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1 Aufrufe22 SeitenEnhanced Effect of Temporal Variation of the Fine Structure Constant and the Strong Interaction in 229Th

Jun 03, 2017

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Enhanced Effect of Temporal Variation of the Fine Structure Constant and the Strong Interaction in 229Th

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

1 Aufrufe

Enhanced Effect of Temporal Variation of the Fine Structure Constant and the Strong Interaction in 229Th

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Maxim Pospelov

University of Victoria and Perimeter Institute

(with D Budker, S. Pustelny, D. Jackson-Kimball, M.

Ledbetter, Gawlik, others)

Work in progress with A. Derivyanko

PRL 2013 + some follow-ups

Plan

1. Introduction.

2. Main idea: dark matter can be composed of extended is space scalar

or vector field configurations. [E.g. made stable for topological

reasons] These objects can have elementary interactions with SM

particles and fields. One would need a network of detectors to see a

passing of one such objects through the Earth.

momentum transfer, change in the frequency of a transition, torque

on spin. The signals can be at the detectable level.

wave detectors for transient effects.

Big Questions in Physics

interactions?

The most costly hunt for dark matter (search for WIMPs) have not yet

produced a strong positive result. Can we search for other types of dark

matter using other techniques?

What is the space of theoretical possibilities for dark matter?

Simple classification of particle

DM models

At some early cosmological epoch of hot Universe, with temperature

T >> DM mass, the abundance of these particles relative to a species of

SM (e.g. photons) was

Normal: Sizable interaction rates ensure thermal equilibrium, NDM/N =1.

Stability of particles on the scale tUniverse is required. Freeze-out calculation gives the

required annihilation cross section for DM -> SM of order ~ 1 pbn, which points

towards weak scale. These are WIMPs.

Very small: Very tiny interaction rates (e.g. 10-10 couplings from WIMPs). Never in

thermal equilibrium. Populated by thermal leakage of SM fields with sub-Hubble rate

(freeze-in) or by decays of parent WIMPs. [Gravitinos, sterile neutrinos, and other

feeble creatures call them super-WIMPs]

Huge: Almost non-interacting light, m< eV, particles with huge occupation numbers

of lowest momentum states, e.g. NDM/N ~1010. Super-cool DM. Must be bosonic.

Axions, or other very light scalar fields call them super-cold DM.

But even these broad categories are not exhaustive.

Extended field configurations of

light fields

Take a simple scalar field, give it a self-potential e.g. V() = (2-v2)2.

If at x = - infinity, = -v and at x = +infinity, = +v, then a stable

domain wall will form in between, e.g. = v tanh(x m) with

m = 1/2 v

The characteristic span of this object, d ~ 1/m, and it is carrying

energy per area ~ v2/d ~ v2 m Network of such topological defects

(TD) can give contributions to dark matter/dark energy.

0D object a Monopole

Energy

1D object a String

profile

2D object a Domain wall

d ~ 1/m

Cosmological problems from stable QCD axion DW P. Sikivie

Rough comparison with WIMPs and

axions

WIMPs DM: EW scale mass. Compton wavelength, ~ 1/mWIMP,

deBroglie w.l. ~ 1/(velocity mWIMP) ~ 1/(10-3 mWIMP) ~ nuclear size.

WIMP particles are widely spaced compared to their inverse mass with

L ~ cm [within our galaxy] in between neighboring particles.

Axion DM: Light particles with huge number of particles per (w.l.)3

the whole space is filled. Sinusoidal in time waves at = ma~ e.g. 10-5

eV. Average r.m.s amplitude, a ~ 100 eV, or so << EW scale.

TD DM: A very shallow potential V() can lead to an amplitude

max=A ~ EW scale. A particle-like 0D object is distributed over 1/m

distance scales, and so the total mass is ~ A2/m >> EW scale.

Therefore, necessarily the average distance is ~ cm (A/m)1/3 - very6

large!

Comparison with WIMPs and axions

Axions small amplitude but no space between particles

WIMPs EW scale

lumps of energy (>>

axion amplitude), very

concentrated in space

And with significant

~ cm gaps between

particles

(possibly macroscopic) spatial extent d. Large

compared to WIMPs individual mass, and then

large (possibly astronomical) distances between

DM objects.

7

experiments.

