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Glossary of project management

Main article: Project Management 1 A

A glossary of terms relating to Project manage- Agile software development is a set of fundamen-
ment/consulting. tal principles about how software should be devel-
oped based on an agile way of working in con-
Contents :
trast to previous heavy-handed software develop-
ment methodologies.[1]
Aggregate planning is an operational activity
09 which does an aggregate plan for the production pro-
cess, in advance of 2 to 18 months, to give an idea
to management as to what quantity of materials and
B other resources are to be procured and when, so that
the total cost of operations of the organization is
C kept to the minimum over that period.
Allocation is the assignment of available resources
E in an economic way.
2 B
I BOSCARD a strategic planning tool used in project
management to give the Terms of reference for new
J projects.
Budget generally refers to a list of all planned ex-
L penses and revenues.
Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) mea-
N sures the budgeted cost of work that has actually
been performed, rather than the cost of work sched-
O uled.
Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) the
Q approved budget that has been allocated to com-
R plete a scheduled task (or Work Breakdown Struc-
ture (WBS) component) during a specic time pe-
S riod.
T Business model is a prot-producing system that
U has an important degree of independence from the
other systems within an enterprise.
W Business analysis is the set of tasks, knowledge,
and techniques required to identify business needs
X and determine solutions to business problems. So-
lutions often include a systems development compo-
nent, but may also consist of process improvement
Z or organizational change.

2 3 C

Business operations are those ongoing recurring Change control is the procedures used to ensure
activities involved in the running of a business for that changes (normally, but not necessarily, to IT
the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. systems) are introduced in a controlled and coordi-
They are contrasted with project management, and nated manner. Change control is a major aspect of
consist of business processes. the broader discipline of change management.
Business process is a collection of related, struc- Change management is a eld of management fo-
tured activities or tasks that produce a specic ser- cused on organizational changes. It aims to ensure
vice or product (serve a particular goal) for a partic- that methods and procedures are used for ecient
ular customer or customers. There are three types and prompt handling of all changes to controlled IT
of business processes: Management processes, Op- infrastructure, in order to minimize the number and
erational processes, and Supporting processes. impact of any related incidents upon service.
Business Process Modeling (BPM) is the activity Case study is a research method which involves an
of representing processes of an enterprise, so that in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single in-
the current (as is) process may be analyzed and stance or event: a case. They provide a systematic
improved in future (to be). way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing
information, and reporting the results.

3 C Certied Associate in Project Management is an

entry-level certication for project practitioners of-
fered by Project Management Institute.

Communications Log is an ongoing documenta-

tion of communication events between any identi-
ed project stakeholders, managed and collected by
the project manager that describes: the sender and
receiver of the communication event; where, when
and for how long the communication event elapsed;
in what form the communication event took place;
a summary of what information was communicated;
what actions/outcomes should be taken as a result of
the communication event; and to what level of pri-
ority should the actions/outcomes of the communi-
cation event be graded

Constructability is a project management tech-

Capability Maturity Model.
nique to review the construction processes from start
to nish during pre-construction phrase. It will iden-
tify obstacles before a project is actually built to re-
duce or prevent error, delays, and cost overrun.

Costs in economics, business, and accounting are

the value of money that has been used up to pro-
duce something, and hence is not available for use
anymore. In business, the cost may be one of acqui-
sition, in which case the amount of money expended
to acquire it is counted as cost.

Cost engineering is the area of engineering prac-

tice where engineering judgment and experience are
PERT chart with two critical paths. used in the application of scientic principles and
techniques to problems of cost estimating, cost con-
trol, business planning and management science,
Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in software protability analysis, project management, and plan-
engineering is a model of the maturity of the ca- ning and scheduling.[2]
pability of certain business processes. A maturity
model can be described as a structured collection of Construction, in the elds of architecture and civil
elements that describe certain aspects of maturity in engineering, is a process that consists of the building
an organization, and aids in the denition and un- or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a
derstanding of an organizations processes. single activity, large scale construction is a feat of

multitasking. Normally the job is managed by the Earned schedule (ES) is an extension to earned
project manager and supervised by the construction value management (EVM), which renames 2 tradi-
manager, design engineer, construction engineer or tional measures, to indicate clearly they are in units
project architect. of currency or quantity, not time.

