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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

A review of the wind power developments in Pakistan


Samreen Siddique n, Rashid Wazir
U.S.-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy (USPCAS-E), National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Pakistan is among the 10 countries that face the worst energy crisis of the world. As the country struggles
Received 28 May 2015 with a number of nancial, political and social issues, the transition from a conventional fuels based
Received in revised form economy to a green economy is not an easy one. Pakistan has been blessed with immense potential of
25 November 2015
clean renewable sources of solar, wind and biomass but they have not been exploited yet. Renewable
Accepted 1 December 2015
energy technology sector has not penetrated the energy mix and is currently an emerging market. This
paper highlights the steps the country has taken in the past and the steps that are being taken at present
Keywords: to emerge out of the prevailing energy crisis when even the most urban areas suffer from power outages
Wind power of 12 h per day. Until 2009, no single grid interconnected wind farm existed but now the situation has
Renewable energy
changed considerably and wind farms contributing to the national grid are a reality now. Three grid
Independent Power Producers (IPPs)
interconnected farms have been inaugurated and many others are in pipeline. The national policy
Pakistan
regarding wind power systems has recently changed after unexpected setbacks to ongoing projects. This
paper reviews the developments in the wind power sector of the country and lists some suggestions that
can help improve the wind power penetration in the national energy mix.
& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
2. Energy situation in Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
3. Initial research efforts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
4. Steps taken for utilisation of wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
5. Wind turbine manufacturing/assembling facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
6. Institutional infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
6.1. Alternative energy development board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
6.2. National electric power regulatory authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
6.3. Pakistan council of renewable energy technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
6.4. National transmission and despatch company limited (NTDC) Pakistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
7. Current status of wind power sector in Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
7.1. FFC wind power project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
7.2. Zorlu energy project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
7.3. Three gorges rst wind farm pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7.4. Foundation wind energy limited (FWEL) project I and II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7.5. Sapphire wind power project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7.6. Yunus energy wind farm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7.7. Sachal energy development project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7.8. Metro power project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7.9. Gul Ahmed wind power project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7.10. Tenaga Generasi project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7.11. Master wind energy project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7.12. Zephyr power project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

n
Corresponding author.
E-mail address: 13ESEssiddique@casen.nust.edu.pk (S. Siddique).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.050
1364-0321/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
352 S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361

7.13. Hydrochina Dawood power project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359


7.14. Tapal wind energy project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7.15. Other projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
8. Recent setback to renewable energy projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
8.1. Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
9. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

1. Introduction shortage of supply of electricity to run their facilities, the then


government announced a 75% increase in the commercial tariff
The global wind capacity touched 336.327 GW by June 2014, of from 810 rupees per kW h to 14 rupees per kW h. Tariff for
which 17.613 GW was installed in the rst half of 2014. This surge domestic use was also increased from 57 rupees per kW h to 8
is considerably higher than the rst six months of 2013 and 2012, 10 rupees per kW h. Karachi Electric Supply Company, the main
during which 13.9 GW and 16.4 GW were installed respectively. electricity provider to the twenty million people of Karachi, was
The installed capacity of wind turbines is rising at an annual rate then suffering an overwhelming nancial crises and expressed its
of 25% worldwide. This shows a growing interest in the wind inability to supply electricity using furnace oil [9]. During 201112,
electric power every year. Owing to the increase in wind farms in power outages reached 810 h daily in metropolitan areas and
the recent years, around 45 of the world's total electricity demand more than 20 h in the countryside affecting economic growth [9].
can be fullled by the wind turbines [1]. This rapid progress in the The total shortfall of more than 6000 MW was the primary reason
recent years is because of declining equipment costs, uncertainty behind restricted industrial production activities. Particularly,
in the conventional fuel prices, government policies and incen- Energy exhaustive industries of Iron and Steel, Petroleum, Engi-
tives, environment concerns, awareness of green power, need for neering Industries and Electrical decreased 0.2 percentage points
energy security and increasing carbon risk [2]. During an era of from real GDP growth in scal years of 201011 and 201112 [7].
great environmental degradation, a 1 MW wind turbine offers to As the total output of the energy intensive sectors decreased,
offset 60 pounds of mercury, 1500 ton of carbon dioxide, three overall welfare of the country was affected [10]. Now in the recent
tons of nitrogen oxides and six and a half tons of sulfur dioxide year, the price of crude oil dropped to almost half of its previous
annually. Also, wind farms generate more power than they con- price, from 11,298 rupees per barrel in December 2013 to 6, 112
sume, between 17 and 39 times, as compared to nuclear plants(16 rupees per barrel in December 2014 [11]. Also, Pakistan's energy
times) and coal plants (11 times ) [3]. Wind power is also related to statistics from 2012 estimate that an annual electricity consump-
many social and community issues as well. It has been advocated tion of a meager 74 billion kW h consumption per capita is
that increasing energy production through diversication in 456.64 kW h, one of the lowest in the world [12]. Still, Pakistan has
energy resources has negative relation with poverty and unem- been unsuccessful in fullling its energy demand by conventional
ployment [4]. It has been predicted that owing to the increasing fuels and remains among the ten most energy decient countries
awareness about their benets, wind and solar will be the in the world. The current distribution system is not capable of
cheapest forms of energy production for largest energy markets of supplying more than 15,000 MW. In effect, the constricting bot-
Asia within 10 years [5]. Optimistic estimations also estimate that tleneck currently is distribution and not generation as shown in
by 2030, one fth of the electricity demands of the planet can be Fig. 1. Therefore, even if existing generating units are geared up to
met by wind energy. This indicates not only environmental but operate three-fourth of their capacity, the country simply does not
economic benets for all countries to include wind power as clean, have the infrastructure to distribute this power to end users [13].
renewable source of energy. This paper attempts to highlight the Hence, the total installed capacity in Pakistan is greater than the
efforts done in research and development of wind energy sector in actual generated power while the actual generated power is less
Pakistan. than the demand [14].
The gap between supply and demand continuously increased
over the years until it reached the prevailing levels. Over all, lit-
2. Energy situation in Pakistan erature surveys and studies indicate that in past years, Pakistan has