Transient signals from TD DM

Regardless of precise nature of TD-SM particles interaction it is clear

that

1. Unlike the case of WIMPs or axions, most of the time with TD DM

there is no DM objects around and only occasionally they pass

through. Therefore the DM signal will [by construction] be transient

and its duration given by ~ size/velocity.

2. If the S/N is not large, then there can be a huge benefit from a

network of detectors, searching for a correlated in time signal.

with SM-TD interaction, because of additional forces, energy loss

mechanisms etc that the additional light fields will provide.

8

es,

to Possible Interactions

measurements opening avenues for further investigations

involving more magnetometers.

Let usSummary.

his call by ,We 2, shown

1,have - real thatscalar fields

a network from TD sector that

of mod-

he ern magnetometers

participate in forming oers a realistic(More

a defect. chance often

for detecting

than not more than 1 field is

ct- the event of an axion-type domain-wall crossing and can

mi-involved).

probe partsLetofustherepresent

parameter SM spacefield

whereby anwalls

such electron,

can and a nucleon.

by contribute can

Interactions significantly

be organizedto dark matter/dark

as portals: energy.

coeff OdarkOSM.

od

en

ueA.

c 5 axionic portal

en fa

ta-

SM particles

cal

s, (s)

B.

c m scalar portal

av . M

eve

SM particles

kes

do- 21 + 22

C.

he 2

c

(2s)

m

quadratic scalar portal

M

ss- SM particles

ue

ess

D

1 22

ta- current current portal

g

nd M

SM particles

An atom

me- The inside

authorsaare

defect will

grateful to have addtlA.

N. Afshordi, contributions

Arvani- to its energy levels

9

in taki, A. Derevianko, J. Brown, S. Carroll, M. Kozlov, V.

es,

to Possible Interactions

measurements opening avenues for further investigations

involving more magnetometers.

Let usSummary.

his call by ,We 2, shown

1,have - real thatscalar

a network fields from TD sector that

of mod-

he ern magnetometers

participate in forming oers a realistic(More

a defect. chance often

for detecting

than not more than 1 field is

ct- the event of an axion-type domain-wall crossing and can

mi-involved).

probe parts Letofustherepresent

parameter SM spacefield

whereby anwalls

such electron,

can and a nucleon.

by contribute can

Interactions significantly

be organized to dark matter/dark

as portals: energy.

coeff OdarkOSM.

od

en

ueA.

c

5

axionic

portal

Torque on spin

en f a

ta-

SM particles

cal

s, (s)

B.

c m

scalar

portal

Shift of + extra gr. force

av . M

eve

SM particles

kes

do- 21 + 22

C.

he

2

c

m

(2s)

quadratic

scalar portal

Shift of + extra gr. force

M

ss- SM particles

ue

ess

D 1

22

ta- g

current

current

portal

extra gr. force

nd M

SM particles

in taki, A. Derevianko, J. Brown, S. Carroll, M. Kozlov, V.

The issue of technical naturalness

Any tree level potential

Would have to have coefficients cti very small to keep evolution slow.

Loops generate larger corrections

so that cloopi>>ctreei , One has to start with large and opposite tree-vs-loop

coefficients cloopi= - ctreei to ensure tight cancellation for several terms in

the series Very unnatural! Standard problem for scalar portals.

Importantly, same pessimistic argument does not apply to interactions

protected by shift symmetry, the axionic portal for example.

(* But may be the approach idea of having rigid technical naturalness

built in a model is not quite right, and we would miss out on

interesting physics *)

11

cosmological stretching dimension can easilyThey

3 exist. accountdo! See fore.g.

thepapers

growtb

transient

of L from O(100Again, m)LV tofor a and

QED, transient

fraction of ly. We conclude / tha

our fiducial choice, ma neV and L 102 ly, fits we

(3) 1 k%

with the

Typical cosmological

LV experiment LQED scenario

looks =forbof5wall

formation.

H

thatThe pseudoscalar coupling of the field athe

one can generalize as interaction os a spin i to 2

with with

fixedstandar

gradient

of the scalar

model field a,

f 1 a

fermions, i 5 i , leads to the interac

Dimension three coefficients can be induced fr

i

tion of spins of atomic via quantum constituents

loops withtoa the gradient

predictable of th

outcome

scalar

a-profilefield,

The Earth v

2U V

b (loop factor) .

