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Journal of Political Science, Public and International Affairs

Vol. 1(1), pp. 002-008, June, 2017. www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: xxxx-xxxx


JPSPIA

Research Article

Job satisfaction of employees of public and private


organizations in Bangladesh
Md. Nazirul Islam Sarker1, Arifin Sultana2, AZM Shafiullah Prodhan3
1
School of Public Administration, Sichuan University, China.
2
Department of Psychology, National University, Bangladesh.
3
Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

This study examined the level of job satisfaction among the employees ofprivate and public
organizations in Bangladesh. Data have been collected randomly from 40employees of
Gaibandha District in Bangladesh through a structured questionnairein January to February,
2010. Among the respondents 50% is government employee while 50% is non-government
employee. Brayfield and Rothe (1951) method was used to determine the job satisfaction of the
employees. Likert scale was used for measuring the attitude of the employees on their job. This
research revealed that there was no significant difference between the job satisfaction of
government and non-government employees. The study suggests that an effective policy on
recruitment, job security, service rules, promotional opportunities, regular payments,
retirements benefits should be made by the government to improve the job satisfaction and
attitude of employees in both government and non-government employees.

Keywords: Job satisfaction, employees, private, public organizations, government, Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION

Job satisfaction is the key factors for the success of an related to its goal achievement. Job satisfaction is a set
organization. Most of the organizations usually take of favorable or unfavorable feeling and emotions with
initiative to satisfy their employees for makes them which employees view their work and the supervisors
committed and developing their effective roles. It is the should concentrate about employees job satisfaction
difference between the level of rewards employees level (Newstrom, 2007; Sarker et al., 2015).Locke (1976)
receive and the level they believe they should receive defined job satisfaction as anenjoyable or positive
(Robins 1997). Herzberg (1952) identified motivation emotional state, resulting from the assessment of ones
factors and hygiene factors while investigating job experiences. It is described as how people feel about
satisfaction on the job. He concluded that motivation their jobs and its different aspects.
factors (e.g., achievement recognition, responsibility,
advancement, growth and work itself) lead to satisfaction
on the job and factors like supervision, policy and
administration, relationship with supervisor, relationships
with peers, relationships with subordinates, work
conditions, salary, status, personal life, security may
guide to job dissatisfaction.
*Corresponding author: Md. Nazirul Islam Sarker,
An important issue of every organization is job School of Public Administration, Sichuan University,
satisfaction among the employees as it is positively China. Email: sarker.scu@yahoo.com.
Job satisfaction of employees of public and private organizations in Bangladesh
Sarker et al. 002

