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GSM

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spcial Mobile) is a
standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe
the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, first
deployed in Finland in December 1991.[2] As of 2014, it has become the de-facto global standard
for mobile communications with over 90% market share, operating in over 219 countries and
territories.

2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and
the GSM standard originally described as a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full
duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-
switched transport, then by packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services)
and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, or EGPRS).

Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation (3G) UMTS standards, followed by fourth-
generation (4G) LTE Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard.

"GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also refer to the (initially) most
common voice codec used, Full Rate.

GSM carrier frequencies


Main article: GSM frequency bands

GSM networks operate in a number of different carrier frequency ranges (separated into GSM
frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM networks
operating in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Where these bands were already allocated, the
850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead (for example in Canada and the United
States). In rare cases the 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries
because they were previously used for first-generation systems.

For comparison, most 3G networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. For
more information on worldwide GSM frequency usage, see GSM frequency bands.

Regardless of the frequency selected by an operator, it is divided into timeslots for individual
phones. This allows eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency.
These eight radio timeslots (or burst periods) are grouped into a TDMA frame. Half-rate channels
use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270.833
kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms.

The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM 850/900 and 1
watt in GSM 1800/1900.
Voice codecs

GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 6.5 and
13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were
used, called Half Rate (6.5 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). These used a system based on linear
predictive coding (LPC). In addition to being efficient with bitrates, these codecs also made it
easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize
and better protect these parts of the signal. GSM was further enhanced in 1997 [17] with
the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec, a 12.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full-rate channel. Finally,
with the development of UMTS, EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-
Narrowband, which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full-rate
channels, or less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on
half-rate channel.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)


Main article: Subscriber Identity Module

One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM
card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and
phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets.
Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing
the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a
SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking.

GSM security

GSM was intended to be a secure wireless system. It has considered the user authentication
using a pre-shared key and challenge-response, and over-the-air encryption. However, GSM is
vulnerable to different types of attack, each of them aimed at a different part of the network. [19]

The development of UMTS introduced an optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM),
that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating
the network and the user, whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice
versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited
authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation.

GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1, A5/2, and A5/3 stream
ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a
stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other
countries. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in
real-time with a ciphertext-only attack, and in January 2007, The Hacker's Choice started the
A5/1 cracking project with plans to use FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow
table attack. The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a
stronger one.

Since 2000, different efforts have been made in order to crack the A5 encryption algorithms. Both
A5/1 and A5/2 algorithms have been broken, and their cryptanalysis has been revealed in the
literature. As an example, Karsten Nohl (de) developed a number of rainbow tables (static values
which reduce the time needed to carry out an attack) and have found new sources for known
plaintext attacks. He said that it is possible to build "a full GSM interceptor...from open-source
components" but that they had not done so because of legal concerns. Nohl claimed that he was
able to intercept voice and text conversations by impersonating another user to listen
to voicemail, make calls, or send text messages using a seven-year-old Motorola cellphone and
decryption software available for free online.

GSM uses General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for data transmissions like browsing the web.
The most commonly deployed GPRS ciphers were publicly broken in 2011.

The researchers revealed flaws in the commonly used GEA/1 and GEA/2 ciphers and published
the open-source "gprsdecode" software for sniffing GPRS networks. They also noted that some
carriers do not encrypt the data (i.e., using GEA/0) in order to detect the use of traffic or protocols
they do not like (e.g., Skype), leaving customers unprotected. GEA/3 seems to remain relatively
hard to break and is said to be in use on some more modern networks. If used with USIM to
prevent connections to fake base stations and downgrade attacks, users will be protected in the
medium term, though migration to 128-bit GEA/4 is still recommended.

Standards information

The GSM systems and services are described in a set of standards governed by ETSI, where a
full list is maintained.