H

Similarly, existing terrestrial = checks of / 2f 1

a

etc look sfor, a smooth M

Pl (7

int i i

d/dt signal, that is aItconstant in time. unless

is a disaster

i=e,n,p

either fine-tuning ha

divergence is absent, or the cutoff scale is m

where

And of fcourse

i areTD

free parameters

transient signal canof

bethe

viewed model with dimensio

as generalization of LV

ofandenergy.

changingFor Another

coupling

light example,

experiments

scalars in NCofQED,

oftointerest,

signals short

theduration.

astrophysica

bounds

apply and limit f > 109 GeV [13]. 2

Ln,p,e

eff = (two loop factor) U V me

12

Setting up a question

1. Take any portal [better still take technically natural ones]. Supply

constraints on fa, M* etc from the astrophysics, 5th force, etc -

anything that does not involve DM

assumption), and require that the average time between crossings T is

not much than ~1-10 yr.

on energy density of the DM, do the current generation of high

precision instruments (atomic magnetometers, atomic clocks,

gravitational wave detectors) stand a chance in detecting transient

signal from DM?

If No probably such DM would not be detectable.

If Yes it is worth exploring opportunities for developing a network

13

fa

Proxies

5

c axionic portal and unknowns

SM particles

DM ~

0.4 GeV/cm 3 - local energy density of Dark Matter

(s)

c m scalar portal

Mv ~SM10 -3 c - typical velocity of Milky Way halo objects

particles

Unknowns (2s) : type of portals (I take A and D for now, as the most safe,

c m quadratic scalar portal

and

SM choose baryon current for the vector portal, g=1).

particles

2 (limit on M is incurrent

*

g fact quite a bit

current weaker)

portal

LSMparticles

average distance between defects. A amplitude of fields inside TD.

d ~ 1/m is the transverse size of the defects. One can show that

network = A2 d 0D, monopoles

3

L

L3~d2vT (for 0D objects)

A2

Equating network ~DM one can

= L2

1D, strings

e.g. express A via DM

A2

= 2D domain walls 14

Ld

How do you know if you ran through a wall?

It was initiated in discussions with Budker, Pustelny, Ledbetter who

had two sensitive atomic magnetometers synchronized via GPS.

What is good for? Best magnetometers can surpass 1 fT/Hz! Are we

using these experimental capabilities to the fullest?

Domain walls of axion-like field moving with ~ 10-3 c, will create a

magnetic looking perturbation affecting atomic spins.

Crucially, if such a defect passes through the Earth, how would you

know? And will you notice?

detect the event in different locations. Domain walls will be an especially

suitable target.

15

sidering

m(4) the Lagrangian

ma , , of a complex

invariant underthe ZNwallscalar

-symmetry, field ,

0 in- exp(i2k/N )

ll use

sequences solution a S0 /N as ,anandexample, which determines

signal duration in thickness.

excess of a millisecond. T

n-wall solutions duces forthe

variant axion-like

eective

under Z Lagrangian

-symmetry,

where k is for

an the

integer. a field,

exp(i2k/N We choose ), where

the value,

potentialthe then

modelin such a

wi

Signal of axion-like domain wall

Gravitational N

and astrophysical constraints. From the

rticles.

omain-wall

ntials withIt someprofiledegree for

kmacroscopic

is an integer. N

of

dis- 3. For-

We choose be examined

the potential for self-consistency

inminima

such a wayquiring in the

is chosen thatcon

in da

point way

of that

view at has

itdistance N distinct much

scales larger

some de-

ctional

main-wall-type form that of this

solutions it profile

has inter-

N is

1 not 2minima

distinct mological 2 N scenario

a for the formation tribution

ture. The oftodethth

than

scalar d,

field, theLit wall

is

= easy can

( to

a) be characterized

find V that

sin the by

potential

, its massV ()per

(3) is This constr

ofConsider

type

ent discussion. a very

solu- energy-degenerate

dierent The light

important complex

a

2

pa- scalar 0

2field with

network 2Sfrom Zrandomly

N symmetry: distributed

problems

N/2 N a

0.410

in .