Job satisfaction is collection of feelings that an individual employees of both public and private organizations. The
holds toward job (Robbins and Sanghi, 2006; Rahman, review of literature suggests that no previous study done
2008). Mobey and Lockey (1970) expressed as a on this issue in the study area which leads the
perceived relationship between what one expects and researchers to select this piece of research. This study
obtains from ones job and how much importance or explored the level ofjob satisfaction of employees of
value one attributes to it. The Harvard Professional public and private organization.In line with the objective,
Group (1998) reportedit as a condition that leads to the alternative hypothesis was formulated.
recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of H1: There is a positive and significant relationship
other goals for fulfillment. Bullock (1952) defined it as an between job satisfaction and employee performance in
attitude which results from a balancing and exact of likes public and private organization.
and dislikesexperienced in connection with the job.
One of the major challenges in organizational Rationale of the Study
management is employee job performance which mainly
affects the performance of the organization (Lee and Wu Job Satisfaction is an important concern in the world of
2011; Sarker, 2016). Ogbulafor (2011) suggested that professional commitments.The outcome of the
employee performance was instrumental to companiesis largelydepends on the employees job
organizational growth and profitability. The employees satisfaction. When an employee get reward and satisfied
are regarded as the major business resources that help to his or her job, definitely he or she can contribute better
the daily activities and operations of an organization for organization. As a result, a lot of factors bring the job
(Mudah, RafikiandHarahap2014; Rahmean et al., 2017). satisfaction and at the same time lack of them are
Similarly, Oluwafemi (2010) mentioned that responsible for job dissatisfaction. Employees job
organizational effectiveness and efficiency depends on satisfaction seems very essential concerning about the
how effective and efficient the employees in the companys constant growth.In the first world, this issue
organization are. Employers ability to understand has been understood reasonably because they do
employees satisfaction as it relates to schedules and understand that the job satisfaction of the employees is
daily duties will impact greatly on employee efficiency much more important than other components of the
and performance. Howard (2009) viewed job satisfaction organization. In this respect, Bangladesh has yet to do
as a blend of likable and unlikable moods or behavior of something trustworthy as the concept is relatively new in
an individual worker on their work schedule, implying that Bangladesh (Sarker et al., 2017). So, it has been realized
when an individual is employed such individual might the fact that job satisfaction has to be taken care of
come along with desires, wants and anticipations which practically. What makes a firm best is not just technology,
define their meaning for being there. Satisfaction on a job bright ideas, strategy or the use of tools, but also the fact
symbolizes the enormousness to which optimism are that the best firms are better organized to meet the needs
align with real rewards and benefits. Most employees of their people, to attract better people who are more
have a high degree of job frustration which create motivated to do a superior job (Waterman, 1994). In
attitudes that are undesirable on the job and deteriorate thismanner, the management of human resources
their performance ability and that their working place as becomes very crucial. Almost no research has been done
well (Mowday, Porter and Steers 2013; Sarker and on the employees job satisfaction in the study area.
Rashid, 2015). The concept of employee performance is Thus, this study on employees job satisfaction of the
preferably stressed lately in the viewpoint of transparency employees of public and private organization was taken
(Hood and Healed, 2006), managerial accountability up.
(Broaddbent and Laughlin, 2003), a performance
measurement (Ferreira and Otley, 2005) and managerial Objectives of the Study
control (Berry, Broadbent and Otley, 2005).
The main objective of this study was to determine the
Job satisfaction is the positive and negative attitude level of job satisfaction among the public employees and
towards the job of employee. There are some private employees of Bangladesh. The main objectives
commonfactors like security of their existing job, split into the followings:
employees autonomy, salary and other facilities, working a) To explore the relationship of employees level of job
environment and schedule, career improvement satisfaction with their socio-economic, demographic,
opportunity, performance appraisal process and andeducational status.
evaluation etc which always contribute directly and b) To determine the variation of job satisfaction between
indirectly to theemployees mind as well as performance the public employees and private employees of
of the organization. Since organizational performance Bangladesh.
and service delivery mainly depends on job satisfaction, c) To suggest some policy measures for improving
so it is a critical issue to measure the job satisfaction of employees job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction of employees of public and private organizations in Bangladesh


J. Pol. Sci., Public Int. Affairs 003

SURVEY OF RELATED LITERATURE Therefore, worker efficiency brings about advancement