GSM open-source software

Several open-source software projects exist that provide certain GSM features:

gsmd daemon by Openmoko

OpenBTS develops a Base transceiver station

The GSM Software Project aims to build a GSM analyzer for less than $1,000

OsmocomBB developers intend to replace the proprietary baseband GSM stack with a
free software implementation

YateBTS develops a Base transceiver station

Broadband
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about telecommunications signalling methods. For high-speed Internet
access, see Internet access.
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports
multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical
fiber, radio or twisted pair.
In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet
access that is always on and faster than traditional dial-up access.
Overview

Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times. Its
origin is in physics, acoustics, and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a
meaning similar to "wideband". Later, with the advent of digital telecommunications, the term was
mainly used for transmission over multiple channels. Whereas a passband signal is also
modulated so that it occupies higher frequencies (compared to a baseband signal which is bound
to the lowest end of the spectrum, see line coding), it is still occupying a single channel. The key
difference is that what is typically considered a broadband signal in this sense is a signal that
occupies multiple (non-masking, orthogonal) passbands, thus allowing for much higher
throughput over a single medium but with additional complexity in the transmitter/receiver
circuitry.

The term became popularized through the 1990s as a marketing term for Internet access that
was faster than dialup access, the original Internet access technology, which was limited to 56
kbit/s. This meaning is only distantly related to its original technical meaning.

Internet broadband
Main article: Internet access

In the context of Internet access, the term "broadband" is used loosely to mean "access that is
always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access"

While fiber optics are generally faster than wireless broadband, wireless broadband also has the
potential to grow rapidly, as it provides access not only in a fixed location but anywhere. The
extremely high bandwidth of fiber may not be the key aspect for the majority of the customers.

A range of more precise definitions of speed have been prescribed at times, including:

"Greater than the primary rate" (which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s) - CCITT in
"broadband service" in 1988.

"Internet access that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access"
US National Broadband Plan of 2009

4 Mbit/s down, 1 Mbit/s up - FCC, 2010

25 Mbit/s down, 3 Mbit/s up - FCC, 2015

Broadband Internet service is now effectively treated or managed as a public utility by net
neutrality rules.

MPLS VPN
MPLS VPN is a family of methods for using multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) to create virtual
private networks (VPNs). MPLS VPN is a flexible method to transport and route several types of
network traffic using an MPLS backbone.
There are three types of MPLS VPNs deployed in networks today: 1. Point-to-point (Pseudowire)
2. Layer 2 (VPLS) 3. Layer 3 (VPRN)

Point-to-point (pseudowire)

Point-to-point MPLS VPNs employ VLL (virtual leased lines) for providing Layer2 point-to-point
connectivity between two sites. Ethernet, TDM, and ATM frames can be encapsulated within
these VLLs.

Some examples of how point-to-point VPNs might be used by utilities include:

encapsulating TDM T1 circuits attached to Remote Terminal Units

forwarding non-routed DNP3 traffic across the backbone network to the SCADA master
controller.

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS)

Layer 2 MPLS VPNs, or VPLS (virtual private LAN service), offers a switch in the cloud style
service. VPLS provides the ability to span VLANs between sites. L2 VPNs are typically used to
route voice, video, and AMI traffic between substation and data center locations.

Layer 3 VPN (VPRN)

Layer 3, or VPRN (virtual private routed network), utilizes layer 3 VRF (VPN/virtual routing and
forwarding) to segment routing tables for each customer utilizing the service. The customer peers
with the service provider router and the two exchange routes, which are placed into a routing
table specific to the customer. Multiprotocol BGP (MP-BGP) is required in the cloud to utilize the
service, which increases complexity of design and implementation. L3 VPNs are typically not
deployed on utility networks due to their complexity; however, a L3 VPN could be used to route
traffic between corporate or datacenter locations.

Very-small-aperture terminal
A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish
antenna that is smaller than 3.8 meters. The majority of VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1.2
m. Data rates, in most cases, range from 4 kbit/s up to 16 Mbit/s. VSATs access satellites
in geosynchronous orbit or geostationary orbit to relay data from small remote Earth stations
(terminals) to other terminals (in mesh topology) or master Earth station "hubs" (in star topology).

