You are on page 1of 8

Text mining

Text mining, also referred to as text data mining, independently or in conjunction with query and analysis
roughly equivalent to text analytics, is the process of de- of elded, numerical data. It is a truism that 80 percent of
riving high-quality information from text. High-quality business-relevant information originates in unstructured
information is typically derived through the devising of form, primarily text.[5] These techniques and processes
patterns and trends through means such as statistical pat- discover and present knowledge facts, business rules,
tern learning. Text mining usually involves the pro- and relationships that is otherwise locked in textual
cess of structuring the input text (usually parsing, along form, impenetrable to automated processing.
with the addition of some derived linguistic features and
the removal of others, and subsequent insertion into a
database), deriving patterns within the structured data, 2 History
and nally evaluation and interpretation of the output.
'High quality' in text mining usually refers to some combi-
Labor-intensive manual text mining approaches rst sur-
nation of relevance, novelty, and interestingness. Typical
faced in the mid-1980s,[6] but technological advances
text mining tasks include text categorization, text cluster-
have enabled the eld to advance during the past decade.
ing, concept/entity extraction, production of granular tax-
Text mining is an interdisciplinary eld that draws on
onomies, sentiment analysis, document summarization,
information retrieval, data mining, machine learning,
and entity relation modeling (i.e., learning relations be-
statistics, and computational linguistics. As most infor-
tween named entities).
mation (common estimates say over 80%)[5] is currently
Text analysis involves information retrieval, lexical anal- stored as text, text mining is believed to have a high com-
ysis to study word frequency distributions, pattern recog- mercial potential value. Increasing interest is being paid
nition, tagging/annotation, information extraction, data to multilingual data mining: the ability to gain informa-
mining techniques including link and association analy- tion across languages and cluster similar items from dif-
sis, visualization, and predictive analytics. The overarch- ferent linguistic sources according to their meaning.
ing goal is, essentially, to turn text into data for analysis,
The challenge of exploiting the large proportion of enter-
via application of natural language processing (NLP) and
prise information that originates in unstructured form
analytical methods.
has been recognized for decades.[7] It is recognized in the
A typical application is to scan a set of documents writ- earliest denition of business intelligence (BI), in an Oc-
ten in a natural language and either model the document tober 1958 IBM Journal article by H.P. Luhn, A Business
set for predictive classication purposes or populate a Intelligence System, which describes a system that will:
database or search index with the information extracted.
"...utilize data-processing machines for
auto-abstracting and auto-encoding of docu-
ments and for creating interest proles for each
1 Text analytics of the 'action points in an organization. Both
incoming and internally generated documents
The term text analytics describes a set of linguistic, are automatically abstracted, characterized by
statistical, and machine learning techniques that model a word pattern, and sent automatically to ap-
and structure the information content of textual sources propriate action points.
for business intelligence, exploratory data analysis,
research, or investigation.[1] The term is roughly synony- Yet as management information systems developed start-
mous with text mining; indeed, Ronen Feldman modied ing in the 1960s, and as BI emerged in the '80s and '90s
a 2000 description of text mining[2] in 2004 to describe as a software category and eld of practice, the empha-
text analytics.[3] The latter term is now used more fre- sis was on numerical data stored in relational databases.
quently in business settings while text mining is used This is not surprising: text in unstructured documents
in some of the earliest application areas, dating to the is hard to process. The emergence of text analytics in its
1980s,[4] notably life-sciences research and government current form stems from a refocusing of research in the
intelligence. late 1990s from algorithm development to application, as
The term text analytics also describes that application of described by Prof. Marti A. Hearst in the paper Untan-
text analytics to respond to business problems, whether gling Text Data Mining:[8]

