed was basically descriptive statistics. This analytical
tool involved the use of frequency tables and percentages to describe and draw inferences on
the parameters studied.

25
Chapter Three
Results and Discussion

3.1 Socioeconomic status of the respondents


Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combination of total measure of
a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position
relative to others, based on income, education and occupation. When analyzing a family’s
SES, the household income earners' education and occupation were examined, as well as
other characteristics such as age of the household members. Socioeconomic status is typically
broken into three categories, high SES, middle SES, and low SES to describe the three areas
a family or an individual may fall into. When placing a family or individual into one of these
categories any or all of the three variables (income, education, and occupation) can be
assessed.

Age distribution of respondents

The age distribution of the respondents is shown in Table 2. The age category ranges from 10
to over 60 years. The sample of respondents was designed to capture a wide profile of the
people in the communities (the young and the old inclusive). The Table shows that out of the
900 respondents about 102 (11.33%) were between ages 10 and 29 years. The age category
with the highest number of respondents was the 40-49 years category (31.7%) while the age
30 – 39 years was the next highest.
Table 2: Age Distribution of Respondents
Age category (yrs) No. Of respondents Percentage (%)
10 - 19 17 1.89
20 - 29 85 9.44
30 - 39 252 28.0
40 - 49 286 31.78
50 - 59 144 16.0
>60 116 12.89
Total 900 100
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

26
Educational attainment of the households’ income earners

Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticians to refer to the highest degree
of education an individual has completed. Socioeconomic status strongly influences the
varying perspectives of people on the value and attainability of higher education. The
probability of students attending schools of higher education is more likely in students from
higher socio-economic backgrounds. Education can increase opportunities for income and job
security. One's level of education can also be an indicator of socioeconomic status.
Socioeconomic status is based on income, but too often is connected to race as well.
Individuals with lower incomes and less education have higher death rates than better
educated, wealthier people, and the differences between these groups are increasing.

The educational qualification of the household heads (income earners) is presented in Table
3. This table shows that the majority (about 34.11%) of the respondents attained the basic
primary education. Those with higher level of education were 42.55 percent of the sampled
population. The universal basic policy stipulates that basic education which runs from
primary one to junior secondary school is compulsory for all. As shown in the table only
about 13.56 percent of the respondents attained the junior secondary education.
Table 3: Educational attainment of household’s income earners
Level of Education No. Of Percentage (%)
respondents
None 210 23.33
Primary school 307 34.11
JSS 122 13.56
SS 163 18.11
OND 76 8.44
HND/Degree 22 2.44
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

Water sources in the communities


Table 4 shows the major sources of water available to the peoples. They include water sellers,
wells, boreholes, public taps and streams/rivers. The table shows that about 64 percent of the
households have wells as their major source of water for both drinking and other domestic
purposes. This is the situation in all the rural communities that were surveyed. Well is also
very popular in some of the semi-urban settlements that were surveyed. The next most used
sources of water were boreholes and streams/rivers in that order. Public taps was not a very

27
popular source of water. Only about 1 percent of the households utilised the services of water
sellers regularly. This could be a reflection of the economic status of the households.

Table 4: Major sources of water available to the households in the communities.


Water source Frequency Percentage
Water sellers 11 1.22
Well 575 63.89
Boreholes 134 14.89
Public tap 59 6.56
Streams/rivers 121 13.44
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

Ownership of house and structure of house


Table 5 shows the distribution of the respondents according to ownership of house. About
73.89 percent of the respondents live in their own family houses. The houses are mainly
constructed with mud and have thatched roofs. They are poorly ventilated in most cases since
they have very small windows. The floor of the houses are rarely cemented Also it can be
seen that about 23.67 percent live in owner occupier houses. Renting of accommodation is
not popular among the respondents across the communities. Rather than expend money on
paying rent the respondents would rather put such monies, where available, to some other
uses.

Table 5: Ownership of house by the respondents.


Type of ownership Frequency Percentage
Rented 24 2.67
Family house 665 73.89
Owner occupier house 213 23.67
Others 6 0.67
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

Availability of toilet facilities in the houses


In Table 6 it can be seen that the toilet facilities used by the respondents included pit toilet,
water cistern and bucket type latrines. About 60.3 percent of the households use pit toilets
while about 4 percent use shallow pit toilets. The use of bush was the next popular way of
disposal of human waste in the communities that were surveyed with about 23.7 percent. This

28
has implication on the state of sanitation and personal hygiene in these communities. This
situation can pose a veritable source of risk to the health and wellbeing of the people.

Table 6: Toilet facilities in households


Type of facility Frequency Percentage
Water cistern 14 1.56
Pit toilet 624 69.33
Bucket type 11 1.22
Shallow pit 36 4.0
Bush 214 23.78
Others 1 0.11
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

Occupation of respondents
Occupational prestige as one component of SES, encompasses both income and educational
attainments. Occupational status reflects the educational attainment required to obtain the job
and income levels that vary with different jobs and within ranks of occupations. Additionally,
it shows achievement in skills required for the job. Occupational status measures social
position by describing job characteristics, decision making ability and control, and
psychological demands on the job. Occupation is the most difficult factor to measure because
so many exist, and there are so many competing scales. Many scales rank occupations based
on the level of skill involved, from unskilled to skilled manual labor to professional, or use a
combined measure using the education level needed and income involved.

The primary and secondary occupations of the respondents were surveyed and presented in
Table 7. The primary occupations included farming, civil service, trading and business
among others. About 60.67 percent of the respondents are mainly farmers. Also, about 17
percent are civil servants. The respondents that are employees in private companies are only
about 1 percent of the population. The table shows that about 18.45 percent of the
respondents are into paid employment as primary occupation. This implies that majority of
the respondents are independently employed in the private sector.

29
Table 7: Primary occupation of the respondents
Primary occupation Secondary occupation
Type of occupation Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Farming 546 60.67 354 39.33
Fishing 9 1.0 38 4.22
Trading 73 8.11 181 20.11
Civil service 152 16.89 55 6.11
Technician/artisan 22 2.44 81 9.0
Business/contractor 61 6.78 63 7.0
Employee in a private 5 0.56 10 1.11
company
Others 23 2.56 94 10.44
Total 900 100.0 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

The table shows that about 39.33 percent of the respondents had farming as their secondary
occupation. This is followed by trading. Those in paid employment are about 6.22 percent of
the respondents. The result shows that majority of the respondents have farming as both their
primary and secondary occupations. This occupational distribution of the respondents reveals
that farming is the most important activity in most of the communities that were surveyed.
The implication of this situation is that there is need for increased investment in the
development of the agricultural sector in order to make for increased sustainability and
growth in that sector. Not many of the people are technicians, businessmen and employees of
private companies. It is clear that the agricultural sector is the highest employer of labour in
these communities. This fact underscores the dire need for rural community development in
the state.

Income from primary and secondary occupations


Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified
time frame, which is generally expressed in monetary terms. It refers to wages, salaries,
profits, rents, and any flow of earnings received. Income can also come in the form of
unemployment or workers compensation, social security, pensions, interests or dividends,
royalties, trusts, alimony, or other governmental, public, or family financial assistance.

However, for households and individuals, "income is the sum of all the wages, salaries,
profits, interest payments, rents and other forms of earnings received in a given period of
time”. In the field of public economics, it may refer to the accumulation of both monetary and
non-monetary consumption ability, the former being used as a proxy for total income.

30
Low income families focus on meeting immediate needs and do not accumulate wealth that
could be passed on to future generations, thus increasing inequality. Families with higher and
expendable income can accumulate wealth and focus on meeting immediate needs while
being able to consume and enjoy luxuries and weather crises.

Table 8 shows the monthly income of the respondents from primary occupation and
secondary occupation respectively. The income has been categorized and the frequency
counts and percentages are shown on the table. The majority of the respondents earn about
10, 000 naira monthly from both the primary and secondary occupations. Those that earn
above 20, 000 naira are about 13.78 percent for primary occupation and about 10.45 percent
from secondary occupation respectively; while the remaining earned less than 20, 000 naira
per month. This shows that the respondents were predominantly low income earners. In view
of the fact that most of the respondents are farmers their monthly incomes as shown on
Tables 7 and 8 reveal that these people are mainly subsistence farmers who produce
principally for family consumption.

Table 8: Monthly income from primary and secondary occupations


income from primary income from secondary
occupation occupation
Income range (Naira) Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
<1000 80 8.89 142 15.78
1, 000-10, 000 470 52.22 502 55.78
11, 000-20, 000 226 25.11 162 18.0
21, 000-30, 000 56 6.22 51 5.67
31, 000-40, 000 27 3.0 6 0.67
41, 000-50, 000 18 2.0 11 1.22
51, 000-60, 000 5 0.56 8 0.89
61, 000-70, 000 5 0.56 5 0.56
>70, 000 13 1.44 13 1.44
Total 900 100.0 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

Education also plays a role in income. Median earnings increase with each level of education.
The highest degrees, professional and doctoral degrees, make the highest weekly earnings
while those without a high school diploma are financially penalized. Higher levels of
education are associated with better economic and psychological outcomes (i.e.: more
income, more control, and greater social support and networking).

31
3.2 Sanitation and waste management system in the communities

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact
with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical
agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid
wastes, domestic waste water (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural
wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage
and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by
personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple hand washing with soap).

Basic sanitation- refers to the management of human feces at the household level. This
terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goals
on sanitation. Many of the houses did not have proper system for human waste disposal and
management.

On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited.
Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and imhoff tanks.

Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.

Environmental sanitation- the control of environmental factors that form links in disease
transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater
treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.

On the other hand waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or
disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced
by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the
environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it.
Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with
different methods and fields of expertise for each.

Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural
areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous residential
and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government
authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually
the responsibility of the generator

32
Table 9 shows the methods of waste disposal used by the people in the surveyed
communities. In most cases the people throw waste into vacant plots, rivers/streams/drainage
systems. About 47.1 percent of the respondents throw waste into vacant plots (undeveloped
plots of land within their neighborhood). The second most used method of waste disposal is
the throwing of solid waste into rivers and streams and drainages. This method of waste
disposal can prove to be hazardous to the environment and to humans who use these streams
and rivers as sources of drinking water and other domestic purposes. There are no on-site
sanitation facilities in the communities. There is need for enhancement in the environmental
sanitation

Table 9: Methods of waste disposal by households


Method Frequency Percentage
Public waste system 135 15.0
Private waste system 91 10.11
Throw in vacant plot 424 47.11
Throw in rivers/streams/drainage/roadside 159 17.67
Others 91 10.11
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

3.3 Membership of Community Based institutions

Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the
behavior of a set of individuals within a given human collectivity. Institutions are identified
with a social purpose and permanence, transcending individual human lives and intentions,
and with the making and enforcing of rules governing cooperative human behavior. The term
"institution" is commonly applied to customs and behavior patterns important to a society, as
well as to particular formal organizations of government and public service. As structures and
mechanisms of social order among humans, Institutions are also a central concern for law, the
formal mechanism for political rule-making and enforcement

Community institutions (sometimes known as community-based organizations) are civil


society non-profits that operate within a single, local community. They are essentially a
subset of the wider group of nonprofit organizations and agencies. Like other nonprofit
organizations they are often run on a voluntary basis and are self funding. Within community
organizations there are many variations in terms of size and organizational structure. Some
are formally incorporated, with a written constitution and a board of directors (also known as

33
a committee), while others are much smaller and are more informal. The recent evolution of
community organizations, especially in developing countries, has strengthened the view that
these "bottom-up" organizations are more effective addressing local needs than larger
charitable organizations. Typical community organizations fall into the following categories:
community-service and action, health, educational, personal growth and improvement, social
welfare and self-help for the disadvantaged

Table 10: Membership of community organizations


Response Frequency Percentage
Yes 640 71.11
No 260 28.89
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline survey, 2010.

The membership of the respondents in associations and local level institutions is shown on
Table 10. About 71 percent of the respondents were members of local level institutions.
These institutions (associations) include social, occupational, religious, community service
groups. These associations which are mainly community based organisations are present in
all the communities. They serve as a rallying point for the people both for self expression and
community service. These organisations can also serve as links between the people and
government in the development process.

3.4 Social Exclusion


Social exclusion is a multidimensional process of progressive social rupture, detaching
groups and individuals from social relations and institutions and preventing them from full
participation in the normal, normatively prescribed activities of the society in which they live.
They are outcomes of multiple deprivations that prevent individuals or groups from
participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live.

Social exclusion is evident in deprived communities; it is harder for people to engage fully in
society. In such communities, weak social networking limits the circulation of information
about jobs, political activities, and community events. But many social workers believe that
exclusion in the countryside is as great as, if not greater than, that in cities. In rural areas
there is less access to goods, services and facilities, making life difficult in many respects.

34
Social exclusion relates to the alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within a
society. It is often connected to a person's social class, educational status, relationships in
childhood and living standards and how these might affect access to various opportunities. It
also applies to some degree to people with a disability, to minority men and women of all
races, to the elderly, and to youth (Youth Exclusion).

Tables 11a and 11b show a number of social variables that can be a source of difference
among community members. They include education, landholding, social status, possession
of material resources, religious and political background, differences due to gender and age.
These can result to detachment of individuals from relations and preventing them from full
participation in the normal activities of the society.

35
Table 11a: Distribution of respondents according to whether differences in education, wealth, landholding,
social status and religious beliefs tend to divide people in the surveyed communities.
differences differences Differences in Social status Differences in religious
in education in wealth/material landholding belief
possessions
Respondents F % F % F % F % F %
Not at all 749 83.22 726 80.67 756 84.0 726 80.67 794 88.22
Somewhat 103 11.44 108 12.0 84 9.33 108 12.0 76 8.44
Very much 48 5.33 66 7.33 60 6.67 66 7.33 30 3.33
Total 900 100.0 900 100.0 900 100.0 900 100.0 900 100.0
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010
Table 11b: Distribution of respondents according to whether differences in political parties, ethnic background,
gender and age tend to divide people in the surveyed communities.
Political parties Ethnic background Differences between between younger and
men and women older generations

Respondents F % F % F % F %
Not at all 440 48.89 793 88.11 730 81.11 726 80.67
Somewhat 221 24.56 79 8.78 94 10.44 99 11.0
Very much 239 26.56 28 3.11 76 8.44 75 8.33
Total 900 100.0 900 100.0 900 100.0 900 100.0
Source:Baseline Survey, 2010

36
3.5 Community members’ methods of handling differences.
When the community members have differences among themselves a number of approaches
are usually adopted to find solution to such differences. In Table 12 the approaches adopted
included interpersonal, family members, intervention by neighbours, mediation by
community leaders, religious leaders and mediation by judicial officers. The responses given
by the people show that 68.78 percent of the communities worked out their differences
themselves. Mediation by community leaders is the second most used approach and this is
followed by judicial leaders and family members in that order.

Table 12: Community ways of handling differences


Yes No Total %
No. Of % No. Of %
respondents respondents
People work it 592 68.78 308 34.22 100.0
out themselves
Family/household 338 37.56 562 62.44 100.0
members
intervene
Neighbours 253 28.11 647 71.89 100.0
intervene
Community 482 53.56 418 46.44 100.0
leaders mediate
Religious leaders 359 39.89 541 60.11 100.0
mediate
Judicial leaders 364 40.44 536 59.56 100.0
mediate
Source :Baseline Survey, 2010

3.6 Collective Action by community members


Collective action is the pursuit of a goal or set of goals by more than one person. It is a term
which has formulations and theories in many areas of the social sciences. As an explanation
of social movements, an inquiry into collective action involves examining those factors that
cause the setting of standards of social integration, as well as those factors which lead to
standards of deviance and conflict. An explanation of a collective action in sociology will
involve the explanation of those things which are similar or dissimilar to collective actions at
different times and in different places. Theories of collective action emphasise how group
behavior can, in some sense, be linked to social institutions

37
The economic theory of collective action is concerned with the provision of public goods
(and other collective consumption) through the collaboration of two or more individuals, and
the impact of externalities on group behavior. It is more commonly referred to as Public
Choice.

Table 13 shows the participation of the respondents in collective actions with respect to
community development. About 44.56 percent of the respondents have participated a couple
of times while 11 percent have done so frequently. In all about 68.11 percent of them have
taken part in community service in the past. This is an indication that the communities can be
mobilized for collective action. The awareness of the relevance of collective action to
community development is already widespread among the people.

Table 13: Participation of respondents in previous collective actions with respect to


community development
Response Frequency Percentage
Never 287 31.89
Once 109 12.11
Couple of times 401 44.56
Frequently 103 11.44
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010

Table 14 shows the rate of success of previous collection actions embarked upon by the
people in the communities for community development. The responses were mainly
subjective opinions of the respondents and they range from all were successful to none was
successful. The success rate would be determined by a number of factors including the degree
of social cohesion

Table 14: Success of previous collective actions with respect to community development
Response Frequency Percentage
Yes, all were successful 92 10.22

38
Not all were successful 188 20.89
None was successful 620 68.89
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010

The people’s level of participation in community activities is shown on Table 15. The levels
ranged from very low to very high. About 37.7 percent reported high participation level while
4.33 reported very low participation in community activities in the past three years.

Table 15: Distribution of respondents according to their responses to participation in their


communities
Response Frequency Percentage
Very low 39 4.33
Low 67 7.44
Average 192 21.33
High 340 37.78
Very high 262 29.11
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010

Table 16 shows the contribution the respondents have made in terms of time and money.
Generally, inhabitants in the sampled communities have contributed to some extent, although
about 24.22 percent have contributed little of nothing in the past three years.

Table 16: Distribution of respondents according to their responses on whether or not they
contribute time and money toward common developmental goals
Response Frequency Percentage
They contribute some 682 75.78
They contribute very little or 218 24.22
nothing
Total 900 100.0
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010

Table 17 shows services where respondents are occasionally denied. They included
education, health services, housing assistance, and agricultural extension among others. The
responses recorded in the table are multiple responses. The responses show that only a very
small proportion of the people have been denied social services in the past for various
reasons. Table 18 shows the reasons why some of the respondents were excluded from some
of these services in the past. The reasons included age education, social status, occupation
and language among others. However, these are exceptional cases.

39
Table 17: Services where respondents are occasionally denied
Type of services Yes(%) No.(%)
Education/schools 43 (4.78) 857(95.22)
Health services/clinic 51(5.67) 849(44.31)
Housing assistance 34(3.78) 866(91.32)
Job training/employment 78(8.67) 822(91.32)
Credit/finance 73(8.11) 827(91.89)
Transportation 103(11.44) 797(88.56)
Water distribution 111(12.33) 789(87.67)
Sanitation services 44(4.89) 856(95.11)
Agricultural extension 57(6.32) 843(93.67)
Justice/conflict resolution 179(19.89) 72(80.11)
Security/police service 61(6.78) 839(93.22)
Source: BaselineSurvey, 2010

Table 18: Reasons why some people are excluded from services
Yes (%) No (%)
Income 83(9.22) 817(90.78)
Occupation 63(7..0) 837(93)
Social status 88(9.87) 812(90.22)
Age 46(5.11) 854(94.89)
Gender 68(7.56) 832(92.44)
Race/ethnicity 24(2.67) 876(97.33)
Language 31(3.44) 869(96.56)
Religious beliefs 136(15.11) 764(84.89)
Political affiliation 92(10.22) 808(89.78)
Lack of education 83(9.22) 817(90.78)
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010

3.7 Participation of the respondents in civic duties


Table 19 shows the distribution of the respondents according to their participation in civic
duties in the past three years. It can be seen that most of the people have participated in most
of these duties. The people are politically and socially active since they have voted in
election, participated in associations, and taken part in election campaign. The respondents
are people that have made effort to identify and to find solutions to their community
problems in the past.

Table 19: Distribution of respondents on whether they have done the following activities in
the last three years.
Civic duty Yes (%) Never (%)
Voted in the election 780(86.67) 120(13.33)
Actively participated in an 652(72.44) 248(27.56)
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association
Made a personal contact 498(55.33) 402(44.67)
with influential person
Made the media interested 165(18.33) 735(81.67)
in a problem
Actively participated in an 417(46.33) 483(53.67)
information campaign
Actively participated in a 495(55) 405(45)
election campaign
Contacted your elected 468(52) 432(48)
representative
Talked with other people in 578(64.22) 322(35.78)
your area about a problem
Notified the court or police 194(21.55) 706(78.44)
about a problem
Made a monetary or in-kind 698(77.56) 202(22.44)
donation
Volunteered for a charitable 543(60.35) 357(39.67)
organization
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010

Table 20 shows the distribution of the respondents according to whether they have been
approached by someone to take part in some civic duties in the past three years. It can be seen
that there has been a high level of interactions among the people. The people are generally
aware of their civic duties and have built a measure of social capital already which can be
harnessed for collective social actions in their respective communities.

Table 20: Distribution of respondents on whether they were approached to do the following
activities in the last 3 years.
Civic duty Yes (%) Never (%)
Voted in the election 679(75.44) 221(24.56)
Actively participated in an 382(42.44) 518(57.56)
41
association
Made a personal contact with 336(37.33) 564(62.67)
influential person
Made the media interested in 307(34.11) 593(65.89)
a problem
Actively participated in an 398(44.22) 502(55.78)
information campaign
Taken part in a protest march 462(51.32) 438(48.67)
or demonstration
Actively participated in a 124(13.78) 776(86.22)
election campaign
Contacted your elected 347(38.56) 553(61.44)
representative
Talked with other people in 359(39.89) 541(60.11)
your area about a problem
Notified the court or police 114(12.67) 786(87.33)
about a problem
Made a monetary or in-kind 596(66.22) 304(33.78)
donation
Volunteered for a charitable 543(60.35) 357(39.67)
organization
Source: Baseline Survey, 2010

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Chapter Four

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS


OF SAMPLED COMMUNITIES

4.1 NORTHERN SENATORIAL DISTRICT


4.1.1 MADAGALI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
Madagali local government area is about 250 kilometers from the state capital Yola. The
LGA is largely dominated by Marghi ethnic group. Other ethnic groups in the area are the
Higgi, Fulani and Matakam people. The following communities were sampled in the local
government:Bebel, Dar, Dzuel, Gubla Kirchinga, MayoWandu, Vapura-mildow, Vizik,
Wurongayandi-kuda and Zhau.
4.1.1.1. Bebel Community
The community is 40km and 229km to the local government and state headquarters
respectively. The community is dominated by Marghi ethnic group. Men constitute 60% of
the average household population while 40% are women. Also 55% and 45% of the residents
are above 18 years and below 18 years of age respectively. The community is headed by a
village head. The members of the community spearhead decision in the community in
consultation with the elders
Leadership and Governance
The traditional head (village head) is the leader of the community. Leadership in the
community is through inheritance and election while decisions are made by the members of
the community in consultation with the elders and religious leaders.
Community Institutions
Religious groups, Fadama III user groups, Haramu, Bamako, Kwachidama exist in the
community. Among these groups, FADAMA III is the most active and contributes to the
well-being of the community members. Fadama III is government initiated and leaders are
selected by election. Leadership is stable and follows a normal progressive change and it is
generally harmonious.
Market
There is a market in the community. The market day is on Saturdays. The market is about 0.5
km to the village head’s house and 25km to Madagali market.

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Transportation
Motorcycle is the main means of transportation in the community. Motorcar/bus and pickup
vans are also used; bicycles are rarely used while canoe, engine boat and heavy duty haulage
vans are not used. Road is earth and in a very bad condition. The length of the road is 25km
from Madagali and takes one and a half hours to travel. Average number of vehicles plying
the road per week is 350 and the average number of persons using the road per week is
5,000.
Economic Activities
Farming and hired labour are the most common economic activities in the community. Civil
service, petty trading, party politics and fishing are fairly common.
Types of Housing
Mud with zinc roof is the most common type of housing with mud with thatched roof houses
(about 60%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (constitute 20%) and modern cement
block with zinc roof constitute 20% .
Human Waste Disposal
About70% of the population defecate in pit toilet, 15% defecate in the bush, 5% uses VIP
toilet while 8% and 2% defecate in the river/river bank and road side/bush paths respectively.
Sources of Power
About 50% of the community members uses public power source (PHCN)), 20% use private
generators and 30% use Kerosene lantern.
Cooking Fuel
Over70% of the members of the community always used firewood for cooking while
kerosene is rarely used and neither gas nor electricity is used in the community.
Telecommunication Service Signals
MTN and Zain signals are strong in the community while GLO signal is weak.
Environmental Problems
Deforestation, poaching and landsides are the identified environmental problems in the
community and have no mitigation measures.
Recreational Facilities
There are 3 brothels, 30 beer palours and 2 play grounds in the community.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA.
The community members are aware of the existence of LEEMP/CSDA but have not
benefited from the agency.

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Schools
The community has two schools, one central primary school and a government day secondary
school. The schools have 4 blocks of classroom each. The schools are generally without
toilets, water, assembly hall, teacher’s quarters, computer room, laboratories, library and art
room.
Health Facilities
The community has one maternity clinic which is epileptic in function with no drugs and not
furnished. Malaria is the most common ailment treated in the health centre. It has a pit toilet
and a borehole. There is routine immunization of children under the age of five years.
Vulnerable People
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are most vulnerable people in the
community. There have no coping mechanism and are generally poor. The vulnerable people
are predominantly farmers and usually without support.
Community Needs
Road, water, PHCN electricity, school and maternity are the prioritized community needs in a
descending order. The community members expect the government to provide the needs.

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4.1.1.2. Dar Community
Dar is a rural community in Gulak ward and is about 7kms from the LGA headquarters Gulak
and 250km from the state capital Yola. The average household size in the community is
between 9-11people. About 60% of the household compositions are males, with over 70% of
the households being adults of over 18 years of age. The community has a population of
about 3000 people and headed by a village head (Lawan) whose ascension to the position is
through nomination and election.
Community Associations
Several community associations like Dar development association, Fadama Users Groups,
Dar multi-purpose co-operative association and women Co-operative groups are on ground in
the area.
Dar development association plays the most active role in the community and was started
through grass roots initiative. Leadership of the association is through election. Its leadership
is stable, harmonious and change is progressive. Decisions within the group are made through
public opinion. Land tenure in the community is by inheritance.
Market
There is a market in the community and is about 3km from the village heads house. The
market is held on sundays and it is about 4kms from Gulak market.
Transportation
Bicycle, motorcycle and trekking are the most common means of transportation while pickup
vans and buses are used occasionally.
The road to the community is an earth road of about 4.5km and is in very bad condition.
About 100 vehicles ply the road per week.
Economic Activities
Farming, lumbering and hired labour are the most common economic activities in the
community. Fishing, civil service, petty trading, hunting, artisan and party politics are fairly
common among the inhabitants.
Housing Type
About 70% of the houses are made of mud with thatched roofs, 25% of the houses are built
with mud and zinc roof and only 5% are made of mud plastered with cement and zinc roof.
Human Waste Disposal
About 90% of the inhabitants defecate in the bush while 10% use pit toilet.

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Sources of Power
About 98% use kerosene lantern while only 2% use private generators.
Cooking Fuel
All members of the community use firewood for cooking.
Telecommunication
There is availability of telecommunication signals, with MTN and Zain having strong signals,
while GLO has weak signal.
Environmental problems
Erosion, waste management, flooding, deforestation, poaching and bush burning are the
environmental problems experienced in the community. As mitigation measure trees are
planted to tackle erosion and deforestation. Waste materials are burnt, sand bags are used to
control flooding, while local laws and punishment are used to tackle the problems of
poaching and bush burning.
Recreational Facilities
Play ground is the only recreational facility available in the community.
Community Needs
Road, water, electricity and hospital are the order of the community needs. The community
expects the World Bank to provide all these needs for them.
School
The community has two primary schools. There is serious shortage of class room facilities in
the schools. None of the schools has a toilet, staff room, water source or first aid material.
Health Facilities
There is a dispensary with two female and three male staff. The dispensary is partially
functional, as it has no drugs, no source of light, no basic equipment and no toilet. There is
also routine immunization of children under the age of five. About four different
communities Giwumbla (2km), Nghuzi (3km), Ghumzhala (2km) and Highkawu (3km) use
the facility.
Community water Sources
The sources of water in the community are wells. One was dug by the missionaries in 1961,
another by the local government in 2007 and a private well.
Natural Resources
Forests and rivers are available within the community. Forests and rivers are used by both
males and females in the community.

47
Vulnerable Group
Orphans, widows and the physically challenged are the vulnerable people in the community.
These groups cannot take adequate care of themselves and they suffer deprivation and
poverty. There are no orphanages or charity homes in the community to take care of these
individuals.

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4.1.1.3. DZUEL
Dzuel a rural community in Pallam Kojiji/Dzuel ward of Madagali LGA is about 8.5km from
Gulak the local government headquarters and about 275km from Yola. The community has
an estimated population of 2700 people and an average household size of 14 people. More
than 60% of the household populations are female. The proportion of children below 18 years
of age is greater than adults of 18 years and above.
Leadership and Community Governance
The traditional head (Lawan) is the leader of the community. Leadership in the community is
through selection and election. Decisions are made in the community by the leaders. Role of
community leader is to maintain peace and order. Community members are involved in
leadership by lending support to the community leaders.
Community Institutions
Religious groups and Dzuel development associations are active in the area. Youth group
plays most active role in improving the well-being of the community and they are selected
through election. Elections are done in a harmonious and progress process. Land ownership
system in the community is by inheritance and by individuals.
Market
The community has a market and is about 200meters from the village head’s house. The
market holds once a week.
Transportation
Trekking is the commonly used method of transportation in the community. Motor cycles are
used while bicycle and motor car/bus are rarely used. Roads within the community are earth
and in very bad condition. About 160 vehicles ply the road weekly.
Economic Activities
Farming is the major economic activity of the inhabitants of the community. Fishing, hired
labour, hunting, petty trading, lumbering and civil service are the other minor economic
activities.
Housing Types in the Community
Mud plastered with cement with zinc roof is the common type of housing in the community
and this account for 48% of the total houses. This is followed by mud with zinc roof (40%),
mud with thatched roof (10%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (2%).