Nwit2 F

s, initial

area,

minimized

random

referred

distribution for2 the to as theLtension,

= | |

following V ();of V

values 0

SN/2 ()

and= a, 2N 42

2 main DE wall S0 ,

nt

d ma . energy- occur

in the2earlyNUniverse S 0 S N ,(1) Salso

when 0 /N importan

is streng

the Hub

rly Universe L =

leadsfield,to =|

the |

for- V

4

(); V

() = 0 ficiently bu

ndom

trophysical dis- scalar

with V

constraints. it 4S

is From

easy. This

the

to findreduction

rate

that the S 22N

will

drops 4happen

potential below

2 V ()dynam-

H is

m

This is

, malizing

when

at which

constraint the all

imne

t

works as the Universe

0

expands

0 Mass

potential where S 1

has

da 0

dimension

8S

2 0 m ofa energy

in

N and 1

a

is sider

dimensionles such c

erse

stance leads Sically

=

minimized

scales muchS0if; the alarger

for =the S= 0the

than 0; V=()

2

following

d,

Area Choosing dz

0is augmented

;

values

values dz 2

of =S L

for ;

and

N ... by

are

2 2

a, .the

typicallyaddi- (5)main

on , over(8)

wall

the are

the assum

cosm

network

order of

Theory

axions,

the Uni- admits

if stable,

tion such

whereof several

U S domainhas

(1)-symmetricdistinct

dimension vacua,

piece,ofN energy

V

= = 2

andN

(2

1/2

Sisexp(ia/S

2 2 N

dimensionless.

S ) , 0 ) to2

with parameterize

creted

ficiently ingbuild

and L the

inside mo

up

th

le t

erized by its mass per area,refered 0 the h horizon h size L 0 in (10 1)/H quad

in . S

, if

stable, S =hThe Choosing

. The spatial

network of=domain21/2

field1Sconfiguration

exp(ia/S

walls 2 0leads

will )have

to

a(r) N

parameterize

an 1 stretching

interpolat-

additional (2) theaccretion

sider of domain

constituents

such constrathe

S ; a = S 0; 2 ; pansion

2 ; ... 2 to the , of

iesmost

L

is not

with

Freezing0

ingdistance-scale

between the two0 Higgs modeNto

adjacent

parameter minima

L,L(z)its

an averageminimum,

N represents distance Sa= N S0 , pro-

domain-

between ing same

the way as ed

rela

2duces the eective Lagrangian for

=the Linazfield,

in /(1 + z). It is easy value,to H see

then t

wall solution. A network of intersecting domain walls

(2) is of arrives

domain at

walls the

int is

Reducing da towalls,the

8S 2 or a characteristic size

one

m aHiggsvariable, we have

leads of the ato domain.

Lagrangian

the This param-

formation of domain walls d

dz Freezing

possible

= eter 0the

is for N 3.

impossible

. mode The

to

(5) tosolution

its minimum,

calculate for

withoutadomain

S =

making S0wall

, pro- along ies isand

further quiring

not theenhance tha

const

dz duces 2

Neective 1 the 2 mechanisms troweak epoch, N a0wall Hin H(T ened 100GeV),

tribution

thenbya a5

to

the

xyassumptions

plane Lagrangian

that interpolates

about for the 2a afield,

between =of 2S0 /N value,

and formation stron

La = ( a) cosmological V0 sin ,

stretching (3) easily

can For account

light sca

neighboring

and evolution. vacuaWe 2with theitcenter

treat as a free of the

2S 0 wall atand

variable z =con- 0 quiring is

limit

that doma

saturated,

DE |f 0.4 |

in walls will takes have

strain the an

the additional

following 1

maximum form,2

of L

energy density of the

2

from

N a O(100 domain m) to a

walls, fraction

tribution

S ofto

/N10 ly.n,p,e

12

the

is We da

streG

that admits domain Lawall solutions

0 2 interact

= 4( a) V0 sin , (3) a

our fiducial choice, m a byneV and the

Lelsewh 10

5

er L, an average with DWVdistance

0 = /L 4S inbetween

20the

. This neighborhood

reduction 2S

ofwill0the Solar

happen Systemdynam- DE derived 0.410

is when G

[8]. In what

ic

size of aically domain.

the =

a(z) if 4S the

dark-matterThis

0 potentialparam-

4 arctan energy V ()

[exp(m

with

density,is

z)]

the

augmented

; DM

da cosmological

= 0.4 2S

by 0m

GeV/cm the scenario

3

a addi- ,.