Cost overrun is dened as excess of actual cost over Earned value management (EVM) is a project
budget. management technique for measuring project
progress in an objective manner, with a combina-
Critical path method (CPM) is a mathematically tion of measuring scope, schedule, and cost in a
based modeling technique for scheduling a set of single integrated system.
project activities, used in project management.
Eort management is a project management sub-
Critical chain project management (CCPM) is a discipline for eective and ecient use of time and
method of planning and managing projects that puts resources to perform activities regarding quantity,
more emphasis on the resources required to execute quality and direction.
project tasks.
Enterprise modeling is the process of understand-
ing an enterprise business and improving its perfor-
mance through creation of enterprise models. This
4 D includes the modelling of the relevant business do-
main (usually relatively stable), business processes
Dependency in a project network is a link amongst (usually more volatile), and Information technology
a projects terminal elements.
Estimation in project management is the processes
Dynamic Systems Development Method of making accurate estimates using the appropriate
(DSDM) is a software development methodology techniques.
originally based upon the Rapid Application De-
Event chain diagram : diagram that show the re-
velopment methodology. DSDM is an iterative and
lationships between events and tasks and how the
incremental approach that emphasizes continuous
events aect each other.
user involvement.
Event chain methodology is an uncertainty mod-
Duration of a projects terminal element is the num- eling and schedule network analysis technique that
ber of calendar periods it takes from the time the is focused on identifying and managing events and
execution of element starts to the moment it is com- event chains that aect project schedules.
Executive sponsor is the senior member of the
Deliverable A contractually required work product, project board and often the chair.
produced and delivered to a required state. A de-
liverable may be a document, hardware, software or Extreme project management (XPM) refers to a
other tangible product. method of managing very complex and very uncer-
tain projects.

5 E
6 F
Float in a project network is the amount of time that
a task in a project network can be delayed without
causing a delay to subsequent tasks and or the project
completion date.
Focused improvement in Theory of Constraints is
the ensemble of activities aimed at elevating the
performance of any system, especially a business
system, with respect to its goal by eliminating its
constraints one by one and by not working on non-
Fordism, named after Henry Ford, refers to various
social theories. It has varying but related meanings
Event chain diagram in dierent elds, and for Marxist and non-Marxist
4 12 M

7 G 9 I
Integrated Master Plan (IMP) is an event-based,
WEEKS: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 21 22 23
top level plan, consisting of a hierarchy of Program
WBS 1 Summary Element 1 57% complete
WBS 1.1 Activity A 75% complete

WBS 1.2 Activity B

67% complete
ISO 10006 is a guidelines for quality management
WBS 1.3 Activity C
50% complete
in projects, is an international standard developed by
WBS 1.4 Activity D
0% complete
the International Organization for Standardization.
WBS 2 Summary Element 2 0% complete Iterative and Incremental development is a cyclic
WBS 2.1 Activity E 0% complete software development process developed in re-
WBS 2.2 Activity F 0% complete sponse to the weaknesses of the waterfall model. It
WBS 2.3 Activity G 0% complete starts with an initial planning and ends with deploy-
TODAY ment with the cyclic interaction in between

A Gantt chart.
10 K
Henry Gantt was an American mechanical engi- Kicko meeting is the rst meeting with the project
neer and management consultant, who developed team and the client of the project.
the Gantt chart in the 1910s.

Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates 11 L

a project schedule. It illustrates the start and n-
ish dates of the terminal elements and summary ele-
Level of Eort (LOE) is qualied as a support type
ments of a project. Terminal elements and summary
activity which doesn't lend itself to measurement of
elements comprise the work breakdown structure of
a discrete accomplishment. Examples of such an ac-
the project.
tivity may be project budget accounting, customer
liaison, etc.
Goal or objective consists of a projected state of
aairs which a person or a system plans or intends Linear scheduling method (LSM) is a graphical
to achieve or bring about a personal or organi- scheduling method focusing on continuous resource
zational desired end-point in some sort of assumed utilization in repetitive activities. It is believed that
development. Many people endeavor to reach goals it originally adopted the idea of Line-Of-Balance
within a nite time by setting deadlines method.