49
Human Waste Disposal and Community source of power
About 90% of the community use pit toilet, 8% use the bush and 2% defecate by the road
side/bush path. The community main source of power is the kerosene lantern, while very use
private generators.
Cooking Fuel
All members of the community use fire wood for cooking although very few use kerosene in
rare occasions.
Telecommunication
GLO and Zain network signals are strong, while MTN network signal is weak in the
community.
Environmental Problems
The common environmental problems in the area are erosion, deforestation, poaching and
bush burning. Tree planting is adopted to mitigate erosion and deforestation while the
community in collaboration with relevant government agencies enforces stiff laws on
poaching and bush burning
Community Needs
Roads, pipe borne water, additional classroom blocks in primary school and maternity clinic
are their needs in order of importance. They expect the government to provide them with
these facilities as they are prepared to contribute land, labour and sand.
School
The community has two primary schools. The schools have a play ground and two class
rooms each, no toilet facility and no water source in each of the schools.
Health Infrastructure
There is a health post in the community with four medical staff. The health post is not
furnished and lack basic health facilities. The centre is about 500 meters away from the
village head’s house. There is routine immunization of children under the age of five. There
is a well at the centre but no toilet. Waste materials from the clinic are thrown away on
vacant lands in the community. There are five herbal healing homes and six traditional borne
healing homes in the community.
Source of Water
Water sources in the community comprise of one concrete well dug in 1998 by the state
government and a hand pump borehole drilled in 1998 by the defunct PTF. The borehole and
the well are not functioning; hence the community relies on water from the nearby stream.

50
Natural Resources
The stream and a river are the natural resources in the community. While females have
greater access to the river males however have greater access to the stream.
Vulnerable People within the Community
There are 140 orphans in the community comprising of 60 males and 80 females. There are
also 150 widows/widowers and 18 physically challenged. These peoples contribution in
decision making in the community is insignificant.

51
4.1.1.4. GUBLA Community
This is a rural community and is located in Waga Chekawa ward of Madagali LGA. The
community is about 14km from the LGA headquarters and 262km from Yola. It has a
population of over 3000 people with an average household size of 11 people. About 60% of
the households are males, while the remaining ones are females.
Community Governance
Village head (Lawan) is the head of the community. Leadership in the community is usually
by inheritance and is done by nomination among the heirs to the throne. Decision within the
community is usually democratic. The community leaders maintain peace in the community.
Community Institution andMarket
Fadama development association, community development associations and women
associations are all active in the community but fadama development association is the most
active. Leadership in the groups is by election and it is harmonious and non-conflictive. Land
ownership is by family and individuals. Market holds on every Sunday.
Community Transportation
Trekking and use of motor cycles are the most common means of transportation. Bicycles,
motor car/bus and truck/pickup vans are rarely used. The road to the community is good and
tarred. About 1500 vehicles ply the road per week.
Economic Activity
Farming is the major economic activity in the area, while civil service, hired labour and
hunting are minor economic activities.
Housing Type
Mud with zinc roof constitutes about 80% of the houses in the community, while mud
plastered with cement with zinc roof and modern cement block with zinc roof constitutes the
remaining 20%.
Human Waste Disposal
Over 70% of the community use pit toilet for human waste disposal, while 25% use the bush
and only 5% use VIP toilet.
Source of Power
Kerosene lantern is the main source of power to over 90% of the population. The remaining
population use private generators.
Cooking Fuel
Firewood is the cooking fuel used by most members of the community.
52
Telecommunication
There is the availability of GSM services in the community with Zain having strong signal,
while MTN has weak signal.
Environmental Problems
Erosion, flooding, bush burning and deforestation are environmental problems experienced in
the community. To mitigate these, inhabitants of the community embark on construction of
drainages, planting of trees and sensitizing the community on the dangers of bush burning.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
The community members are aware of LEEMP. They have also benefited classroom building
and establishment of community forest.
Community Needs
The community needs are water, electricity, schools, hospital, drainages and market in order
of priority. The community expects the CSDA to provide some of these facilities.
School Infrastructure
The community has one junior secondary school and three primary schools. The primary
school has an average of 65 students per teacher, while there are over 120 students to a
teacher in the junior secondary school. The primary school has no toilet and no source of
drinking water.
Health Infrastructure
There is a clinic in the community with 5 staff. There are over 4 communities using this
facility and they are located within an average distance of 4km. There is routine
immunization of children under the age of five. The source of water at the clinic is a concrete
well. There is no bed for patients at the clinic and no toilet facility.
There are about five herbal healing homes in the community, two traditional maternity homes
and one traditional born healing home.
Water Sources
There are two concrete wells in the community. One was built in 1950 by the missionaries
and the other by the Local Government Council in 1987. Both wells dry up before the onset
of rains, hence the community relies on the nearby stream for their water needs.

Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are the
vulnerable group of people in the community. They farm by themselves while orphans live
with relations.
53
4.1.1.5. HUMSHI (VIZIK)
This community is located in Madagali ward of Madagali Local Government and is situated
at the foot of Vizik Mountain. The community has a population of about 2500 people and an
average household of 12-20 people.
Governance and Decision Making
Traditional leader (Lawan) is the head of the community. Leaders are normally nominated
and elected. Decisions are made collectively by public opinion. The community leader
maintains peace in the community.
Community Institutions
The main association in the community is Humshi development association and is a grass
root motivated association. Land tenure system in the community is by inheritance.
Market
The market is about 1km from the Lawan’s house. The market holds twice a week.
Transportation
Motorcycle is the most common means of transportation. Other means of transportation in the
community are motor cars and pick up vans. The road to the community is an earth road and
is in bad condition. An average of 400 vehicles plies the road per week.
Economic Activities
Farming is the major economic activity in the community, while civil service, wood cutting,
petty trading, hired labour and politics are minor economic activities.
Housing Type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (25%), mud with zinc
roof (20%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (40%) and modern cement block with
zinc roof (15%).
Human Waste Disposal
About 50% of the community uses the pit toilet, 40% use the bush, 7% use the roadside/
bushes and 3% use modern VIP toilet.
Sources of Power
About 90% of the community use kerosene lantern and only 10% use generators and touch
light.
Cooking Fuel
Majority of the residents use firewood, while very few use kerosene.

54
Telecommunication
There is the availability of GSM network with Zain having strong signal, while MTN has
weak signal.
Environmental Problems
Erosion, deforestation, poaching and bush burning are common environmental problems in
the community. Mitigation measures adopted by the community are planting of cover crops
and trees. Also, awareness creation through sensitization is being carried and offenders are
appropriately sanctioned.
Schools
There is a primary school in the community with eight teachers and 380 pupils. There are
three classrooms, one pit toilet but has no source of water. Chikili Community uses the
facility and is about 1km from Humshi community.
Health Facilities
There is no clinic/dispensary within the community. However, there are four herbal healing
homes, six traditional maternity homes and four traditional borne healing homes.
Water Sources
There is a borehole in the community drilled in 2005 by the Adamawa State Government.
The water is not available all year round. The average distance to water source is about 0.5km
Natural Resources
Stream and a river are the natural resources available in the community.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, the physically challenged and widows are the vulnerable groups in the community.
They face problems of feeding and sponsorship.
Community Needs
The major community needs in order of priority are health centre, additional classroom
blocks in primary school, electricity, pipe borne water and construction of good feeder road.

55
4.1.1.6. MAYO-WANDU
The community is located in Madagali Local Government and is about 25km from the local
government headquarters and 238km from the state capital. It has a population of about 2900
people and an average household size of 9 people. About 30% of household members are
males, while children below 18 years constitute about 40% of the household size
composition.
Governance and Decision Making
The Bulama is the head of the community and leadership is by appointment and election.
Decisions are made by the leaders in consultation with the people.
Community Associations
Women farmers’ association, Christian women association and farmers association are the
predominant associations in the community.
Market
There is a market in the community and is about 1.5km from the village head’s house. The
market is weekly.
Transportation
Motorcycle is the most commonly used means of transportation. Others are bicycles and
trekking. The road to the community is an earth road of about 8km and is in bad condition.
Average time to the nearest town is 30 minutes. About 35 vehicles ply the road per week.
Economics Activities
Farming is the most common economic activity in the community. Minor economic activities
include lumbering, petty trading, hunting, artisan, hired labour and politics.
Types of Housing
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (over 50%), mud with
zinc roof (about 25%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (about 14%) and modern
cement block with zinc roof ( about 1%).
Human Waste Disposal
The community sources of human waste disposal are the bush (55%), 45% use pit toilet and
1% use modern VIP toilet.
Source of Power and Fuel
Kerosene lantern is the main source of power for about 99% of the community. All the
residents use firewood for cooking.

56
Telecommunication
There are services and signals for MTN, GLO and Zain networks in the community but the
signals are weak.
Environmental Problems
Erosion is the only environmental problem faced by the people. To mitigate this community
use stones and sand bags to reduce run-off.
Awareness of LEEMP AND CSDA
The people are aware of LEEMP and CSDA but they have not benefited from the project.
The community has benefited from UNICEF through the construction of classroom blocks in
the primary school. However, the primary school is still under construction and is not fully
functional.
School
The community has 3 primary schools and a junior secondary school. All the schools have a
well and a pit toilet.
Health Facilities
There is a dispensary in the community with nine staff. Items critically needed in the
dispensary are drugs, beds and electricity. Common ailments treated at the centre are malaria
and headache. There is also routine immunization of children under the age of five.
Water Facility
Sources of water in the community are well and a hand pump borehole. The well was dug in
1972 by the government and is functional, while the borehole was drilled in 2000 by the local
government and is also functional.
Natural Resources
Forest, stream and a river are the natural resources within the community. These resources
are used mostly by the youth.
Vulnerable People
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable people in the
community. These people suffer from severe deprivation and do not contribute meaningfully
in decisions within the community.
Community Needs
The community needs in order of priority are road, water, electricity, hospital, police post and
schools.

57
4.1.1.7. KIRCHINGA
The community is located 18km from the local government headquarters and 250km from
the state capital. It has a population of about 3,000 people and an average household size of
15-20 people. About 55% of the households are males while children of 18 years and below
constitute about 60% of the households.
Governance and Decision making:
The leader of the community is the Lawan. Leaders are nominated and elected by the
village council. Decisions in the community are made through the village council. The role
of community leader is to preside over the community.
Community organizations
Kirchinga Development Association is the most active association in the community and is a
grassroot initiated group. The association has elected official. Decisions are made by
officials in consultation with other members of the association. Land ownership in the
community is by families and individuals.
Market
The market is about 2km from the Lawan’s house and it holds weekly.
Transportation:
Motorcycle, motorcars/buses and pick up vans are the most common means of transportation.
The road linking the community to other communities is an earth road but in a very bad state.
It takes an average of 30 minutes to travel the 15km road. An average of 70 vehicles plies the
road per week.
Economic activities
Farming is the major economic activity in the community. Other minor economic activities
are petty trading, brewing of local gin and hired labour.
Housing
The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (about 60%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
Human waste disposal
Only 30% of the residents use pit toilet, 60% use the bush and 10% use other sources for
human waste disposal.

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Source of Power and Cooking fuel
About 95% of the residents use kerosene lantern with only 5% having private generators.
Majority of the residents use firewood for cooking and only very few use kerosene.
Telecommunication
There are MTN, Zein and GLO signals in the community but the services are weak.
Environmental problems
Erosion, flooding and bush burning are the major environmental problems experienced by
the community. Mitigation measures adopted include stiff penalty for anyone who set the
bush ablaze while no measure is adopted against erosion and flooding.
School infrastructure
There are two secondary schools and a primary school in the community. The primary school
has 7 teachers with about 300 pupils; junior day secondary school has 5 teachers with about
300 students, while the senior secondary school has over 700 students. Two other
communities Shuware and Dagale use these facilities and the average distance to facility is
about 5km. All the schools have no water source while the junior secondary school has no
toilet facility.
Health facility
There is a dispensary in the community which is also used by Shuware and Dagale
communities. The dispensary has two male and two female staff. Common ailments treated at
the centre are malaria, typhoid. There is a well and pit toilet in the dispensary. There is also
routine immunization of children under the age of five years. There are three herbal homes,
three traditional maternity homes and two traditional bone healing homes.
Source of water
The community sources of water are a hand borehole drilled in 2009, a well dug in 2005 by
the community and a river. The average distance to water source is about 500 meters. All
these water sources are functional.
Natural resources
Rivers and streams are the natural resources available in the area.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, widows and the physically challenged are the vulnerable groups in the community.
They are mostly involved in farming to alleviate poverty. There are no facilities such as
orphanages, charity homes to take care of these individuals.

59
Community needs
Community needs in order of priority include roads, electricity, additional classroom blocks
in schools and portable water. The community is ready to contribute and partner with any
organization willing to provide any of the facility.

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4.1.1.8 . VARUPA (MILDOW)
The community is about 15km from the local government headquarters and 257km from
Yola. The community has about 3200 people and an average household size of 12 people.
There are zumuntan mata, traders association and farmers association very active in
community. Female constitute 60% of the households and about 70% of the households are
children of less than 18 years of age.
Community Governance
Major leaders in the community are the village head (Lawan), religious leaders and political
leaders. Leadership in the community is by inheritance, appointment and election. Decisions
are taken collectively and leadership is generally harmonious and not conflictive. Community
leaders settle disputes, organize the people and ensure peace in their domain. Farmers
association plays the most active role in the community and is a grassroot initiated group.
Land ownership is through inheritance and by purchase.
Market
There is a market that runs weekly. The average distance to market is about 500 meters.
Transportation
Pick up vans, motorcycles, bicycles and trekking are the common means of transportation in
the community. The road to the community is an earth road of about 2km from the nearest
community and is in a very bad condition. About 50 vehicles plies the road per week.
Economic Activity
Farming is the most common economic activity in the area. Other minor economic activities
are hired labour, politics, artisans, fishing and civil service. The community has a market and
it holds on weekly basis.
Type of Housing
The types of housing in the community are mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (40%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (35%), mud with thatched roof (20%) and modern cement block
with zinc (5%).
Human waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (80%), bush (25%) and
modern cistern toilet (5%).

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Source of Power and Cooking Fuel
About 30% of the community is connected to public power source from the power holding
company while 35% use private generators. The remaining 35% use kerosene lantern. Almost
all households use firewood for cooking while very few use kerosene.
Telecommunication
There is the availability of GSM network in the community with Zain having strong signal,
while MTN has weak signal.
Environmental Problem
The major environment problems in the community are erosion, flooding and bush burning.
Mitigation measures adopted by the community are digging of drainages to control run-off,
tree planting community sensitization about the dangers of bush burning.
Schools
The community has two primary schools and the average distance to facility is about 2Km.
Wakara primary school has two classrooms, while Wakara primary school has eight
classrooms. Wakara primary school has no toilet and no source of water, Vapura primary
school has a bore hole and a toilet.
Health facilities
The community has a dispensary with 2 medical staff. The clinic is not equipped and the
average distance to facility is about 7 Km. Two communities Wakara and Vapara use the
facility. The common ailment treated at the dispensary is malaria. There are about 10
maternity homes and three traditional bone healing homes.
Water source
The sources of water in the community are concrete well dug in 1959 by the government and
a borehole drilled in 2001 by the local government. All the water sources are functional.
Natural resources
Flood plain is the available natural resource in the area. The plain is used by both male and
female members of the community for dry season farming.
Vulnerable Group
Orphans, the physically challenged, widows and people living with HIV/AIDS are the
vulnerable group of people in the community. This group of people are usually supported by
family members, religious groups and public spirited individuals.
Community needs
The major community needs in order of priority are additional classroom blocks in schools,
good road, portable water and electricity.
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4.1.1.9. WURONGAYANDI- KUDA
The community is located about 13km from Gulak the Local Government headquarters and
230km from the state capital. The average household size in the community is about 8
people. Female constitute 60% of the households with children of 18 years and below
constituting 70%. The head of the community is the village head (Lawan) and leadership is
by appointment and election upon the recommendation of the community members.
Community Associations
There are community associations such as the catholic youth organization, young farmers
club and Wurongayandi development association. Land ownership is by inheritance and
family.
Transportation
Motorcycles, bicycles and trekking are the common means of transportation in the
community. There is a good earth road leading to the community and the distance to the
nearest community Shuwa is about 5Km. About 20 vehicles plies the road in the week.
Economic Activities
Farming is the most common economic activity in the community, while civil service, petty
trading, artisan and hired labour are minor economic activities.
Housing type
The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (27%), wood/mud
with zinc roof (30%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (40%) and modern cement
block with zinc roof (3%).
Human Waste Disposal
About 85% of the households use the pit toilet for human waste disposal, 14% use the bush,
and 1% use modern toilet.
Sources of Power and Cooking Fuel
Most of the residents use kerosene lantern because the community is not connected to
public power source, while only very few (1%) use private generators. All the inhabitants of
the community use firewood for cooking.
Telecommunication Services
The services and signals of MTN, GLO and Zain are strong in the community.
Environmental Problems
Erosion, deforestation and bush burning are the major environmental problems in the
community.

63
Community Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
The community is aware of LEEMP/CSDA and has also benefited access road from the
project.
School Structure
The community has one primary school with 10 teachers and about 310 pupils. The school
has 2 blocks of classrooms. Three other communities within a distance of 2km use the
facility. The school has a pit toilet and a borehole.
Health Facility
The community has a maternity clinic with 4 staff. The clinic has a borehole but no toilet.
Two other communities use the facility. The average distance to facility within the
community is 1Km. Common ailments treated are malaria and typhoid. There is a herbal
healing home and two traditional maternity homes.
Water Sources
The sources of water in the community are two functional concrete wells and a hand pump
borehole. The average distance to facility within the community is 500 meters.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, the physically challenged and widows are the vulnerable groups in the community.
These people suffer from deprivation although families, religious bodies and public spirited
individuals assist.
Community Needs
The community needs in order of priority are electricity, well equipped clinic, additional
boreholes, viewing centre and market.

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4.1.1.10. ZHAU
This is a rural community in Duhu/Mayo-Wandu ward of Madagali Local Government and is
6km from the local government headquarters and 233km from the State capital. It has a
population of about 2500 people and an average household size of 13 people.
Governance and decision making
Traditional leader (Bulama) heads the community. In collaboration with religious and various
association leaders community disputes are resolved and leadership is progressive and
harmonious. Leadership in the community is usually by nomination through democratic
means.
Transportation
Bicycles, motorcycles and trekking are the common means of transportation in the
community. There is an earth road of about 2km linking the community to the main federal
road and is in bad condition. Over 50 vehicles ply the road in a week.
Economic activities
Over 90% of the inhabitants are farmers. Politics, petty trading and civil service are minor
economic activities among the people.
Type of housing
About 60% of the houses are made of mud with thatched roof while 40% are made of mud
with zinc roof.
Human waste disposal
Human waste disposal methods in the community are pit toilet (50%), while the other 50%
defecate in the bush.
Source of power and Cooking Fuel
Only about 5% of the population use private generators, while over 90% use kerosene
lanterns. Firewood and cornstalk are used for cooking by all households.
Telecommunication
MTN, Zain and Glo networks have strong signals in the community.
Environment problem
There is no definite and pronounced environmental problem in the area.
School
The community has one primary school with 9 teachers. The pupil’s enrollment is over 300.
Two other communities Kokohu and Wuro-Chiffe located about 1.5Km from Zhau
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community use this facility. The school has 2 classrooms with other pupils receiving lectures
under tree shade. Also the school has no toilet and no source of drinking water.
Health facilities
There is a dispensary in the community with nine staff. Other communities using this facility
are Lumadu, Kokohu and Wuro-Chiffe. The average distance to facility from these
communities is about 1km. Common ailments treated are malaria, typhoid, cuts and stomach
pain.
Water source
The only water source in the community is a river/stream.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans and widows are the vulnerable groups in the community. Their contributions in
decision making in the community is insignificant.
Community needs
The community needs in order of priority are drinking water and additional classroom blocks
in primary school.

Interview session with a key informant

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4.1.2. MUBI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
The LGA is about 210km from Yola. Dominant ethnic groups in the area are Fali, Margi,
Higgi, Fulani, Jen, Kilba and Gude. Communities sampled in Mubi north LGA are Bagira,
Bahuli, Betso, Kirya, Lira, Mijilu, Muchalla, Muva, Muvur and Ribawa.

4.1.2.1. Bagira
This is a rural community in Muchalla ward of Mubi North Local Government Area. It is
about 26 kilometers from the Local Government headquarters and 306km from Yola. The
predominant ethnic group in the community is Fali. The community has a population of
about 1,500 and an average household size of 15 people. There are on the average nine
people in each household that are 18 years and above while six people are below 18 years.
The community is headed by a Village Head (Lawan), while the elders forum is the highest
decision making body in the community. Leadership in the community is usually by
nomination through democratic means and it is progressive and harmonious. Bagira Students
Association and Bayuma are the main community institutions in the community.
There is no market in the community. Community members travel a distance of 26Km to the
nearest urban market.
Transportation
Bicycle, motorcycle, trekking and donkeys are the most means of transportation in the
community. The road to the community is earthed and seasonal, and is in a very bad
condition. The average number of vehicles using the road in a week is 10.
Economic Activities
Almost all the inhabitants of the community are farmers. There are also petty traders,
artisans, civil servants and politicians.
Housing Type
Most (95%) of the houses in community are mud with zinc roofs with very few houses built
with mud, plastered with zinc (5%).
Human Waste Disposal method
The community main source of human waste disposal is the pit toilet (95%), while very few
(5%) use the bush.

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Source of Power and Cooking Fuel
Kerosene lantern is the main source of power to members of the community. Only very few
individuals use private generators. The community main source of cooking fuel is the
firewood.
Telecommunication
No network service is available in the community.
Environmental Problems
Erosion is the major environmental problem in the community. Mitigation measures involve
making ridges across slopes.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDP
Community members are aware of CSDA/LEEMP but have not yet benefited.
Water Source
The community source of water is a stream.
School
The community has one primary school but without structures such as classrooms, library,
staff rooms, toilets and water. Pupils attend classes under trees.
Health Facilities
There is a health clinic in the community with only one male staff. The health clinic is not
furnished and has no beds for patients let along drugs. Three communities Darba, Muzuma
and Garbruma use this facility where they have to travel an average of 4Km to access the
facility.
Natural Resources
Forest, flood plains and rivers are available in the community.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable group of people in
the community. They have no coping mechanisms and are generally poor. They are
predominantly farmers.
Community Needs
The community needs according to priority are portable water, well equipped health center,
road construction and electricity.

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4.1.2.2. BAHULI
This is a rural community and is about 16km from the local government headquarters and
250km from the state capital. The predominant ethnic group in the community is Fali with
other minority ethnic groups such as Fulani, Gude and Jenyi. The traditional head of the
community is the Lawan and leadership is by election. Decisions are made in the community
by community leaders, while youth association is the most active community association in
the community. Leadership is generally harmonious and follows a progressive change. Land
ownership is by inheritance and by individuals.
Transportation
Motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick-ups and bicycles are the common means of transportation
in the community. The road to the community is seasonal and is in a very bad condition. The
length of the road to the nearest town is 20km and takes about 2 hours. About 10 vehicles ply
the existing road per week.
Economic Activities
Farming is the major economic activity in the community. Minor economic activities include
fishing, civil service, petty trading, hired labour and artisan.
Types of Housing
The types of housing in the community are mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (70%),
mud with zinc roof (15%), modern cement block with zinc roof (10%) and mud with thatched
roof (5%).
Human Waste Disposal
About 95% of the community use pit toilet, while the remaining 5% use the bush and modern
toilet for human waste disposal.
Cooking Fuel
Firewood is the main cooking fuel in the community; kerosene is rarely used.
Telecommunication
MTN and Zain have strong network signals, while Glo has weak signal.
Environmental Problems
Erosion, flooding, deforestation, poaching and bush burning are the common environmental
problems in the community. Measures taken by the community to mitigate these problems are
opening of water ways, using of sand-bags and imposition of fines and sanctions on those
found failing trees indiscriminately. The community however has no specific mitigation
measures against poaching, landslide and waste management.
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Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
Community members are not aware of LEEMP/CSDA and have not benefited any project
from any agency.
Schools
The community has one missionary nursery school, three primary schools and one Day
Secondary school. There are several communities that use these facilities. No adequate
classroom blocks, no toilets and no water in all the schools.
Health Facilities
There is a health clinic in the community with 10 staff. There are virtually no drugs, beds,
forceps, weighing scale, BP apparatus and other equipment, and office furniture in the clinic.
Water and toilet are also unavailable in the clinic.
Water Source
The community sources of water are the stream and well. The well was dug in 1970 by
government and is still functional all year round. Average distance and time to water source
is 1km and 20 minutes respectively.
Natural resources
Forest, flood plains and streams are available in the community. All groups of people have
access to these resources.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. They are generally poor and encounter difficulties in accessing basic amenities.
Farming is their dominant activities.
Community Needs
Prioritized needs are portable water, road, equipping of the clinic with necessary facilities,
and electricity. The community is awaiting the government to provide these facilities.

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4.1.2.3. BETSO
The community is about 45km from Mubi North and 229km from Yola. The average
household size in the community is between 10-15 people. About 60 % of the household
compositions are females while children of 17 years and below constitute 70% of household
composition. The community is headed by a village head and leadership is by inheritance
through appointment among the ruling family. Decisions in the community are made by the
village head in collaboration with title holders, religious leaders and school heads. The
community members obey the village head and support all decisions taken.
Community Organisations
There is widows association, Fadama III user groups, Bamako initiative association, men
farmers association, women farmers association and young farmer’s club. Fadama III user
group however is the most active and contribute most to the well being of community
members. Land ownership in the community is on family basis through inheritance.
Market and Transportation
There is a weekly market in the community and the average distance is about 100meters.
Motorcycles, trekking and bicycles are the common means of transportation in the
community. The community road is an earth road of about nine kilometers. The road is very
bad and takes one and a half hours to travel to Mubi. About 170 vehicles ply the road in a
week.
Economic Activities
The major economic activity in the community is farming where households derive their
source of livelihood. Other economic activities include politics, fishing, civil service,
lumbering, petty trading, hired labour and hunting.
Housing
The types of housing in the community are mud with zinc roof (45%), mud plastered with
cement with zinc roof for (25%), mud with thatched roof (20%) and modern cement with zinc
roof (10%).
Methods of Human waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are the pit toilet (80%), bush (15%)
and road side/bush path (5%).
Sources of power and Cooking Fuel
Kerosene lantern is the main source of power in the community. Only about 25% of the
community is connected to public source of power. Fire wood is the main source of cooking
fuel for members of the community.
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Telecommunication
There are GSM services in the community with Zain having strong signal while GLO and
MTN signals are weak.
Environmental Problems
Common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation,
poaching and bush burning. Tree planting is adopted to control deforestation and erosion
while awareness creation and enforcement of relevant laws are done to mitigate poaching and
deforestation.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
The community residents are aware of both LEEMP and CSDA although they are yet to
benefit from either project.
Schools
There is a primary school and a junior secondary school in the community. The primary
school has 14 male teachers and eight female teachers with 804 pupils. There are four blocks
of class rooms in the school. Only Betso community uses this facility. The school has no
toilet and no sources of water. The junior secondary school has 16 male and one female
teacher with 950 students. The school has four blocks of classrooms, but has no toilet and no
source of water.
Health
The community has a primary health care clinic with 9 staff. The clinic is without drugs,
unfurnished and unkempt. Two other communities Shafa and Kiriya use this facility where
pupils have to trek an average of 3Km to access the facility. There is a borehole and a pit
toilet at the clinic and there is routine immunization of children below the age of five years.
Common ailment treated is malaria. There are five herbal healing homes and eight traditional
maternity homes in the community.
Source of water
There is a hand pump borehole provided by the Federal Government of Nigeria in 2004. The
borehole though functional, does no supply water all year round.
Other infrastructural facilities
Other facilities in the community are a market built in 1967, two playgrounds and a police
post. All these facilities are functional.
Natural resources
There is a stream and a river in the community. These water bodies are also used for domestic
needs.
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Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, the physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. Widows, physically challenged and orphans suffer from hunger and deprivation;
they are helped by their relations and public spirited individuals in the community. The
physically challenged rely on assistance from relations and their contributions to major
decisions within the community are insignificant.
Community Needs
The community needs in order of priority included roads, additional classroom blocks in
schools, pipe borne water, necessary facilities at the clinic and electricity.

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4.1.2.4. KIRIYA
This community is rural and is situated in Mijuhu ward of Mubi North local government. It is
about 24km from the local government headquarters and 284km from state headquarters. The
population of the community is about 2000 people and has an average household size of 10
people. The leader of the community is the village head (Ardo) and leadership is by
appointment and election. Leadership in the community is harmonious and major decisions
are taken collectively. Land ownership in the community is by families.
Community Institutions
Amana club and social club are the major community associations in the community. Social
club is the most active in improving the well-being of the community members. Leaders are
selected by election and follow a normal progressive change.
Market
The community has a market and the average distance to facility is 3km. The market is daily.
Transportation
Bicycles, motorcycles, cars/buses and trekking are the main means of transportation in the
community. Road to the community is earthed and very bad. The length of the road to nearest
community is 5km. Average of 100 vehicles uses the road per week.
Economic Activities
The major economic activity of households within the community is farming. Other minor
economic activities include fishing, civil service, petty trading, artisan, politics and hired
labour.
Housing Facilities
The common types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (15%),
mud houses with zinc roof (70%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (10%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
Waste Disposal
The community sources of human waste disposal are bush (80%), pit toilet (10%) while the
remaining defecate either in VIP toilet or roadside/bush path.
Sources of Power and Cooking Fuel
The community main source of power is kerosene lantern, while very few households use
private generators. Firewood is the main source of energy for cooking in the community.
Telecommunication
There are GSM services in the community with Zein signal being strong, while MTN signal
is weak.
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Environmental Problems
Erosion, waste management, flood, deforestation and poaching are the major environmental
problems in the community.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
Community members are aware of LEEMP/CSDA but have never benefited from the project.
Schools
The community has 4 primary schools and one Junior secondary school. These schools have
inadequate facilities including teachers.
Health
Kiriya community has one maternity clinic with staff. The center has no bed for patients, no
drugs and is not furnished. Malaria is the common ailment treated at the center. The average
distance to facility in the community is 1Km.
Water sources and other social amenities
The community has two water sources; borehole and a well. The borehole was established in
2000 by the government and is functional all year round. The wells are partially functional
since water is only available during the raining season but dries up in the dry season.
There is no multipurpose civic center, no security post and no skill acquisition center. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the vulnerable
groups.