S0 /N ofstrengthen

is

crossing

over

(9),

wall

and

form

event

the thenco

a

calculate with

tionVof

without = N4S0 . further

making This reductionpiece, VThe willdz pseudoscalar

happen N cosh(m dynam- 2 coupling

)2a,z)with is when ofcreted

thethefield

acceleration, networ

insid a

h =h (2 S01

0 U (1)-symmetric Spin signa

e

mechanisms ically

h if of.thewall Thepotential

formation

spatial SV0 ()

fieldisconfiguration

augmented

model fermions,

Lbya(r) the interpolat-

addi-

fneV

i (4)

1/2

aover

i tionalthe

of icosmolog

, constan

sensitive

accretion

5 leadsth a

= 0.4 TeV 2 2 .

creted inside the h

at it as a free tion

The ofDWU (1)-symmetric

characteristic

variable,two DM andadjacent piece,

thickness

con- minima V of=

htion of

the (2

wall

h spins

d S

is ) , with

determined

of0 atomic constituents this change

toway the d

ing between N represents

10 2 ly am domain-

a same

scribed in Rea

hby the accretion the dista

nergy density wall of .theThe mass

solution. domainspatial

ma walls,

A

offield

network

a configuration

(small)

of scalar excitation

intersecting

a(r) interpolat-

field, of a around

domain walls (6)same

is ceedingly

arrives

agnetic dit

at

atom

If on top ing

of

any between

that a-field

minimum, two adjacent

has

d the

2/m minima

axion-type

. The represents

mass couplings,

m aa domain-

can be there ex- will way

beOur a aschoice

distan

ghborhoodwall of the

This

possible Solar

solution.

constraint

for N ASystem implies

3. The

network

asome

byofsolution

intersecting

flexible

for adomain evolution

domain walls

of

wallisalong thearrives selves

and

at the or incoc

thefollo

pressed in terms of3spin

the original parameters of the po- is2f suggested

1 b

y magnetic-type

density, possiblexy

DM plane

tential,

force

domain-wall

0.4

for that

GeV/cm

N

mamass

on 3.

the

network

interpolates

= Ninside 1

The , and inside

solution

S0 (Vgalaxies.

the

1/2 for a domain

the

possibility

between wall,

a

1/2 = for 0

wall

H

them

andint

along

to=

2S build

0 /Nand magnetic

theened

i a by

constrain

16

s

mo

i ,

up their 0 /2) =We (2) consider N S0such . Owing the con- to

i=e,n,p the

of wall-crossin

spin-exch

is saturated

Such crossing time can easily be in This

K magnetometer described in Ref. [20]). Specializing (7)

for the case of two atomic species, Cs in the F = 4

excess

133

could beof the

far in excessCs mag-

of 10-nrad tipping angles that

can be experimentally detected [21]. Thus, both types of

Network of Magnetometers

netometer response time t ,theand we can oer combine the for a realistic

3

state and He in the F = 1/2 state, we calculate en- magnetometers ample opportunities

ergy dierence E between the F = F and rF = F z detection of the wall-crossing events.

z

max the wall,a signal factor SSo = max the1/2

Be states and t ofinto

in the middle

B

far we (t)

have used

e toconstraints (6),

galactic

. It is noteworthy that even if the energy

DW DM

For alkalibemagnetometers,

directly

H =

F a

int

Ff

; compared

1

f (Cs) =

e

e

f

1

the

7

9f

to

; f experimental

signal

(He) =

e f

1

p

sensitivity,

; isdensity

1

e

of walls in the galaxy does not exceed cosmolog-

ical dark-energy density, i.e. DW DE , the

n

expected

4S0 ma ma 10 GeV S0 /N 9 signal can reach 105 rad and S fT Hz, which

E =

N fe

1015 eV

9neV

f

0.4 TeV

,(8)

3 is still a realistic signal 1/2 with the best mag-

3for detection

0.4 pT 10 GeV S /N m 10

e

0 netometers. It

a is remarkable that a possible domain-wall

S

In these formulae we assumed that the nuclear spin is component of dark energy can, in principle, be detected

Hz f 0.4 TeV neV v /c

mostly due to unpaired neutron (3 He) or g7/2 valence

e in the laboratory.

proton (133 Cs), and one can readily observe complemen- Network of synchronized magnetometers. While a sin-

hysical angle of the helium wall crossing,

spin after the assum-

tary sensitivity to fi in two cases. We can express these

9 3 1/2 enough to detect a domain-

gle magnetometer is sensitive

0.4 pT 10 GeV L 10

results in terms of the equivalent magnetic field inside wall crossing, due to the rarity of such events it would

ing that the typical is below the dynamical

crossing time , (11)

the wall using Be F/F = aF/(F fe ) identification, be exceedingly dicult to confidently distinguish a signal