1
2 4 APPLICATIONS

For almost a decade the computational lin- opinion, mood, and emotion. Text analytics tech-
guistics community has viewed large text col- niques are helpful in analyzing, sentiment at the en-
lections as a resource to be tapped in order tity, concept, or topic level and in distinguishing
to produce better text analysis algorithms. In opinion holder and opinion object.[9]
this paper, I have attempted to suggest a new
emphasis: the use of large online text collec- Quantitative text analysis is a set of techniques stem-
tions to discover new facts and trends about the ming from the social sciences where either a human
world itself. I suggest that to make progress we judge or a computer extracts semantic or grammat-
do not need fully articial intelligent text analy- ical relationships between words in order to nd out
sis; rather, a mixture of computationally-driven the meaning or stylistic patterns of, usually, a casual
and user-guided analysis may open the door to personal text for the purpose of psychological pro-
exciting new results. ling etc.[10]

Hearsts 1999 statement of need fairly well describes the


state of text analytics technology and practice a decade 4 Applications
later.
The technology is now broadly applied for a wide variety
of government, research, and business needs. Applica-
3 Text analysis processes tions can be sorted into a number of categories by anal-
ysis type or by business function. Using this approach to
Subtaskscomponents of a larger text-analytics eort classifying solutions, application categories include:
typically include:
Enterprise Business Intelligence/Data Mining,
Information retrieval or identication of a corpus is Competitive Intelligence
a preparatory step: collecting or identifying a set of
E-Discovery, Records Management
textual materials, on the Web or held in a le system,
database, or content corpus manager, for analysis. National Security/Intelligence
Although some text analytics systems apply exclu- Scientic discovery, especially Life Sciences
sively advanced statistical methods, many others
apply more extensive natural language processing, Sentiment Analysis Tools, Listening Platforms
such as part of speech tagging, syntactic parsing, and
other types of linguistic analysis. Natural Language/Semantic Toolkit or Service

Named entity recognition is the use of gazetteers Publishing


or statistical techniques to identify named text fea-
tures: people, organizations, place names, stock Automated ad placement
ticker symbols, certain abbreviations, and so on.
Disambiguationthe use of contextual cluesmay Search/Information Access
be required to decide where, for instance, Ford can
Social media monitoring
refer to a former U.S. president, a vehicle manufac-
turer, a movie star, a river crossing, or some other
entity.
4.1 Security applications
Recognition of Pattern Identied Entities: Features
such as telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, quan- Many text mining software packages are marketed for
tities (with units) can be discerned via regular ex- security applications, especially monitoring and analysis
pression or other pattern matches. of online plain text sources such as Internet news, blogs,
etc. for national security purposes.[11] It is also involved
Coreference: identication of noun phrases and in the study of text encryption/decryption.
other terms that refer to the same object.

Relationship, fact, and event Extraction: identica- 4.2 Biomedical applications


tion of associations among entities and other infor-
mation in text Main article: Biomedical text mining
Sentiment analysis involves discerning subjective
(as opposed to factual) material and extracting var- A range of text mining applications in the biomedical lit-
ious forms of attitudinal information: sentiment, erature has been described.[12]
4.7 Academic applications 3