Community Needs
The major community needs in order of priority are road, equipping of maternity clinic with
necessary facilities, additional classroom blocks in schools, portable water and electricity.

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4.1.2.5. LIRA
This is a rural community in Vimtim ward of Mubi North Local Government Area. The
community is 7km from the local government headquarters and 210KM from the state
capital. Average household size in the community is 12. The village head (Ardo) is the main
leader in the community and leadership is by inheritance. Leadership is harmonious and
stable and major decisions are taken collectively in the community. There are community
development associations such as muliba association, fadama III association, farmers
association and women association in the community. Fadama III however is the most active
and all the associations help in improving the well-being and welfare of the community. Land
tenure system in the community is by families and through purchase.
Market
There is a market in the community and the average distance to facility is 3km. The market
holds twice a week. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is also
no skill acquisition center. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity
homes to take of the vulnerable groups.

Transportation
Motorcycles, bicycles, motor cars/buses and pick-up vans are used and trekking are the
common means of transportation in the community. The road to the community is and earth
road and is in bad condition. Average number of vehicles that plies the road per week is
1000.
Housing
About 70% of the houses are made of mud with thatched roof, 20% are made of mud with
zinc roof and 8% are made of mud plastered with cement with zinc roof, while modern
cement block with zinc roof is 2%.
Human waste disposal
Most of the inhabitants (65%) use pit toilet as their source of human waste disposal, 20% use
the bush, 10% use modern waste cistern and 5% use VIP toilet.
Sources of power and Cooking Fuel
The community source of power is kerosene lantern because the community is not connected
to public power source, while very few households use private generators. The source of
cooking fuel is fire wood.
Telecommunication
MTN and Zain signals are strong while GLO signal is weak in the area.
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Environmental problems
Erosion, waste management, deforestation and bus burning are the common environmental
problems in the community. Tree planting, burning of wastes and using penalties on people
who indiscriminately fell trees are the various mitigation measures adopted by the
community.
Schools
The community has one primary school and a secondary school. The primary school has two
class rooms, five teachers and 630 pupils. The secondary school has three classroom blocks,
eight teachers and 1300 students. Both schools have no toilet and no source of water.
Health
There is no health facility in the community. Sick members of the community are taken to
Mubi General hospital to seek for medical attention.
Water sources
The sources of water in the community are a well dug in 1992 by the community and a
borehole drilled in 1999 by the state government. Water from these sources is not available
year- round; hence the community relies on water from a nearby stream
Natural resources
Forest, flood plains and streams are the available natural resources in the community.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans and widows are the vulnerable groups in the community. Religious groups, family
members and public spirited individuals in the community assist these individuals from time
to time. Orphans and widows have weak contributions in decision making. The community
has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the vulnerable groups.
Community needs
Schools, water, clinic and electricity are the major needs of the community in order of
priority.

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4.1.2.6. MIJILU
This is a rural community in Mubi North Local Government. It is about 37km from the local
government headquarters and 237km from Yola. The community has a population of about
6000 people with an average household size of 10 people. Children of 17yrs and above
constitute 60% of the households. The main leader of the community is the village head (Mai
Anguwa) and leadership is by election, while community decisions are made by the leaders of
the community. Leadership in the community is harmonious and stable. There is a market in
the community within an average distance of 1.5km. The market holds twice a week.
Transportation
Motorcycles, trekking, motor cars/buses and pick-up vans are the common means of
transportation in the community. The road to the community is seasonal and it is about 37km.
The road however is in a very bad condition with about 50 vehicles plying the road per week.
Economic activities
Farming is the dominant occupation of the community from where households derive their
source of livelihood. Other minor economic activities include fishing, civil service, petty
trading, hunting and hired labour.
Housing type
About 70% of the houses are made of mud with thatched roof, 10% with mud with zinc roof
and 15% made of mud plastered with cement with zinc roof.
Human waste disposal
Over 80% of the community uses the bush for human waste disposal, while 20% use pit
toilet.
Sources of Power and Cooking Fuel
The community source of power is kerosene lantern, however very few households use
private generators. The source of cooking fuel in the community is fire wood.
Telecommunication
Zain has strong signal while GLO and MTN have weak signals in the community
Environmental problems
Erosion, deforestation and bush burning are the common environmental problems in the
community. Tree planting is used to replace trees there were cut down, use of sand bags are
used to mitigate erosion, while strict penalties await those caught setting bush ablaze.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
The community members are aware of LEEMP/CSDA are yet to benefit from the projects.

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School
The community has one primary school having two blocks of class rooms and five teachers.
The primary school has no toilet and no water source. Also there is a Junior day secondary
school with three blocks of classrooms and five teachers. The secondary school has no
laboratory, no staff room, no computer room, no toilet and no source of water.
Health
The community has one dispensary with one male and two female staff. There are no drugs,
no basic health equipment, no toilet and no source of water. The common ailment treated in
the dispensary is malaria. However, there is routine immunization of children under the age
of five years.
Source of water
The community source of water is from a nearby stream. water in the stream is available all
year round and the average distance to facility is 1Km.
Natural resources
Flood plains and streams are available in the community. All members of the community
irrespective of sex and age have access to these resources.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. They have problems of shelter, food and clothing although family members,
religious leaders and the community assist these people from time to time.
Community needs
The community needs in order of priority are portable water, roads, necessary facilities in the
dispensary and construction of additional classroom blocks in their schools. The community
is ever willing to contribute land, labor or render any kind of service that will be required so
long as donor agencies are willing to assist.

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4.1.2.7. MUCHALLA
This is a rural community in Mubi North Local Government Area and has a population of
about 3,200 people. The community is about 25km from the local government headquarters
and 200km from Yola. Average household size in the community is 12 people of which
female constitute 70% of the household population and adults of 18 years and above
constitute 60%. The leader of the community is the district head (Jauro) and leadership in
the community is by inheritance. Decisions in the community are taken by the district head
in collaboration with the elders, religious leaders and their counselor. The various
associations in the community are Muchalla youth development association, Muchalla
Fadama User Group, men farmers association, women farmers association and religious
associations. Leaders in the groups are selected through elections in a harmonious and non-
conflictive manner. Land ownership in the community is through inheritance. There is a
market in the community and it holds once a week.
Transportation
Motorcars/buses, trekking, bicycles and motorcycles are the common means of
transportation in the community. The road to the community is an earth road of about 25km
and is in a very bad condition. About 100 vehicles ply the road in a week.
Economic activities
The main economic activity of the community is farming as over 90% of households are
involved. Other minor economic activities are fishing, civil service, petty trading, hunting,
artisan, hired labour, lumbering and politics.
Housing types
About 35% of the houses in the community are made of mud plastered with cement with
zinc roof, 30% are made of mud with zinc roof, 15% are made of mud with thatched roof,
and 20% are made of modern cement block with zinc roof.
Human waste disposal
Pit toilet is used by 40% of households, 50% use the bush, while 10% use other sources.
Source of Power and Cooking fuel
The community is not connected to public source of power, hence use kerosene lantern.
Very few households use generators. Firewood is used by all households in the community
as cooking fuel.
Telecommunication
Services and signals of Zain is strong, while MTN is weak.

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Environmental Problems
Erosion, deforestation and bush burning are the common environmental problems in the
community. Tree planting is adopted to control erosion, community members are sensitized
on the dangers of deforestation and bush burning to the community.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
The community is aware of LEEMP and CSDA and have also benefited from LEEMP.
Other organizations working in the community are Fadama III Project and Justice and Peace
Development Commission of the Catholic Church. The Commission has dug a concrete
well, constructed market shades and provided grinding machines.
Schools
There are two primary schools in the community. These are Muchalla Central Primary
School and Mitiri Primary School. Other communities using these facilities are Muji, Gora,
Mishikiya and Keba where pupils have to trek an average distance of 2Km to access the
facilities. Both schools have no source of water and no toilet facilities.
Health
There is a federal health centre with six male and seven female staff. The health centre is
furnished, drugs are available and there are 22 beds for patients. Other communities using
this facility are Mijilu, Jilvo, Muvur, Kirya, Mukta and Bagura where they have to travel an
average distance of about 10Km to access the facility. The source of water at the centre is a
pond while there are modern toilets. There is also routine immunization of children below
the age of five years. Additionally, there are 10 herbal healing homes and three traditional
maternity homes.
Sources of Water
The community source of water is a pond.
Natural Resources
There are rivers and streams in the community.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, widows, physically challenged and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. All these individuals have weak contributions in decision making within the
community. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the
vulnerable groups.
Community needs
Portable water, electricity, roads and a secondary school are the needs of the community in
that order.
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4.1.2.8. MUVA
This is a rural community in Mubi North Local Government with a population of about 4000
people. The community is about 24Km from the local government headquarters and 210km
from Yola. Average household size in the community is 12 people of which female constitute
about 70%. Children of 17 years and below form 65% of all households in the community.
The village head is the main leader of the community and leadership is by both by inheritance
and election. Community decisions are made by the village head in collaboration with the
elders, leaders of various associations and religious leaders.

The various organizations in the community are youth development association, women
farmers association and men farmers association. Youth development association however is
the most active and plays the most important roles in the development. Land ownership in the
community is by inheritance. There is a market in the community and holds weekly.
Transportation
The common means of transportation in the community are bicycles, motorcycles, trekking
and motor cars/buses. The road to the community is an earth road and is in very bad
condition. Average number of vehicles using the road per week is one thousand.
Economic activities
Farming is the most common economic activity in the community where over 90% of
households are involved. Minor economic activities include civil service, petty trading,
artisan and hired labour.
Housing type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (60%), mud with zinc
roof (25%), mud plastered with zinc roof (10%) and modern cement block with zinc roof
(5%).
Human waste disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (90%), the bush (7%)
and VIP toilet (3%).
Sources of Power and Cooking Fuel
The community is connected to public source of power from the PHCN although 40% of
households are not connected. Households not connected rely on kerosene lantern while very
few use private generators. Fire wood is the source of cooking fuel in the community.

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Telecommunication
There are GSM services in the community with Zain having strong signal, while Etisalat,
GLO and MTN have weak signals.
Environmental problems
Erosion and deforestation are the major environmental problems in the area.
Schools
The community has two primary schools namely; Muva central primary school and Gima
Balama primary school. Both schools have no toilet and no source of water. There is also
GDSS Muva. The school has no water source and no toilet. The average distance to these
schools from within the community is 1Km.
Health
There is a Bamako health clinic with 3 staff. Common ailments treated at the clinic are
diarrhea and malaria. No toilet and no water at the centre. There is routine immunization of
children under the age of five years. In the community there are four herbal healing homes,
two traditional maternity homes and three traditional bone healing homes.
Water source
There are two wells in the community. One was dug by the community in 1993 while the
other by the local government in 2004. Only one of the two wells is functioning throughout
the year. The average distance of the facility is about 300m.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, the physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. These individuals suffer deprivation and stigmatization and their contributions to
decision making within the community is insignificant. The community has no facilities such
as orphanages, charity homes to take of the vulnerable groups.
Community needs
Boreholes, electricity, hospital, market stalls, roads and additional classroom blocks in
schools within the community are the community needs in order of priority.

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4.1.2.9. MUVUR
This is rural community with a population of about 4000 inhabitants and mostly of the
marghi ethnic group. The community is about 23Km from the local government headquarters
and 23km from the state capital. The average household size in the community is 15 with
males constituting 70% and children of 17 years and below constituting 55%. The community
is headed by the village head (Ardo) and leadership is by election and appointment. Decisions
within the community are made through collective deliberations with the inhabitants of the
community. There is a market in the community of about 2km to the village head’s house.
The market runs weekly.
Community Organization
There are several community organizations in the area. Some of them include Muvur
development association, Maza union, Holma Union, Kilba union, Marghi union, Dam
association among others. Maza union plays the most important role in improving the well
being of members of the community. Leaders are selected through election in a harmonious
and peaceful way. Land ownership in the community is through inheritance and purchase by
individuals.
Transportation
The common means of transportation in the community are trekking, bicycles and motor
cycles. Motor cars/bus and pick up vans are fairly used. The road to the community is a tarred
road of about 23 km from the nearest community. The road is however very bad and. An
average of 1000 vehicles plies the road in a week.
Economic Activities
Farming is the major economic activity of the community. Minor economic activities are
politics, hired labour, petty trading and civil service.
Housing type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (50%), mud with zinc
roof (30%) and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (10%) and modern cement block
with zinc roof (10%).
Human Waste Disposal
The community source of human waste disposal methods are the bush (95%), while only 5%
have pit toilets in their house.
Sources of power and Cooking Fuel
Kerosene lantern is the main source of power for over 70% of the community. Only about
20% of households are connected to public power source from the PHCN while the
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remaining ones use private generators. All households in the community depend on firewood
as domestic cooking fuel.
Telecommunication
GLO, MTN and Zain signals are weak in the area.
Environmental Problems
Erosion is the only environmental problem in the community, while mitigation measures
adopted is through the use of sand bags to reduce run-off.
School Infrastructure
There are three primary schools and one normadic school in the community. Maskola
primary school has 14 teachers, three class rooms but no toilet and source of water. Ramda
primary school has 9 teachers, but no toilet and no source of water. Lastly, Chambal primary
school has four class rooms, no toilet and no source of water. The nomadic primary school
has only two male teachers, no building and other school infrastructure on ground yet.
Sources of Water
The source of water to the community is a nearby river.
Natural Resources
There are flood plains in the community use for irrigation farming. Males have most access to
this natural resource.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, widows, PLWHA and the physically challenged are the vulnerable groups in the
community. They are usually taken care by family members, religious institutions and public
spirited individuals in the community. There are no facilities such as orphanages, charity
homes to take care of these in the community.
Community Needs
The community needs are portable water, bridge, a clinic, electricity, and additional
classroom blocks in primary schools.

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4.1.2.10. RIBAWA
This is a rural community in Ribawa ward of Mubi North local government area of Adamawa
state. The community is 20km away from the local government headquarters and has a
population of about 5000 people. The average household size in the community is 5 people.
The community leader or village head oversees the affairs of the community. Leadership in
the community is by election and major decisions are taken collectively.
Water Source
Hand pump borehole and wells are the sources of water in the community. The borehole was
drilled by the Adamawa state government in 2004 and is functional.
Social Infrastructure
The community has a market, a police and a court. There is also 1 civic reception center but
no skill acquisition center.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the
vulnerable groups.

Cross road in a community

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4.1.3 MUBI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.1.3.1. DRIBISH
Dribish is a rural commonly in Mubi south LGA and is about 20km Gella the Local
Government headquarters and 209 km from Yola. The community has a population of about
2800 people and an average household size of 15 people. Female constitute 60% of
household population of which children of less than 18years constitutes 70%.
Community Governance
The Leaders in the community are the Ardo, Jauro, and religious leaders. Leadership in the
community is by nomination and appointed and it is harmonious and stable. Decisions within
the community are made collectively.
Community organizations
Though there are several groups and associations within the community, Dirbish
Development Association (DDA) Plays the most active role in helping to improve the well
being of the community members. Leadership in the group is through election and is
normally in a progressive, harmonious and non-conflictive manner. Land ownership within
the community is on family basis through inheritance.

Non- Governmental Organization (NGOs) that work in the community includes fadama III in
the area of agriculture, Bamako initiative in the area of health and UNICEF in the area of
education.
Market
There is a market in the community which holds daily. The average distance to facility within
the community is one kilometers.
Transportation
Motorcycle and Pickup vans are the common means of transportation in the community.
Economic activities
Farming is the most common economic activity of the community. Minor economic
activities include hunting, petty trading and hired labour.
Housing Type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (20%), mud with zinc
roof (40%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (35%) and modern cement block with
zinc roof (5%).

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Human waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (80%), bush (15%), VIP
toilets (2%) and other sources (3%).
Source of Power and Cooking Fuel
Over 95% of the community use kerosene lantern as their main source of power, while the
remaining ones use private generators. The source of cooking fuel in the community is
firewood.
Telecommunication
The services and signals of MTN and Etisala networks are weak, while zain and GLO
services are not available in the community.
Environmental Problems
The common environmental problems in the community are erosion, deforestation, poaching
and bush burning. The mitigation measures adopted by the community include tree planting
to replace threes that have been cut down, and awareness creation and sanctions in the case of
bush burning and poaching
School
The community has a secondary school and a primary school. Dirbish secondary school has
12 teachers and 600students. Three other communities from an average distance of 2km use
the facility. Dirbish primary school has 8 teachers and 230 pupils. Two other communities
from an average of 2km use the facility. The primary school has a pit toilet but no water
source.
Health
There is a primary health care dispensary with 8 staff. The clinic is not furnished and no
drugs but there are a pit toilet and a hand pump borehole. Common ailment treated at the
centre is malaria. Herbal healing homes and traditional maternity homes are available in the
area.
Water Facilities
There is a hand pump borehole and wells in the community. The water is not available all
year round.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and the PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. The community, families of these people and well to do assist these individuals
frequently. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the
vulnerable groups.
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Community Needs
The community needs are construction of additional classroom blocks in schools, equipping
the clinic with necessary facilities, additional boreholes, viewing centre and electricity in that
order.

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4.1.3.2. DUVU
Duvu is a rural community in Mubi south LGA. It is about 5km from the local government
headquarters and 187km from Yola. The community has a population of about 3200 people
and an average household size of 15 people. Female constitute 60% of most households in
which children of 17 years and below constitute about 70%.
Community Governance
Ardo and Jauro are the main leaders in the community. Leadership in the community is by
nomination and election and it is usually stable and harmonious. Major decisions in the
community are taken collectively through deliberations. Land ownership in the community is
on family basis through inheritance.
Community Organizations
There are several community development associations in the area but Duvu community
Development Association (DDA) is the most active. The association is grassroot initiated and
leadership is through election which is usually done harmoniously.
Market
There is a weekly market within a radius of 1Km from the community.
Transportation
Motorcycle is the most common means of transportation within the community. Bicycles,
motor cars/buses, pick up vans and trekking are also common means of transportation within
the community. The road to the community is an earth road of about 10km. The road
however is good. An average of 280 vehicles uses the road per week.
Economic Activity
Farming is the most common economic activity in the community, while civil service, petty
trading and hired labour are minor economic activities.
Housing type
The types of housing in the community are mud with zinc roof houses (50%), mud with
thatched roof houses (35%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (10%) and modern
cement block with zinc roof (5%).
Human waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (80%), bush (18%) and
other sources.

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Source of power and Cooking Fuel
Majority of the community rely on kerosene lantern for source of power, while very few use
private generators. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood.
Telecommunication
MTN, Zain and GLO Signals are available but weak in the community.
Environmental Problems
Waste management, deforestation and bush burning are the common environmental problems
in the community. Waste management is done by burying wastes in dug pits, tree planting to
replace threes that have been cut down, and awareness creation and sanctions in the case of
bush burning are some measures adopted by the community to minimize these practices.
Community Needs
The community needs in order of priority are road construction, building of market stalls,
portable water and additional classroom blocks in primary schools.
Schools
There are two primary schools in the community, namely; Duvu1 and Duvu II primary
schools. Duvu I primary school has three male teachers, 400 pupils with four class rooms.
Duvu II primary school also has three male teachers, 420 pupils with four class rooms. Both
schools have no toilets and no source of water.
Health facilities
There is a maternity clinic in the community with 4 staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
are no drugs. It requires supply of all necessary equipment for a befitting clinic. Common
services at the centre are child birth and malaria treatment. No source of water and waste
materials are burnt and buried.
Water Sources
There are two concrete wells and a borehole in the community. The wells were constructed
by the local government in the year 2000; while the borehole was drilled by the federal
government in 2003.
Vulnerable Groups
People living with HIV/AIDS, widows, the physically challenged and orphans are the
vulnerable groups in the community. These people suffer deprivation and find it difficult to
feed themselves. There are no orphanages and no charity homes in the community.
Community Needs
The community needs in order of priority are road construction, building of market stalls,
portable water and additional classroom blocks in primary schools.
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4.1.3.3. GELLA
This is a semi- urban community in Mubi South Local Government. It is about 220km from
Yola. The community has a population of about 2500 people and a household size of 15
people of which 55% are females. The village head (Ardo) is the head of the community and
leadership is both by inheritance and appointment. Decisions in the community are made
collectively in collaboration with the elders, elites, leaders of various associations and
religious leaders. The community leaders settle dispute and unite the people.
Community organizations
There is farmers’ association, cap knitters association, fadama user groups and Habicha
association of which Habicha association is the most active. Leadership in the associations is
usually by election conducted under normal, harmonious and non-conflictive manner.
Communal, individual and family are the common land ownership system in the community.
Market
There is a weekly market in the community within a radius of 3Km.
Transportation
Motorcycles, motor cars/buses and trekking are the common means of transportation in the
community. The road to the community is an earth road and is in good condition. The
average time to the nearest community is 20 minutes. Over 2000 vehicles ply the road in a
week.
Economic Activity
Farming is the predominant occupation of the community. Other minor activities are civil
service, petty trading and hired labour.
Housing Type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (30%), mud with zinc
roof (40%), mud with cement with zinc roof (25%) and modern cement block with zinc roof
(5%).
Human waste Disposal
About 90% of the community use pit toilet for human waste disposal, 6% use the bush while
4% use VIP toilet.
Sources of power an Cooking Fuel
The community is connected to public source of power from the PHCN although only about
40% are connected. The remaining population relies on kerosene lantern and private
generators. All most all households use fire wood.

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Telecommunication
There is no availability of GSM services in the community.
Environmental Problems
Common environment problems in the area are waste management, bush burning and
deforestation. Controlled measures embarked upon by the community are burning of waste
materials, sensitization and tree planting in the case of deforestation.
School
There is a primary school in the community with 10 teachers and about 500 pupils. The
school has 14 classrooms, two toilets and a computer room but there is no water source.
Health facilities
There is a maternity clinic in the community with 41 staff. There are five beds at the center
for patients. Common ailments treated at the center are malaria and stomach pain. Other
communities using this facility are Gude and Duvu about two kilometers from the center.
Waste materials from the clinic are burnt. There are four traditional maternity homes and
three traditional bone hearing homes.
Water sources
The sources of water in the community are hand pump borehole and water from a dam. The
dam was constructed in 1982 by the community and is about 3Km. The borehole was drilled
by the government in 2001. Water from the borehole is available all year round.
Natural Resources
Flood plain is the only natural resources in the community.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. They have weak decision making powers and rely on assistance from relations.
PLWHA are stigmatized and suffer from lack of drugs. There are no charity homes and
orphanages in the community to take care of these individuals.
Community Needs
Portable water, necessary facilities at the clinic and electricity are the community needs in
order of priority.

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4.1.3.4. GUDE
This is a rural community in Mubi South Local Government Area and is about 7km from the
local government headquarters. Average household size in the community is 12 people in
which 60% are males and with children of 17years and below constituting 60%. The village
head (Ardo) is the formal head of the community and leadership is by election. Decisions in
the community are taken by the community leader in consultation with elders and religious
leaders. Community organizations are non- existent in the community. Land ownership is by
family and individuals.
There is a market in the community which holds once a week. The average distance to this
facility is 2km.
Transportation
Motorcycles, motorcars/pick- up vans and bicycles are the common means of transportation
in the community. The road to the community is a seasonal earth road of about 7km and is in
very bad condition. About 80 vehicles ply the road in a week.
Economic activity
Farming is the main economic activity of the community from which households derive their
livelihood. Minor economic activities are petty trading, civil service and hired labour.
Housing type
The types of housing in the community are mud with zinc roof (70%), mud plastered with
cement with zinc roof (25%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
Human waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (95%), while the
remaining population (5%) uses the bush.
Sources of Power and Cooking Fuel
The source of power in the community is kerosene lantern, while very few households use
private generators. Fire wood is the source of cooking fuel for the population.
Telecommunication
MTN and Etisalat services are strong in the community, while GLO and Zain services are
weak.
Environmental Problems
Erosion, waste management, flooding and bush burning are the common environmental
problems in the community. The mitigation measures adopted in the community are tree
planting, disposing of waste materials on farm and using of sand bags across flood sites.
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School
There is a primary school in the community. The school has a pit toilet but no source of
water. There are also 8 classrooms in the school. The lists of communities using this facility
are Wandure, Gidan Kora, Kalakala, Lugere, Sabon Gari and Gyerewo all located within a
distance of about 2km.
Health Care
The only health facility in the community is a Bamako initiative dispensary. The dispensary
is not furnished and basic health facilities are lacking. There is a borehole at the center and
environmental waste materials are thrown into dug pits. The dispensary has 2 male and 2
female staff. Malaria is the common ailment treated at the center. Four other communities
Wuro-Yola, Fatude Galadima, Fatude less Jauro and Lugerowo all located within a distance
of 2.5km use this facility. There are three herbal healing homes within the community.
Water Sources
The sources of water in the community are hand pump borehole and a well. The well was
constructed in 1970.
Natural Resources
Flood plains and streams are the available natural resources within the community. Male
population has most access to the flood plains while females have most access to the stream.
Vulnerable Groups
People living with HIV/AIDS, widows, the physically challenged and orphans are the
vulnerable groups in the community. These people suffer deprivation and stigmaization.
There are no orphanages and no charity homes in the community.
Community Needs
The community needs in order of priority are boreholes, road construction, electricity,
additional classroom blocks school and equipping the clinic with necessary facilities.

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4.1.3.5. LAMURDE
This is a rural community which is about 18km from Gella the local government headquarters
and 189km from Yola. The population of the community is about 2500 people with an
average household size of 12 people of which males constitute 60% and children of 17 years
and below constitute 70%. The main leaders in the community are Ardo (Unit head) and
Jauro (the village head). Leadership in the community is usually by appointment and
sometimes by election. Decisions within community are made through collaboration with
elders, leaders of various groups and religious institutions. Leadership in the community is
harmonious and follows the normal progressive change. Land ownership in the community is
by families and individuals.
There is no market in the community.

Community Organizations
There a several organizations within the community. These are Lamurde development
association, age group and youth group. Youth group is however the most active within the
community. These groups are administered peacefully in a non conflictive manner.
Transportation
Motorcycles, motorcars/pick- up vans and bicycles are the common means of transportation
in the community. The road to the community is an earth road of about 2.5km and is in very
bad condition. About 600 vehicles ply the road in a week.
Economic Activities
Farming is the main economic activity of the community from which households derive their
livelihood. Minor economic activities are petty trading, civil service and hired labour.
Housing Type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (40%), mud with zinc
roof (25%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (30%), and modern cement block with
zinc roof (5%).
Human waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (95%), while the
remaining population (5%) uses the bush.
Sources of power an Cooking Fuel
The community is connected to public source of power from the PHCN but only about 20%
are connected. The remaining population relies on kerosene lantern and private generators.
All most all households use fire wood.
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Telecommunication
GLO, MTN and Zain signals are strong within the community.
Environmental Problems
Common environmental problems in the community are erosion, deforestation and poaching.
Local drainages are constructed to mitigate erosion. People in the community are asked to
plant trees and are discouraged from indiscriminate felling of trees. There is a law on illegal
hunting where community leaders in collaboration with security agents ensure strict
compliance.
School
There is Lamurde primary school with 25 teachers and over 2500 pupils. The school has five
blocks of classroom building. Pupils from Gaya community a distance of about 1km use this
facility. There is also a Senior and Junior secondary schools in the community. There are
toilets but no water in the schools.
Health facilities
There is a dispensary in the community with five male and 10 female staff. The dispensary is
not furnished and has no drugs and other hospital equipment. People from Gaya community
of about one kilometer away also use this facility. Malaria is the most common ailment
treated at the center. There is a hand pump borehole at the dispensary but no toilet facility.
Waste materials from the center are usually burnt. There are five herbal healing homes and
five traditional maternity homes in the community.
Sources of water
The sources of water in the community are hand pump borehole and a well. The well is
functional and has water all year round. People from Gaya community a distance of about
one kilometer also use facility.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. They have weak decision making powers and rely on assistance from relations.
PLWHA are stigmatized and suffer from lack of drugs. There are no charity homes and
orphanages in the community to take care of these individuals.
Community Needs
The community needs in order of priority are road construction, boreholes, electricity,
additional classroom blocks in school and equipping the clinic with necessary facilities.

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4.1.3.6. MIJARA
This is a rural community in Takalafiya ward of Mubi South Local Government and is about
15km away from Gella the local government headquarters and 188km from Yola. The
community has a population of about 3000 people with an average household size of 12
people of which children of 17 years and below account for 70%. The village head is the head
of the community and together with community elders, leaders of various associations and
religious leaders ensure stability and harmonious coexistence in the community. Decisions in
the community are made by these personalities. Land in the community are owned by family
and by individuals.
Community organizations
There are men farmers group, female farmers group and youth group in the community. The
youth group however plays the most active role in improving the well being of the
community. Leadership in the group is by elections.
Market
There is a market in the community which holds once a week. The average distance of the
community from the market centre is about 1.5km.
Transportation
Motorcycles, motorcars/pick- up vans and bicycles are the common means of transportation
in the community. The road to the community is an earth road of about 2.5km and is in very
bad condition. About 400 vehicles ply the road in a week.
Economic activities
Farming is the main economic activity of the community from which households derive their
livelihood. Minor economic activities are petty trading, hunting, civil service and hired
labour.
Housing Type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (70%), mud with zinc
roof (15%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (10%), and modern cement block with
zinc roof (5%).
Human waste disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (90%), while the
remaining population (10%) uses the bush.