2 false positives induced by occasional abrupt changes

Hz f 10 ly v /c

where is the nuclear magnetic moment. The magnitude

eis given by

from

ry are, response time. Taking the spins to be oriented parallel

of Be (direction is impossible to predict)

of magnetometer-operation

field spikes, laser-light-mode

conditions, e.g., magnetic-

jumps, etc. A global net-

109 GeV 1011 T (Cs)

device to the

For nuclear wall,

where spin in we

max

Be thecalculate

ma

inequalitythis

magnetometers,

neV fe

S0 /N

0.4 TeV we angle

used

the tipping

108 T (He) to be

the

,(9)

work of synchronized optical magnetometers is an attrac-

gravitational

angle is

con-

tive tool to search for galactic/cosmological domain walls,

K, Cs, straint from Eq. (6). The maximally allowed value for the

and the larger equivalent field strength for 3 He originates

as it would allow for ecient vetoes of false domain-

wall crossing events. We also note that comagnetome-

from its smaller magnetic moment. The couplings and9 ter schemes involving 3 either a second spin species or

agnetic signal4S ( pT/ Hz), after taking

0 in Eq. (9) are normalized

wall parameters 3 to 10 into

the GeVaccount

maxi- 10 the S

SQUID /N

gravi-

magnetometers 0 additional suppres-

could yield

tational

= 510 rad

mum allowed values from Eq. (6). The duration of the .

sion of false-positive events arising from local field fluc-

nuclear v N fand astrophysical constraints,

signal

is given f

eby the ratio of wall thickness to the trans- e

verse component of the relative Earth-wall velocity,

exceeds

v /c capabili-

0.4TeV FIG. 1: Sche

tuations or changes in operating conditions. As schemat-

F] 3 He- ties of modern magnetometers that can deliver fT/ (12) Hz ings recorded

3

d 2 neV 3 10

(7)

ing Thissensitivity

It is easy could

to see

t

be

that

v

=[19].

far =For

1.3 ms the

m v in excess

one

would

a m

He-K

of . SERF magnetometer, the

(10)

v /c 10-nrad tipping angles that

need

a

"

to determine

the 5th event.

F>5 = stations.

4 moreSuch appropriate

crossing time can easily figure ofthe merit would be the tipping

can4beevents

experimentally

netometer would

response , anddetected

be in excess of

time t determinewe can combinethe

r

[21].

Cs mag-

the

Thus,

"

both

" types of

max max 1/2

the en- B

magnetometers and t into a signal factor S = B

e

oer ample (t) to

opportunitiesth,

e

for a realistic

geometry,

= F

and make predictions

be directly compared

detection of

to experimental

for the

sensitivity,

5

pT the wall-crossing m 10 events.

9

3 1/2

0.4 10 GeV S /N

6th etc

So far

0 a

S

f 0.4 TeV neV v /c !

we

Hz

have

0.4 pT 10 GeV

e

used

9

L

the

10

galactic

3

constraints

1/2 (6),

Hz

DW DM . It is noteworthy f

10 ly

e v /c

, (11)

2

that even if the energy

1

* Nobody has ever

density attempted

of walls in the this galaxy before

where in the inequality we used the gravitational con-

does not exceed cosmolog-

; straint from Eq.

(6). The maximally allowed value for the 17

fn ical dark-energy density, i.e. DW DE , the expected

signal ( pT/ Hz), after taking into account the gravi-

mber of sta-

Possible signatures with gravitational

2

1D,A

0 A2

al Be , and = strings

= 2D domain walls L2

etome- Ld

wave detectors.

magnetome-

ated in

s operated in A2

in Krak ow, = 2D domain walls

rak o w,

distance of

Ld

Considering the case of monopoles

nce

(Krak oof

w) is

1 2 interacting with an atom via a

2

(

n n + p

p)

baryonic portal of M (n nM

n [14], while

+ p p) type, I have an estimate for an

1 2

ow)device

ERF is

2

blewhile

sensitivi-

additional The acceleration created during the TD passing,

proved upon authors are grateful to N. Afshordi, A. Arvani-

fdevice

the signal,

taki, A. Derevianko, J. Brown, S. Carroll,

M. Kozlov, V. 2

ion between

nsitivi- Flambaum, M. Kamionkowski, v

and M.L 3

Hohensee fordis- v V T

termined us- cussions. Thisa work

DM

was supported in part by

DM

def.upon

[16]). We SP is the scholar of theM 2 mMinistry

Polish

the NSF.