One online text mining application in the biomedical lit- 4.7 Academic applications
erature is PubGene that combines biomedical text mining
with network visualization as an Internet service.[13][14] The issue of text mining is of importance to publishers
who hold large databases of information needing indexing
GoPubMed is a knowledge-based search engine for
for retrieval. This is especially true in scientic disci-
biomedical texts.
plines, in which highly specic information is often con-
tained within written text. Therefore, initiatives have
been taken such as Natures proposal for an Open Text
4.3 Software applications Mining Interface (OTMI) and the National Institutes of
Health's common Journal Publishing Document Type
Text mining methods and software is also being re- Denition (DTD) that would provide semantic cues to
searched and developed by major rms, including IBM machines to answer specic queries contained within text
and Microsoft, to further automate the mining and anal- without removing publisher barriers to public access.
ysis processes, and by dierent rms working in the area Academic institutions have also become involved in the
of search and indexing in general as a way to improve text mining initiative:
their results. Within public sector much eort has been
concentrated on creating software for tracking and mon- The National Centre for Text Mining (NaCTeM),
itoring terrorist activities.[15] is the rst publicly funded text mining centre in the
world. NaCTeM is operated by the University of
Manchester[24] in close collaboration with the Tsujii
Lab,[25] University of Tokyo.[26] NaCTeM provides
4.4 Online media applications customised tools, research facilities and oers ad-
vice to the academic community. They are funded
Text mining is being used by large media companies, such by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)
as the Tribune Company, to clarify information and to and two of the UK Research Councils (EPSRC &
provide readers with greater search experiences, which in BBSRC). With an initial focus on text mining in
turn increases site stickiness and revenue. Additionally, the biological and biomedical sciences, research has
on the back end, editors are beneting by being able to since expanded into the areas of social sciences.
share, associate and package news across properties, sig-
In the United States, the School of Information at
nicantly increasing opportunities to monetize content.
University of California, Berkeley is developing a
program called BioText to assist biology researchers
in text mining and analysis.
4.5 Business and marketing applications The Text Analysis Portal for Research (TAPoR),
currently housed at the University of Alberta, is a
Text mining is starting to be used in marketing as scholarly project to catalogue text analysis applica-
well, more specically in analytical customer relation- tions and create a gateway for researchers new to the
ship management.[16] Coussement and Van den Poel practice.
(2008)[17][18] apply it to improve predictive analyt-
ics models for customer churn (customer attrition).[17]
Text mining is also being applied in stock returns 4.8 Digital humanities and computational
prediction.[19] sociology
The automatic analysis of vast textual corpora has created
the possibility for scholars to analyse millions of docu-
4.6 Sentiment analysis ments in multiple languages with very limited manual in-
tervention. Key enabling technologies have been parsing,
Sentiment analysis may involve analysis of movie reviews machine translation, topic categorization, and machine