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Sources of power and Cooking Fuel
The community is connected to public source of power from the PHCN but only about 10%
are connected. The remaining population (90%) relies on kerosene lantern and private
generators. All most all households use fire wood.
Telecommunications
MTN and Etisalat networks have strong signals, while Glo and Zain signals are weak.
Environmental problems
Common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, bush burning and
waste management. Local drainages are constructed to mitigate erosion. People in the
community are asked to plant trees and are discouraged from indiscriminate felling of trees.
There is a law on illegal hunting where community leaders in collaboration with security
agents ensure strict compliance.
School
There are two primary schools and a day secondary school in the community. The average
distance to facility is about 500 meters. The primary schools have six classrooms each and
there are eight classrooms at secondary school. There is a toilet and one well in each of the
primary schools. The same applies to the secondary school.
Health
There is dispensary with 5 staff. The dispensary is not finished and most medical facilities are
not available. Common ailments treated at the center are malaria and headache. Other
communities using this facility are Munduva and Lunghe about 2km away. There is one
herbal healing home in the community.
Water source
The water sources in the community are hand pump borehole, a well and water from the
stream. The well is functional though it dries up during dry season. The average distance to
facility is about 500 meters.
Natural resources
Natural resources available are streams and flood plains. Males have greater access to the
flood plains while youths have the least access. Also females have most access to the streams.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans, physically challenged, widows and PLWHA are the vulnerable groups in the
community. They have weak decision making powers and rely on assistance from relations.
PLWHA are stigmatized and suffer from lack of drugs. There are no charity homes and
orphanages in the community to take care of these individuals.
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Community needs
The community needs according to priority are portable water, necessary facilities in the
clinic, additional classroom blocks in schools, road construction and electricity.

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4.1.3.7. MUGULVU
This is a rural community in Mubi South Local Government Area and is about 32Km from
the local government headquarters and 198km from Yola. The community has a population
of about 2,600 people with an average household size of 15 people. Males form 60% of the
household population. The village head (Ardo) is the leader of the community and leadership
is usually by inheritance and appointment among heirs to the throne. The village head
makes decision on behalf of the community and this is not healthy.
Community Organizations
Community associations within the community include youths association and fadama user
groups. Fadama user groups however are the most active in improving the well being of the
community. Officials are normally elected in a progressive and non-conflictive manner.
Land ownership within the community is by inheritance. There is no market in the
community.
Transportation
Motorcycles, motorcars/pick- up vans and bicycles are the common means of transportation
in the community. The road to the community is tarred and is in good condition. It takes
about ten minutes to the nearest town. The average number of vehicles plying the road in a
week is 1,000.
Economic Activities
Farming is the main economic activity of the community from which households derive their
livelihood. Minor economic activities are petty trading, artisans, fishing, civil service and
hired labour.
Housing type
The types of housing in the community are mud with thatched roof (40%), mud with zinc
roof (50%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (8%), and modern cement block with
zinc roof (2%).
Human Waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (70%), About 25% uses
the bush, while 5% use modern waste cistern disposal system.
Sources of power and Cooking Fuel
The community is not connected to public source, thus use kerosene lanterns to generate
power. Very few others use private generators. Fire wood is used by all households in the
community as cooking fuel.
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Telecommunication
The signal of Zain mobile network is weak, while MTN and GLO services are not available.
Environmental Problems
Major environmental problems in the area are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush
burning. Only erosion is being mitigated through planting of trees while no definite action is
taken to control the other problems.
Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
The community members are aware of LEEMP but they have not benefited from the project.
Water Source
The only source of water within the community is a river.
Other infrastructure
There is a police post established in 2009 and a play ground.
Natural Resources
Natural resources available in the area are forest, flood plains, river and stream. Youth have
greater access while the males have the least access to the forest. The males have most
access and the females have least access to the flood plains. Females have greater to the
river and stream while the males have the least access.
Vulnerable
Vulnerable in the community are orphans, widows and he physically challenged. The
orphans and widows find difficulty in feeding and paying school fees while he physically
challenged cannot feed themselves too. While the widows and orphans work extra hard, the
physically challenged beg for alms. The vulnerable also have weak contributions in
decisions.
Community Needs
The major needs of the community are electricity, hospital and water. They expect the
government to provide these needs to them. The community members are not sure which
contribution they can make towards these needs. School and health facilities, the
community has no schools, no health facility and no herbal home.

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4.1.3.8. NDUKU
A rural community in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The
community or about 50km from Gella the local government headquarter and 222km from
Yola the state capital. Nduku has a population of about 3,200 people. The leaders in the
community are the unit and village heads (Ardo and Jauro). There are about 15-20 people
per household in the community. Females constitute 70% of the household members and
children of 17 years and below constitute 65% of the household.
Community Governance
Leadership in the community is through nomination among heirs and subsequently election
of one to be the leader. Decisions in the community are made by the leaders through public
opinion. The community leader guides the people and ensures peaceful coexistence within
his domain. Community members were involved in decision by consultation.
Community Organizations
There are farmers association, soap makers association, tailors association, Amana
association and Bamako Initiative association among other associations. Amana association
is grassroots initiated. Leaders in the association emerge through election. The election is
usually progressive and in a non-conflictive manner. Decisions within Amana association
are made democratically through collective negotiation. Land ownership in the area is by
inheritance through some people owned land they purchased. There is no market in Nduku.
Transportation
Trekking, bicycle and motorcycle are the most common means of transportation in the
community, motor car/bus and trucks/pick up vans are also used. The roads to the
community are earth and seasonal. It is 22km to Gella. The road is very bad. Average
number of vehicles using the road per week is 100.
Economic activities
About 90% of the population are involved in farming, 5% into civil service, 3% into party
politics and 2% are into hired labour.
Type of Housing
Mud with zinc roof constitute 80% of the houses, 15% mud with thatched roof, 3% mud
plastered with cement with zinc roof and 2% made of modern cement block with zinc roof.
Human Waste Disposal
For human defecation 90% of the household use pit toilet, while 10% use the bush.

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Sources of Power
Majority of the community use kerosene lantern as power source and only about 3% use
private generator.
Cooking Fuel
All the households use firewood and cornstalk for cooking.
Telecommunication
Zain network has weak signal, while MTN and GLO have no signals at all.
Environmental problems
Erosion and flooding are the environment problems in the area. Stone and sand bags
packing as well as tree planting are done to mitigate both flooding and erosion.
Awareness of LEEMP and CSDA
The community is aware of LEEMP and CSDA. The community has not benefited from the
project.
Community Needs
Roads, hospital, school, electricity and water in that order are the needs of the community.
They expect the world bank to provide these needs for them. The community members
promise to contribute land, labour and in kind contribution for the provision of these needs.
Schools
There are two primary schools within the community. Nduku 1 Primary School has six male
and one female teachers with 176 pupils. Nduku II Primary School has seven male and two
female teachers with 200 pupils. The schools have two blocks of classrooms each. Both
schools have no toilet and source of water. Three other communities Bajabure 0.2km,
Nbatsara 1km, and Gashiya 1km all are using the schools.
Health facility
There is a Bamako Initiative health clinic in the community with 2 male and 2 female staff.
The clinic is not furnished. There are no drugs, no trained staff and no electricity. There is a
pit toilet and the source of water is a nearby river. Other communities using the Bamako
Initiative Clinic are Bajabure 5km, Gashiga 4km, Ndabatsam 4km, Batthei 3km and
Gribeduma 1km. There are 10 herbal healing homes and 11 traditional maternity homes in
the community.
Water Sources
There is a well constructed in 1995 by the Jauro and a borehole drilled by Adamawa State
government in 2008. There water sources are functional and available all year round. About
30% of the community source water from river in the area.
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Natural Resources
Natural resources available are forest, flood plan and river. Youth have greater access to the
forest. Males have greater access while females have the least access to the flood plain.
Females have greater access while makes have the least access to the river in he community.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans and widows find it difficult to feed, pay school fees. They require help from
relations. The widows and orphans have little or no contribution to decisions in the
community. Physically challenged persons suffer lack of food and discrimination. They beg
for alms and seek assistance. They contribution to decision making is weak.

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4.1.3.9. SUBURUM
This is a community in Gella ward of Mubi South Local Government Area and is about
2km from the Local Government headquarters and 205km from Yola. The community has a
population of about 2000 people and an average household size of 12 people. Male form
65% of the household population in which adults of 18 years and above constitute 55%.
The village head (Ardo) is in charge of the community and leadership in the community is
by appointment and sometimes by election. Leadership in the community is peaceful and
stable.
Community organizations
There are community associations within the community such as Suburum development
association and youth organization. Youth organization plays the most active role in
improving the well being of community members. The youth groups are mostly grassroots
initiated and leaders are selected through elections in a non-conflictive manner. Decisions
within this group are normally democratic usually by public opinion and voting. Land
ownership is by inheritance. There is no market in Suburum.
Transportation
Trekking is the most common means of transportation, motorcycle is used while bicycle and
motor car/bus are rarely used. The road to the community is an earth road of about 2km. the
road is bad and takes an average of an hour to get to Gella.
Economic activities
About 90% of the population are involved in farming, 5% into civil service, 3% into party
politics and 2% are into hired labour.
Housing types
Mud with zinc roof constitute 80% of the houses, 15% mud with thatched roof, 3% mud
plastered with cement with zinc roof and 2% use modern cement block with zinc roof.
Human waste Disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (70%), about 25% uses
the bush, while 5% use modern waste cistern disposal system.
Sources of Power and Cooking Fuel
The community is connected to public source of power from the PHCN but only about 20%
are connected. The remaining population relies on kerosene lantern and private generators.
All most all households use fire wood.

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Telecommunication
The services of GLO and MTN are strong, while that of Zain is weak.
Environmental Problems
Erosion, flooding, deforestation, poaching and bush burning are the common environmental
problems within the community. To mitigate these problems shrubs are planted to control
erosion, local drainages are constructed to control flood, tree planting and discouraging
felling of trees to control deforestation. Government and the community have imposed laws
on illegal hunting within the community. The community creates awareness on the dangers
of bush burning within the community.
Recreational Facilities
There is a restaurant and a play ground in the community.
Community needs
The needs of the community are pipe borne water, hospital, road and electricity in that order.
The community expects CSDA and Adamawa State government to provide them with these
needs. The community opined they will contribute land and other possible in kind services.
Schools
There is a universal Basic Education (UBE) primary school in the community. The
community has five males, four females, and 650 pupils. There are six classrooms. The
school has a toilet and no water source. There is also a Senior Day Secondary School. The
secondary has 20 males and six female teachers with 900 students. Other communities using
the secondary school are Duru (3km) and Kwaja (5km). The secondary school has a toilet
but no water source.
Health Facility
There is a maternity clinic in the community as at present, no staff is there. The maternity
clinic is empty except that there is a hand pump borehole and a pit toilet. The community
has four herbal healing homes, six traditional maternity homes and 10 traditional borne
healing homes.
Water Sources
The community source of water is a hand pump drilled in 2006 by the state government.
The borehole is functional but water is not available all year round.
Natural Resources
Rivers and streams are the natural resources within the area. Males have the most action
while the youths have the least access.
Vulnerable Groups
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Orphans, widows, the physically challenged and PLWHA are the vulnerable in the area.
Orphans lack sponsorship and food. They work hard even at tender age and also receive
support from mosque. Orphans have weak contribution to decision making in the
community. Physically challenged lack assistance and could not help themselves, they
receive support from mosques and individuals, they also have weak contribution to decision
making in the community. Widows suffer lack of food for children and money for
sponsorship. The widows work extra hard and get support from relations, they also have
weak contribution to decision making in the community. PLWHA they lack resources to
pay for medication. The government assists them to procure the drugs. PLWHA have
strong contribution to decision making in the country

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4.1.3.10. SAHUDA
A rural community in Muduara ward, Mubi South Local Government. It is about 22km from
the Local Government headquarters and 230km from Yola. There are about 700 people in the
community. The main leaders in the area are Ardo, elders and religious leaders. Leaders
emerge through election in the area. Decisions are made by the Ardo in consultation with the
elders and religious leaders. The principal role of community leaders in the area is peace and
decision making.
Community organizations
Fadama III farmers association, Sahuda forum and religious associations are the common
associations in the community. Religious organization and Fadama association play the same
role in improving welfare of the community. The groups are grass roots initiated. Leadership
within the association is done by election. Decisions within the group are made collectively.
Land ownership in the community is on family basis through inheritance. There is a market in
the community which holds weekly. Motor cycle is the common means of transportation in
the community. Trekking is also the means of transportation among community members.
Motor cars/buses are rarely used. There is an earth road of about 18km leading to the
community. The road is very bad and takes about 1 hour to get to Mubi, on the average about
86 vehicles ply the road weekly.
Housing type
Mud with zinc roof constitute 50% of the houses, mud with thatched roof 25%, mud
plastered with cement with zinc roof (20%) and 2% use modern cement block with zinc roof.
Human waste disposal
The sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (80%) while 20% use
the bush.
Source of power and Cooking Fuel
No fewer than 90% of households in the community use kerosene lantern while about 10%
use personal generators. The community use firewood as cooking fuel.
Telecommunication
The signals of MTN, Zain and GLO are not available in the community.
Environmental problems
Erosion, deforestation and bush burning are the common environmental problems in the area.
Canals are constructed to control erosion while afforesting projects are embarked upon to
control both erosion and deforestation.
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Awareness of LEEMP/CSDA
The community members are aware of LEEM/CDSA but have not benefited from the
project.
Schools
There is a primary school in the community with 5 staff and 500 pupils. The school has 12
classrooms, 2 pit toilets and no source of water. Three other communities at an average
distance of 1km use the facility. There is also a government day secondary school in the
community with 2 teachers and 150 students. The secondary school has 2 classrooms no
water source and no toilet. Students from two other communities at a distance of 7km also
use secondary school.
Health facilities
There is Sahuda primary health care clinic (PHC) with one male and two female staff. The
clinic is not furnished, no water source and one pit toilet. Common ailment treated in the
clinic is malaria. Another health facility in the community is the EYN dispensary it has two
male and one female staff. The dispensary is not furnished. There is a pit toilet but no water
source. Common activists of the dispensary are vaccination and malaria treatment. There are
about seven communities from distance of 7-10km using the two health facilities.
Source of water
There is a well constructed in 1972 by Mubi local government, the well is functional but the
water is not available all year round. There is also a borehole drilled in 2008 by Adamawa
state government. Three other communities from an average of three kilometers use the
facility. Another source of water for the community is a stream about 3km away from the
community.
Other infrastructural facilities within the community are market and a police post.
Natural resources
Forest and streams are the natural resources in the community with males having greater
access and youth have the least access.
Vulnerable Groups
Orphans widows and the physically challenged suffer poverty and deprivation they also have
weak contribution in decision making. PLWHA are poor, lack Medicare and are stigmatized.
They have weak contributions to decision making within the community.

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Community needs
The community needs are water, equipment in the clinic and road construction in that order.
The community wants CDSA to provide the needs for them the community intends to
contribute land, wood, labour and other in kind services to the provision of these needs.

A women FGD session

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4.2 Southern Senatorial District
4.2.1 Mayo-Belwa Local Government

4.2.1.1. Binkola
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and is about 5 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters and 70 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average time
to get to the nearest town is 15 minutes. There are about 3, 000 inhabitants in the community
and an average household size of 10.

There are community development associations such as Binkola Youth Farmers Association,
Women Farmers Association and Nassara Youth Association with the aim of improving
farming activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The resources available to the
villagers are their farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The community head known as Mai-Anguwa (Maijimila) and
religious leaders solve communal disputes within the community whenever they arise.
Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious and community decisions are made through group meeting. The major economic
activity in the community is farming with other minor economic activities such as petty
trading, hunting, civil service and marketing of agricultural commodities.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with 8 teachers. The average time/distance of the
schools from within the community is 20mins/500 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 300 comprising of 200 males and 100 females with teacher to student
ratio 1:38. Other communities using these schools are Jafure, Wuro Hamman, Wuro Jauro,
Gada Mayo, Binkola Vango, Wailare, Wuro Jamma and Wuro Kago where pupils from these
communities have to trek an average of one and half kilometers to access this facility. The
primary school has two class rooms, one staff room, there is no water supply but there is a
pit toilet. The school environment is conducive for meaningful learning.

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There is a dispensary in the community with 5 medical staff. The health center is accessed by
inhabitants from eight communities. The health center is not furnished and has only 1 bed for
patients. There is a borehole and a pit toilet in the clinic, and the average distance to facility
by users is 500 meters. The common ailment afflicting community members is malaria. There
is routine immunization. Consequently, there are 2 herbal healing homes and 2 traditional
bone healing homes.

The community sources of water are 3 hand-pump boreholes located within the community
and are easily accessible (20 minutes). The common sources of human waste disposal are pit
toilet (55%) and bush (45%). The type of housing in the community are wood/mud with zinc
roof (75%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%), wood/mud with thatched roof
(7%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (3%).

The road (earth) to the community is bad and this explains the reason for the time taken to
travel to the nearest town. The community is connected to public source of power although
about 40% of households in the community still rely on kerosene lantern and private
generators. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network, with Zain and MTN having strong signals while GLO has weak signal. There is no
multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no
market stalls in the village. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity
homes to take of the vulnerable groups.
The major community needs according to priority include additional borehole, road
construction, additional classroom blocks in primary and secondary school, and equipping of
the dispensary with basic facilities.

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4.2.1.2. Nassarawo Jereng
Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community
This community is located in Anguwan Hausa ward of Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area
and is about 24 kilometers from the LGA headquarters and 89 kilometers from the State
capital Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 40 minutes. There are over 3000
inhabitants in the community and an average household size of 10.

There are community development associations such as Farmers Association, Gomla


Community Development Association, Butchers Association, Women association and Youth
Consultative Forum with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment and
enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The resources available to the villagers are their farmland and animals which
they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The leaders in the community are district head, village head, ward
head and religious leaders who resolve communal disputes within the community whenever
they arise. Leadership in the community is by inheritance and is usually done by nomination
within the royal family. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious and community
decisions are made through collective decision. The major economic activities in the
community are farming, politics, artisans with other minor economic activities such as petty
trading, civil service and marketing of agricultural commodities.

Community infrastructure
There is a public primary school and a secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 10mins/500 meters. The number
of students currently enrolled in the primary school is 400 comprising of 250 males and 150
females with a teacher to students ratio of 1:50; while that of the Day Secondary School is
800 comprising of 500 males and 300 females with teacher to students ratio of 1:80. Other
communities using these schools are Jelang, Kajaka, Lanabu, Boyayem, Bajama, Bisa,
Gatogel, Zion and Dosolum. The primary and secondary school have 9 class room blocks
each, one staff room each, no water supply but there are toilet facilities.

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There is a maternity clinic in the community with thirteen medical staff. The health center is
used by inhabitants from nine communities. The health center is not furnished and has 10
beds for patients. There is a borehole and a pit toilet in the clinic, and the average distance to
facility by users is 1km. The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. There is regular
immunization of children under the age of five. Also, there are two herbal healing homes and
one traditional bone healing home in the community.
The community sources of water are well, hand-pump boreholes and water from the stream.
The average distance to facility is 500meters. Most (80%) of households have pit toilet for
human waste disposal, while few use the bush. The type of housing in the community are
wood/mud with zinc roof (50%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (20%),
wood/mud with thatched roof (20%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).

The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and in bad condition and this explains the
reason for the time taken to travel to the nearest town. The community has access to
electricity from NEPA although few households still rely on kerosene lantern and private
generators. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network, with Zain and MTN having strong signals while GLO has weak signal. There is a
multipurpose civic center, court, market stalls and a security post. There is however no skill
acquisition center. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take
of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems are erosion, flooding,
deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include additional boreholes, equipping of
the clinic with necessary facilities, additional classroom blocks in primary and secondary
school, and provision of skill acquisition centre.

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4.2.1.3. Sebore

Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community


The community is located in Mayo Farang ward of Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and
is about 15 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Mayo-Belwa and 80 kilometers from the
State capital Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about
2500 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 8 persons.

There are community development associations such as Takwobi Youth Association, Farmers
Association and Miyetti Allah in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the village. The resources available to the villagers are their
farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The head of the community is the Jauro, who in collaboration with
religion leaders solve communal disputes within the community whenever they arise.
Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance through nomination within the royal
family. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious. The religious institutions render
assistance to the less privileged members of the society.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, artisan, cattle rearing, hunting and civil service. Land
ownership in the community is by individuals, family and the community.

Community Infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 15 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 20mins/500meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in the primary school is 1000 comprising of 600 males and 400 females,
and with teacher to student ratio 1:67. The school has three classroom blocks, a staff room
but has no toilet and water facilities. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
The communities using this facility are Yolde Bolle, Gwaron and Donti.

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There is a clinic in the community with 4 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
are no beds for patients. The source of water at the clinic is a well but there is no toilet. The
common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. The average distance to facility by user is
1km. There are 4 herbal healing homes, 5 traditional maternity homes and 2 traditional bone
healing homes.

The community sources of water are two hand pump boreholes constructed in 1988 and 1997
by the local government and a well. The average distance to water source is 100 meters. The
common sources of human waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (70%) and bush
(30%). The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (60%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).

The earth road to the community is in a very bad condition. The main means of transportation
are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 350 vehicles plies the
existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public source of
power; hence, households use kerosene lantern. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood.
There is the availability of GSM network, with MTN, Zain and GLO having strong signals.
There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center
and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to
take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community
are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include water, electricity, and clinic,
construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary school and road construction.

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4.2.1.4. Mayo-Farang

Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of The Community

This community is located in Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and is about 7 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters and 72 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average time
to get to the nearest town is 40 minutes. There are over 3000 inhabitants in the community
and an average household size of 10.

There are community development associations such as Farmers Association, Women


farmers association and Youth Development Association with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the community. The resources available to the villagers are their
farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The leaders in the community are district head, village head, ward
head and religious leaders who resolve communal disputes within the community whenever
they arise. Leadership in the community is by inheritance and is usually done by nomination
within the royal family. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious and community
decisions are made through collective decision. The major economic activities in the
community are farming, politics, artisans with other minor economic activities such as petty
trading, civil service and marketing of agricultural commodities.

Community Infrastructure
There are 3 primary schools and one secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 20mins/1km. The average number
of students currently enrolled in the primary schools is 500 comprising of 200 males and 300
females; while that of the Day Secondary School is 800 comprising of 520 males and 280
females with teacher to students ratio of 1:80. Other communities using these schools are
Wuro Yombe, Poli Mayo, Dibanti, Wuro Liman, Jidonti, Balgare, Wunore, Wuro Koi, Wuro
Bayo, and Wuro Kila. The average classroom block in the primary school is 3, while that of

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the secondary school is also 3. All the schools have a staff room and toilets although not
adequate, but no water facility. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.

There is a maternity clinic in the community with fifteen medical staff. The health center is
used by inhabitants from communities earlier listed. The health center is furnished and has 10
beds for patients. There is a borehole and a pit toilet in the clinic, and the average distance to
facility by users is 1km. The common ailment afflicting community members is malaria.
There is regular immunization of children under the age of five. Also, there are five herbal
healing homes and five traditional bone healing homes in the community.

The community sources of water are well, hand-pump boreholes and water from the stream.
The average distance to facility is 500meters. Most households (65%) have pit toilet for
human waste disposal, while the remaining ones use the bush. The type of housing in the
community are wood/mud with zinc roof (55%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof
(25%), wood/mud with thatched roof (5%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).

The earth road to the community is in bad condition and. The community has access to
electricity from NEPA although few households still rely on kerosene lantern and private
generators. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network, with Zain, GLO and MTN having strong signals. There is a multipurpose civic
center, market stalls and a police station. There is however no skill acquisition center. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problems are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush
burning.

The major community needs according to priority include additional boreholes, additional
classroom blocks in primary and secondary school, equipping of the clinic with necessary
facilities and construction of drainages.

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4.2.1.5. Sangere

Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community

The community is located in Ndikong ward of mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and is
about 5 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Mayo-Belwa and 60 kilometers from the State
capital Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 15 minutes. There are about 2,
500 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 8 persons.

There are community development associations such as Youth Association, Farmers


Association and Wawani Women association in the community with the aim of improving
farming activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the village. The resources available to the
villagers are their farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The community is headed by the village head who in collaboration
with various association leaders and religious leaders solve communal disputes within the
community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance
through nomination within the royal family. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The religious institutions render assistance to the less privileged members of the society.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics and civil service. Land ownership in the community is
by families and the community.

Community Infrastructure

There is a primary school in the community with 6 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 20mins/500meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 180 comprising of 100 males and 80 females, and with teacher to
student ratio 1:30. The school has 2 classroom blocks, no staff room, there is no water but

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there is a pit toilet. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning. The communities
using this facility are Labare and Ahmadu Tongo.

There is no clinic in the community but there are 4 herbal healing homes and 1 traditional
bone healing home. The community sources of water are earth dam and a well. The average
distance to water source is 500 meters. The predominant source of human waste disposal in
the community is the bush (95%) because majority of households do not have toilet facilities
in their houses. The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof
(80%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (7%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (3%).

The earth road to the community is good but needs to be tarred. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 1, 000 vehicles ply the
existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public source of
power; hence, households use kerosene lantern. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood.
There is the availability of GSM network, with MTN, Zain and GLO having strong signals.
There is no multipurpose civic center and no police station. There is no skill acquisition
center but there are market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include water, clinic, electricity and
construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary school.

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4.2.1.6. Ndiyamjimtobe

Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community

The community is located in Ndikong ward of mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and is
about 12 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Mayo-Belwa and 61 kilometers from the
State capital Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 45 minutes. There are about
2000 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 14 persons.

There are community development associations such as Youth Association, Farmers


Association and Hunters association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the village. The resources available to the villagers are their
farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The community is headed by the village head who in collaboration
with various association leaders and religious leaders solve communal disputes within the
community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance
through nomination within the royal family. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The religious institutions render assistance to the less privileged members of the society.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, lumbering, artisan, politics and civil service. Land ownership
in the community is by families, individuals and the community.

Community Infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 5 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 20mins/500meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 200 comprising of 150 males and 50 females, and with teacher to
student ratio of 1:40. The school has 1 classroom block which is a round hurt building, no
staff room, no water and no toilet facility. The environment is conducive for meaningful
learning. The communities using this facility are Jumtobe, Kubaje, Ruwa, Bayare and Waka.

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There is no clinic in the community but there are 2 herbal healing homes, 5 traditional
maternity homes and 1 traditional bone healing home. There is routine immunization of
children under the age of five.

The community sources of water are stream and a well. The average distance to water source
is 200 meters. The sources of human waste disposal in the community are the pit toilet (60%)
and the bush (40%). The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof
(90%), wood/mud with zinc roof (7%) and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (3%).

The earth road to the community is very bad. The main means of transportation are
motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 70 vehicles plies the existing
community road per week. The community is not connected to public source of power;
hence, households use kerosene lantern. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There
is the availability of GSM network, with MTN and Zain having strong signals while GLO has
weak signal. There is one privately owned multipurpose civic center but no police station.
There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such
as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common
environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush
burning.

The major community needs according to priority include water, construction of classroom
blocks in the primary school, clinic, electricity and road construction.

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4.2.1.7. Yolde Gubudo
Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community
The community is located in Mayo Farang ward of mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and
is about 15 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Mayo-Belwa and 71 kilometers from the
State capital Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 15 minutes. There are about
1800 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 15 persons.

There are community development associations such as Hunters Association, Farmers


Association and Miyetti Allah in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the village. The resources available to the villagers are their
farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The leaders in the community are the village head, ward head and
religion leaders who solve communal disputes within the community whenever they arise.
Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance through nomination within the royal
family. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious. The religious institutions render
assistance to the less privileged members of the society.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, cattle rearing, hunting and civil service. Land
ownership in the community is by individuals, family and the community.

Community Infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 10 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 20mins/2kms. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 199 comprising of 113 males and 86 females, and with
teacher to student ratio 1:20. The school has one classroom block, a staff room but has no
toilet and water facilities. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning. The
communities using this facility are Wagole, Mandara, Rumde, Karal and Kumba.

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There is a dispensary in the community with 5 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and
there are only 2 beds for patients. There is no water source at the clinic anf there is no toilet.
The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. The average distance to facility by user
is 500meters and the lists of communities using this facility are Kumba, Rumzin, Yolde
Fulani and Bakasa. There are 4 herbal healing homes, 2 traditional maternity homes and 1
traditional bone healing home.

The community source of water is a stream and the average distance to water source is 500
meters. The average distance to water source is 100 meters. The common sources of human
waste disposal in the community are pit toilet (70%) and bush (30%). The types of housing in
the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (80%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%),
mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (7%) and modern cement block with zinc roof
(2%).

The seasonal road to the community is in a very bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 350 vehicles
plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public
source of power; hence, households use kerosene lantern. The main source of cooking fuel is
firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with MTN, Zain and GLO having strong
signals. There is a multipurpose civic center and market stalls. There is also no skill
acquisition center The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take
care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are
erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include water, road construction,
electricity, construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary and clinic.

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4.2.1.8 Chukkol
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

The community is located in Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and is about 14


kilometers from the LGA headquarters and 79 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. There are over 3000 inhabitants in the
community and an average household size of 12.
There are community development associations such as farmers association, elders’ forum,
youths association, women association and civil servants association with the aim of
improving farming activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The resources available to the
villagers are their farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The leaders in the community are the village head, Jauro and
religious leaders who resolve communal disputes within the community whenever they arise.
Leadership in the community is by inheritance. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious
and community decisions are made through collective decision. The major economic activity
in the community is farming with other minor economic activities such as petty trading,
artisan, politics, civil service and marketing of agricultural commodities.
Community infrastructure
There is a public primary school and two secondary schools in the community. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 10mins/300 meters. The number
of students currently enrolled in Vango Chukkol primary school is 217 comprising of 117
males and 100 females with a teacher to students ratio of 1:20. Government Day Secondary
School Chukkol has 450 students comprising of 300 males and 150 females, while Junior
Secondary School Chukkol has 600 students comprising of 400 males and 200 females.
Communities using these schools are Mumbaka, Wuro Tutube, Wuro Yahaya, Wuro Yalde,
Wuro Jidda, Saliti and Wurom Jidda. All the schools have 1 class room block each. The
environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a dispensary in the community with five medical staff. The health center is not
furnished and has only one bed for patients. There is no water and no toilet facilities at the
center, and the average distance to facility by users is 100 meters. The common ailment

126
treated at the center is malaria. There is regular immunization of children under the age of
five. Also, there are two herbal healing homes in the community.
The community source of water is a well and stream. The average distance to facility is
250meters. Most (80%) households do not have toilet facility for human waste disposal;
hence use the bush. The type of housing in the community are wood/mud with zinc roof
(65%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (20%), wood/mud with thatched roof
(10%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in bad condition. The community is
not connected to public source of power; hence rely on kerosene lantern and private
generators for household power need. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is
the availability of GSM network, with Zain and MTN having strong signals while GLO has
weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center, no police station, no skill acquisition
centre but there are market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems are
erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include additional classroom blocks in
primary and secondary school, water, electricity, good access road and equipping of the clinic
with necessary facilities.