Approximately 1.3 billion people are living without electricity


worldwide; 66% of them live in 10 countries- one of them being
Pakistan [6]. Even though energy crisis has plagued Pakistan since
its birth in 1947, this national dilemma received attention only in
this century. From 1947 to 1980s, domestic resources could meet
only two-thirds of the energy demand [7]. As the population
increased drastically in 1980s, with annual growth rates more than
3% throughout the decade, Pakistan was struggling to shorten the
wide gap between rising demand of energy and its restricted
supply. The energy consumption per capita also progressed from
193 kW h in 1985 to 256 kWh in 1989, widening the gap between
supply and demand [8]. It was vital to balance the energy supply
and the rising needs with an evolving economy and a high
population growth rate. Later on, in the early 2000s, the power
sector received much attention, reason being the acceleration in
the growth rate of electricity demand. In 2008, when industrial
consumers were already suffering nancial crises caused by Fig. 1. Available capacity and power generations in past 5 scal years (FYs) [13].
S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361 353

been unsuccessful in meeting the rising energy demands for many suffer the worst energy crisis since forever. At least half of Sindh's
reasons, including an overreliance on fossil fuels (64.2%), climatic population and nine tenth of the population of Balochistan has no
changes, growth in oil prices, insufcient contribution of alternative access to electricity and use kerosene to light their homes. Low
sources (29% hydropower and 5.8% nuclear) and not enough tech- population density and small scattered loads make centralised grid
nological advancements [9,15]. Renewable energy options are system technically and economically unfeasible in these areas. As a
becoming increasingly attractive as the country suffers from energy solution to this problem, Memon et al proposed domestic wind
crisis with power outages reaching 68 h per day even in the most systems for rural coastal areas. A small wind turbine could gen-
urban parts of the country. Literature has shown that in Pakistan, erate 350 kW h and 250 kW h annually in Sindh and Balochistan
the energy consumption and industrial production and economic respectively, enough for a rural household [28]. Later in 2011, a
expansion are interrelated and power shortages may slow down the research indicated that biomass and wind energy are the preferred
country's economic growth [1618]. This explains the low human alternatives and no single renewable energy technology or con-
development index ( 0.5) and economic growth of Balochistan, a ventional fuel is the answer to the energy scarcity of Pakistan and
province that forms 44% of the total land mass but only 10% of a mix of different renewables is required [29].
population in the province has any access to electricity. By diver-
sifying its energy sources through solar and wind resources gifted
by nature, Pakistan can not only attain energy security but also 4. Steps taken for utilisation of wind energy
eradicate poverty and empower its people [4].
The wind energy technology in Pakistan's energy market star-
ted its course at a slow pace. The rst known windmills used for
3. Initial research efforts pumping water and grinding grain were developed in Iran around
500900 A.D. Being an immediate neighbor of Iran, it is only
The drive to reform Pakistan's power and energy sector began surprising that Pakistan's ancient history is silent about the pre-
in the 1980s when country wide power outages weakened any sence of wind energy technology. It was not realised until recently
chances of economic development in the country and had crippled that the windy mountainous regions and the 1080 km long border
the nation. To address this crisis, the government of Pakistan in with Arabian Sea could be used for installation of wind farms. It is
1985 enacted its rst private power policy. This policy was aimed reported that rst efforts to identify ways of utilization of wind
at bringing private investors to the power sector. Before this policy energy were made in 1980s [30]. In 1990s, two units of 10 kW h
was enacted in Pakistan, power generation was entirely state- and 1 kW h were installed in Sindh and Balochistan respectively
owned and operated monopoly [19,20]. The need for renewable [31]. Pakistan Council for Appropriate Technology (PCAT) set up
energy was realised by researchers and studies on resource more than 12 windmills for water pumping at Sindh and Balo-
potentials had started in 1980s. Initially, there was a lack of chistan. A report on country wide wind resource mapping was