efficiency and firm efficiency as a whole, in such a way
Some recent research works were included in this section that successful effort of satisfied, motivated, and
as evidence to the relation between job satisfactions dedicated recruiting produce impressive ideas for new
public and private employees with other factors. services or products and increase quality efficiency,
surgical activities, and customer support directly
Employee performance (Sadikoglu and Cemal, 2010).Globalization has designed
a lot of variations and difficulties that impact both the
Employee job performance has always been an important public and private industry around the world which make
concern for managers of organizations (Kelidbari, Dizgah, job industry of Bangladesh not exceptional to such
and Yusefi, 2011). Similarly, employee performance is circumstances. Although there are some undeniable
key component of an organization therefore; aspects that justifications about the beneficial and side results about
place the grounds for high performance must be such changes, an effective analysis of worker efficiency
scrutinized critically by the organizations for them to therefore becomes absolutely essential (Krishna, 2010).
succeed (Abbas and Yaqoob, 2009). The effect of job
satisfaction and service attitude on job performance Measures for employee performance
among high-tech has always been regarded as an
important item in organizational management.Job Ahmad and Shahzad (2011) argued that seeming
performance is generally considered as workers total performance of an employee expresses the entire
performance in meeting the anticipated worth and conviction of an employee in regards to the actions and
achievement of tasks under the procedure and time input to the attainment of the organizations goals and
requirements of the organization. Similarly Liao et al., mission. They further mentioned that practices of
(2012) definedjob efficiency as the common for compensation, evaluation of performance and practices
improvements, redundancy, benefits, punitive measures, concerning promotion of and employee are the
opinions and wage changes. It also meets the needs for benchmark for performance of a worker. So also Anitha
workers to realize themselves. Ahmad and Khurram (2013) stated that performance of an employee is a
(2011) also argued that worker performance represents gauge or pointer of monetary or other result of the
the wide perception of the employees about their actions employee that has undeviating relationship with
and efforts towards the accomplishment of the company. organization performance and accomplishment as well.
Ahmad and Shahzad (2011) mentioned that apparent Anitha (2013) additionally disclose that atmosphere at
employee performance embodies the whole belief of the which employee perform task and other schedules,
employee about their conduct and contributions to the relationship with bosses, co-employee relationship and
accomplishment of the organization and compensation that of team, compensation procedure, and engagement
practices, performance assessment and promotional of an employee are determining factors for performance.
practices as a determinant of employee performance. Conversely, Alagaraja1 and Shuck (2015) mentioned that
Similarly, Anitha (2013) defined it as an indicator of employee performance can be measured by means of
financial or other outcome of the employee which has a regular training and improvement. In addition, Thomas
direct relation with the performance of the and Feldman, (2010) take on measures of employee
organizationand its achievement, further reported that performance as core job performance, that includes in-
working environment, leadership, team and co-worker role performance, security performance, and
involvement, training and career development, incentive inventiveness, trailed by citizenship performance,
program, guidelines and procedures and branded into equally targets-specific and wide-ranging
workplacecomfort as well as employee commitment are organizational citizenship. As far as this study is
major factors which determine employee performance. concerned however, dimensions for measuring employee
Alagaraja1 and Shuck (2015) argued that employee performance provided in the study of Liao et al, (2012)
performance can be enhanced through training and were chosen. This is due to the fact that the dimensions
development by organizational configuration and in those studies employee performance was measured
employee engagement in order to understand reasons from the point of view of the organization, the employee
associated with enhancing individual performance. as well as, the job itself i.e. organizational objective,
Furthermore, Thomas and Feldman, (2010) adopted employee objective, performance development and
measures of employee performance as core task employee satisfaction are used as measures of employee
performance, which includes in-role performance, safety performance which makes it more wide-ranging.
performance, and creativity, followed by citizenship Performance of an employee hence, gives room for
performance, categorized into both targets-specific and innovativeness among employees and general firms
general organizational citizenship behaviors and lastly, performance and innovativeness, in a manner that
counterproductive performance that consists of general prosperous work of accomplished, inspired and zealous
counterproductive work behaviors, workplace violence, human resources yield ground breaking concepts for
substance use, sluggishness, and malingering. newer goods or services and also upsurge performance