VSATs are used to transmit narrowband data (e.g., point-of-sale transactions using credit cards,
polling or RFID data, or SCADA), or broadband data (for the provision of satellite Internet
access to remote locations, VoIP or video). VSATs are also used for transportable, on-the-move
(utilising phased array antennas) or mobile maritime communications.
Market

According to the Maritime VSAT report issued by the Comsys Group, the market for stabilised
maritime VSAT services (not including oil and gas rigs) reached more than $400 million in
2007. In 2010, COMSYS released its "2nd Maritime VSAT Report", where the market estimate
had increased to $590 million in 2009 with predictions for 2010 at $850 million. The estimated
size of the market in terms of vessels eligible to get VSAT was in this report set to in excess of
42.000 with just over 34.000 to go. The major companies market share in terms of number of
vessels in service were in 2009 (2007 in parenthesis) according to these reports: Vizada: 17,6%
(26.0%), Ship Equip: 11.0% (10.7%), Cap Rock 2.8% (2.9%), MTN 7.5% (6.4%), Stratos - %
(3.6%), KVH 5.4% (- %) Elektrikom 4.9% (3.2%), Intelsat 3.4% (- %), Eutelsat 3.1%, NSSL 3.1%,
Radio Holland 3.0%, Telemar 3.0%, DTS 2.6% and others accounted for 32.6% (27.7%). Many of
the major providers have branded their maritime VSAT offerings such that Vizada offers its
service through the Marlink division and the SeaLink and WaveCall products, OmniAccess,
through their BroadBEAM products and Ship Equip calls its offering Sevsat.

Voice over IP
Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP, VoIP and IP telephony) is a methodology and
group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions
over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. The terms Internet
telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service specifically refer to the
provisioning of communications services (voice, fax, SMS, voice-messaging) over the public
Internet, rather than via the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

The steps and principles involved in originating VoIP telephone calls are similar to traditional
digital telephony and involve signaling, channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signals,
and encoding. Instead of being transmitted over a circuit-switched network; however, the digital
information is packetized, and transmission occurs as IP packets over a packet-switched
network. They transport audio streams using special media delivery protocols that encode audio
and video with audio codecs, and video codecs. Various codecs exist that optimize the media
stream based on application requirements and network bandwidth; some implementations rely
on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high fidelity stereo codecs. Some
popular codecs include -law and a-law versions of G.711, G.722, a popular open source voice
codec known as iLBC, a codec that only uses 8 kbit/s each way called G.729, and many others.

Early providers of voice-over-IP services offered business models and technical solutions that
mirrored the architecture of the legacy telephone network. Second-generation providers, such
as Skype, have built closed networks for private user bases, offering the benefit of free calls and
convenience while potentially charging for access to other communication networks, such as the
PSTN. This has limited the freedom of users to mix-and-match third-party hardware and
software. Third-generation providers, such as Google Talk, have adopted the concept
of federated VoIPwhich is a departure from the architecture of the legacy networks. These
solutions typically allow dynamic interconnection between users on any two domains on the
Internet when a user wishes to place a call.

In addition to VoIP phones, VoIP is available on many smartphones, personal computers, and on
Internet access devices. Calls and SMS text messages may be sent over 3G/4G or Wi-Fi.
Intelligent Network
The Intelligent Network (IN) is the standard network architecture specified in the ITU-T Q.1200
series recommendations. It is intended for fixed as well as mobile telecom networks. It allows
operators to differentiate themselves by providing value-added services in addition to the
standard telecom services such as PSTN, ISDN and GSM services on mobile phones.

The intelligence is provided by network nodes on the service layer, distinct from
the switching layer of the core network, as opposed to solutions based on intelligence in the
core switches or telephone equipment. The IN nodes are typically owned by telecommunications
operators (telecommunications service providers).

IN is supported by the Signaling System #7 (SS7) protocol between telephone network switching
centers and other network nodes owned by network operators.

Fiber to the home (FTTH), also called "fiber to the premises" (FTTP), is the
installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual
buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses to provide
unprecedented high-speed Internet access. FTTH dramatically increases the
connection speeds available to computer users compared with technologies
now used in most places.