Lean manufacturing or lean production, which is

Goal setting involves establishing specic, measur-
often known simply as Lean, is the practice of a
able and time targeted objectives
theory of production that considers the expenditure
of resources for any means other than the creation
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique of value for the presumed customer to be wasteful,
(GERT) is a network analysis technique that allows and thus a target for elimination.
probabilistic treatment of both network logic and ac-
tivity duration estimated.
12 M
8 H Management in business and human organization
activity is simply the act of getting people together to
accomplish desired goals. Management comprises
Hammock activity is a grouping of subtasks that
planning, organizing, stang, leading or directing,
hangs between two end dates it is tied to (or the
and controlling an organization (a group of one or
two end-events it is xed to).
more people or entities) or eort for the purpose of
accomplishing a goal.
HERMES is a Project Management Method devel-
oped by the Swiss Government, based on the Ger- Management process is a process of planning and
man V-Modell. The rst domain of application was controlling the performance or execution of any type
software projects. of activity.

Management science (MS), is the discipline of

using mathematical modeling and other analytical
methods, to help make better business management

Megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment
Milestones are tools used in project management to
mark specic points along a project timeline. Quality
Motivation is the set of reasons that prompts one to Cost Schedule
engage in a particular behavior.

Project Management Triangle

13 N
Nonlinear Management (NLM) is a superset of Portfolio in nance is an appropriate mix of or col-
management techniques and strategies that allows lection of investments held by an institution or a pri-
order to emerge by giving organizations the space to vate individual.
self-organize, evolve and adapt, encompassing Ag-
PRINCE2 : PRINCE2 is a project management
ile, Evolutionary and Lean approaches, as well as
methodology. The planning, monitoring and con-
many others.
trol of all aspects of the project and the motivation
of all those involved in it to achieve the project ob-
jectives on time and to the specied cost, quality and
14 O performance.[3]

Operations management is an area of business that Process is an ongoing collection of activities, with
is concerned with the production of good quality an inputs, outputs and the energy required to trans-
goods and services, and involves the responsibility form inputs to outputs.
of ensuring that business operations are ecient and
Process architecture is the structural design of
eective. It is the management of resources, the dis-
general process systems and applies to elds such
tribution of goods and services to customers, and the
as computers (software, hardware, networks, etc.),
analysis of queue systems.
business processes (enterprise architecture, pol-
Operations, see Business operations icy and procedures, logistics, project management,
etc.), and any other process system of varying de-
Operations Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary grees of complexity.
branch of applied mathematics and formal science
that uses methods such as mathematical modeling, Process management is the ensemble of activities
statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or near of planning and monitoring the performance of a
optimal solutions to complex problems. process, especially in the sense of business process,
often confused with reengineering.
Organization is a social arrangement which pur-
sues collective goals, which controls its own perfor- Product breakdown structure (PBS) in project
mance, and which has a boundary separating it from management is an exhaustive, hierarchical tree
its environment. structure of components that make up an item, ar-
ranged in whole-part relationship.
Organization development (OD) is a planned,
structured, organization-wide eort to increase the Product description in project management is a
organizations eectiveness and health. structured format of presenting information about
a project product

15 P Program Evaluation and Review Technique

(PERT) is a statistical tool, used in project manage-
ment, designed to analyze and represent the tasks
Planning in organizations and public policy is both involved in completing a given project.
the organizational process of creating and maintain-
ing a plan; and the psychological process of thinking Program Management is the process of manag-
about the activities required to create a desired goal ing multiple ongoing inter-dependent projects. An
on some scale. example would be that of designing, manufacturing
6 17 R