Job satisfaction of employees of public and private organizations in Bangladesh


Sarker et al. 004

quality and satisfaction of the clients (Sadikoglu and discontentment could affect them, their co-workers as
Cemal, 2010). well as their quality of efficiency and the service they
provide in the sense that such disappointed employees
Job satisfaction have propensities of showing anger on anybody else in
the office.
Job satisfaction is considered not to have a generally Bos et al. (2009) described that job fulfillment has five
decided meaning despite of its importance and wide factors which involve freedom, expertise attention,
utilization in the world of commercial mindset and support from excellent, chances to further knowledge and
business actions, which make it vital that before clear connection with co-workers. Statistic of employees job
significance is given, there is the need to put into fulfillment is one of the significant characteristics when it
consideration benefit and characteristics actions of comes to skills and effectiveness of employees. In
humans all over the world (Aziri, 2011). Hop pock (1935) functionality, the first-hand decision-making design which
stated that job satisfaction was seen as any form of blend types it as essential that employees should be
of psychological environmental as well as physiological maintained and well thought-out essentially as humans
circumstances. Another definition given by Vroom (1964) that have their own wishes, needs, and own wishes are a
effective alignment of person in regard to their process very good range for the popularity of job fulfillment in
and plans is what describes job satisfaction; this meaning modern-day companies (Usman and Jamal, 2013). In the
put much focus on the part performed by a worker in the process examining job fulfillment, the sagacity that a
working place. pleased worker is a pleased worker and a pleased worker
The most commonly used significance of job fulfillment is is a dynamic worker (Aziri, 2011).
the created by Spector (1997) which declares that job On the opposite Aziri (2011) further suggested that there
fulfillment facilities mostly on the emotions of people was no strong nexus between job fulfillment and worker
about their whole job, which focuses on the stage to efficiency considering the fact that a meta-analysis of
which people like or dislike their tasks. Therefore job past experiments charges 0.17 best-estimate
fulfillment provides as a standard on how workers either connections between job fulfillment and worker efficiency.
feel adverse or beneficial about their job and that is the He further stated that a worker with an advanced stage of
primary reason why job fulfillment and discontentment job fulfillment might not actually have an advanced stage
always exist at certain point and scenario (Davis, of efficiency. Furthermore, in a research by Increased et
Nestrom 1985). Aziri (2011) claimed that the quality of job al (2011) targeted at monitoring the text job fulfillment
fulfillment was within the range of excessive fulfillment and perform efficiency by an example of community
and excessive discontentment. Also, according to Kaliski service authorities in Malaysia realize that business
(2007) job fulfillment can be considered emotions of learning was set up to be favorably similar to business
success and how effective a worker is on his/her job dedication, job fulfillment, and perform efficiency. In the
which can have a primary connection to worker efficiency same line of thinking, Raza, Rafique, Ali, Mohsin, and
as well as wellness of the staff member. Moreover, Henry Shah, (2015) also performed a research with the goal of
and Jackson (2008) recommend that job fulfillment is searching the outcomes of job fulfillment and revenue
consisting of values and emotions that people understand representatives efficiency with flexible selling actions of
about their specific tasks. However, job fulfillment is companies, the research divulges that that there is a
considered to be multi- perspective and complex, it can strong organization of salesman efficiency and job
be considered in many different ways by different people, fulfillment. Moreover, in the perform of Vermeeren,
usually, it is associated with inspiration even though the Kuipers and Steijn (2014) in a research is designed to
opportunity of the text is still not very obvious Aziri observe the association concerning community business
(2011). efficiency and workers control with specific focus on job
fulfillment as a reputable mediating varying between
Factors Determining Job Satisfaction business efficiency and HRM, on the effect of a
supervisors control smartness on the application of
Rue and Ryaes (2003) recommend that job fulfillment is human resources (HR) methods. However, their findings
driven by some look at the office which include financial direct that job fulfillment is favorably related to worker
offers like incomes, possibilities, progression, working efficiency.
circumstances, and workgroup, further the resulting effect Furthermore, in a research carried out by Al-Ahmadi
of the determinant functions as measuring stick for job (2009) in order determine causes impelling efficiency of
fulfillment of discontentment as well as what the results medical center nursing staff in Riyadh Region, Saudi
will be as stated by Aziri (2011) that when talking about Arabic determined that job fulfillment has a positive
issues regarding job fulfillment, job discontentment connection to worker efficiency. Saba Salem et al. (2013)
should be considered to ensure balance. Squires et al. in their research on factors of job fulfillment examine its
(2015) suggested that though, disappointed employees effect on workers of the financial industry has discovered
may not stop their tasks, but such feeling of that all the factors such as business policy and strategy,