Fiber to the home (FTTH), also called "fiber to the premises" (FTTP), is the

installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual
buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses to provide
unprecedented high-speed Internet access. FTTH dramatically increases the
connection speeds available to computer users compared with technologies
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While FTTH promises connection speeds of up to 100 megabits per second
(Mbps) -- 20 to 100 times as fast as a typical cable modem or DSL (Digital
Subscriber Line) connection -- implementing FTTH on a large scale will be
costly because it will require installation of new cable sets over the "last links"
from existing optical fiber cables to individual users. Some communities
currently enjoy "fiber to the curb" (FTTC) service, which refers to the
installation and use of optical fiber cable to the curbs near homes or
businesses, with a "copper" medium carrying the signals between the curb
and the end users.

Wireless local loop


Wireless local loop (WLL), is the use of a wireless communications link as the "last mile / first
mile" connection for delivering plain old telephone service (POTS) or Internet access (marketed
under the term "broadband") to telecommunications customers. Various types of WLL systems
and technologies exist.

Other terms for this type of access include Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), Radio In The
Loop (RITL), Fixed-Radio Access (FRA), Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) and Metro
Wireless (MW).

BTS (band)
BTS, also known as Bangtan Boys, is a seven-member South Koreanboy band formed by Big
Hit Entertainment. Their name in Korean - Bangtan Sonyeondan (Hangul: Hanja: ), and
Japanese - Bdan Shnendan both translate to "Bulletproof Boy Scouts".

They debuted on June 13, 2013, with the song "No More Dream" from their first album called 2
Cool 4 Skool, for which they won several "New Artist of the Year" awards including those at the
2013 MelOn Music Awards and Golden Disk Awards, and the 2014 Seoul Music Awards. A year
after their debut, they received major bonsang awards for their subsequent albums Dark &
Wild and The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 1.

BTS continued rising to widespread prominence with their The Most Beautiful Moment in
Life trilogy, with The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 2 and The Most Beautiful Moment In
Life: Young Forever both debuting inside the Billboard 200. The Most Beautiful Moment In Life,
Part 2 also charted at number one on the Billboard World Albums Chart and remained there for
multiple weeks, making BTS the first K-pop act to achieve that feat. The Most Beautiful Moment
in Life: Young Forever went on to win the coveted "Album of the Year" award at the 2016 Melon
Music Awards. This win marked BTS's first daesang, or "grand prize", since their debut.

The group released their second full album, Wings in 2016. The album debuted at #26 on the
US Billboard 200, which marked the highest chart ranking for a K-pop album ever, as well as
made BTS the first K-pop act to log three entries onto the chart, and the first to spend more than
one week on the chart. In their native South Korea, Wings sold 681,924 albums in its first month,
breaking the record for the highest first month sale for an album in Gaon history, as well as
becoming the best selling album in Gaon history thus far. The album's title track, "Blood Sweat &
Tears" (Korean:), became the group's first domestic number one hit on the Gaon Digital Chart.
The group's follow up comeback and follow up title song, 'Spring Day' (Korean:) also reached
number one on Gaon Digital Chart, and its corresponding album 'You Never Walk Alone'
recorded over 700,000 in pre-orders alone. Wings went on to sell more than 1.5 million copies,
making it BTS's first "million seller". To date, BTS's discography has sold an estimated 4 million
albums worldwide.

Known for their large social media presence, BTS were listed by Forbes as the most retweeted
artist on Twitter in March 2016. Following that, Twitter launched its first ever K-pop Twitter emoji
featuring BTS In October 2016, Billboard placed BTS as #1 on their Social 50 chart, making them
the first Korean group to top the chart. To date, they have spent 25 weeks as #1 on the Social
50 chart. In 2017, BTS won a Billboard Music Award for 'Top Social Artist'. Also known for their
large international fanbase, having performed and sold out tours in Asia, Europe, Australia, North
America and South America, BTS's performances won them the Best World Performer award in
the 2015 Mnet Asian Music Awards. Just a year later, BTS went on to win the 2016 Mnet Asian
Music Award for Artist of the Year.

In 2017, BTS ranked #5 on Forbes Korea Power Celebrity list, a list ranking Korea's most
powerful and influential celebrities.