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4.2.1.9. Sindigawo

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located in Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and is about 8 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters and 72 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average time
to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. There are about 2000 inhabitants in the community
with an average household size of 14persons.
There are community development associations in the community such as women
association, farmers association, elders forum and youth association with the aim of
improving farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community
development thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main
productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on
for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons,
widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important
role in community development activities. The main leader in the community is the village
head; and with leaders of various associations and religious leaders resolve disputes within
the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance
through selection within the royal family and major decisions are taken collectively.
Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan and civil service. Land ownership in the
community is by the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school and a secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 20mins/1km. The number of
students currently enrolled in the primary school is 450 comprising of 200 males and 250
females, and with teacher to student ratio of 1:45, while the number of students currently
enrolled in the junior secondary school is 300 comprising of 160 males and 140 females, and
with teacher to student ratio of 1:50. The primary school has 1 classroom block, while the
secondary school has 2 classroom blocks. There is a staff room in both schools, no toilet in
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the primary school and water in both schools. The environment is conducive for meaningful
learning. The communities using this facility are Mararaba, Labare, Bila, Waka, Chakawa,
Dungel andSakawa.
There is a dispensary in the community with 2 staff. The average distance to facility by users
is 500 meters. The source of water at the centre is water from the stream but there is no toilet
facility. The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. There are 2 herbal healing
homes and 1 traditional bone healing home.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole and a well. The average distance to
water source is 200 meters. The sources of human waste disposal are pit toilet (20%) and
bush (80%). The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (75%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (15%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (6%) and modern
cement block with zinc roof (4%).
The road to the community is very bad. The main means of transportation are motorcycles,
trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community
road per week. The community is not connected to public source of power. The main source
of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain having
strong signal, while MTN has weak signal. There is a multipurpose civic center but there is
no police station, no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include water, hospital rehabilitation, skill
acquisition centre and electricity.

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4.2.1.10. Kaurami

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located in Ndikong ward of Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area and is
about 22 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Mayo-Belwa and 53 kilometers from the
State capital Yola. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with an average
household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations in the community such as youths association
and farmers association with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of
members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic
development of the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is
their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has
vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, elders, leaders of various
associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they
arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance where appointment is made
within the royal family. Major decisions are taken collectively and the leadership is usually
stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan and hired labour. Land ownership in the
community is by individuals, family and family.

Community infrastructure
There is a public primary school in the community with 5 teachers. The average time/distance
of the school from within the community is 20mins/1km. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 135 comprising of 80 males and 55 females, and with teacher to
student ratio of 1:7. The primary school has 1 classroom block, a staff, pit toilet and no water.
The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is no health center in the community but there is one traditional bone healing home.
The community sources of water are: well, hand pump borehole and stream. The main source
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of human waste disposal is the bush as most houses in the community do not have toilet
facility. The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (90%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (7%) and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (3%).
The road to the community is in bad condition and is not tarred. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 200 vehicles
plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public
source of power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of
GSM network, with GLO having strong signal, while MTN and Zain having weak signals.
There is no multipurpose civic center and no police station. There is no skill acquisition
center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity
homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the
community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include clinic, good road, additional
classroom blocks in primary school, water and electricity.

Shared use of water on a flood plain among women

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4.2.2. GUYUK LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.2.2.1. Walu
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Walu is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 8 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 121 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town is 35 minutes. The community is largely dominated by
the Longuda ethnic group with very few other minority groups such as the Hausas and
Fulanis. There are about 2900 inhabitants in the community with an average household size
of 13 persons. The major religion in the village is Christianity.
There are community development associations such as Charity Development Association,
Kahama Women Development Association and Dulchunele Youth Development Association
in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment and enhancing
community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland, which
they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the
disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village
play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head, various association leaders and Amna Puro who resolve
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
by election and it is rotational, and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is
usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by the family
Community infrastructure
In the community, there are three primary schools namely; Walu 1, Walu 2 and Walu 3
primary schools. The average time/distance of the schools from within the community is 5-
10mins/200 meters. The number of students currently enrolled in the three primary schools is:
Walu 1 - 300 comprising of 200 males and 100 females; Walu 2 – 150 comprising of 90
males and 60 females; and Walu 3 – 110 comprising of 62 males and 48 females. The teacher
to student ratio in the three primary schools is 1:37.5, 1:30 and 1:27 respectively. The
primary schools have 12, 8 and 6 classes respectively. In each of the schools there is a staff
room, no toilet facilities and no water supply. The environment is conducive for meaningful
learning.
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There is a dispensary in the community with only three medical staff. The health center is not
furnished having only 2 chairs and 2 tables. The common ailment afflicting community
members is malaria and diarrhea, and the average time to the clinic is 5-10 minutes. There is
no water source and no toilet in the dispensary, but there is routine immunization of children
under five years. There are also 10 herbal traditional healing homes and 3 traditional bone
healing homes.
The community only source of water is the stream, and the average time to fetch water from
the stream is 30 minutes. The water from this stream is accessible year round but is polluted
as revealed by laboratory analysis; hence there are reported cases of water borne diseases.
About 95% of households have no toilets in their houses; hence use the bush for human waste
disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof
(85%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is very bad and difficult to access. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average
of 20 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community has no access to
electricity and the major source of power being kerosene lantern (99%) and with very few
private generators (1%). Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the
availability of GSM network, with Zain, having strong signals while MTN and GLO have
weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problem in
the community is erosion and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include portable water, road construction,
well equipped health centre, and electricity supply.

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4.2.2.2. Bodeno
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Bodeno is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 7
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 130 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. The community is largely
dominated by the Lunguda ethnic group with very few other minority groups such as the
Hausas and Fulanis. There are about 5000 inhabitants in the community with an average
household size of 9 persons. The major religion in the village is Christianity.
There are community development associations such as Fishermen Association, Women
Association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland, which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community
has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, ward head, youth leader,
women leader and Amna Puro who resolve disputes within the community whenever they
arise. Leadership in the community is usually by election and it is rotational, and major
decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community are farming and fishing with other minor
economic activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land
is usually owned by the family
Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school. The average time/distance of the schools from
within the community is 5-10mins/200 meters. The number of students currently enrolled in
the primary school is 1000 comprising of 600 males and 400 females. The teacher to student
ratio in the school is 1:143. The primary school has 6 classes and pupils from Kaule and
Doma communities use the school. In the school there is a staff room, no toilet facilities, no
library and no water supply. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is no clinic or dispensary in the community; thus, residents have to take sick people to
health centres outside their community. There is one herbal traditional healing home, two
traditional maternity homes and one traditional bone healing home.
The community source of water is a well dug by the government in 1991 and a stream. The
average time to fetch water from the stream is 30 minutes. The water from the stream is
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available all year round but is not good for drinking as revealed by laboratory analysis; hence
there are reported cases of water borne diseases. About 97% of households have no toilets in
their houses; hence use the bush for human waste disposal. The predominant type of housing
in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (75%), wood/mud with zinc roof (17%),
mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (5%) and modern cement block with zinc roof
(3%).
The road to the community is very bad and difficult to access. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles, motor car/buses and canoes. An
average of 700 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community has no
access to electricity and the major source of power being kerosene lantern (97%) and with
very few private generators (3%). Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the
availability of GSM network, with Zain, having strong signals while MTN and GLO have
weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problem in
the community is erosion, flooding and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include portable water, a clinic/dispensary,
secondary school, road construction and electricity supply.

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4.2.2.3. Lokoro
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Lokoro is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 7
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 92 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. The community is largely
dominated by the Lunguda ethnic group with very few other minority groups such as the
Hausas and Fulanis. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with an average
household size of 8 persons.
There are community development associations such as Kungiyar rayar gari, Women
Association, Alfarma group, Gumniba group, Kasifa group, Youths association, Gumniba
group and Lokoro workers association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland, which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community
has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, ward head, various
association leaders and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by election and it is rotational,
and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by the family
Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary and a junior secondary school. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 5-10mins/100 meters. The number
of students currently enrolled in the primary school is 450 comprising of 200 males and 250
females, while that of the secondary school is 60 comprising of 35 males and 25 females. The
teacher to student ratio in the primary school is 1:32, while that of the junior secondary
school is 1:11. The communities using this facility include Kawu, Lakeru, Gunda and
Sukeye. The primary school has 3 class room blocks of 8 classes, while the junior secondary
school has one class room block. In both schools there is a staff room, a pit toilet and no
water supply. The environment is however conducive for meaningful learning.

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There is a clinic in the community with five medical staff and having 10 beds for patients.
The health center is not furnished and the communities using this facility are Gunda, Kawu,
Sukele and Lokeru. The common ailment afflicting community members is malaria, cough
and diarrhea. The average time to the clinic is 5-10 minutes. There is no water source and no
toilet facilities in the clinic, but there is routine immunization of children less than five years.
There are also 3 herbal traditional healing homes and 1 traditional bone healing home.
The community only source of water is the stream, and the average time to fetch water from
the stream is 30 minutes. The water from this stream is accessible year round but is polluted
as revealed by laboratory analysis; hence there are reported cases of water borne diseases.
About 90% of households have no toilets in their houses; hence use the bush for human waste
disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof
(70%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is very bad and difficult to access. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average
of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community has access to
electricity with 85% of inhabitants connected to public power source. Their main source of
cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and
GLO having strong signals. There is a multipurpose civic center, a customary court and a
market. There is no security post, and no skill acquisition center. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. Religious
body and individuals support the physically challenged and vulnerable groups in the
community. The common environmental problem in the community is erosion, flooding and
bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include portable water, renovation of
health centre, additional class room blocks in secondary school and road construction.

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4.2.2.4. Chikila
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Chikila is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 25
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 97 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 30 minutes. The community is largely
dominated by the Longuda ethnic group with very few other minority groups such as the
Hausas and Fulanis. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with an average
household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as Kichumina group, Wunkite youth
club, Women group, Chibakaliwa Gumna group and G20 group in the community with the
aim of improving farming activities, empowerment and enhancing community development
thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive
resource available to the villagers is their farmland, which they highly depend on for their
livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and
the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in
community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head,
ward head, various association leaders and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the
community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by election and it is
rotational, and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by the family
Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary and a Government Day secondary school. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 5-10mins/100 meters. The number
of students currently enrolled in the primary school is 530 comprising of 180 males and 350
females, while that of the secondary school is 1500 comprising of 700 males and 800
females. The teacher to student ratio in the primary school is 1:38, while that of the junior
secondary school is 1:75. The communities using this facility include Lamza, Lokeru, Gunda
and Sukeye. The primary school has 4 class room blocks of 10 classes, while the Government
Day secondary school has 6 class room blocks of 12 classes. In both schools there is a staff
room, 3 toilets in the secondary school and 2 toilets in the primary school. However, there is
no water supply. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
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There is a clinic in the community with nine medical staff and having 10 beds for patients.
The health center is not furnished. The common ailment afflicting community members is
malaria, diarrhea and cholera. The average time to the clinic is 5-10 minutes. There is a well
in the clinic and also one toilet for human waste disposal. There is routine immunization of
children less than five years. There are 4 herbal traditional healing homes and 1 traditional
bone healing home.
The community source of water is a well and a stream, and the average time to fetch water
from the stream is 30 minutes. The water from these water sources is accessible year round
but is not good for human consumption as revealed by laboratory analysis; hence there are
reported cases of water borne diseases. About 90% of households have no toilets in their
houses; hence use the bush and road side bush paths for human waste disposal. The
predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (70%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (7%) and modern
cement block with zinc roof (3%).
The road to the community is very bad and difficult to access. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average
of 50 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community has access to
electricity although only 50% of the inhabitants are connected to public power source. The
remaining half still depends on kerosene lantern. Their main source of cooking fuel is
firewood. There is the availability of GSM network but all have weak signals. There is no
multipurpose civic center, but there is market stalls, a court, police station and skill
acquisition centre. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take
care of the vulnerable groups. Religious body and individuals support the physically
challenged and vulnerable groups in the community. The common environmental problem in
the community is erosion, flooding and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include portable water, laterization of the
earthen road, renovation of health centre, additional class room blocks in secondary school
and additional blocks in the market.

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4.2.2.5. Boshikiri
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Boshikiri is in Dumna ward located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is
about 100 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 110 kilometers from the State
capital Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 45 minutes. There are over 3000
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as Wunkithe Development Association
and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities,
empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to
the economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community
has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, Amna Puro, Unit head,
leaders of various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the
community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection through
democratic process and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics and civil service. Community land is usually owned
by the community and individual families.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary and secondary school in the community. The average time/distance of the
schools from within the community is 10mins/500 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 1500 comprising of 700 males and 800 females, while in the
secondary school is 600 comprising of 320 males and 280 females. The teacher to student
ratio in the primary school is 1:45, while that in the secondary school is 1:43. The primary
school has 6 classes while the secondary school has 9 classes. In both schools there are staff
rooms and two pit toilets each but no water source. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.
There is a clinic in the community with six medical staff. The source of water at the health
centre is a well, and the clinic has 3 beds for patients. There is also a pit toilet where human
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wastes are disposed. The common ailments treated at the centre include malaria fever and
diarrhea/dysentery.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed by the Local
government in 1976. The average distance to water source is about 400 meters. The common
source of human waste disposal include: bush (80%), pit toilet (10%) and other sources
(10%). Majority of households have no toilets in their houses; hence use the bush for human
waste disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with
thatched roof (55%), wood/mud with zinc roof (25%), mud plastered with cement with zinc
roof (15%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is tarred but may require some rehabilitation. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 1000 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is
connected to public power source although many houses still use kerosene lantern. Their
main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain,
MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center but the
community has a police security post. There is no skill acquisition center and but the
community has a market and a court. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are erosion and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include water, improved health care
facilities and road.

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4.2.2.6. Tudun Guyuk
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Tudun Guyuk is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 4
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 115 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 25 minutes. There are over 3000
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 9 persons.
There are community development associations such as Women Association and Youth
Association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of
members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic
development of the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is
their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has
vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, wakili, Amna Puro, Unit
head, leaders of various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the
community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection through
democratic process and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Community land is
usually owned by families.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community. The average time/distance of the schools from
within the community is 5-10mins/400 meters. The number of students currently enrolled in
the primary school is 600 comprising of 250 males and 350 females with the teacher to
student ratio of 1:86. The school has 6 classes of 3 blocks, a staff room and one pit toilet.
There is however no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a clinic in the community with three medical staff and one bed for patients. There is
no water at the clinic but there is a pit toilet where human wastes are disposed. The common
ailments treated at the centre include malaria and diarrhea/dysentery. Additionally, there is
one herbal healing home and one traditional maternity home.
The community source of water is a stream. The average distance to water source is about
1km and inhabitants of the community have to treck for about 30 minutes to fetch water.
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Laboratory analysis of the water has revealed that it is contaminated and posses serious health
hazard. The common source of human waste disposal is the bush (90%) because majority of
households have no toilet facilities in their houses. The predominant type of housing in the
community is wood/mud with thatched roof (70%), wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud
plastered with cement with zinc roof (7%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (3%).
The earthen road to the community is in a very bad shape and makes transportation difficult.
The main means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles
and motor car/buses. An average of 40 vehicles plies the existing community road per week.
Only about 20% of the houses are connected to NEPA with the rest resorting to the use of
kerosene lantern.T Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of
GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. There are two privately
owned multipurpose civic center where people pay for the facility before they could use
them. However, the community has no police security post, no skill acquisition center, no
market stalls and no court. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity
homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the
community are erosion and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include water, improved health care
facilities and road.

143
4.2.2.7. Lakumna
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Lakumna is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 3
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 110 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 25 minutes. There are about 2500
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 8 persons.
There are community development associations such as Women Group and Youth Forum in
the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of members and
enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which
they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the
disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village
play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head, leaders of various associations and religious leaders who
resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is
usually by selection through democratic process and major decisions are taken collectively.
Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Community land is
usually owned by families.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community. The average time/distance of the school from
within the community is 10-20mins/500 meters. The number of students currently enrolled in
the primary school is 400 comprising of 150 males and 250 females, and with teacher to
student ratio of 1:44. The school has one class room block of 6 classrooms, a staff room and
one pit toilet. There is however no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful
learning.
There is no clinic in the community but there are however 5 herbal healing homes and one
traditional bone healing home.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed in 2002by the local
government. The average distance to water source is about 300meters and the borehole is
function all year round. The common source of human waste disposal is the bush (90%)
because majority of households do not have toilet facilities in their houses. The type of
144
housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (50%), wood/mud with zinc roof
(30%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%) and modern cement block with zinc
roof (5%).
The condition of earthen road to the community is in a very bad shape and makes
transportation difficult. The main means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking,
trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average of 50 vehicles plies the
existing community road per week. The main source of power in the community is kerosene
lantern, while their source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic
center, no market stalls and no security post. There is however a skill acquisition center
established in 2008 by the government. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are erosion and bush burning. The major community needs according to
priority include water, a clinic, additional classroom blocks in primary school, electricity and
road construction.

145
4.2.2.8. Bobini
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
Bobini community is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 25 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 135 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. There are about 8000 inhabitants in the
community with an average household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as Bobini Development Association,
Gumnama Association, Kungiyan Maharba Association and Youth Association in the
community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of members and
enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which
they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the
disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village
play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head, unit head, leaders of various associations and religious
leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the
community is usually rotational by selection through democratic process and major decisions
are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Community land is
usually owned by families.

Community infrastructure
There are two primary schools in the community, namely; Bobini I and Bobini II primary
schools. There are also two secondary schools, namely; GDSS Bobini and GJSS Bobini. The
average time/distance of the schools from within the community is 20mins/500 meters. The
number of students currently enrolled in Bobini I primary school is 500 comprising of 150
males and 350 females, while in Bobini II is 250 comprising of 150 males and 100 females.
Consequently, the number of students currently enrolled in GDSS Bobini is 300 comprising
of 180 males and 120 females, while that of GJSS Bobini is 390 comprising of 270 males and
120 females. The teacher to student ratio in the two primary schools is 1:42 and 1:62.5
respectively, while for the secondary schools are 1:60 and 1: 78 respectively. Bobini I
primary school has 4 classes, Bobini II has 3 classes, while GDSS has 9 classes and GJSS has
146
6 classes. GDSS Bobini has a laboratory, while Bobini I primary school has a library. All the
schools have a staff room but only the GDSS has toilet facility for disposal of human waste.
There is no water in all the schools.
There is a primary health centre in the community with 9 staff. Average time to the clinic is 5
minutes. There are ten beds for patients and one pit toilet. There is however no water.
Common ailments treated at the centre are malaria, measles, cholera and common cold. There
is also regular routine immunization of children less than five years. There are also 4 herbal
healing homes and 1 traditional bone healing home.
The community sources of water are: borehole constructed in 1985 and spring water. The
average time to water source is about seven minutes and the borehole is functioning all year
round. The common source of human waste disposal is the bush (70%) because majority of
households do not have toilet facilities in their houses. The type of housing in the community
is wood/mud with thatched roof (60%), wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud plastered with
cement with zinc roof (15%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
The condition of earthen road to the community is very bad and this makes transportation
difficult. The main means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans,
bicycles and motor car/buses. An average of 50 vehicles plies the existing community road
per week. The main source of power in the community is kerosene lantern, while their source
of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain having
strong signal, while GLO has weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no skill
acquisition centres. There are however market stalls, a court and a police station. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding and
bush burning. The major community needs according to priority include water, a clinic, road
construction, electricity and additional class room blocks in the schools.

147
4.2.2.9 . Gugu
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
This community is located in Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 15 kilometers from
the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 100 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average
time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. There are about 6000 inhabitants in the
community with an average household size of 8 persons.
There are community development associations such as Women Association, Hunters
Association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, wakili,
Amna Puro, Unit head, leaders of various associations and religious leaders who resolve
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
by selection through democratic process and major decisions are taken collectively.
Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, fishing, artisan, hunting and civil service.
Community land is usually owned by families.

Community infrastructure
There are two primary schools in the community, namely; Gugu primary school and
Normadic primary school. The average time/distance of the schools from within the
community is 20mins/500 meters. The number of students currently enrolled in Gugu
primary school is 500 comprising of 200 males and 300 females with teacher to student ratio
of 1:38, while students currently enrolled in Normadic primary school is 300 comprising of
200 males and 100 females with teacher to student ratio of 1:33. Gugu primary school has 5
classes while Normadic primary school has 3 classes. There is however no water but the
environment is conducive for meaningful learning. The communities using this facility are
Dangir and Kwadadai.

148
There is a clinic in the community with three medical staff and one bed for patients. There is
no water at the clinic and no toilet facility where human wastes are disposed. The common
ailments treated at the centre include malaria and diarrhea/dysentery. Additionally, there are
two herbal healing homes and one traditional bone healing home. Patients have to be taken to
bigger hospitals to treat complicated cases like cholera and measles.
The community source of water is a stream. The average distance to water source is about
500 meters. Laboratory analysis of the water has revealed that it is contaminated and posses
serious health hazard. The common source of human waste disposal is the bush (85%)
because majority of households do not have toilet facilities in their houses. The predominant
type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (75%), wood/mud with
zinc roof (15%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (7%) and modern cement block
with zinc roof (3%).
There is a tarred road to the community and the condition of the road is good. The main
means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor
car/buses. An average of 2000 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. About
40% of the houses in the community are connected to NEPA while the rest resort to the use
of kerosene lantern. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability
of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. The community has no
multipurpose civic center, no police security post, no skill acquisition center, no market stalls
and no court. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care
of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problem in the community is erosion.
The major community needs according to priority include water, hospital and additional
classroom blocks.

149
4.2.2.10. Pondiwe
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
This community is located in Kola ward of Guyuk Local Government Area and is about 26
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Guyuk and 90 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 30 minutes. There are about 16000 inhabitants
in the community with an average household size of 12 persons.
There are community development associations such as Kafama Women Business
Association, Kulga Farmers Association and Youth Association in the community with the
aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community
development thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main
productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on
for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons,
widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important
role in community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village
head, ward head, leaders of various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes
within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by
election through democratic process and it is rotational. Major decisions are taken
collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, fishing, paid labour and civil service. Community
land is usually owned by families.

Community infrastructure
There are two primary schools in the community, namely; Pondiwe I primary school and
Pondiwe II primary school. The average time/distance of the schools from within the
community is 20mins/500 meters. The number of students currently enrolled in Pondiwe I
primary school is 350 comprising of 150 males and 200 females and with teacher to student
ratio of 1:35, while students currently enrolled in Pondiwe II primary school is 300
comprising of 130 males and 170 females with teacher to student ratio of 1:50. Pondiwe I
primary school has 3 classroom blocks of 7 classes while Pondiwe II primary school has one
classroom block of 2 classes. Both schools have a staff room each, one pit toilet in Pondiwe I
but none in Pondiwe II, and both schools do not have water but the environment is conducive
for meaningful learning.
150
There is a clinic in the community with four medical staff. There is no water at the clinic, no
toilet facility for human wastes disposal and no beds for patients. Average distance of the
facility from the community is 200metres. The common ailment treated at the centre is
malaria. Patients with serious cases have to be taken to bigger hospitals.
The community source of water is a borehole constructed in 2003. The average distance to
water source is about 500 meters. The common source of human waste disposal is the bush
(90%) because most households do not have toilet facilities in their houses. The types of
housing in the community are: wood/mud with thatched roof (65%), wood/mud with zinc
roof (20%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (10%) and modern cement block with
zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and the condition of the road is bad. The main
means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor
car/buses. An average of 50 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The
community is not connected to public source of power; hence kerosene lantern is the only
source of power in the community. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is
the availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. The
community has no multipurpose civic center, no police security post, no court and no skill
acquisition center but has market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problem in
the community is erosion. The major community needs according to priority include water,
provision of electricity, additional classroom blocks, road construction and equipping the
clinic with all the necessary facilities.

Men FGD session

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4,2.3. .Demsa Local Government
4.2.3.1. Farai
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Farai is located in Demsa Local Government Area and is about 3 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters Demsa and 30 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. The community is largely dominated by
the Bachama ethnic. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with an average
household size of 10 persons. The major religion in the village is Christianity.
There are community development associations such as Kauna Development Association,
Women Development Association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of
improving farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community
development thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main
productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland and river (for fishing) which
they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the
disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village
play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head, ward head and religious leaders who resolve disputes within
the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by election from
ruling families and it is rotational, and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is
usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community are farming and fishing with other minor
economic activities such as petty trading, politics, civil service, artisan and hunting.
Community land is usually owned by the community and individuals.
Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school. The average time/distance of the schools from
within the community is 10-15mins/300 meters. The number of students currently enrolled in
the primary school is 118 comprising of 68 males and 50 females. The teacher to student ratio
in the school is 1:8. The primary school has two blocks of 3 classes and pupils from Nzufel
community also using the facility. In the school there are two staff rooms, no toilet facilities,
no library and no water supply. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a primary health centre in the community with six medical staff. The source of water
at the health centre is a well, and the clinic has only one bed for patients. The communities
using this facility include Babuku, Mwamoh, Nzefel and Bushi where inhabitants have to
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travel an average distance of 1 Km to access this facility. The common ailments treated at the
centre include malaria fever, diarrhea and common cold.
The community source of water is one hand pump borehole and a well both constructed by
the community. The average distance to water source is about 200 meters. About 95% of
households have no toilets in their houses; hence use the bush for human waste disposal. The
predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (60%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (15%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).
The road to the community is seasonal and difficult to access. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The main source of
power in the community is kerosene lantern (65%) although some are connected to NEPA
(35%). Their main sources of cooking fuel are firewood and kerosene. There is the
availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no
multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no
market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care
of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problem in the community is erosion
and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include improving health care facilities,
siting of a secondary school, provision good drinking water and road construction.

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4.2.3.2 . Dwam Sakato
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Dwam Sakato is located in Demsa Local Government Area and is about 7
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Demsa and 37 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 35 minutes. The community is largely
dominated by the Bachama ethnic. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with
an average household size of 8 persons.
There are community development associations such as Women Development Association
and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities,
empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to
the economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland and river (for fishing) which they highly depend on for their
livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and
the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in
community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head,
ward head and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they
arise. Leadership in the community is usually by election and major decisions are taken
collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community are farming and fishing with other minor
economic activities such as petty trading, politics, civil service, artisan and hunting.
Community land is usually owned by the community and individuals.
Community infrastructure
In the community, there is no primary or secondary school.
There is a primary health centre in the community with eight medical staff and only 3 beds
for patients. The source of water at the health centre is a well and water from the stream. The
communities using this facility include Goli, Pare, Goro, Kovi, Purdang and Bushi where
inhabitants have to travel an average distance of 1.5Km to access this facility. The common
ailments treated at the centre include malaria fever, diarrhea, labour and common cold. There
is routine immunization of children against killer diseases.
The community source of water is one hand pump borehole provided by the government and
a well constructed by the community. The average distance to water source is about 100
meters. About 55% of households have no toilets in their houses; hence use the bush for
human waste disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with
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thatched roof (60%), wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud plastered with cement with zinc
roof (10%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).
The road to the community is a seasonal road and difficult to access. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The main source of
power in the community is kerosene lantern (40%), NEPA (40%) and other sources (20%).
Their main sources of cooking fuel are firewood and kerosene. There is the availability of
GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose
civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problem in the community is erosion, flooding and bush
burning.
The major community needs according to priority include provision good drinking water,
siting of schools, improving health care facilities and road/culverts/bridge construction.

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4.2.3.3 .Bille
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Bille is located in Demsa Local Government Area and is about 45 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters Demsa and 75 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town is 30 minutes. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the
community with an average household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as Women Development Association
and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities,
empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to
the economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community
has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, ward head and religious
leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the
community is usually by selection and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is
usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is
usually owned by the community and individual families.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a central primary school. The average time/distance of the schools
from within the community is 10-15mins/300 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 540 comprising of 240 males and 300 females. The teacher
to student ratio in the school is 1:45. The primary school has six class room blocks and pupils
from Ntorong, Gadamayo and Bamusa communities use this facility. In the school there are
three staff rooms, one library, a toilet and a water source. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.
There is a maternity centre in the community with ten medical staff. The source of water at
the health centre is a well, and the clinic has six beds for patients. There is also a pit toilet and
wastes are usually buried. The communities using this facility include Biddah, Gansari and
Ntorong where inhabitants have to travel an average distance of 2 Km to access this facility.
156
The common ailments treated at the centre include malaria fever, diarrhea/dysentery and
vomiting.
The community source of water is one hand pump borehole constructed by the Local
government in 2005. The average distance to water source is about 400 meters. The common
source of human waste disposal include: bush (60%), pit toilet (30%) and VIP toilets (10%).
Majority of households have no toilets in their houses; hence use the bush for human waste
disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof
(45%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (30%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (15%).
The road to the community is earth road and difficult to access. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 150 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The main source of
power in the community is kerosene lantern (90%) and private generators (10%). The
community is not connected to public electricity. Their main sources of cooking fuel are
firewood and kerosene. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain having strong
signals with weak signals of GLO. There is no multipurpose civic center but the community
has a police security post. There is no skill acquisition center and but the community has a
market and a court. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to
take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problem in the community is
erosion and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include road construction, provision of
electricity, provision good drinking water and improving health care facilities.