Job satisfaction of employees of public and private organizations in Bangladesh


J. Pol. Sci., Public Int. Affairs 005

nature of perform, interaction, job stress, worker data have been collected through desk study which
character and employment and selection procedures covered research articles, research monographs,
have significant organization with workers job fulfillment. textbooks and various published and unpublished
Shaukat et al. (2012) discovered that supply of materials on the subject.
assistance at performs and higher leader-member return
interaction favorably forecasts workers job fulfillment. It Sampling
shows that when the organization provides assistance to
its workers or when manager is helpful and workers have Sampling from public organizations
excellent return regards with their manager, they Serial Name of the organizations Number of
reciprocate it with higher interaction and increase job no. respondent
fulfillment. 1 Upazila statistics office 4
2 Upazila livestock office 7
Jehanzeb et al., (2012) figured degree of advantages, 3 Rural development office 3
inspiration and job fulfillment of workers has a strong 4 Upazila fisheries office 2
relationship in the financial industry of Saudi Arabic 5 Upazila election office 3
further it has been found that workers in the financial 6 Upazila food control office 1
industry give more importance to economic or dollars. Total 20
Rahman et al. (2012) figured the female workers overall
job fulfillment of private banks is associated with Sampling from private organizations
adequate compensation for perform, available chance of Serial Name of the organizations Number of
promotion, job analyzed advantages, identification for no. respondent
great perform, pleased supply wage rise, pleased supply 1 Samaj Kallyan Sangstha 3
wage rise, pleased inspiration and advantages, wage 2 Unnayan Sohojogy Sangstha 4
increases on performance, motivated to operate pleased 3 Association for Social 7
available chance, training course regularly, pleased Advancement (ASA)
space available, pleased atmosphere. Hoque et al. 4 Unnayan Shangha 6
(2012) indicates that the factors of job fulfillment such as Total 20
job status, wage edge advantages, job security,
promotional opportunities, workplace, job independence, Measurement of variables
identification for great perform, co-workers, and
monitoring have been assigned by both the amount of The following questions were asked to the public and
professionals, junior and top stage as the major factors of private organization employees for determination of the
their respective job fulfillment. It is also revealed that level of job satisfaction (Table 1).
each of their factors has significant positive relation with
the overall job fulfillment of the professionals. Therefore, Table 1. Questions related to job satisfaction.
improve in values/standard of each of these factors would
definitely improve the amount of job fulfillment of the S/No. Questions related to job satisfaction
selected professionals. 1 My job is like my hobby.
Generally my job is like that it removes my
2 tiredness.
METHODOLOGY 3 I think my friends are more devotee than me.
4 I think my job satisfaction is not up to mark.
5 I enjoy my office time than leisure time.
The research data have been collected from both primary 6 Frequently I feel my job as monotonous job.
and secondary sources. Primary data have been 7 I am satisfied with my present job.
collected through a structured questionnaire from 8 Most of the time I feel lazy to go office.
Gaibandha district of Bangladesh in January to February, 9 At this moment I am satisfied with my job.
2010. The data is collected using a well-designed I have frustration when I think about my present
interview schedule. All the variables were measured 10 job.
using a five point Likert scale ranging from strongly 11 I certainly dislike my job.
disagrees to strongly agree (Sarker et al., 2007). In 12 I think that I am satisfied than other people.
addition, different national and international articles and 13 Most of the days I work with glad.
websites were researched for a quality work. Job 14 I feel that this work is not finish in everyday.
satisfaction of the public and private employees was 15 I like my job most than others.
measured by the scale developed by Brayfield-Rothe 16 I am comparatively satisfied with my job.
(1951). Reliability of the scales has been assessed by 17 I feel real satisfaction with my job.
using test-retest reliability approach and validity has been I think that my present job is good than other jobs
18 for which I was compatible.
assessed by examining content validity. The secondary