and providing support infrastructure for an automo- Project manager : professional in the eld of
bile manufacturer. project management. Project managers can have the
responsibility of the planning, execution, and clos-
Project : A temporary endeavor undertaken to cre- ing of any project, typically relating to construc-
ate a unique product, service, or result.[4] tion industry, architecture, computer networking,
telecommunications or software development.
Project accounting Is the practice of creating -
nancial reports specically designed to track the - Project network is a graph (ow chart) depicting
nancial progress of projects, which can then be used the sequence in which a projects terminal elements
by managers to aid project management. are to be completed by showing terminal elements
and their dependencies.
Project charter is a statement of the scope, objec-
tives, and participants in a project. Project plan is a formal, approved document used
to guide both project execution and project control.
Project Cost Management A method of managing The primary uses of the project plan are to doc-
a project in real-time from the estimating stage to ument planning assumptions and decisions, facili-
project control; through the use of technology cost, tate communication among stakeholders, and doc-
schedule and productivity is monitored. ument approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines.
A project plan may be summary or detailed.[7]
Project management : The complete set of
tasks, techniques, tools applied during project Project planning is part of project management,
execution'.[5] which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt
charts to plan and subsequently report progress
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PM- within the project environment.[8]
BOK) : The sum of knowledge within the profes-
sion of project management that is standardized by Project stakeholders are those entities within or
ISO.[6] without an organization which sponsor a project or,
have an interest or a gain upon a successful comple-
Project management oce: The Project manage- tion of a project.
ment oce in a business or professional enterprise is
the department or group that denes and maintains Project team is the management team leading the
the standards of process, generally related to project project, and provide services to the project. Projects
management, within the organization. The PMO often bring together a variety number of problems.
strives to standardize and introduce economies of Stakeholders have important issues with others.
repetition in the execution of projects. The PMO is
Proport refers to the combination of the unique
the source of documentation, guidance and metrics
skills of an organisations members for collective ad-
on the practice of project management and execu-

Project management process is the management

process of planning and controlling the performance 16 Q
or execution of a project.
Quality can mean a high degree of excellence (a
Project Management Professional is a certicated quality product), a degree of excellence or the lack
professional in project management. of it (work of average quality), or a property of
something (the addictive quality of alcohol).[1]
Project Management Simulators are computer-
Distinct from the vernacular, the subject of this ar-
based tools used in project management training
ticle is the business interpretation of quality.
programs. Usually, project management simulation
is a group exercise. The computer-based simulation Quality, Cost, Delivery(QCD) as used in lean
is an interactive learning activity. manufacturing measures a businesses activity and
develops Key performance indicators. QCD anal-
Project management software is a type of soft- ysis often forms a part of continuous improvement
ware, including scheduling, cost control and budget programs
management, resource allocation, collaboration
software, communication, quality management and
documentation or administration systems, which are
used to deal with the complexity of large projects. 17 R
Project Management Triangle is a model of the Reengineering is radical redesign of an organiza-
constraints of project management. tions processes, especially its business processes.

Rather than organizing a rm into functional spe- Scope creep refers to uncontrolled changes in a
cialties (like production, accounting, marketing, projects scope. This phenomenon can occur when
etc.) and considering the tasks that each function the scope of a project is not properly dened, doc-
performs; complete processes from materials ac- umented, or controlled. It is generally considered a
quisition, to production, to marketing and distribu- negative occurrence that is to be avoided.
tion should be considered. The rm should be re-
engineered into a series of processes. Scrum is an iterative incremental process of soft-
ware development commonly used with agile soft-
Resources are what is required to carry out a ware development. Despite the fact that Scrum is
projects tasks. They can be people, equipment, fa- not an acronym, some companies implementing the
cilities, funding, or anything else capable of de- process have been known to adhere to an all capital
nition (usually other than labour) required for the letter expression of the word, i.e. SCRUM.
completion of a project activity.
Six Sigma is a business management strategy, orig-
Resource leveling : 'A scheduling calculation that inally developed by Motorola, that today enjoys
delays activities such that resource usage is kept be- widespread application in many sectors of industry.
low specied limits. It is also known as resource
limited scheduling'.[9] Software engineering is the application of a
systematic, disciplined, quantiable approach to
Risk is the precise probability of specic eventuali- the development, operation, and maintenance of
ties. software.[10]
Risk management is a management specialism Standards are documents approved by a recog-
aiming to reduce dierent risks related to a pres- nized body, that provide, for common and repeated
elected domain to the level accepted by society. It use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for products,
may refer to numerous types of threats caused by en- processes, or services with which compliance is not
vironment, technology, humans, organizations and mandatory. (ISO 9453)[11]
Stakeholder Clients or other parties invested in the
Risk register is a tool commonly used in project Project.
planning and organizational risk assessments.
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is any
logical process used by a systems analyst to develop
an information system, including requirements, val-
18 S idation, training, and user ownership. An SDLC
should result in a high quality system that meets or
exceeds customer expectations, within time and cost
Analysis estimates, works eectively and eciently in the
current and planned Information Technology infras-
tructure, and is cheap to maintain and cost-eective
Evaluation Design to enhance.[12]
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary eld of
engineering that focuses on how complex engineer-
ing projects should be designed and managed.
Testing Implementation