for estimating how favorable a review is for a movie.[20] learning.
Such an analysis may need a labeled data set or labeling The automatic parsing of textual corpora has enabled the
of the aectivity of words. Resources for aectivity of extraction of actors and their relational networks on a
words and concepts have been made for WordNet[21] and vast scale, turning textual data into network data. The re-
ConceptNet,[22] respectively. sulting networks, which can contain thousands of nodes,
Text has been used to detect emotions in the related area are then analysed by using tools from network theory
of aective computing.[23] Text based approaches to af- to identify the key actors, the key communities or par-
fective computing have been used on multiple corpora ties, and general properties such as robustness or struc-
such as students evaluations, children stories and news tural stability of the overall network, or centrality of cer-
stories. tain nodes.[28] This automates the approach introduced by
4 7 IMPLICATIONS

tion of the Hargreaves review the government amended


copyright law[37] to allow text mining as a limitation and
exception. It was only the second country in the world
to do so, following Japan, which introduced a mining-
specic exception in 2009. However, owing to the restric-
tion of the Copyright Directive, the UK exception only
allows content mining for non-commercial purposes. UK
copyright law does not allow this provision to be overrid-
den by contractual terms and conditions.
The European Commission facilitated stakeholder dis-
cussion on text and data mining in 2013, under the title
of Licences for Europe.[38] The fact that the focus on the
solution to this legal issue was licences, and not limita-
tions and exceptions to copyright law, led representatives
of universities, researchers, libraries, civil society groups
and open access publishers to leave the stakeholder dia-
logue in May 2013.[39]

Narrative network of US Elections 2012[27]


6.2 Situation in the United States
quantitative narrative analysis,[29] whereby subject-verb-
object triplets are identied with pairs of actors linked by By contrast to Europe, the exible nature of US copyright
an action, or pairs formed by actor-object.[27] law, and in particular fair use, means that text mining in
America, as well as other fair use countries such as Israel,
Content analysis has been a traditional part of social sci- Taiwan and South Korea, is viewed as being legal. As text
ences and media studies for a long time. The automa- mining is transformative, meaning that it does not sup-
tion of content analysis has allowed a "big data" revo- plant the original work, it is viewed as being lawful under
lution to take place in that eld, with studies in social fair use. For example, as part of the Google Book settle-
media and newspaper content that include millions of ment the presiding judge on the case ruled that Googles
news items. Gender bias, readability, content similar- digitisation project of in-copyright books was lawful, in
ity, reader preferences, and even mood have been an- part because of the transformative uses that the digitisa-
alyzed based on text mining methods over millions of tion project displayedone such use being text and data
documents.[30][31][32][33][34] The analysis of readability, mining.[40]
gender bias and topic bias was demonstrated in Flaounas
et al.[35] showing how dierent topics have dierent gen-
der biases and levels of readability; the possibility to de-
tect mood shifts in a vast population by analysing Twitter
content was demonstrated as well.[36] 7 Implications