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4.2.3.4. BOLON
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Nassarawo ward of Demsa Local Government Area and is about
9 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Demsa and 40 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 30 minutes. There are about 2000
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 10 persons. Most of the
inhabitants are of the Bachama ethnic group.
There are community development associations such as cultural Association, women
association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, leaders of
various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection through democratic
means by king makers and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Land ownership in
the community is by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 12 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 10mins/500 meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in the primary school is 500 comprising of 200 males and 300 females and
with teacher to student ratio of 1:42. There is one class room block of 2 classes in the school
with no facilities like water, toilet or staff room. The lists of communities using the facility
are Dowaya, Gundale, Ndake, Goyire and Anjufuen. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.

158
There is a clinic in the community with 2 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
are no beds for patients. There is no water and no toilet facility at the centre. The common
ailments treated at the centre include malaria, diarrhea and labour.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole established in 2008 by the
government. The average distance to water source is 200 meters. The common source of
human waste disposal is the bush (85%) because majority of the houses do not toilets for
human waste disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with
thatched roof (70%), wood/mud with zinc roof (15%), mud plastered with cement with zinc
roof (10%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is a seasonal road and is in a very bad condition. The main means
of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor
car/buses. An average of 50 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The
community is not connected to NEPA, thus, their power source is kerosene lantern; while the
main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain,
MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security
post. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include improvement of health care
facilities, construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary school, water and
electricity.

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4.2.3.5. GEJEMBO
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Bille ward of Demsa Local Government Area and is about 25
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Demsa and 45 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 30 minutes. There are about 2500 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 10 persons. Most of the inhabitants are of
the Bille ethnic group.
There are community development associations such as cultural Association, women
association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, leaders of
various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection through democratic
means by king makers and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Land ownership in
the community is by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary and a Junior secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 20mins/2km. The number of
students currently enrolled in the primary school is 212 comprising of 132 males and 80
females, while that of the junior secondary school is 60 comprising 40 male and 20 females.
The teacher to student ratio in the primary school 1:35, while that of the secondary school is
1:30. There are two class room blocks of 2 classes each, while the junior secondary school
has only one class room block. There are staff room in both schools but no facilities like
water and toilet. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.

160
There is a clinic in the community with 2 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
are two beds for patients. The source of water at the clinic is a borehole but there is no toilet
facility for human waste disposal. The common ailments treated at the centre include malaria,
diarrhea and measles.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole established in 2006 by the local
government which is functional. The average distance to water source is 50 meters. The
common source of human waste disposal is the bush (95%) because most households do not
have toilets for human waste disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is
wood/mud with thatched roof (80%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), mud plastered with
cement with zinc roof (8%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (2%).
The earthen road to the community is a seasonal road and is in a very bad condition. The
main means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and
motor car/buses. An average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The
community is not connected to NEPA; hence, their main power source is kerosene lantern,
while the main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network,
with Zain and GLO having strong signal while MTN has weak signal. There is no
multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no
market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care
of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are
erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include improvement of health care
facilities, construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary school, water,
laterization of existing road to the community and provision of electricity.

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4.2.3.6. DONG
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Demsa Local Government Area and is about 32 kilometers from
the LGA headquarters Demsa and 80 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average
time to get to the nearest town is 30 minutes. There are over 7000 inhabitants in the
community with an average household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as Dong Developmet Association,
women association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving
farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development
thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive
resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their
livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and
the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in
community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head,
leaders of various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the
community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection through
democratic means by king makers and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is
usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Land ownership in
the community is by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 17 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 10mins/300 meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in the primary school is 1523 comprising of 823 males and 700 females,
and with teacher to student ratio of 1:90. There are two class room blocks of 6 classes, a
toilet, a staff room but with no water facility. The environment is conducive for meaningful
learning.
There is a clinic in the community with 8 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
are 5 beds for patients. There is a borehole at the centre but no toilet facility. The common
ailments treated at the centre include malaria, diarrhea and typhoid fever. There is routine
immunization of children less than 5 years again child-killer diseases. The average time from
the community to access this facility is 5 minutes.
162
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole established in 1980 by the
community and a well. The average distance to water source is 100 meters. The sources of
human waste disposal are the bush (50%), pit toilet (40%) and road side/bush paths (10%).
The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (35%), wood/mud
with zinc roof (45%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%) and modern cement
block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is seasonal and is in a very bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 1500 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is
not connected to NEPA; hence, their main power source is kerosene lantern; while the main
source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain and
GLO having strong signals, while MTN has weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic
center and no skill acquisition centre. There are market stalls, a police station and a court.
The community however has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of
the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion
and flooding.
The major community needs according to priority include improvement of health care
facilities, additional boreholes, construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary
school, road construction and provision of electricity.

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4.2.3.7. Dem
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
Dem community is located in Kpasham ward of Demsa Local Government Area and is about
70 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Demsa and 100 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The length of road to the nearest town is 20km and the average time to get to the
nearest town is 1hour. There are about 2700 inhabitants in the community with an average
household size of 9 persons. The major religion in the village is Christianity.
There are community development associations such as planners group, social group and
women development association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland and river (for fishing) which they highly depend on
for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons,
widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important
role in community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village
head, ward head and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever
they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection and major decisions are taken
collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community are farming and fishing with other minor
economic activities such as petty trading, politics, civil service, artisan and hunting.
Community land is usually owned by the family.
Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school. The average time/distance of the schools from
within the community is 20 minutes/1km. The number of students currently enrolled in the
primary school is 300 comprising of 180 males and 120 females. The teacher to student ratio
in the school is 1:18. The primary school has one class room block of 2 classes and pupils
from Kaltanga, Bagban, Bakau and Kegbale communities also use the facility. In the school
there is a staff room, no toilet facilities, no library and no water supply. The environment is
conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a primary health centre in the community with two medical staff. The source of
water at the health centre is a borehole, and the clinic has only two beds for patients. Average
time to access the facility within the community is 5 minutes. The common ailments treated

164
at the centre include malaria and diarrhea. There is routine immunization of children under
the age of five against child-killer diseases.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed in February 2010 by the
community. The average distance to water source is about 200 meters. About 90% of
households have no toilets in their houses; hence use the bush for human waste disposal. The
predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (80%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (6%) and modern
cement block with zinc roof (4%).
The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and in very bad condition. The main means
of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor
car/buses. An average of 300 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The main
source of power in the community is kerosene lantern (99%) while the main source of
cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and
GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There
is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as
orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental
problem in the community is erosion and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include additional class room blocks in
primary school, improving health care facilities, provision of additional borehole and road
construction.

165
4.2.3.8. Bwashi
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Demsa Local Government Area and is about 4 kilometers from
the LGA headquarters Demsa and 31 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average
time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about 2500 inhabitants in the
community with an average household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as Himbaro Association, Sinda Masha
Association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, leaders of
various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection through democratic
means by king makers and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Land ownership in
the community is by individuals, family and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 7 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 5mins/200 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 100 comprising of 40 males and 60 females and with teacher
to student ratio of 1:14. There is one class room block of 2 classes in the school with no
facilities like water, toilet or staff room. The environment is conducive for meaningful
learning.
There is no clinic in the community but there is routine immunization of children under the
age of five.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed in 1986 by the
government. The average distance to water source is 200 meters. The common source of
human waste disposal is the bush (90%) because majority of households do not have toilets in
166
their houses. The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (45%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (35%) and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (20%).
The type of road to the community is seasonal road and is in a very bad condition. The main
means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor
car/buses. An average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. About
40% of the community is connected to public power source, while the remaining utilize
kerosene lantern. The the main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of
GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose
civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion, deforestation
and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include provision of clinic, construction of
additional classroom blocks in the primary school, water and road construction..

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4.2.3.9.. Old Demsa
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Demsa Local Government Area and is about 3 kilometers from
the LGA headquarters Demsa and 33 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average
time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about 2700 inhabitants in the
community with an average household size of 9 persons.
There are community development associations such as cultural Association, women
association and Youth Association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, leaders of
various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by election through democratic
means by elders and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community are farming and fishing with other minor
economic activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Land
ownership in the community is by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 11 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 10mins/500 meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in Demsa II primary school is 350 comprising of 150 males and 200
females and with teacher to student ratio of 1:32. There are three class room blocks of 9
classes, a staff room but with no facilities like water, toilet, or library. The environment is
conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a clinic in the community with 5 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
is only one bed for patients. The source of water at the clinic is a borehole but there is no
toilet facility. List of communities using this facility include: Dogon Lamba, Mwamoh and

168
Bwashi. The common ailments treated at the centre include malaria and diarrhea. There is
routine immunization of children under the age of five.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole established in 1982 by the
government. The average distance to water source is 200 meters. The common source of
human waste disposal is the bush (85%) because majority of the houses do not toilets for
human waste disposal. The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched
roof (40%), wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof
(30%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).
The type of road to the community is a seasonal road and is in a very bad condition. The
main means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and
motor car/buses. An average of 50 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. Over
50% of the community is connected to public power source, while the remaining utilize
kerosene lantern. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of
GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose
civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center but there are market
stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the
vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion,
flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include road construction, improvement of
health care facilities, and construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary school,
water and electricity.

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4.2.3.10. Farabuane
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Dong ward of Demsa Local Government Area and is about 24
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Demsa and 54 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about 2200 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 9 persons.
There are community development associations such as women association and Youth
Association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of
members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic
development of the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is
their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has
vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, ward head and religious
leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the
community is usually by selection through democratic means by community elders and major
decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan and hunting. Land ownership in the
community is by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 14 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 10mins/400 meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in the school is 214 comprising of 116 males and 98 females and with
teacher to student ratio of 1:15. There are two class room blocks of 5 classes, a staff room, 3
pit toilets and a borehole. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a clinic in the community with 2 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
are no beds for patients. There is no water and no toilet facility at the centre. The common
ailments treated at the centre include malaria, typhoid fever, diarrhea and labour.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed in 2004 by the
government. The average distance to water source is 1km and the average time to water
source is 45 minutes. The common source of human waste disposal is the bush (90%)

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because majority of the houses do not toilet facility for human waste disposal. The
predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (900%).
The road (earth) to the community is in a very bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is
not connected to NEPA, thus, their power source is kerosene lantern; while the main source
of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain and GLO
having strong signals, while MTN has weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and
no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has
no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include additional boreholes, construction
of additional classroom blocks in the primary school, improvement of health care facilities
and electricity.

Young girl fetching drinking water from a local source

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4.3. Central Senatorial District
4.3.1. Girei Local Government
4.3.1.1. Daneyel
Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community

The village Daneyel is located in the Girei Local Government Area is about 15 kilometers
from the LGA headquarters and 35 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average time
to get to the nearest town Jabbi-Lamba is 45 minutes because of the bad condition of the
road. The village is largely dominated by the Fulani ethnic group and other minority groups
such as the Hausas and Batas. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community. The major
religion in the village is Islam. Average household size in the community is 10.

There are community development associations such as Buburma Daneyel Development


Association and Youth Development Association in the community with the aim of
improving farming activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the village. The resources available to the
villagers are their farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The community head known as Mai-Anguwa solve communal
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
by inheritance and is usually done by democratic means. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious. The religious institutions render assistance to the less privileged members of the
society.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service and politics.

Community Infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary and a Junior Secondary School. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 20mins/500 meters. The number
of students currently enrolled in the primary and secondary schools are 300 and 100
respectively. The teacher to student ratio in the primary school is 1:50 while in the secondary
school it is 1:25. The primary and secondary schools have one class room block each of three
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classes, and each of the school serves five adjoining communities. In the schools there are no
staff room, no toilet facilities and no water supply. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.
There is a maternity clinic in the community. The health center is accessed by an estimated
population of 3000 beneficiaries from five communities. The health center is under
renovation and has 7 beds for patients. The common ailment afflicting community members
is malaria. There is regular routine immunization.

The community source of water is hand-pump borehole (2) and concrete wells (2) located
within the community and is easily accessible. The boreholes were constructed in 1984 and
2009 respectively, while the wells were dug in 1990. The water from these sources is of good
quality and there are no reported cases of water borne diseases. Most households have pit
toilet for human waste disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community are
wood/mud with zinc roof (34%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (42%) and
woo/mud with thatched roof (24%).

The only road to the community is difficult to access in the rainy season. There are collapsed
culverts and bridges, and this explains the reason for the time taken to travel to the nearest
town. An average of 5753 people and 150 vehicles ply the existing community road per
week. The community has no access to electricity at present due to abandonment of
electrification project that started some 13 years ago. Most households rely on kerosene
lantern and just few have private generators. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood.
There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain and GCel having strong signal, while
GLO and MTN have weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post.
There are no skill acquisition center and market stalls in the village. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the vulnerable groups.

The major community needs according to priority include water, additional classroom blocks
in primary and secondary school, Laterization of road and construction of culverts/bridges,
and completion of electrification project.

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4.3.1.2. Kangling
Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community

The community Kangling is located in Girei Local Government Area and is about 21
kilometers from the LGA headquarters and 45 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town is 15 minutes and the length to the nearest town is 5
kilometres. The village is largely dominated by the Bwatiye ethnic group and other minority
groups such as the Hausas and Fulanis. There are about 2500 inhabitants in the community.
The major religion in the village is Christianity. Average household size in the community is
8.

There are community development associations such as Degumun Development Association,


Fukadupwa Development Association and Kangling Development Association in the
community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment and enhancing
community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The resources available to the villagers are their farmland, water bodies for
fishing and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has
vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, religious leaders and
youth leader who resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in
the community is usually by election and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership
is usually stable and harmonious.

The major economic activities in the community are fishing, farming and politics with other
minor economic activities such as petty trading, civil service and hunting. Community land is
usually owned by the family

Community Infrastructure
In the community, there is the presence of a primary school. The average time/distance of the
schools from within the community is 10mins/200 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 270 comprising of 180 males and 90 females. The teacher to
student ratio in the primary school is 1:67.5. The primary school has three class room blocks
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and the school serves adjoining communities. In the school there is a staff room, no toilet
facilities and no water supply. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.

There is a maternity clinic in the community with only three medical staff. The health center
is accessed by beneficiaries from Gwa Kra and Garin Kara communities. The health center is
not furnished and has only 2 beds for patients. The common ailment afflicting community
members is malaria and the average time to the clinic is 5-10 minutes. There is a borehole
and a pit toilet in the maternity clinic, and there is also routine immunization. There are also 5
herbal traditional healing homes, 1 traditional maternity home and 1 traditional bone healing
home.

The community source of water is hand-pump borehole and solar borehole located within the
community and is easily accessible. The borehole was constructed in 1984 by the state
government and the solar borehole in 2009 by MDG. The water from these sources are
accessible year round and are of good quality, and there are no reported cases of water borne
diseases. About 50% of households have pit toilet for human waste disposal, while the
remaining use the bush. The predominant type of housing in the community are wood/mud
with thatched roof (48%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (20%), wood/mud with
zinc roof (22%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).

The road to the community is very bad and difficult to access in the rainy season, and there
are collapsed culverts and bridges. The main means of transportation are motorcycles,
canoes, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average of 30 vehicles plies the existing community
road per week. The community has no access to electricity and the major source of power
being kerosene lantern (98%) and private generators (2%). Their main source of cooking fuel
is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having
strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups.

The major community needs according to priority include road construction, water and
extension of existing clinic.

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4.3.1.3. Dakri Bobbo
Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community
The community Dakri Bobbo is located in Girei Local Government Area is about 9
kilometers from the LGA headquarters and 7 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about 2000 inhabitants in the
community and an average household size of 10.

There are community development associations such as Farmers Association, Cattle Rarers
Association, Fish Sellers Association, Women association Vegetable Sellers Association and
Youth Development Association with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment
and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of
the community. The resources available to the villagers are their farmland and animals which
they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The community head known as Mai-Anguwa solve communal
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
by election and is usually done by nomination. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious
and community decisions are made through group meeting. The major economic activities in
the community are farming, politics, lumbering and artisans with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service and marketing of agricultural commodities.

Community Infrastructure
In the community, there is the presence of a primary school and a Junior Secondary School.
The average time/distance of the schools from within the community is 10mins/200 meters.
The number of students currently enrolled in the primary school is 400 comprising of 300
males and 100 females, while that of the Junior Secondary School is 450 comprising of 300
males and 150 females. The teacher to student ratio in the primary school is 1:50, while that
in the secondary school is 1:45. Other communities using these schools are Damare and
Labondo where pupils have to treck an average of one and half kilometers. The primary
school has six class rooms, one staff room, no water supply and two pit toilets same with that
of the secondary school. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
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There is a clinic in the community with two medical staff who are males. The health center is
accessed by inhabitants from seven communities. The health center is furnished and has only
5 beds for patients. There is a borehole and a pit toilet in the clinic, and the average distance
to facility by users is 150 metres. The common ailment afflicting community members is
malaria. There is regular routine immunization.

The community source of water is hand-pump borehole and solar borehole located within the
community and is easily accessible. The hand pump borehole was constructed in 1978 by
UNICEF while the solar borehole was constructed in 2009 by MDG. The water from these
sources is of good quality and there are no reported cases of water borne diseases. Most
households have pit toilet for human waste disposal, while few use the bush. The
predominant type of housing in the community are wood/mud with zinc roof (38%), mud
plastered with cement with zinc roof (32%), wood/mud with thatched roof (23%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (7%).

The road to the community is very bad and this explains the reason for the time taken to
travel to the nearest town. The community has access to electricity from NEPA although few
households still rely on kerosene lantern and private generators. Their main source of cooking
fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and GLO having
strong signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There are no skill
acquisition center and market stalls in the village. The community has no facilities such as
orphanages, charity homes to take of the vulnerable groups.

The major community needs according to priority include laterization of road, additional
classroom blocks in primary and secondary school, construction of skill acquisition centre
and equipping of the clinic with basic facilities such as delivery kits among others.

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4.3.1.4 . Koh

Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community


The community Koh is located in Girei Local Government Area under Gereng ward, and is
46 kilometers from the LGA headquarters and 40 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The
average time to get to the nearest town Gereng is 15 minutes. The community is largely
dominated by the Bwatiye ethnic group and other minority groups such as the Hausas and
Fulanis. There are about 2900 inhabitants in the community. Average household size in the
community is 10.

There are community development associations such as Fishermen Association, Farmers


association and hunters association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the village. The resources available to the villagers are their
farmland and river (for fishing) which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The
community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The community head known as Khalifa and religious leaders solve
communal disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community
is usually by election and is usually done by democratic means. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious. The religious institutions render assistance to the less privileged members of
the society.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, fishing and politics.

Community Infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school and a Day Secondary School. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 10mins/300 meters. The number
of students currently enrolled in the primary and secondary schools are 290 and 200
respectively. The primary school comprised of 124 males and 166 females, while the
secondary school comprised of 112 males and 88 females. The teacher to student ratio in the
primary school is 1:29. The primary and secondary schools share the same three class room
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blocks and each of the school serves three communities, namely; Yolde, Ndika and Jam. In
the schools there are no staff room, no toilet facilities and no water supply. The environment
is conducive for meaningful learning.

There is a maternity clinic in the community. The health center is accessed by inhabitants
from five communities, namely; Koh, Jatau, Kangling, Faweire and Yolde. The health center
has 10 beds for patient, a borehole and a pit toilet. The common ailment afflicting community
members is malaria and diarrhea/dysentery. There is regular routine immunization.
Additionally, there are also 4 herbal healing homes, 6 maternity homes and 2 traditional bone
healing homes.

The community source of water is a hand-pump borehole constructed in 1986 by the state
government and a well located within the community. Both facilities are easily accessible.
Most households have no toilet facility for human waste disposal; hence have to use the bush.
The predominant type of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (80%),
wood/mud with zinc roof (8%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (10%) and modern
cement block with zinc roof (2%).

The only road to the community is difficult to access in the rainy season and there are
collapsed culverts and bridges. An average of 1000 people and 50 vehicles ply the existing
community road per week. The community has no access to public electricity and most
households rely on kerosene lantern and just few have private generators. Their main source
of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN and
GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There
is no skill acquisition center but there is a weekly market. The community has no facilities
such as orphanages, charity homes to take of the vulnerable groups.

The major community needs according to priority include supply boreholes, additional
classroom blocks in primary and secondary school, Laterization of road and construction of
culverts/bridges.

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4.3.1.5. Njerenga

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

The community is located in Girei II ward of Girei Local Government Area and is about 5
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Girei and 20 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 15 minutes. There are about 1800 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 9 persons.

There are no community development associations in the community. The main productive
resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their
livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and
the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in
community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the community
head (Jauro) and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they
arise. Leadership in the community is usually done by appointment from the village head and
major decisions are taken by collective deliberation. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading and cattle rearing. Land ownership system in the community is
by individuals and the community.

Community Infrastructure
There is no school in the community; hence pupils have to trek to schools in neighbouring
communities. There is also no clinic in the community but there is however routine
immunization. There is however one herbal healing home and one traditional bone healing
home.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed by the government. The
average distance to water source is 100 meters and the water is available all year round. The
common source of human waste disposal is the pit toilet (100%). while the type of housing in
the community is wood/mud with thatched roof (100%).

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The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in a bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and pick up vans. An average of 30
vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to
public source of power; hence, households depend on kerosene lantern as power source.
Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network,
with MTN, Zain and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and
no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has
no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, deforestation and bush
burning.

The major community needs according to priority include clinic, primary school, good access
road and electricity.

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4.3.1.6. Jerra Boyo
Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community
The community is a ward in Girei Local Government Area and is about 35 kilometers from
the LGA headquarters Girei and 40 kilometers from the State capital Yola. The average time
to get to the nearest town is 40 minutes. There are about 7, 000 inhabitants in the community
with an average household size of 10 persons.

There are community development associations such as Hunters association and Farmers
association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of
members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic
development of the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is
their farmland and animals which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community
has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the Village head (Maijamila), Jauros and religious leaders who
resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is
usually by inheritance and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious. The community is dominated by Fulani ethnic group and with other minor
ethnic groups such as Bwatiyes and the Hausas. The dominant religion is Islam.

The major economic activities in the community are farming and rearing of animals, while
minor economic activities include petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service.
Communal system of land ownership prevails in the community.

Community Infrastructure
There are 4 primary schools in the community, namely; Jerra Boyo (having 6 classrooms),
Gada mayo (having 5 classrooms), Kara (having 2 classrooms) and Abba Murke primary
school (having 5 classrooms). There is also a Junior secondary school in the community. The
average time/distance of the schools from within the community is 20mins/500meters. The
number of students currently enrolled in Jerra Boyo primary school is 600 comprising of 400
males and 200 females, and with teacher to student ratio 1:67; Gada Mayo primary school has
400 pupils comprising of 250 males and 150 females and with teacher to students ratio of
1:80; Karal primary school has 250 pupils comprising of 150 males and 100 females and with
teacher to students ratio of 1:83, and Abba Murke primary school has 300 pupils comprising
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of 170 males and 130 females and with teacher to students ratio of 1:43. The secondary
school has a student population of 100 comprising of 63 males and 37 females and with
teacher to students ratio of 1:14. The lists of communities using these facilities are Abba
Murke, Passa Gida, Wuro mala and Fadde Jauro. There is a staff room in all the schools,
Jerra Boyo and Gada Mayo have one toilet facility each, while Jerra Boyo and Abba Murke
have boreholes to provide the water needs of the schools. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.

There is a maternity clinic in the community with only one qualified medical staff. The clinic
is furnished and has 9 beds for patients. The source of water at the clinic is a borehole and
there is toilet for human waste disposal. The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria,
minor accident cases and labour. The average distance to facility by user is 300meters.

The community sources of water are hand pump boreholes and industrial borehole. and all
are functional. The average distance to water source is 100 meters. The common source of
human waste disposal is pit toilet (100%), while the types of housing in the community are
wood/mud with thatched roof (30%), wood/mud with zinc roof (40%), mud plastered with
cement with zinc roof (20%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).

The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and there are so many collapsed culverts and
bridges. Accessibility is usually a problem during heavy storms. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 500 vehicles
plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public
source of power; hence, most households use kerosene lantern with very few personal
generators. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network but all have weak signals. There is no multipurpose civic center, no market stalls and
no security post, but there is however a skill acquisition center. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include electrification of the community,
construction of additional classroom blocks in the Junior secondary school, upgrading of the
maternity clinic since it is serving many communities and laterization of existing road to the
community.
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4.3.1.7. Laide Danfulani
Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of the Community

This community is located in Damare ward of Girei Local Government Area and is about 9
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Girei and 4 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The length of road to the nearest town is 3km and the average time to get to the nearest town
is 10 minutes. The estimated population of the community is 2500 with an average household
size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as Farmers Association, Youths
association and Women association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland, which they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, various
association leaders and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance and major
decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as hired labour, petty trading, civil service and artisan. Community land is
usually owned by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with 26 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 20mins/1km. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 450 comprising of 250 males and 200 females. The teacher
to student ratio in the school is 1:17. The school has 4 class room blocks of 6 classes, 2 staff
rooms, 2 toilets but no water facility. The communities using this facility are Badirisa, Laide
and Bajabure Federal Housing. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is no clinic in the community, but there is routine immunization of children under the
age of five years.

184
The community source of water is a well and a hand pump borehole. The average time and
distance to water source is 10minutes/500meters and the water is accessible throughout the
year. Majority of households in the community (90%) have pit toilets in their houses. The
types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (20%), wood/mud with
zinc roof (50%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (25%) and modern cement block
with zinc roof (5%).

The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in a bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 20 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not
connected to public power source; hence inhabitants use kerosene lantern (100%) for source
of power in the community. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the
availability of GSM network, with Zain, GLO and MTN having strong signals. There is no
multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center but there
are market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take
care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are
deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include road construction, construction of
additional class room blocks, a clinic, boreholes and electricity.

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4.3.1.8. Dakri Alhaji Bakari

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located in Dakri ward of Girei Local Government Area and is about 9
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Girei and 7 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
There are about 2000 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 8
persons.
There are community development associations in the community such as development
association, youths association and farmers association with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leader in the community is the village head who in
collaboration with elders, leaders of various associations and religious leaders resolve
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
by election and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, lumbering, politics, artisan and hired labour. Land ownership
in the community is by individuals.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school and a junior secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the school from within the community is 15mins/300 meters. The number of
students currently enrolled in the primary school is 400 comprising of 300 males and100
females, and with teacher to student ratio of 1:50; while that of the junior secondary school is
430 comprising of 230 males and 200 females. Both schools have 2 classroom blocks each,
one toilet but no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a dispensary in the community with 4 medical staff. The average distance to facility
by users is 500meters. The source of water at the center is a borehole and there is pit toilet.
The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. There is routine immunization of
children.
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The community source of water is borehole and the average distance to water source is
50meters. The source of human waste disposal in the community is the pit toilet. The types of
housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (20%), wood/mud with zinc roof
(30%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (45%) and modern cement block with zinc
roof (5%).
The road network to the community is good. The main means of transportation are
motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. The community is connected to public source
of power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network, with Zain, MTN, GCel and GLO have strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic
center and no police station. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding,
deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include water, skill acquisition centers and
market.

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4.3.1.9.Bajabure

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located in Damare ward of Girei Local Government Area and is about 9
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Girei and 2 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 7
persons.
There are community development associations in the community such as hunters association
and youths association with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of
members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic
development of the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is
their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has
vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leader in the community is the village head who in collaboration with
elders, leaders of various associations and religious leaders resolve disputes within the
community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance and
major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan and hired labour. Land ownership in the
community is by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school and a junior secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the school from within the community is 10mins/500 meters. The number of
students currently enrolled in the primary school is 1018 comprising of 302 males and716
females, and with teacher to student ratio of 1:23; while that of the junior secondary school is
135 comprising of 55 males and 80 females. Both schools have 5 classroom blocks each, staff
rooms and toilet facilities. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a dispensary in the community with 6 medical staff. The average distance to facility
by users is 500meters. There is no water and toilet facility at the center. The common ailment
treated at the centre is malaria. There is routine immunization of children.
The community source of water is borehole and the average distance to water source is
50meters. The common source of human waste disposal in the community is the pit toilet.

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The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (20%), wood/mud
with zinc roof (30%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (35%) and modern cement
block with zinc roof (15%).
The road network to the community is not tarred and is in bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. The community is
connected to public source of power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is
the availability of GSM network, with Zain, MTN, GCel and GLO have strong signals. There
is a multipurpose civic center and market stalls. There is however no skill acquisition center
and no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning. The major community needs according to priority include road, additional
classroom blocks, water and quarters for the clinic staff.

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4.3.1.10. Karewa

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located in Girei I ward of Girei Local Government Area and is about 7
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Girei and 17 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
There are about 2000 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 10
persons.
There are community development associations in the community such as hunters
association, Miyetti Allah association and farmers association with the aim of improving
farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development
thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive
resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their
livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and
the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in
community development activities. The main leader in the community is the Jauro who in
collaboration with elders, leaders of various associations and religious leaders resolve
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
by selection and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, hunting, politics, artisan and hired labour. Land ownership is
by inheritance and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 8 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 10mins/300 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 300 comprising of 200 males and100 females, and with teacher to
student ratio of 1:42. The school has 2 classroom blocks, no staff room, no toilet and no
water. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is no clinic in the community. Their source of water is a borehole constructed in 1984
and the average distance to water source is 100meters. The source of human waste disposal in
the community is the pit toilet. The type of housing in the community is wood/mud with
thatched roof (100%).
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The road network to the community is in bad condition. The main means of transportation
are motorcycles, trekking and bicycles. The community is not connected to public source of
power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network, with Zain, MTN, GCel and GLO have strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic
center and no police station. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding,
deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include clinic, road construction and
additional boreholes.

A youth FGD session

191
4.3.2. GOMBI LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.3.2.1. Gadamaisaje
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community Gadamaisaje is located in Gombi Local Government Area and is about 3
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 117 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 25 minutes. There are 2800 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 10 persons. Most of the inhabitants are
Hausa migrants who have settled there for a long time.