19 T
The systems development life cycle.
Task is part of a set of actions which accomplish a
job, problem or assignment.
Schedules in project management consists of a list
of a projects terminal elements with intended to Tasks in project management are activity that needs
start and nish dates. to be accomplished within a dened period of time.
Scientic management is a theory of management Task analysis is the analysis or a breakdown of ex-
that analyzes and synthesizes workow processes, actly how a task is accomplished, such as what sub-
improving labor productivity. tasks are required
Scope of a project in project management is the sum Time limit is a narrow eld of time, or a particular
total of all of its products and their requirements or point in time, by which an objective or task must be
features. accomplished.

Timeline is a graphical representation of a chrono-

logical sequence of events, also referred to as a
chronology. It can also mean a schedule of activi-
ties, such as a timetable.

20 U

A work breakdown structure.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a method

and a kind of representation that denes a project
and groups the projects discrete work elements in
The Unied Process. a way that helps organize and dene the total work
scope of the project. A Work breakdown struc-
ture element may be a product, data, a service, or
Unied Process: The Unied process is a popular any combination. WBS also provides the necessary
iterative and incremental software development pro- framework for detailed cost estimating and control
cess framework. The best-known and extensively along with providing guidance for schedule develop-
documented renement of the Unied Process is the ment and control.
Rational Unied Process (RUP).
Work package is a subset of a project that can be
assigned to a specic party for execution. Because
21 V of the similarity, work packages are often misiden-
tied as projects.
Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to
improve the value of goods and services by us- Work stream is a set of associated activities, fo-
ing an examination of function. Value, as dened, cused around a particular scope that follow a path
is the ratio of function to cost. Value can there- from initiation to completion.
fore be increased by either improving the function
or reducing the cost. It is a primary tenet of value
engineering that basic functions be preserved and 23 Related lists
not be reduced as a consequence of pursuing value
improvements.[13] List of production topics
Vertical slice is a type of milestone, benchmark, or
List of project management topics
deadline, with emphasis on demonstrating progress
across all components of a project. List of management topics
Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) is the
List of Theory of Constraints topics
use of integrated multi-disciplinary performance
models of design-construction projects, including List of topics in industrial organization
the Product (i.e., facilities), Work Processes and Or-
ganization of the design - construction - operation Timeline of project management
team in order to support explicit and public business
objectives. List of statistical tools used in project management

22 W 24 References
Wideband Delphi is a consensus-based estimation [1] Peter Schuh (2005). Integrating Agile Development in the
technique for estimating eort. Real World. ebrary, Inc. p.2.

Work in project management is the amount of eort [2] AACE Internationals Recommended Practice 11R-88,
applied to produce a deliverable or to accomplish a Required Skills and Knowledge of Cost Engineering, pro-
task (a terminal element). vides some answers which are excerpted here. Beyond

being a guiding document for AACE Internationals ed-

ucation and certication developments, 11R-88 is an ex-
cellent reference for industry core competency and career
model development.

[3] The PRINCE2 Guide - A to Z.

[4] Project Management Institute (2004). A Guide to the

Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide.
3rd Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, Project
Management Institute, p. 5.

[5] DIN 69901


[7] Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK),

2000 Edition

[8] Harold Kerzner (2003). Project Management: A Systems

Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling (8th
ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-22577-0.

[9] Resource levelling. Retrieved June 27, 2015.

[10] IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Ter-

minology, IEEE std 610.12-1990, 1990, quoted at the
beginning of Chapter 1: Introduction to the guide Guide
to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge. Febru-
ary 6, 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-01-18.
Retrieved 2008-02-21.

[11] A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge

(pmbok Guide), Fifth Edition. 5th ed. Newtown Square,
Pa.: Project Management Institute, 2013.

[12] Systems Development Life Cycle. In: Foldoc(2000-12-


[13] Value Methodology Standard

25 External links
Project Management Institute

Wideman Comparative Glossary of Project Man-

agement Terms

AACE International Cost Engineering Terminology

Tenrox Glossary of Project Management Terms

Project Management Dictionary (PM Hut)


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