Until recently, websites most often used text-based


5 Software searches, which only found documents containing spe-
cic user-dened words or phrases. Now, through use
Text mining computer programs are available from many of a semantic web, text mining can nd content based
commercial and open source companies and sources. See on meaning and context (rather than just by a specic
List of text mining software. word). Additionally, text mining software can be used
to build large dossiers of information about specic peo-
ple and events. For example, large datasets based on data
extracted from news reports can be built to facilitate so-
6 Intellectual property law cial networks analysis or counter-intelligence. In eect,
the text mining software may act in a capacity similar to
6.1 Situation in Europe an intelligence analyst or research librarian, albeit with a
more limited scope of analysis. Text mining is also used
Because of a lack of exibilities in European copyright in some email spam lters as a way of determining the
and database law, the mining of in-copyright works (such characteristics of messages that are likely to be advertise-
as web mining) without the permission of the copyright ments or other unwanted material. Text mining plays an
owner is illegal. In the UK in 2014, on the recommenda- important role in determining nancial market sentiment.
9.1 Citations 5

8 See also [10] Mehl, Matthias R. (2006). Handbook of multimethod


measurement in psychology": 141. doi:10.1037/11383-
011. ISBN 1-59147-318-7.
Concept mining
[11] Zanasi, Alessandro (2009). Proceedings of the Interna-
Document processing tional Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Secu-
rity for Information Systems CISIS'08. Advances in Soft
Full text search Computing. 53: 53. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-88181-0_7.
ISBN 978-3-540-88180-3.
List of text mining software
[12] Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence (2008). Getting
Market sentiment Started in Text Mining. PLoS Computational Biology.
4 (1): e20. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0040020. PMC
Name resolution (semantics and text extraction)
2217579 . PMID 18225946.
Named entity recognition [13] Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Lgreid, Astrid; Komorowski, Jan;
Hovig, Eivind (2001). A literature network of human
News analytics
genes for high-throughput analysis of gene expression.
Nature Genetics. 28 (1): 218. doi:10.1038/ng0501-21.
Record linkage
PMID 11326270.
Sequential pattern mining (string and sequence min- [14] Masys, Daniel R. (2001). Linking microarray data
ing) to the literature. Nature Genetics. 28 (1): 910.
doi:10.1038/ng0501-9. PMID 11326264.
w-shingling
[15] Archived October 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
Web mining, a task that may involve text mining
(e.g. rst nd appropriate web pages by classifying [16] Text Analytics. Medallia. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
crawled web pages, then extract the desired informa- [17] Coussement, Kristof; Van Den Poel, Dirk (2008).
tion from the text content of these pages considered Integrating the voice of customers through call center
relevant) emails into a decision support system for churn predic-
tion. Information & Management. 45 (3): 16474.
doi:10.1016/j.im.2008.01.005.
9 References [18] Coussement, Kristof; Van Den Poel, Dirk (2008).
Improving customer complaint management by auto-
matic email classication using linguistic style features as
9.1 Citations predictors. Decision Support Systems. 44 (4): 87082.
doi:10.1016/j.dss.2007.10.010.
[1] Archived November 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
[19] Ramiro H. Glvez; Agustn Gravano (2017). Assessing
[2] KDD-2000 Workshop on Text Mining - Call for Papers. the usefulness of online message board mining
Cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved 2015-02-23. in automatic stock prediction systems. Jour-
nal of Computational Science. 19: 18777503.
[3] Archived March 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
doi:10.1016/j.jocs.2017.01.001.
[4] Hobbs, Jerry R.; Walker, Donald E.; Amsler, [20] Pang, Bo; Lee, Lillian; Vaithyanathan, Shivakumar
Robert A. (1982). Proceedings of the 9th con- (2002). Proceedings of the ACL-02 conference on Em-
ference on Computational linguistics. 1: 12732. pirical methods in natural language processing. 10: 79
doi:10.3115/991813.991833. 86. doi:10.3115/1118693.1118704.
[5] Unstructured Data and the 80 Percent Rule. Break- [21] Alessandro Valitutti; Carlo Strapparava; Oliviero Stock
through Analysis. Retrieved 2015-02-23. (2005). Developing Aective Lexical Resources
(PDF). Psychology Journal. 2 (1): 6183.
[6] Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations.
Ppc.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2015-02-23. [22] Erik Cambria; Robert Speer; Catherine Havasi; Amir
Hussain (2010). SenticNet: a Publicly Available Seman-
[7] A Brief History of Text Analytics by Seth Grimes. tic Resource for Opinion Mining (PDF). Proceedings of
Beyenetwork. 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2015-02-23. AAAI CSK. pp. 1418.
[8] Hearst, Marti A. (1999). Proceedings of the 37th [23] Calvo, Rafael A; d'Mello, Sidney (2010). Aect Detec-
annual meeting of the Association for Computational tion: An Interdisciplinary Review of Models, Methods,
Linguistics on Computational Linguistics: 310. and Their Applications. IEEE Transactions on Aective
doi:10.3115/1034678.1034679. ISBN 1-55860-609-2. Computing. 1 (1): 1837. doi:10.1109/T-AFFC.2010.1.