There are community development associations such as Gadamaisaje Community


Development Association, Zumunci Community Association, First Aid Group and Youth
Association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of
members and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic
development of the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is
their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has
vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head (Jauro), wakili, leaders of
various associations and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by selection through democratic
process and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, hunting and civil service. Land ownership in
the community is by individuals, inheritance and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community without structures but with 3 teachers. The
average time/distance of the schools from within the community is 10mins/500 meters. The
number of students currently enrolled in the primary school is 110 comprising of 62 males
and 48 females with teacher to student ratio of 1:37. There are no classes in the school let
alone facilities like water, toilet or staff room. Pupils receive lectures under tree shade. The
environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
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There is no clinic or any health facility. The community source of water is a hand pump
borehole established in 2008 and a well dug in 1963. The average distance to water source is
150 meters. Laboratory analysis of the well water has revealed that it is contaminated and
posses serious health hazard. The common source of human waste disposal is the pit toilet
(95%). The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with thatched roof
(80%), wood/mud with zinc roof (15%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (3%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (2%).

The earthen road to the community is in a very bad shape and makes transportation difficult.
The main means of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, trucks/pick up vans, bicycles
and motor car/buses. An average of 40 vehicles plies the existing community road per week.
The community is not connected to NEPA, thus, their power source is kerosene lantern. Their
main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain,
MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security
post. There is no skill acquisition center but there are market stalls. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, deforestation and bush
burning.

The major community needs according to priority include primary school, clinic, water and
electricity.

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4.3.2.2 .Parijo

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


This community is located in Guyaku ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is about
16 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 128 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. The estimated population of
the community is 2,000 with an average household size of 10 persons.
There are community development associations such as youth association and religious
groups in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment and
enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland, which
they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the
disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village
play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head (jauro), various association leaders and religious leaders who
resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is
usually by election and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by individuals and family.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with ten teachers. The average time/distance of
the schools from within the community is 30mins/3km. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 216 comprising of 100 males and 116 females. The teacher
to student ratio in the school is 1:22. The school has three class room blocks of nine classes
where pupils from neighbouring community Tuffa also use the facility. There is no staff
room, no toilet facilities and no water supply in the school. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.

There is no clinic in the community but there are 3 herbal traditional healing homes.
However, there is regular routine immunization of children under the age of five years. The
community source of water is a hand pump borehole provided by the state government in
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1999. The average time to fetch water from the borehole is 5 minutes and the water is
accessible year round. About 95% of households have pit toilets in their houses for human
waste disposal. The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof
(40%), wood/mud with zinc roof (35%), and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof
(25%).

The road to the community is not tarred and is in a very bad shape. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is
not connected to public power source; hence majority of the inhabitants use kerosene lantern
(99%) and with very few private generators (1%). Their main source of cooking fuel is
firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain, having strong signals while
MTN and GLO have weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post.
There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such
as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common
environmental problems in the community are deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include well equipped health centre,
additional boreholes, construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary school, road
construction, and electricity supply.

195
4.3.2.3. Mijuwana
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

This community is located in Guyaku ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is about
16 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 126 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The length of road to the nearest town is 2km and the average time to get to the nearest
town is 10 minutes. The estimated population of the community is 2,000 with an average
household size of 8 persons.

There are community development associations such as youth association, women


association and farming association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland, which they highly depend on for their livelihood.

The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head (Jauro),
various association leaders and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually democratic and major decisions
are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by individuals.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with ten teachers. The average time/distance of
the schools from within the community is 10mins/200meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in the primary school is 186 comprising of 80 males and 106 females. The
teacher to student ratio in the school is 1:19. The school has only one class room block but in
a very bad condition. The roof is blown off by windstorm; hence pupils attend classes under
trees and in the classes with blown-off roof. Any time it rains there would be no school. The
primary school is used by 4 neighboring communities. There is no staff room, no toilet
196
facilities and no water supply in the school but the environment is conducive for meaningful
learning.

There is a dispensary in the community with 4 medical staff. The dispensary is not furnished
and there are no beds for patients. The average distance to the facility is 400 meters. There is
no toilet facility in the dispensary and no water. However, there is regular routine
immunization of children under the age of five years. The common ailment treated at the
dispensary is malaria. Additionally, the community has one herbal healing home and one
traditional bone healing home.
The community source of water is a well dug two years ago by the community. The average
time to fetch water from the well is 5 minutes and the water is accessible year round. Water
from the well is however of good quality from the result of the analysis. About 95% of
households have pit toilets in their houses for human waste disposal. The types of housing in
the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (40%), wood/mud with zinc roof (35%),
and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (25%).

The road to the community is not tarred and in a bad shape. The community is not accessible
whenever there is a heavy downpour. The main means of transportation are motorcycles,
trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average of 200 vehicles plies
the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public power
source; hence majority of the inhabitants use kerosene lantern (99%) and with very few
private generators (1%). Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the
availability of GSM network, with Zain, having strong signals while MTN and GLO have
weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include construction of additional class
room blocks and renovating the existing ones, renovating the existing dispensary, boreholes,
road construction and electricity.

197
4.3.2.4. Bebe
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

This community is located in Guyaku ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is about
18 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 124 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The length of road to the nearest town is 18km and the average time to get to the
nearest town is 1 hour. The estimated population of the community is 1200 with an average
household size of 8 persons. The major ethnic group of the inhabitants is Hona.

There are community development associations such as youth association and women
association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment
and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of
the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland,
which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such
as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the
village play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head (Jauro), various association leaders and religious leaders who
resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is
usually democratic and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by individuals.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with six teachers. The average time/distance of
the schools from within the community is 5mins/100meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in the primary school is 170 comprising of 80 males and 90 females. The
teacher to student ratio in the school is 1:28. The school has only one functional class room
block of two classes. The other two blocks built with mud have collapsed and the building
taken over by grasses. The primary school is used by 3 neighboring communities, namely;
Yilaba, Sabon Kaura and Farmichu. There is no staff room, no toilet facilities and no water
supply in the school but the environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
198
There is a dispensary in the community with 4 medical staff. The dispensary is not furnished
and there are four beds for patients. The average distance to the facility is 200 meters. There
is no toilet facility in the dispensary and no water. However, there is regular routine
immunization of children under the age of five years. The common ailment treated at the
dispensary is malaria and diarrhea. The communities using this facility are Chiyana, Yilaba,
Farmichu, Gulba, Kuluwa and Diya. Additionally, the community has four herbal healing
homes.

The community sources of water include a shallow well located about 1km away from the
community and a well within the community. There is serious water problem in the dry
season due to the drying up of the wells; hence so many shallow wells are dug around fadama
area to access water. Laboratory analyses of water from the two wells reveal that the water is
not good for drinking because it poses serious health hazard. This is the reason for the
frequent cases of typhoid fever and cholera in the community. The average time to fetch
water from the shallow well is 20 minutes. About 98% of households have no toilet facilities
in their houses; hence use the bush for human waste disposal. The types of housing in the
community are wood/mud with thatched roof (90%) and wood/mud with zinc roof (10%).

The road to the community is seasonal and in a very bad shape. The community is not
accessible whenever there is a heavy downpour. The main means of transportation are
motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average of 10
vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to
public power source; hence majority of the inhabitants use kerosene lantern (99%) and with
very few use private generators (1%). Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is
the availability of GSM network, with Zain, having strong signals while MTN has weak
signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include drilling of boreholes, road
construction, renovation of the dispensary, renovation of collapsed classroom blocks, and
electricity supply.
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4.3.2.5. Gudumiya
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

This community is located in Gombi North ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is
about 7 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 122 kilometers from the State
capital Yola. The length of road to the nearest town is 7km and the average time to get to the
nearest town is 45 minutes. The estimated population of the community is 2500 with an
average household size of 7 persons.

There are community development associations such as Kauna Group, youth association,
women association and farming association in the community with the aim of improving
farming activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland, which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head, various
association leaders and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually democratic and major decisions
are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by individuals.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with 11 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 20mins/1km. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 350 comprising of 150 males and 200 females. The teacher
to student ratio in the school is 1:32. The school has only one class room block and the
communities using this facility are Mutila and Mallam Sanda. There is a staff room, no toilet
facilities and no water supply in the school but the environment is conducive for meaningful
learning.

200
There is no clinic in the community, therefore sick people are taken to Gombi Cottage
Hospital. However, there is regular routine immunization of children under the age of five
years.

The community source of water is a well dug in 1963 by the community. The average time
to water source is 10 minutes and the water is accessible throughout the year. Water from the
well is however of good quality from the result of the analysis. About 90% of households
have pit toilets in their houses for human waste disposal. The type of housing in the
community is wood/mud with thatched roof (95%) and wood/mud with zinc roof (5%).

The road to the community is not tarred and is in a bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 20 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not
connected to public power source; hence inhabitants use kerosene lantern (100%) for source
of power in the community. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the
availability of GSM network, with Zain and MTN having strong signals. There is no
multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center but there
are market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take
care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are
deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include construction of additional class
room blocks, a clinic, boreholes, road construction and electricity.

201
4.3.2.6. Jau
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

This community is located in Guyaku ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is about
36 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 146 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The length of road to the nearest town is 1km and the average time to get to the nearest
town is 10 minutes. The estimated population of the community is 2500 with an average
household size of 10 persons.

There are community development associations such as youth association and Fiter/Shama in
the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment and enhancing
community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland, which
they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the
disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village
play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head (Jauro), various association leaders and religious leaders who
resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is
usually democratic and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, lumbering, civil service and artisan. Community land is
usually owned by individuals and families.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with eight teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 20mins/2km. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 187 comprising of 95 males and 92 females. The teacher to
student ratio in the school is 1:23. The school has two class room blocks. There is a staff
room, no toilet facilities and no water supply in the school but the environment is conducive
for meaningful learning.

202
There is a clinic in the community with 5 medical staff and 4 beds for patients. The average
distance to the facility is 2km. There is no toilet facility at the clinic but there is a borehole.
There is routine immunization of children under the age of five years. The common ailment
treated at the clinic is malaria. Other communities using this facility are Marja and Pirkasa.
Additionally, the community has five herbal healing homes and one traditional bone healing
home.

The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed in 2001 by the local
government. The average distance/time to water source is 1km/10minutes and the water is
available throughout the year. About 95% of households have no toilet facility in their
houses; hence use the bush for human waste disposal. The types of housing in the community
are wood/mud with thatched roof (70%), wood/mud with zinc roof (20%), mud plastered
with cement with zinc roof (3%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (7%).

The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in a bad shape.The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 50 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not
connected to public power source; hence majority of the inhabitants use kerosene lantern
(99%) and with very few private generators (1%). Their main source of cooking fuel is
firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain and MTN having strong
signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center but there are market stalls. The community has no facilities such as
orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental
problems in the community are deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include additional borehole, construction
of additional class room blocks and renovating the existing ones and electricity.

203
4.3.2.7. Sabon Gari
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

This community is located in Gombi North ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is
about 5 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 120 kilometers from the State
capital Yola. The length of road to the nearest town is 5km and the average time to get to the
nearest town is 30 minutes. The estimated population of the community is 2000 with an
average household size of 10 persons.

There are community development associations such as youth association and farmers
association in the community with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment
and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of
the community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland,
which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such
as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the
village play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head, various association leaders and religious leaders who resolve
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
democratic and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, artisan and hunting. Community land is usually
owned by individuals.

Community infrastructure
In the community, there is no primary school as a result pupils enroll in neighboring primary
schools. There is also no clinic but there is routine immunization of children under the age of
five years. The community source of water is a hand pump borehole constructed in 1985 by
the local government. The average time to water source is 5 minutes and the water is
available throughout the year. About 99% of households have pit toilets in their houses for
human waste disposal. The predominant type of housing in the community is wood/mud with
thatched roof (98%).

204
The road to the community is currently under construction. The main means of transportation
are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses. An average of
10 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to
public power source; hence the inhabitants use kerosene lantern (100%). Their main source of
cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain, having strong
signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are deforestation and bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include establishment of a primary school,
provision of a clinic and electricity.

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4.3.2.8. Korwa B

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located in Gombi south ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is
about 2 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 115 kilometers from the State
capital Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. There are about 2600
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 10 persons.

There are community development associations such as Jama’are youth development


association and Miyetti Allah development association in the community aimed at improving
farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development
thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive
resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their
livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and
the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in
community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the community
head (Jauro) and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they
arise. Leadership in the community is usually done through selection by elders in the
community and major decisions are taken by voting after deliberation. Leadership is usually
stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, cattle rearing, paid labour, artisan, politics and civil service.
Land ownership system in the community is by individuals, family and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school and a community secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 15mins/500meters. The number of
students currently enrolled in the secondary school is 1300 comprising of 700 males and 600
females with teacher to student ratio 1:38, while the number of students currently enrolled in
the primary school is 350 comprising of 150 males and 200 females, and with teacher to
student ratio 1:50. The secondary school has 6 classroom blocks and a staff room, while the
primary school has no structure on ground; pupils receive instruction under the tree. There is
a pit toilet in the secondary school but none in the primary school. There is however no water
facility in both schools. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
206
There is no clinic in the community but there is however routine immunization. There are
three herbal healing homes, one traditional maternity home and two traditional bone healing
home.

The community source of water is a well dug in 1976. The average distance to water source is
50 meters and the water from this source is available all year round. The common source of
human waste disposal is the pit toilet (100%). while the types of housing in the community
are wood/mud with thatched roof (50%), wood/mud with zinc roof (30%), mud plastered
with cement with zinc roof (15%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).

The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in a bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and pick up vans. An average of 60
vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to
public source of power; hence, households depend on kerosene lantern as power source. The
main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with
MTN, Zain and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no
security post. There is no skill acquisition center but there are market stalls. The community
has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning.

The major community needs according to priority include clinic, electricity and additional
boreholes.

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4.3.2.9. Kaulewa
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Garkida ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is about 36
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 151 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 15 minutes. There are about 1500
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 7 persons.
There are community development associations such as Youth association, women
associatrion and women religious group in the community aimed at improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the community ward head and
religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership
in the community is both by election and inheritance, and major decisions are taken by
collective action. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.

The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, paid labour, artisan, politics and civil service. Land ownership
system in the community is by families.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community. The average time/distance of the schools from
within the community is 15mins/500meters. The number of students currently enrolled in the
primary school is 126 comprising of 56 males and 70 females, and with teacher to student
ratio 1:18. The primary school has one classroom block of 2 classes, a staff room, and two
toilets for human waste disposal. There is however no water facility in the school. The lists of
communities using this facility are Fwahar, Kallewa and Mbewa. The environment is
conducive for meaningful learning.

There is no clinic in the community but there is however routine immunization. There are two
traditional maternity homes.

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The community source of water is a stream. Laboratory analysis of the water reveals that it is
polluted and not good for human consumption, and this may be the reason for cases of water
borne diseases in the community. The average distance to water source is 1km and the
average time to water source is 20 minutes. The common sources of human waste disposal
are pit toilet (60%) and bush (40%), while the types of housing in the community are
wood/mud with thatched roof (20%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), mud plastered with
cement with zinc roof (65%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in a bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, buses, trekking, bicycles and pick up vans. An average of 60
vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to
public source of power; hence, households depend on kerosene lantern (90%) and private
generators (10%) as source of power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is
the availability of GSM network, with MTN, Zain and GLO having strong signals. There is
no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no
market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care
of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are
erosion, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include construction of additional
classroom blocks in the primary school, water and road construction.

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4.3.2.10. Barda
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community

This community is located in Gabun ward of Gombi Local Government Area and is about 40
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Gombi and 146 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The length of road to the nearest town is 5km and the average time to get to the nearest
town is 45 minutes. The estimated population of the community is 3000 with an average
household size of 10 persons.

There are community development associations such as Fadama Users Association, Miyetti
Allah association and youth association in the community with the aim of improving farming
activities, empowerment and enhancing community development thereby contributing to the
economic development of the community. The main productive resource available to the
villagers is their farmland, which they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community
has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children.
Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community development
activities. The main leaders in the community are the village head (Jauro), various association
leaders and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise.
Leadership in the community is usually by election and major decisions are taken
collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, civil service, hired labour, artisan and hunting. Community
land is usually owned by the family.
Community infrastructure
In the community, there is a primary school with 3 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 10mins/300meters. The number of pupils currently
enrolled in the primary school is 125 comprising of 70 males and 55 females. The teacher to
student ratio in the school is 1:42. The school has only one class room block of 2 classes and
the communities using this facility are Kantanbata, Gwalbokaja, Ber, Dunu and Barda II.
Pupils from these communities have to trek an average of 2km to access the facility. There is
a staff room, no toilet facilities and no water supply in the school but the environment is
conducive for meaningful learning.
There is no clinic in the community; hence patients are either taken to Gombi Cottage
Hospital or Garkida hospital. There is routine immunization of children under the age of five
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years. There are 3 herbal healing homes, 5 traditional maternity homes and 1 traditional bone
healing home.
The community sources of water include hand pump borehole a well and stream. The average
time/distance to water source is 20minutes/500meters. About 90% of households do not have
toilet facilities in their houses; hence use the bush for human waste disposal. The types of
housing in the community include; wood/mud with thatched roof (75%), wood/mud with zinc
roof (20%) and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in a bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trucks/pick up vans, trekking, bicycles and motor car/buses.
An average of 250 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is
not connected to public power source; hence inhabitants use kerosene lantern (100%) for
source of power in the community. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the
availability of GSM network, with Zain and MTN having strong signals, while GLO has
weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center but there are market stalls. The community has no facilities such as
orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental
problems in the community are deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include construction of additional class
room blocks, a clinic, boreholes, road construction and electricity.

Community needs assessment session

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4.3.3. Fufore Local Government
4.3.3.1.. Belichiuti
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Beti ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about 7
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 29 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 20 minutes. There are about 2800 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 12 persons.
Belichiuti development association is a community development association with the aim of
improving farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community
development thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main
productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on
for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons,
widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important
role in community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the
community head (Lawan) and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance and major
decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, cattle rearing, hunting and civil service. Land
ownership in the community is by individuals and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 4 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 10mins/500meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 500 comprising of 300 males and 200 females, and with
teacher to student ratio 1:125, while that of the secondary school is 1:30. The school has one
class room block. There is a staff room in the school but no toilet and water facilities. The
environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a clinic in the community with 2 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
are no beds for patients. The source of water at the clinic is a borehole but there is no toilet
facility for human waste disposal. The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. The
average distance to facility by user is 300meters.

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The community sources of water are two hand pump boreholes constructed in 1992 and
2008 by the local government and are functional. The average distance to water source is 100
meters. The common source of human waste disposal is pit toilet (100%), while the types of
housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (80%), wood/mud with zinc roof
(10%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (6%) and modern cement block with zinc
roof (4%).
The earthen road to the community is in a very bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 40 vehicles
plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public
source of power; hence, their main power source is kerosene lantern, while that of cooking
fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with MTN, Zain and GLO having
strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security post. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include improvement of health care
facilities, construction of additional classroom blocks in the primary school, water,
laterization of existing road to the community and provision of electricity.

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4.3.3.2. Wuro Sham
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Mayo-Inne ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about
95 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 61 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about 2000
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 10 persons.
There is a community development association in the community with the aim of improving
farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development
thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive
resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their
livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and
the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in
community development activities. The main leaders in the community are the community
head (Jauro) and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they
arise. Leadership in the community is usually by election and major decisions are taken
collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan, cattle rearing, hunting and civil service. Land
ownership in the community is by individuals.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 8 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 20mins/1000meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 123 comprising of 75 males and 48 females, and with
teacher to student ratio 1:15. The school has two classroom blocks. There is a staff room and
a toilet in the in the school but no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful
learning.
There is no clinic in the community but there are 10 herbal healing homes and 1 herbal bone
healing home.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole and a well. The average distance to
water source is 100 meters. The sources of human waste disposal are pit toilet (40%) and
bush (60%); while the types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof
(80%), wood/mud with zinc roof (10%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (6%) and
modern cement block with zinc roof (4%).
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The earth road to the community is in a very bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 35 vehicles
plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public
source of power; hence, households use kerosene lantern, while the main source of cooking
fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with MTN and Zain having strong
signals, while GLO has weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center but there is police
station. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include portable water, electrification of
the community and clinic.

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4.3.3.3. Wuro Ardo

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located in Beti ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about 12
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 16 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about 2800 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 10 persons.
The youth development association of the community is aimed at improving farming
activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development thereby
contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive resource
available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly depend on for their livelihood.
The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled persons, widows and the less
privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an important role in community
development activities. The main leaders in the community are the community head (Jauro)
and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise.
Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance and major decisions are taken
collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, cattle rearing and civil service. Land ownership system in the
community is by individuals, inheritance and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 21 teachers. The average time/distance of
the school from within the community is 15mins/600meters. The number of students
currently enrolled in the primary school is 200 comprising of 120 males and 80 females, and
with teacher to student ratio 1:10. The school has two classroom blocks and a staff room.
There are however no toilet and no water facilities. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.
There is a clinic in the community with 6 medical staff. The clinic is not furnished and there
is only one bed for patients. The source of water at the clinic is a borehole and there is also a
pit toilet for human waste disposal. The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. The
average distance to facility by user is 500meters. There are two herbal healing homes and one
traditional bone healing home.

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The community sources of water are hand pump borehole constructed in 2003 and a well
dug in 1081. The average distance to water source is 200 meters. The water in these sources
are available all year round. The common sources of human waste disposal are pit toilet
(85%) and bush (15%). while the types of housing in the community are wood/mud with
thatched roof (70%), wood/mud with zinc roof (25%) and mud plastered with cement with
zinc roof (5%).
The earthen road to the community is in a good condition. The main means of transportation
are motorcycles, trekking and bicycles. An average of 40 vehicles plies the existing
community road per week. About 50% of the community is connected to public source of
power; while half of the community depends on kerosene lantern as power source. The main
source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with MTN,
Zain and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no security
post. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and
bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include provision of additional boreholes,
supplying medical facilities at the clinic and construction of additional classroom blocks in
the primary school.

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4.3.3.4. Wuro-Mallum

Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community


The community is located Ribadu Ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about 10
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 55 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 45 minutes. There are about 3000 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 10 persons.
There are community development association in the community with the aim of improving
farming activities, empowerment of members and enhancing community development
thereby contributing to the economic development of the community. The main productive
resources available to the villagers are their farmland and river (fishing) which they highly
depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled
persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an
important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the community are
the district head, community head (Mai-Anguwa) and religious leaders who resolve disputes
within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is through
inheritance from the ruling class and major decisions are taken by collective decision.
Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community are farming and fishing, with other minor
economic activities such as petty trading, cattle rearing, paid labour, hunting, politics and
civil service. Land ownership system in the community is mainly the communal type.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 5 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 10mins/200meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 420 comprising of 120 males and 300 females with teacher to student
ratio of 1:84. The school has 3 class room blocks of 6 classes, a staff room, 4 pit toilets and a
borehole. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is no clinic in the community but there is however routine immunization. The
community has functional hand pump borehole (provided by LEEMP) that supply their water
need. The average distance to water source is 100 meters and the water from this source is
available all year round. The common source of human waste disposal is the pit toilet
(100%). while the types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof

218
(50%), wood/mud with zinc roof (30%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (10%)
modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).
The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and requires rehabilitation. The main means
of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, buses, bicycles and pick up vans. About 100
vehicles plies the existing community road per week. About 30% of households in the
community are connected to public source of power, while the remaining 70% either use
kerosene lantern or private generators. Their main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There
is the availability of GSM network, with MTN having strong signal. There is no multipurpose
civic center and no security post. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding,
deforestation and poaching.
The major community needs according to priority include clinic, construction of additional
classroom blocks in primary school and road construction.

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4.3.3.5. Dulo Bwatiye
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Ribadu ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about 21
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 54 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 40 minutes. There are about 1500 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 8 persons.
The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly
depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled
persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an
important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the community are
the village head, the elders and religious leaders who resolve disputes within the community
whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually by inheritance and major
decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activities in the community are farming and fishing with other minor
economic activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan and civil service. Land ownership
in the community is by family and the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 5 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 10mins/100meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the primary school is 200 comprising of 90 males and 110 females, and with
teacher to student ratio 1:40. The school has two classroom blocks of 5 classrooms. There is a
no staff room and no toilet facilities in the school. The environment is conducive for
meaningful learning.
There is a dispensary in the community with 3 staff. The building is dilapidated with no beds
for patients and no toilet facility. The average distance to facility by users is 300meters and
the common ailments treated at the centre are malaria, cold and typhoid fever.
The community source of water is river Benue and a well. The main source of human waste
disposal is the bush (95%) because households do not have toilet facility in their houses. The
types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (50%), wood/mud with
zinc roof (30%) and mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (20%).
The earth road to the community is in a very bad condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, canoes and bicycles. An average of 20 vehicles plies

220
the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to public source of
power; hence, households use kerosene lantern, while the main source of cooking fuel is
firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with MTN, GLO and Zain having strong
signals. There is no multipurpose civic center but there is a police station. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are erosion, flooding and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include portable water, additional
classroom blocks in the primary school, electricity, good road network and renovating and
stocking the dispensary with all the necessary equipment.

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4.3.3.6. Muninga
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Gurin ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about 34
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 60 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
The average time to get to the nearest town is 30 minutes. There are about 6309 inhabitants in
the community with an average household size of 7 persons.
There are community development associations in the community such as Women
Association, Muninga rice farmers association and Muninga Development Foundation
scheme with the aim of improving farming activities, empowerment of members and
enhancing community development thereby contributing to the economic development of the
community. The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which
they highly depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the
disabled persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village
play an important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the
community are the village head, leaders of various associations and religious leaders who
resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is
usually by election through democratic means and major decisions are taken collectively.
Leadership is usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan and civil service. Land ownership in the
community is by the community.

Community infrastructure
There is a public primary school and junior secondary school in the community. The average
time/distance of the schools from within the community is 20mins/1km. The number of
students currently enrolled in the primary school is 420 comprising of 240 males and 400
females, and with teacher to student ratio of 1:70, while the number of students currently
enrolled in the junior secondary school is 90 comprising of 60 males and 30 females, and
with teacher to student ratio of 1:14. The primary school has 4 classroom blocks of 12
classes, while the secondary school has 2 classroom blocks of 5 classes. There is a staff room
in schools, toilet but no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning. The
communities using this facility are Fema and Guduwo

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There is a dispensary and a maternity clinic in the community. The average distance to
facility by users is 400 meters. The source of water at the centre is a well but there is no toilet
facility at the dispensary. The common ailments treated at the centre are malaria, minor
ailments and labour. There are 3 herbal healing homes and 2 traditional bone healing homes.
The community source of water is a hand pump borehole and a well. The average distance to
water source is 100 meters. The sources of human waste disposal are pit toilet (80%) and
bush (15%) and others (5%). The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with
thatched roof (40%), wood/mud with zinc roof (45%), mud plastered with cement with zinc
roof (10%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is season and not motorable around August and September. The
main means of transportation are motorcycles, canoe, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An
average of 100 vehicles plies the existing community road per week. The community is
connected to public source of power although many households still rely on kerosene lantern.
Thee main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with
Zain having strong signal, while MTN has weak signal. There is no multipurpose civic center
but there is a police station. There is no skill acquisition center and no market stalls. The
community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable
groups. The common environmental problems in the community are erosion, flooding,
deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include road, construction of additional
classroom blocks in primary and secondary school, upgrading the clinic and establishment of
skill acquisition centers.

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4.3.3.7. Mayo Sirkan
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Mayo-Inne ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about
105 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 75 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. The average time to get to the nearest town is 10 minutes. There are about 1500
inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 10 persons.
The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly
depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled
persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an
important role in community development activities. The main leaders in the community are
the village head (Jauro), elders, leaders of various associations and religious leaders who
resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is
usually by election and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable
and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, politics, artisan and hired labour. Land ownership in the
community is by individuals and family.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 5 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 20mins/1km. The number of students currently enrolled
in the school is 178 comprising of 96 males and 82 females, and with teacher to student ratio
of 1:36. The primary school has 1 classroom block, no staff, no toilet facility and no water.
The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a dispensary in the community with 4 medical staff. The average distance to facility
by users is 500 meters. There is no water and no toilet facility at the dispensary. The common
ailments treated at the centre are malaria and dysentery. There are 2 herbal healing homes.
The community source of water is a well. The source of human waste disposal is the pit toilet
The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (45%), wood/mud
with zinc roof (35%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (15%) and modern cement
block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is in bad condition and is not tarred. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. An average of 20 vehicles
224
plies the existing community road per week. The community is not connected to publicsource
of power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM
network, with Zain having strong signal, while MTN has weak signal. There is no
multipurpose civic center and no police station. There is no skill acquisition center and no
market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care
of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in the community are
erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include water, electricity and road.

225
4,3,3,8. Wuro Yolde
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Gurin ward ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about
25 kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 50 kilometers from the State capital
Yola. There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 8
persons.
The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly
depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled
persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an
important role in community development activities. The main leader in the community is the
village head who in collaboration with elders, leaders of various associations and religious
leaders resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the
community is usually by election and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is
usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, fishing, lumbering, politics, artisan and hired labour. Land
ownership in the community is by individuals and family.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 9 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 15mins/300 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 272 comprising of 170 males and102 females, and with teacher to
student ratio of 1:30. The primary school has 3 classroom blocks of 6 classes, a staff room, no
toilet facility and no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a dispensary in the community with 4 medical staff. The average distance to facility
by users is 1km. The source of water at the center is a borehole. However, there is no toilet
facility. The common ailment treated at the centre is malaria. There is routine immunization
of children. There are 5 herbal healing homes and 2 traditional bone healing homes.
The community source of water is a borehole and the average distance to water source is
50meters. The source of human waste disposal in the community is the pit toilet. The types of
housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (50%), wood/mud with zinc roof
(35%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (12%) and modern cement block with zinc
roof (3%).
226
The road to the community is tarred and is in good condition. The main means of
transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. The community is
connected to public source of power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is
the availability of GSM network, with Zain having strong signal, while MTN and GLO have
weak signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no police station. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include water, electricity, skill acquisition
center and provision of necessary facilities at the dispensary.