OFC
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

OFC may refer to:

1Business and financial

2Media, entertainment and gaming

3Sport

4Technology and medicine

5Other

Business and financial


OFC, New York stock exchange symbol for Corporate Office Properties Trust

Offshore Financial Centre

Open Financial Connectivity, a financial transition file format

Optional federal charter, a proposal to streamline and simplify US insurance regulation


Media, entertainment and gaming
Online Film Critics Society

Open-face Chinese poker, a Chinese poker variant

Order from Chaos, a band

Our First Concert, a 2011 spinoff of Dora the Explorer and pilot of Dora and
Friends under the Dora's Explorer Girls label

Sport
Oceania Football Confederation

Orpington F.C., an English non-league football club

Technology and medicine


Osteitis fibrosa cystica, a skeletal disease involving the parathyroid glands

Open fiber control

Optical fiber cable

Optical Fiber Conference

Orbitofrontal cortex, a region of the brain involved in decision making and other cognitive
functions

Oxygen-free copper, a copper cable manufacturing process

Oxy-fuel cutting, a metal cutting process

Network Integration
Keeping Your Network Infrastructure Robust and Scalable

The network infrastructure forms the backbone of an organisation's business.


NCS provides a broad range of network solutions and services to ensure an
organisations network infrastructure remains robust, and scalable to support the
changing business environment and manage evolving security risks.
Cabling
Network cabling solutions that are customised to meet customers' needs
for voice, video, and data integration.

Building and Campus LAN


Infrastructure deployment using equipment that comprise cabling,
switches, router, and firewall for single or multi-site location.

Extranet / Intranet
Provision of secured VPN/router connectivity solution for enterprises over
the Internet.

Remote Access
Includes basic and high-speed solutions for remote offices and mobile
workers. These solutions are integrated with remote access technologies
and robust security solutions such as 2-factor tokens and PKI
authentication.

Hotspot with Wireless Access


Secured wireless LAN solutions for mobile applications and areas
unreachable by wireline technologies.

Workforce Optimisation Leveraging Converged Networks

IP Video Conferencing
Leverages existing data network infrastructure using Internet Protocol (IP)

IP Telephony
Full IP-based voice solutions ranging from telephony, conferencing, PSTN
gateway, IP IVR, and call centre solutions.

e-Business Eco Structure

Content Storage, Distribution and Management


Enhances the availability, access, and distribution of content over an IP
network in the area of Web, database, and storage applications.

Storage Networking
Provides a better way of accessing, managing, and protecting growing
information resources across a consolidated fibre channel, IP, Gigabit
Ethernet, and optical network infrastructure.
Network Management Services

Fault Detection, Notification and Management


Provides real-time alert and notification of fault, threshold, and event
occurrence in an enterprise network.

Performance Monitoring, Analysis, Reporting, and Management


Provides customised solution to gather, analyse, and report enterprise
network performance and health.

Configuration Management
Provides customised solution to manage the configuration of network
devices.

Data transfer object


A data transfer object (DTO) is an object that carries data between processes. The motivation
for its use is that communication between processes is usually done resorting to remote
interfaces (e.g. web services), where each call is an expensive operationBecause the majority of
the cost of each call is related to the round-trip time between the client and the server, one way
of reducing the number of calls is to use an object (the DTO) that aggregates the data that would
have been transferred by the several calls, but that is served by one call only

The difference between data transfer objects and business objects or data access objects is that
a DTO does not have any behavior except for storage and retrieval of its own data
(mutators and accessors). DTOs are simple objects that should not contain any business logic
that would require testing.

This pattern is often incorrectly used outside of remote interfaces. This has triggered a response
from its author where he reiterates that the whole purpose of DTOs is to shift data in expensive
remote calls.

DTS (sound system)


DTS (Dedicated To Sound) is a series of multichannel audio technologies owned by DTS,
Inc. (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems, Inc.), an American company specializing in
digital surround sound formats used for both commercial/theatrical and consumer grade
applications. It was known as The Digital Experience until 1995. DTS licenses its technologies
to consumer electronics manufacturers.

In December 2016, DTS was acquired by Tessera, now called Xperi.