[9] Full Circle Sentiment Analysis. Breakthrough Analysis. [24] The University of Manchester. Manchester.ac.uk. Re-
Retrieved 2015-02-23. trieved 2015-02-23.
6 10 EXTERNAL LINKS

[25] Tsujii Laboratory. Tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp. Retrieved 9.2 Sources


2015-02-23.
Ananiadou, S. and McNaught, J. (Editors) (2006).
[26] The University of Tokyo. UTokyo. Retrieved 2015-02- Text Mining for Biology and Biomedicine. Artech
23. House Books. ISBN 978-1-58053-984-5
[27] Automated analysis of the US presidential elections using Bilisoly, R. (2008). Practical Text Mining with Perl.
Big Data and network analysis; S Sudhahar, GA Veltri, N New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-
Cristianini; Big Data & Society 2 (1), 1-28, 2015 17643-6
[28] Network analysis of narrative content in large corpora; S Feldman, R., and Sanger, J. (2006). The Text Mining
Sudhahar, G De Fazio, R Franzosi, N Cristianini; Natural Handbook. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Language Engineering, 1-32, 2013 ISBN 978-0-521-83657-9
[29] Quantitative Narrative Analysis; Roberto Franzosi; Indurkhya, N., and Damerau, F. (2010). Handbook
Emory University 2010 Of Natural Language Processing, 2nd Edition. Boca
Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-8592-1
[30] Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thomp-
son, James; Lewis, Justin; Team, FindMyPast News- Kao, A., and Poteet, S. (Editors). Natural Lan-
paper; Cristianini, Nello (2017-01-09). Content anal- guage Processing and Text Mining. Springer. ISBN
ysis of 150 years of British periodicals. Proceed- 1-84628-175-X
ings of the National Academy of Sciences: 201606380.
doi:10.1073/pnas.1606380114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID Konchady, M. Text Mining Application Program-
28069962. ming (Programming Series). Charles River Media.
ISBN 1-58450-460-9
[31] I. Flaounas, M. Turchi, O. Ali, N. Fyson, T. De Bie, N.
Mosdell, J. Lewis, N. Cristianini, The Structure of EU Manning, C., and Schutze, H. (1999). Foundations
Mediasphere, PLoS ONE, Vol. 5(12), pp. e14243, 2010. of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cam-
bridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-13360-9
[32] Nowcasting Events from the Social Web with Statistical
Learning V Lampos, N Cristianini; ACM Transactions on Miner, G., Elder, J., Hill. T, Nisbet, R., Delen, D.
Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST) 3 (4), 72 and Fast, A. (2012). Practical Text Mining and Sta-
tistical Analysis for Non-structured Text Data Appli-
[33] NOAM: news outlets analysis and monitoring system; I cations. Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-
Flaounas, O Ali, M Turchi, T Snowsill, F Nicart, T De
386979-1
Bie, N Cristianini Proc. of the 2011 ACM SIGMOD in-
ternational conference on Management of data McKnight, W. (2005). Building business intelli-
gence: Text data mining in business intelligence.
[34] Automatic discovery of patterns in media content, N Cris-
DM Review, 21-22.
tianini, Combinatorial Pattern Matching, 2-13, 2011
Srivastava, A., and Sahami. M. (2009). Text Mining:
[35] I. Flaounas, O. Ali, T. Lansdall-Welfare, T. De Bie, N.
Classication, Clustering, and Applications. Boca
Mosdell, J. Lewis, N. Cristianini, RESEARCH METH-
Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-5940-3
ODS IN THE AGE OF DIGITAL JOURNALISM, Dig-
ital Journalism, Routledge, 2012 Zanasi, A. (Editor) (2007). Text Mining and its Ap-
plications to Intelligence, CRM and Knowledge Man-
[36] Eects of the Recession on Public Mood in the UK; T
agement. WIT Press. ISBN 978-1-84564-131-3
Lansdall-Welfare, V Lampos, N Cristianini; Mining So-
cial Network Dynamics (MSND) session on Social Media
Applications
10 External links
[37] Archived June 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
Marti Hearst: What Is Text Mining? (October,
[38] Licences for Europe - Structured Stakeholder Dialogue
2013. European Commission. Retrieved 14 November
2003)
2014. Automatic Content Extraction, Linguistic Data
Consortium
[39] Text and Data Mining:Its importance and the need for
change in Europe. Association of European Research Li- Automatic Content Extraction, NIST
braries. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
Research work and applications of Text Mining (for
[40] Judge grants summary judgment in favor of Google instance AgroNLP)
Books a fair use victory. Lexology.com. Antonelli
Law Ltd. Retrieved 14 November 2014. Text Mining Free Tools
7

Wui Lee Chang, Kai Meng Tay, and Chee Peng


Lim, A New Evolving Tree-Based Model with
Local Re-learning for Document Clustering and
Visualization, Neural Processing Letters, DOI:
10.1007/s11063-017-9597-3. https://link.springer.
com/article/10.1007/s11063-017-9597-3
8 11 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