227
4.3.3.9. Bengo
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Pariya ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about 77
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 41 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
There are about 3000 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 6
persons.
The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly
depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled
persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an
important role in community development activities. The head of the community is the Ardo
who in collaboration with elders, leaders of various associations and religious leaders resolve
disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the community is usually
by inheritance and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is usually stable and
harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, fishing, artisan and hired labour. Land ownership in the
community is the communal type.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 6 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 10mins/300 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 170 comprising of 100 males and70 females, and with teacher to
student ratio of 1:29. The primary school has 3 classroom blocks of 6 classes, no staff room,
no toilet facility and no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is a dispensary in the community with 6 medical staff. The average distance to facility
by users is 1km. There is no water at the center, no toilet facility and only one bed for
patients. The common ailments treated at the centre are diarrhea and malaria. There is routine
immunization of children.
The community source of water is a borehole and a well. The average distance to water
source is 400meters. The sources of human waste disposal in the community are the pit toilet
(45%) and the bush (55%). The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with
thatched roof (30%), wood/mud with zinc roof (25%), mud plastered with cement with zinc
roof (35%) and modern cement block with zinc roof (10%).
228
The road to the community is not tarred and is in very deplorable condition. The main means
of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. The community is not
connected to public source of power. The main source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is
the availability of GSM network, with Zain having strong signal, while MTN and GLO have
weak signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no police station. There is no skill
acquisition center and no market stalls. The community has no facilities such as orphanages,
charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The common environmental problems in
the community are erosion, flooding, deforestation and bush burning.
The major community needs according to priority include electricity, functional clinic,
additional classroom blocks in the primary school and road construction.

229
4.3.3.10. Wailare
Socioeconomic and Demographic characteristics of the community
The community is located in Pariya ward of Fufore Local Government Area and is about 66
kilometers from the LGA headquarters Fufore and 42 kilometers from the State capital Yola.
There are about 2700 inhabitants in the community with an average household size of 10
persons.
The main productive resource available to the villagers is their farmland which they highly
depend on for their livelihood. The community has vulnerable groups such as the disabled
persons, widows and the less privileged children. Informal institutions in the village play an
important role in community development activities. The main leader in the community is the
village head who in collaboration with elders, leaders of various associations and religious
leaders resolve disputes within the community whenever they arise. Leadership in the
community is usually by election and major decisions are taken collectively. Leadership is
usually stable and harmonious.
The major economic activity in the community is farming with other minor economic
activities such as petty trading, lumbering, politics, artisan and hired labour. Land ownership
in the community is by family.

Community infrastructure
There is a primary school in the community with 9 teachers. The average time/distance of the
school from within the community is 10mins/400 meters. The number of students currently
enrolled in the school is 500 comprising of 220 males and280 females, and with teacher to
student ratio of 1:55. The primary school has 2 classroom blocks of 5 classes, a staff room, no
toilet facility and no water. The environment is conducive for meaningful learning.
There is no clinic in the community but there are herbal healing homes, traditional bone
healing homes and traditional maternity homes.
The community source of water is a well and a stream, and the average distance to water
source is 500meters. The source of human waste disposal in the community is the pit toilet.
The types of housing in the community are wood/mud with thatched roof (30%), wood/mud
with zinc roof (35%), mud plastered with cement with zinc roof (30%) and modern cement
block with zinc roof (5%).
The road to the community is not tarred (earth) and is in very bad condition. The main means
of transportation are motorcycles, trekking, bicycles and motor cars. Half of the community is
230
connected to public source of power while the remaining half use kerosene lantern. The main
source of cooking fuel is firewood. There is the availability of GSM network, with Zain,
MTN and GLO having strong signals. There is no multipurpose civic center and no police
station. There is no skill acquisition center but there are market stalls. The community has no
facilities such as orphanages, charity homes to take care of the vulnerable groups. The
common environmental problems in the community are erosion, deforestation and bush
burning.
The major community needs according to priority include provision of solar borehole with
overhead tank, clinic and electricity.

231
Section Five

HIGHLIGHTS OF MAJOR FINDINGS

 There is an organizational leadership systems in all the communities through which


members are involved in activities happening within the communities. Community
organisations are common in all the communities. The Fadama Community
Association (FCA) and Fadama User Groups (FUG) are also present in many of the
communities.
 Motorcycle is the principal mode of transportation in these communities. Aside from
this the people do a lot of trekking in order to get one point from another. This is due
to the poor nature of the roads in these communities. These roads are in dire need of
repairs, rehabilitation and in most cases re-construction.
 Farming is the most common economic activity in the communities.
 The people live in mud houses with zinc roofs. For human waste disposal the people
use pit latrines commonly as well as the bush.
 Kerosene lanterns is the source of light during the night hours while firewood is used
for cooking.
 Erosion, bush burning and deforestation are some of the common environmental
problems in all the communities.
 Road, water, electricity and schools are the most pressing needs of the communities.
There are schools in most of the communities but the schools lack basic educational
facilities like sufficient classrooms, adequate supply of desks and benches, toilet
facilities and water among others.
 There is a Primary Health Centre or dispensary in most communities however, the
clinics lack basic facilities and amenities that would enable them to function
efficiently. The clinics are not maintained and are manned by untrained or unskilled
staff. There are no drugs at these clinics.
 Water supply: There are boreholes or well in most of the communities. Most of these
boreholes and wells are not functional. In some cases the boreholes are not in use due
to some minor repairs that they require. This has contributed to serious water scarcity
in most communities such that some of them water from streams and rivers for
drinking and other domestic purposes. Drinking from these sources of contaminated

232
water usually predispose the people to risk of contracting diseases such as cholera,
dysentery and diarrhea This high risk of public health hazard is attested to by the
result of water samples that were taken for laboratory analyses.

Conclusion
Based on the findings above, it can be concluded as follows: Government at all levels and
other development partners have made effort to alleviate the suffering of the people at the
grassroots. However, due to increase in human population the infrastructural facilities on
ground are over- stretched. This is evidenced by the very high school enrollment in primary
schools with virtually no facilities for effective teaching and learning. Dispensaries built to
cater for less than a thousand people in the 1980s now cater for over 10, 000 people in most
cases. This is not different for roads, as settlements have sprung up where there were no
houses before. Such area would also have needs for water and other facilities. There is need
for increase in infrastructure to match increase in population.
There is total disregard for maintenance of infrastructural facilities. Once any infrastructure is
on ground the providers and beneficiaries do not make provision for maintenance and
sustainability of such facilities. This has given rise to several non-functional boreholes, wells,
dilapidated or collapsed primary schools while pupils continue to take lessons under trees and
use stones and other objects for seats. In the case of dispensaries and PHC clinics several of
them have been taken up by dangerous reptiles.
Quality of public infrastructure is another case. Contractors and other project providers
deliberately use low quality materials to execute government projects. This has left several
laudable projects non-functional shortly after such projects are commissioned.

Recommendations
There are community based organisations in every community. These organisations can be
charged with the responsibility of maintenance to ensure sustainability of these projects in the
communities.Quality of public infrastructure should be checked.

233
Appendix I: Report of water sample analysis.
Sample Parameter Health impact
1. Dulo/Bwatiye a.NO3(nitrate) -Blue baby syndrome
in infants under 3
months;
b.total coliforme -indication of feacal
contermination.
c.Therotolerant coliform (E. coli) -meningitis, disrrhea
(one of the main
cause of mobidity
and mortality among
children). Urinary
tract infections.
2. Vizik (foot) a.pH -consumer
acceptability. No
b.Fe2+ (iron) health impact
3. Bebe a.pH -consumer
b.Thermotolerant acceptability. No
c. Fe2+ (iron) health impact.
- meningitis, disrrhea
(one of the main
cause of mobidity
and mortality among
children). Urinary
tract infections.
-Brown coloured
teeth (no health
implicati0on)
4. Muchala a. Nitrate -Blue baby in infants
b. Fluoride (F) under three months
-Fluorosis (bones and
teeth) morbidity –
teeth mottle.
5. Zhau a.Total coliform -Indication of feacal
b.Thermotolerant coliform (E.coli) contermination
- meningitis, disrrhea
(one of the main
cause of mobidity
and mortality among
children). Urinary
tract infections.

234
Appendix II

THE ADAMAWA STATE BASELINE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE


COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (CSDA)
COMMUNITY INTERVIEW CHECKLIST
Questionnaire No............

Name of
Community....................................................................................................
.........

Venue of FGD

Date of FGD

Name of Enumerator Name of supervisor

Number of participants Men


Women

Youths

Contact person in community Phone number of contact person

Time started Time ended

A. Social Characteristics

1. What is the average household size in your community?..........

2. What is the number of males in an average household/......

3. What is the number of females in an average household/......

4. What is the number of adults (18+) in an average household/......

5. What is the number of males in an average household/......

6. What is the number of children (18 yrs and below)in an average


household/......

B. Social /Political organisation

1. Type of community/settlement...........................i. Urban ii. Semi


urban iii. Rural

2. Ward......................................................LGA:.......................................
..............................

235
3. Distance of community to LGA
Headquarters...................................Km

4. Distance of community to state


capital.............................................Km

5. Head of community.............................................................................

6. What is the estimated population of the


community?..................................................

7. Which is the topmost decision making organ of your


community?.......................

8. Which other organ of village organisation do you have? Age Grades,


Dev. Association, Unions etc in order of
importance?.........................................................

............................................................................................................
.............................
9. Chieftaincy matters/Traditional power structure (Rotational,
monarchy, Royal families etc)

............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
.........................................................................

10. What land ownership system do you have here? Communal,


family, or individual?

............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............

C. Ethnic composition

1. Major or dominant
tribe.....................................................................................................
.................

2. Other sub-group or
tribes...................................................................................................
...............

3. Major language
spoken.................................................................................................
.......................

4. List three dominant non-indigenous groups in order of size.

236
............................................................................................................
.............................

D. Markets

1. Do you have a market? i. YES, ii. NO

2. How far away is the market from the Chief’s house?.............km

3. How regular is the market?.......................................................

E. Means of Transportation in the community

Code: 1 = very used, 2 = used, 3 = rarely used, 4 = not used


s/N Means of transportation Rank

1. Bicycle

2. Motorcycle

3. Trekking

4. Canoe

5. Engine boat

6. Motor car/bus

7. Trucks /pick up vans

8. Heavy duty haulage vans

9. Others (specify)

1. What are the type of roads in the community? i. Earth, ii. Tarred, iii.
Others (specify)

2. Length of road to nearest town.....................km

3. Condition of road i. Very good, ii. Good, iii. Bad, iv. Very bad

4. Average time to nearest town..............km

5. Average number of vehicles using the road per week................

6. Average number of persons using the road per week........................

F. Please rank or indicate population by economic activities in the


community

*Most common, ** least common


237
S/N Activity Rank Population involved

1. Farming

2. Fishing

3. Civil service

4. Company work

5. Lumbering (wood
cutting)

6. Petty trading

7. Hunting

8. Artisan

9. Hired labour

10. Politics

11. Others (specify)

G. Type of housing in community

Types of houses Number of


houses

Wood/mud with Thatched roof

Wood/mud with zinc roof

Mud plastered with cement with zinc roof

Modern cement block with zinc roof

Others (specify)

238
H. Human waste disposal

S/N Waste disposal method Number of households

1. Modern waste cistern

2. VIP toilet

3. Pit toilet

4. Bush

5. River/river bank

6. Road side/bush paths

7. Others (specify)

I. Source of power in community

Power source No. Of No. Of persons Working status


households (Business
(home consumption)
consumption)

NEPA (Public
source)

Private
generator

Kerosene
lantern

Community
generator

Others (specify)

J. Type of cooking fuel used in the community (Rank: 1=Not used,


2=Rarely used, 3= Always used)

Type of cooking fuel Rank

Firewood

Kerosene

239
Gas

Electricity

Others (specify)

K. Telecommunication: Availability of GSM network

Network Strong signal Weak signal Not available

MTN

Zain

GLO

Others (specify)

L. Environmental problems in the community

Environmental problem Mitigation measure adopted (indicate


provider where applicable)

Erosion

Waste management

Flooding

Deforestation

Poaching

Landslides

Bush burning

Others (specify)

M. Recreational facilities/Tourism

Types of leisure facilities Number in the community

Hotels

Brothels

Night clubs

Beer parlours

Restaurants

240
Town halls

Play grounds

Others (specify)

N. List NGOs in the community and their tasks

Community organisation Major functions

O. Community awareness of LEEMP/CSDA in Adamawa State; i. Aware,


ii Not aware

P. Did your community benefit from LEEMP/CSDA in Adamawa State? i.


Yes; ii. No

Q. If yes, what
project(s).............................................................................................
............................

............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
..........................................................

R. What projects have you benefited from other agencies?

S/N Agency Project State of project

241
S. Community Needs (prioritised)

S/ Needs Rank Expected provider Community


N contribution
s (sand,
wood, land
etc)

242
T. SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE: Schools
S/ Name of Type No. Of No. Of No. Of List Distanc
N school teachers students block communit e of
s in ies using commu
schoo the school nity
l from
school

Mal Femal Male Femal


e e e

1.

2.

3.

4.

243
SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE: Facilities available in Schools
S/N Name of Facilities (Adequate-A; Inadequate-IA; indicate as appropriate. N/A – not available)
school

Classroom Librar Laborator Assembly Staff Toilet Water Teachers Football Art Com
s y y hall room quarters field room r ro

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

244
U. SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE: Health**
S/ Nam Typ Medical staff No. Equipme Equipme List Averag Commo Sourc Type Waste
N e of e* strength Of nt nt communit e n e of of dispos
healt beds availabl needed ies using distan ailment water toilet al
h in e facility ce to s in metho
facili the (furnish facility treated facili d
ty centr ed, not for in ty
e furnishe user centre
d) (Km)

Mal Femal
e e

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

1
0.

Health**

S/N Medical Facilities No. available

1. Herbal healing homes

2. Traditional maternity
homes

3. Traditional bone healing


homes

4. Others (specify)

245
V. WATER SOURCES
S/ Nam Typ When Provided Availabl Function Averag Averag Average no. Cost
N e of e establish by (where e all al e e time Using the of
water ed applicable year (Yes/No) distanc to water source buyin
facilit ) round e to water g 20
y (Yes/No water source litres
) source of
) Km water

Mal Femal
e e

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10
.

246
W. Other social infrastructure

S/ Infrastructure Numbe When Provided Do Functional


N r establishe by you (Yes/No)
d pay to
use
facility

1. Town hall

2. Civic centre

3. Market

4. Court

5. Post
office/agency

6. Skill
acquisition
centres

7. Police
station/post

8. Play ground

247
V. SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE COMMUNITY

1. Natural resources available and used in your community

S/ Natural Present/No Who has most access Who has least access
N resourc t present (males/females/youth (males/females/youth
e s) s)

1. Forest

2. Flood
plains

3. Rivers

4. Stream
s

5. Lakes

6. Springs

7. Gravels

8. Mineral
s

9. Others
(specify
)

248
2. Physically challenged and vulnerable groups
S/ Type No. Of Peculi Coping Type Privilege/su From which Contribu
N of affected ar mechan of pport organisation/indi tions to
disabil persons proble ism econo received viduals? decision
ity ms mic making?
condit faced activit (None,
ion by y weak,
these involv strong)
perso ed in
ns

Mal Fema
es les

1. Orpha
ns

2. Physic
al
disabil
ity

3. Wido
ws

4. PLWH
A

249
Appendix III
The Adamawa State Baseline Survey Questionnaire for the
Community and Social Development Agency
HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONAIRE
Length of interview: Time initiated....................Time terminated...............
A. IDENTIFICATION OF SELECTED HOUSEHOLD:

1. Senatorial District............................................

2. Local Government Area................................................................

3. District...................................................................................

4. Town/village........................................................................

5. Type of area: Urban ( ); Rural (); Easy access (); Difficult access ()
6. Address of selected household:

• Community..............................................................

• Street.........................................................................

• House number..........................................................

• Other details............................................................

B. Personal Information

S/ Question Response Code


N
1. Sex of Male 1 1
respondent
Female 2
2. Age of 10-19 years 1 2
respondent 20-29 years 2
30-39 years 3
40-49 years 4
50-59 years 5
60-69 years 6
70-79 years 7
Above 79 years 8
3. Marital status Single 1 3
Married 2
Divorced/separated 3
Widow/widower 4
4. If married, 1.... 1 4
number of wives 2.... 2
3.... 3

250
More than 4.... 4
5. Is this your Yes... 1 5
indigenous No... 2
community?

C. Educational achievement of respondents

1. Please indicate your highest educational qualification

Highest level Whether Code


of Education completed or not
(Tick one)
None () Completed () 7
Not completed () 8
Primary () Completed () 9
Not completed () 10
JSS III () Completed () 11
Not completed () 12
WAEC/SSCE/ () Completed () 13
GCE? Not completed () 14
Teachers
Grade II
OND () Completed () 15
Not completed () 16
Degree/HND () Completed () 17
Not completed () 18

2. Please, provide the following information on the educational


qualification

of persons in your household.


Educational No. Of Male No. Of Female Total
qualification
No formal
education
Primary school
Junior secondary
Senior secondary
Post secondary
(non degree)
Post secondary
(Degree)
Others (Specify)

D. Household Information

251
1. Age distribution of household members

Age (Years) No. Of No. Of Total


Male Female
0-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
>65
Total

2. Housing and sanitation

S/ Question Response (Tick as Code


N appropriate)
1. Type of house • Single room/Room 19
(as observed and parlour 1
by enumerator) • Bungalow 2
• Flat within a block
of flats 3
• Others (specify) 4
2. Materials used • Mud walls,
for walls and thatched roof 1 20
roof of house • Mud walls,
(as observed corrugated iron 2
by enumerator) roof
• Block walls, 3
corrugated iron 4
roof
• Others (specify)
3. Floor material • Mud/sand 1 21
• Cement 2
• Tiles/ marble 3
• Others (specify) 4
4. Who owns this • Rented 1 22
house? • Family house 2
• Owner occupier 3

252
• Others (specify) 4
5. What type of • Water cistern 1 23
toilet facilities • Pit toilet 2
do you have in • Bucket type 3
your house? • Shallow pit 4
5
• Bush
6
• Others (specify)
6. What is the • Water 1 24
major source of seller/borehole 2
water for your • Well/boreholes 3
household? • Public tap 4
• Rainwater 5
6
• Stream/river
• Others (specify)
7. What is the • Electricity/PHCN 1 25
major source of • Generator 2
light in your • Kerosene lantern 3
household? • Others (specify) 4
8. What type of • Connected to 1
sanitary sewage system
services does • Connected to 2
the household septic tank
• Latrine 3
use?
• None 4
5
• Other (specify)
9. How does the • Public garbage 1
household system 2
dispose of most • Private garbage
of its garbage? system 3
• Throw in vacant lot 4
• Throw in river, 5
stream, gutters,
roadside
• Other (specify)

3. Economy of the Household

S/ Question Response (Tick as


N appropriate)
1. What is your • Farming 1 26
primary • Fishing 2
occupation • Trading 3
• Civil service 4
5
• Technician/artisan
6
• Business/contracto
7
r
8
• Retiree

253
• Private company 9
job
• Others (specify)
2. What is your • Farming 1 27
secondary • Fishing 2
occupation • Trading 3
• Civil service 4
5
• Technician/artisan
6
• Business/contracto
7
r
8
• Retiree 9
• Private company
job
• Others (specify)
3. What is your <1,000 1 28
monthly 1,000-10,000 2
income from 11,000-20,000 3
your primary 21,000-30,000 4
5
occupation? 31,000-40,000
6
41,000-50,000 7
51,000-60,000 8
61,000-70,000 9
>70,000
4. What is your <1,000 1 29
monthly 1,000-10,000 2
income from 11,000-20,000 3
your secondary 21,000-30,000 4
5
occupation? 31,000-40,000
6
41,000-50,000 7
51,000-60,000 8
61,000-70,000 9
>70,000

E. Recreation and quality of life/domestic inventory

S/ Question Response Code


N
1. What do you do Relax and sleep at 1 30
at your spare home 2
time Go to swim 3
Play outdoor games 4
Visit and chat with 5
friends 6
Watch movies
Other (specify)

254
F. Organizational Density and Characteristics
1. Are you or is someone in your household a member of any groups,
organizations, or associations? YES ( ); NO ( )

2. Do you consider yourself/household member to be active in the group, such as


by attending meetings or volunteering your time in other ways, or are you
relatively inactive? Are you/household member aleader in the group?

Household Name of organization Type of organization Degree of participation


Member (use codes below) (use code below)
(use roster
code)
Degree of participation

Leader 1
Very active 2
Somewhat active 3
Not active 4

3. Which of these groups is the most important to your household?


(List up to three by name and code type of organization.)

Group 1: ______________________ [ ]

Group 2: ______________________ [ ]

Group 3: ______________________ [ ]

G. Networks and Mutual Support Organizations

Now I am going to ask you some questions about how the community functions and
deals with problems.

1. If the primary school of this village/neighborhood went without a teacher for a long
time, say six months or more, which people in this village/neighborhood do you think
would get together to take some action about it?

Yes No
No one in the village/
neighborhood would
get together [ ] 1 [ ] 2
(if yes, go to question 4B.3)
Local/municipal government [ ] 1 [ ] 2
Village/neighborhood
association [ ] 1 [ ] 2
Parents of school children [ ] 1 [ ] 2
The entire village/
neighborhood [ ] 1 [ ] 2
Other (specify) [ ] 1 [ ] 2

2. Who would take the initiative (act as leader)?

________________________________________

255
3. If there were a problem that affected the entire village/neighborhood, for instance
(RURAL: “crop disease”; URBAN: “violence”), who do you think would work together
to deal with the situation?

Yes No
Each person/household would
deal with the problem
individually [ ] 1 [ ] 2
(if yes, go to section 4C)
Neighbors among themselves [ ] 1 [ ] 2
Local government/municipal
political leaders [ ] 1 [ ] 2
All community leaders
acting together [ ] 1 [ ] 2
The entire village/
neighborhood [ ] 1 [ ] 2
Other (specify) [ ] 1 [ ] 2

4. Who would take the initiative (act as leader)?

H. Exclusion

1. Differences often exist between people living in the same village/neighborhood. To


what extent do differences such as the following tend to divide people in your
village/neighborhood?

Not at all Somewhat Very


much
a. Differences in education [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
b. Differences in wealth/
material possessions [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
c. Differences in landholdings [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
d. Differences in social status [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
e. Differences between men
and women [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
f. Differences between younger
and older generations [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
g. Difference between long-
time inhabitants and
new settlers [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
h. Difference in political party
affiliations [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
i. Differences in religious
beliefs [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
j. Differences in ethnic
background [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3
k. Other differences (specify) [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3

2. Do these differences cause problems?

Yes [ ] 1
No [ ] 2 (go to question 4C.5)

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3. How are these problems usually handled?

Yes No
a. People work it out
between themselves [ ] 1 [ ] 2
b. Family/household
members intervene [ ] 1 [ ] 2
c. Neighbors intervene [ ] 1 [ ] 2
d. Community leaders
mediate [ ] 1 [ ] 2
e. Religious leaders mediate [ ] 1 [ ] 2
f. Judicial leaders mediate [ ] 1 [ ] 2

4. Do such problems ever lead to violence?

Yes [ ] 1
No [ ] 2

5. Are there any services where you or members of your household are occasionally
denied service or have only limited opportunity to use?

Yes No
a. Education/schools [ ] 1 [ ] 2
b. Health services/clinics [ ] 1 [ ] 2
c. Housing assistance [ ] 1 [ ] 2
d. Job training/employment[ ] 1 [ ] 2
e. Credit/finance [ ] 1 [ ] 2
f. Transportation [ ] 1 [ ] 2
g. Water distribution [ ] 1 [ ] 2
h. Sanitation services [ ] 1 [ ] 2
i. Agricultural extension [ ] 1 [ ] 2
j. Justice/conflict resolution [ ] 1 [ ] 2
k. Security/police services [ ] 1 [ ] 2

6. Do you think that there are other households in this community that have such
access problems?

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7. If yes, what percentage of households is excluded?

Others Percentag
excluded? e
excluded?

<25%=1
25-50%=2
Yes = 1 51-75%=3
No = 2 76-99%=4
100%=5

a. Education/schools......................[ ] [ ]
b. Health services/clinics...............[ ] [ ]
c. Housing assistance....................[ ] [ ]
d. Job training/employment...........[ ] [ ]
e. Credit/finance............................[ ] [ ]
f. Transportation............................[ ] [ ]
g. Water distribution......................[ ] [ ]
h. Sanitation services....................[ ] [ ]
i. Agricultural extension................[ ] [ ]
j. Justice/conflict resolution...........[ ] [ ]
k. Security/policy services.............[ ] [ ]

8. What are the reasons or criteria why some people are excluded from these services?

Yes No
a. Income level [ ] 1 [ ] 2
b. Occupation [ ] 1 [ ] 2
c. Social status (class, caste) [ ] 1 [ ] 2
d. Age [ ] 1 [ ] 2
e. Gender [ ] 1 [ ] 2
f. Race/ethnicity [ ] 1 [ ] 2
g. Language [ ] 1 [ ] 2
h. Religious beliefs [ ] 1 [ ] 2
i. Political affiliation [ ] 1 [ ] 2
j. Lack of education [ ] 1 [ ] 2

I. Previous Collective Action

1. In the past year, how often have members of this village/neighborhood gotten
together and jointly petitioned government officials or political leaders with village
development as their goal?

Never [ ] 1 (go to question 4D.3)


Once [ ] 2
A couple of times [ ] 3
Frequently [ ] 4

2. Was this action/were any of these actions successful?

Yes, all were successful [ ] 1


Some were successful and

258
others not [ ] 2
No, none were successful [ ] 3

3. How often in the past year have you joined together with others in the
village/neighborhood to address a common issue?

Never [ ] 1
Once [ ] 2
A couple of times [ ] 3
Frequently [ ] 4

4. In the last three years have you personally done any of the following things:
Yes No
a. Voted in the elections [ ] 1 [ ] 2
b. Actively participated in
an association [ ] 1 [ ] 2
c. Made a personal contact
with an influential person [ ] 1 [ ] 2
d. Made the media interested
in a problem [ ] 1 [ ] 2
e. Actively participated in
an information campaign [ ] 1 [ ] 2
f. Actively participated in
an election campaign [ ] 1 [ ] 2
g. Taken part in a protest
march or demonstration [ ] 1 [ ] 2
h. Contacted your elected
representative [ ] 1 [ ] 2
i. Taken part in a sit-in
or disruption of
government meetings/
offices [ ] 1 [ ] 2
j. Talked with other people
in your area about
a problem [ ] 1 [ ] 2
k. Notified the court or police
about a problem [ ] 1 [ ] 2
l. Made a monetary or
in-kind donation [ ] 1 [ ] 2
m. Volunteered for
a charitable organization [ ] 1 [ ] 2

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5. Have you been approached by someone personally during the last three years who
asked you to do any of the following:
Yes No
a. Vote in the elections [ ] 1 [ ] 2
b. Actively participate in
an association [ ] 1 [ ] 2
c. Make a personal contact
with an influential person [ ] 1 [ ] 2
d. Make the media interested
in a problem [ ] 1 [ ] 2
e. Actively participate in an
information campaign [ ] 1 [ ] 2
f. Actively participate in
an election campaign [ ] 1 [ ] 2
g. Take part in a protest
march or demonstration [ ] 1 [ ] 2
h. Contact your elected
representative [ ] 1 [ ] 2
i. Take part in a sit-in or
disruption of government
meetings/offices [ ] 1 [ ] 2
j. Talk with other people
in your area about a
problem [ ] 1 [ ] 2
k. Notify the court or police
about a problem [ ] 1 [ ] 2
l. Make a monetary or
in-kind donation [ ] 1 [ ] 2
m. Volunteer for a charitable
organization [ ] 1 [ ] 2

6. If some decision related to a development project needed to be made in this


village/neighborhood, do you think the entire village/neighborhood would be called
upon to decide or would the community leaders make the decision themselves?

The community leaders would decide [ ] 1


The whole village/neighborhood would be called [ ] 2

7. Overall, how would you rate the spirit of participation in this village/neighborhood?

Very low [ ] 1
Low [ ] 2
Average [ ] 3
High [ ] 4
Very high [ ] 5

8. How much influence do you think people like yourself can have in making this
village/neighborhood a better place to live?

A lot [ ] 1
Some [ ] 2
Not very much [ ] 3
None [ ] 4
J. Conflict Resolution

260
1. In your opinion, is this village/neighborhood generally peaceful or conflictive?

Peaceful [ ] 1
Conflictive [ ] 2

2. Compared with other villages/neighborhoods, is there more or less conflict in this


village/neighborhood?

More [ ] 1
The same [ ] 2
Less [ ] 3

3. Do people in this village/neighborhood contribute time and money toward common


development goals?

They contribute some or a lot. [ ] 1


They contribute very little or
nothing. [ ] 2

4. Compared with other villages/neighborhoods, to what extent do people of this


village/neighborhood contribute time and money toward common development
goals?

They contribute less than other villages/


neighborhoods. [ ] 1
They contribute about the same as
other villages/neighborhoods. [ ] 2
They contribute more than other
villages/neighborhoods. [ ] 3

5. Are the relationships among people in this village/neighborhood generally


harmonious or disagreeable?

Harmonious [ ] 1
Disagreeable [ ] 2

6. Compared with other villages/neighborhoods, are the relationships among people in


this village/neighborhood more harmonious, the same, or less harmonious than other
villages/neighborhoods?

More harmonious [ ] 1
The same [ ] 2
Less harmonious [ ] 3

7. Suppose two people in this village/neighborhood had a fairly serious dispute with
each other. Who do you think would primarily help resolve the dispute?

No one; people work it out


between themselves [ ] 1
Family/household members [ ] 2
Neighbors [ ] 3
Community leaders [ ] 4
Religious leaders [ ] 5
Judicial leaders [ ] 6
Other (specify) [ ] 7

261