d of ScienceMand 2m d

p p

experiments

signal, Higher Education within the Mobility Plus program.

etween

Taking a TeV Thefor authors

the scale are of grateful to N. Afshordi,

the coupling one arrivesA. to

Arvani-

ed

us- taki, A. Derevianko, J. Brown, S. Carroll, M. Kozlov, V.

3) [Erratum- and M. B. Voloshin, Phys. Rev. D 78, 115012 (2008);

]). We

d P. Sikivie, -4 Flambaum, 2 andM. Kamionkowski,

JCAP 0604, 007 and (2006); M. Hohensee for dis-

aA.~Ritz10 cussions.

ments

elov, m/sec

N. Kaloper

This

S. M. Carroll, (1m/d)

L. Sorbo,

work

Phys. Rev. Lett. was

81, 3067supported

(1998); A. Lue, in part by the NSF.

of

nals SP is the scholar of the Polish Ministry of Science and

edIfsig-

d ~ Larm for LIGO

Higher Education~ 3 km, within T ~the1 yr then

Plus program.

Mobility

Strain ~ 10-16 Hz-1/2

and the effective frequency ~ 1/tcrossing ~ 100 Hz

This is very realistic,

ratum- Phys. Lett. as Bsearches

120, 133for gravM.bursts

(1983); reached

Pospelov, ~ 10-20Hz

A. Ritz

18

-1/2

Sikivie,

ted in Krakow, M2

Possible signature with atomic clocks

on distance of

ers (Krakow) is 3 2

tion [14], while DM v L DM v V T

a 2 2

a SERF device M mp d M mp d

A. sensitivi-

arable Derevianko, MP (work in progress)

improved upon

of the signal, 2

Consider

ration betweenan operator M2 me ee quadratic

that renormalizes

scalar portal the mass of an

electron us-

determined once an atom is inside a TD. Because of the quadratic nature of

e Ref. [16]). We The authors are grateful to N. Afshordi, A. Arvani-

the coupling

le experiments M * can

taki, be quite low

A. Derevianko, and S.atCarroll,

J. Brown, a ~ TeV. (ThereV.is a huge issue

M. Kozlov,

e with naturalness

the signals of of light

Flambaum, , as always]and

M.Kamionkowski,

M. Hohensee for dis-

monstrated sig- cussions. This work was supported in part by the NSF.

of

false-positive SP is the scholar of the Polish Ministry of Science and

measure-

The The atomic frequencies

Higher will shift

Education within temporarily

the Mobility and in a different

Plus program.

way for e.g. clocks on optical and microwave transitions.

catch it as they integrate over a long time.

which will translate to M* ~ 1012 GeV sensitivity.

19

Take home message:

Current technologies allow probing areas of the parameter space of TD

DM, that are currently not ruled by astrophysics, collider constraints, or

the energy density budget.

By creating a network of magnetometers, and using the existing

networks of atomic clocks and GW detectors in a slightly different

regime, one can make an interesting step forward in constraining/probing

TD DM.

20

Future direction

Working out a plausible theoretical framework that creates enough

topological defects around us would be a plus.

Generalization to other types of interaction. Going from spin to

frequency, means switching from magnetometers to atomic clocks.

Use existing searches to constrain TD DM (may be not possible to do

well v=1 is always assumed in LIGO type searches)

Magnetometers for studies of Exotic physics).

21

Conclusion

We do not know what DM is it is worth keeping our options open

and explore opportunities where significant progress can be made

Topological defect DM is a suggestion that may be some fraction of

the observable missing energy comes in form of the extended

objects monopoles, strings or domain walls. At these stage it is not

competitive to other theoretical ideas (WIMPs, super-WIMPs, super-cool DM like

axions), because we do not have a very good understanding of its abundance.

spin, mass, energy levels. Network of GW detectors, atomic clocks

and magnetometers can search for such transient effects.

showed that atomic magnetometers can have enough sensitivity for

detection.

22

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