11 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


11.1 Text
Text mining Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_mining?oldid=778865797 Contributors: Fnielsen, Lexor, Nixdorf, Kku, Ronz,
Angela, Hike395, Charles Matthews, Furrykef, Khym Chanur, Pigsonthewing, ZimZalaBim, TimothyPilgrim, Timrollpickering, Adam78,
Fennec, Ds13, Alison, Dmb000006, Nwynder, Utcursch, Alexf, Geni, Beland, Mike Rosoft, D6, Bender235, MBisanz, Shanes, Ser-
apio, Comtebenoit, John Vandenberg, Alansohn, Thringer, Stephen Turner, Woohookitty, Dallan, Macaddct1984, Joerg Kurt Weg-
ner, GrundyCamellia, Rjwilmsi, FayssalF, Intgr, Eric.dane~enwiki, Adoniscik, Alexmorgan, Chris Capoccia, Dialectric, Ksteen~enwiki,
Kawika, Paul Magnussen, GraemeL, GrinBot~enwiki, Veinor, SmackBot, Object01, Nixeagle, JonHarder, Matthew, Mfalhon, Gok-
mop, Derek R Bullamore, Dr.faustus, Musidora, JzG, Fernando S. Aldado~enwiki, Agathoclea, Slakr, Beetstra, Tmcw, Hobbularmodule,
Hu12, Iridescent, Dreftymac, Ralf Klinkenberg, IvanLanin, Tawkerbot2, Dlohcierekim, PhillyPartTwo, CmdrObot, Van helsing, Gogo
Dodo, Firstauthor, Scientio, A3RO, Nick Number, Zang0, AntiVandalBot, JAnDbot, Olaf, East718, Whayes, Magioladitis, Bubba hotep,
Jodi.a.schneider, Shadesofgrey, Saganaki-, Infovarius, MartinBot, Anaxial, CalendarWatcher, Jfroelich, Textminer, Vision3001, Hdu-
rina, AKA MBG, Jkwaran, KylieTastic, DarkSaber2k, Lalvers, VolkovBot, ABF, Maghnus, Fences and windows, Rogerfgay, Valerie928,
Slabbe, Sebastjanmm, EverGreg, Guyjones, Znmeb, K. Takeda~enwiki, Sonermanc, Louiseh, Periergeia, Jerryobject, Eikoku, Mkon-
chady, Alessandro.zanasi, CharlesGillingham, Disooqi, Shah1979, JBrookeAker, Drgarden, Dokkai, Kotsiantis, Dtunkelang, Wikimeyou,
Mdehaa, Ray3055, Jplehmann, Pixelpty, Ferzsamara, Atolf19, Johnuniq, SoxBot III, Justin Mauger, XLinkBot, Ubahat, Chickensquare,
DamsonDragon, Dianeburley, Maximgr, Texterp, Addbot, DOI bot, Fgnievinski, MrOllie, Kq-hit, Yami0226, Lightbot, Sredmore, Luckas-
bot, Yobot, Worldbruce, Themfromspace, Xicouto, Paulbalas, Glentipton, Tiany9027, IslandData, Lexisnexisamsterdam, AnomieBOT,
1exec1, JoshKirschner, Saustinwiki, Citation bot, Wileri, Drecute, FrescoBot, Citation bot 1, Bina2, Boxplot, MastiBot, Trappist the monk,
Lam Kin Keung, 564dude, Wikri63, Mean as custard, RjwilmsiBot, Pangeaworld, NotAnonymous0, Waidanian, Dcirovic, K6ka, Jahub,
AvicAWB, Chire, 1Veertje, AManWithNoPlan, Yatsko, TyA, Mayko333, Stanislaw.osinski, Amzimti, Epheson, ClueBot NG, Researchad-
vocate, Babaifalola, Babakdarabi, Luke145, Lawsonstu, Debuntu, Helpful Pixie Bot, Andrewjsledge, Rgranich, BG19bot, Marcocapelle,
Meshlabs, Martinef, Desildorf, TextAnalysisProf, Cyberbot II, Astaravista, Anonymous but Registered, Marie22446688, Stabylorus, Cer-
abot~enwiki, Davednh, Marketpsy, Bradhill14, Tomtcs, Me, Myself, and I are Here, SCBerry, Biogeographist, Gnust, Koichi home add,
Semantria, Astigitana, RTNTD, Fabio.ruini, LegalResearch345 2, Fixuture, Cognie, Cbuyle, Monkbot, Patient Zero, Java12389, Aasasd,
HelpUsStopSpam, KasparBot, Howardbm, Mroche.perso, GreenC bot, Vladiatorr, GregWS and Anonymous: 271

11.2 Images
File:Lock-green.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg License: CC0 Contributors: en:File:
Free-to-read_lock_75.svg Original artist: User:Trappist the monk
File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_transparent.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Open_Access_logo_
PLoS_transparent.svg License: CC0 Contributors: http://www.plos.org/ Original artist: art designer at PLoS, modied by Wikipedia users
Nina, Beao, and JakobVoss
File:Tripletsnew2012.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Tripletsnew2012.png License: CC BY 4.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Thinkbig-project

11.3 Content license


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0