Job satisfaction of employees of public and private organizations in Bangladesh


Sarker et al. 006

DISCUSSION 11 44 -7.85 61.62


12 74 12.15 147.62
The study found out the job satisfaction level of private 13 83 21.15 447.32
and public organization employees. It was done in 14 77 15.15 229.52
Bangladesh which focused the current trend and future 15 60 -1.85 3.42
prospects of job satisfaction. The type of issue is relevant 16 64 2.15 4.62
to the current situation when people and government 17 67 5.15 26.52
18 62 0.15 0.02
increasing their concern about privatization. This study
19 73 11.15 124.32
revealed that job satisfaction as a complex matter which
20 58 -3.85 14.82
depend on various factors like working environment, X1 = 1237
2
(X1- X1) = 3086.5
professional and intellectual realities (Lortie 1975), issues
and policies related to job etc. The following results Table 4: statistical test of job satisfaction of employees.
obtained from research work.
Sam Sam Me Stand t- Degr Level Criti
Table 2: The data obtained from public organization employees of ple ple an ard val ee of of cal
the study area. type deviati ue freed freque zone
on om ncy
S/No. Public organization employees Publi 20 66. 9.63 1.4 38 .05 2.01
2
Cumulative (X1- X1) (X1- X1) c 35 5
score (X1) Priva 20 61. 10.89
1 74 7.65 58.52 te 85
2 72 5.65 31.92
3 42 -24.35 592.92 Source: filed survey, 2010
4 68 1.65 2.72
5 45 -21.35 455.82 From the above table, the t-value of the job satisfaction of
6 51 -15.35 235.62 the public and private primary school teachers was 1.45
7 74 7.65 58.52 which was lower than the tabulated value. So, our null
8 75 8.65 74.82 hypothesis was accepted. That means there was no
9 76 9.65 93.12 relation between the job satisfaction of primary school
10 88 21.65 468.72 teachers regarding public and private. Ismail and
11 62 -4.35 18.92 Karkoulian described that interviewers functions
12 73 6.65 44.22 significantly affect applicants job satisfaction, motivation,
13 67 0.65 0.42 as well as after they were used in the organization.
14 74 7.65 58.52 However, the outcomes did not display assistance for the
15 71 4.65 21.62 recommended effect of interviewers functions on
16 64 -2.35 5.52
organization commitment. Jahufer A (2015) exposed that
17 65 -1.35 1.82
there was an essential different between gender and
18 71 4.65 21.62
19 41 -25.35 642.52 overall job satisfaction and a kind of standard bank and
20 74 7.65 58.52 overall job satisfaction whereas it was no different
X1 = 1327
2
(X1- X1) = 2946.5 between civil place and overall job satisfaction.
Furthermore identified that, there was no essential
Table 3: The data obtained from private organization employees of different between (year of experience and overall job
the study area satisfaction), (age and overall job satisfaction), (ethnicity
and overall job satisfaction) and (educational
Sl Private organizationemployees documentation and overall job satisfaction) but there was
no. significantly different between (Distance to Working
2
Cumulative (X1- X1) (X1- X1) Position and overall job satisfaction) at 5% essential
score (X1)
level. Talukder et al. (2014) described that the most key
1 73 11.15 124.32
elements of job discontentment were workplace and
2 58 -3.85 14.82
3 73 11.15 124.32 management, managers and work time and protection of
4 57 -4.85 23.52 revenue etc. Inuwa M (2016) described that organizations
5 60 1.85 3.42 both in the community and personal market all over the
6 33 -28.85 832.32 globe rely on their workers for the best possible efficiency
7 67 5.15 26.52 which will consequently lead to organization efficiency. In
8 43 -18.85 355.32 this situation, the need to make sure employee job
9 62 0.15 0.02 satisfaction becomes just a few requirements to every
10 39 -22.85 522.12 organization.
Job satisfaction of employees of public and private organizations in Bangladesh
J. Pol. Sci., Public Int. Affairs 007

CONCLUSION Guatemalan Organizations. The Journal of Business


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Job satisfaction of employees of public and private organizations in Bangladesh