complete and reliable data on wind energy resources in Pakistan. submitted to PCAT in March 2001, based on data provided by
The limited data collected by the wind measuring instruments at Pakistan Meteorological Department collected for over 50 years.
different airports of the country was insufcient to determine This report was based on data recorded at 50 stations in the
technical and economic feasibility of wind power projects. None- country at an elevation of 210 m. Projected wind speeds were
theless, a vague idea of possible sites for harnessing wind energy obtained for 30 m height showing promising wind energy poten-
formed. Raja and Abro held that two-third of the country's land tial. In another report, parts of Sindh i.e. Chor, Badin, Hyderabad
area consists of arid or semi-arid regions which are ideal sites for and Karachi were listed as nest locations for wind energy utili-
hybrid solar-wind energy systems because of high percentage of zation. Also in 2001, a project was initiated by Ministry of Envir-
clear days and strong winds. The main city of Balochistan, Quetta onment and supported by Global Environment Facility, Nordic
was highlighted for its abundance of solar energy as studies Trust Fund and United Nations Development Programme under
indicated that maximum solar energy was being received by the name of Commercialization of Wind Power Potential in
Quetta valley [21]. At the same time, the pros and cons of Pakistan. This project was aimed at determining the feasibility of a
renewable energy options were discussed by Ghaffar who opined wind power project at Pasni along the Makran coast, Balochistan.
that, for Pakistan solar and biomass were more feasible options as Unfortunately, this project ended with no outcome because of lack
compared to wind energy as winds in the region were a low of wind data and incentives. However, valuable recommendations
quality resource and suffered from abrupt variations [22]. Research regarding tariff, policy framework and legalities were given which
on wind speed time series in Balochistan started in 1980s when paved the path for wind projects in the future [19,32]. In 2002, 14
speed frequency curves, daily variations and speed duration curves small wind turbine generators (WTGs) were bought from China
were rst analyzed for the hourly wind data of Quetta. The need to and set up by Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies
apply mathematical modeling and numerical analysis for wind (PCRET) for demonstration purposes. Among these, 8 WTGs were
resource assessment in Pakistan was also highlighted [23]. By this xed in the coastal regions of Balochistan and six WTGs were
time, it was already established worldwide that the variations in erected at coastal sites in Sindh. It was perceived that small wind
all the basic meteorological can be mathematically represented turbines are feasible for rural electrication in coastal areas [30].
and wind speed variations can be identied and predicted using By 2004, a foreign company had completed a hybrid winddiesel
mathematical formulations [24]. Realising the need of applying project successfully for rural electrication in a village at Sibbi,
statistical and mathematical models to predict wind speed time Balochistan [27,31]. In a study conducted during 20042007, wind
series, Jafri et al in 1996 applied ARMA models and found them data was measured at 20 sites of Sindh coast [33]. By international
suitable for prediction intervals and probability forecasts for wind standards, four locations of Sindh, Jamshoro, Nooriabad, Talhar
speed time series of Quetta, Balochistan [25]. Recently in 2012, this and Kati Bandar, were regarded as excellent sites and four loca-
was followed by the wind speed time series forecasting using tions of Sindh Thana Bulakhan, Hyderabad, Gharo and Thatta
fuzzy logic time series prediction. The prediction was found to be were considered good sites for wind power generation [34].
reliable and precise [21,26,27]. During the scal year 200506, as knowledge and awareness in
Ironically, the sites of coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan, renewable energy sector increased, Government of Pakistan made
where wind speeds are being analyzed and energy resource some plans for the development of wind power sector. Guidelines
potentials are being discovered, are the same locations which were given to the Ministry of Water and Power's Alternative
354 S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361

Energy Development Board (AEDB) under the Energy Security Keti Bandar and Gharo in Sindh, Mardan in NWFP, Kalar Kahar in
Action. Those pertaining to wind energy have been mentioned northern Punjab, Makran, Kolpur, Nokundi and Chaghi area in
here: Balochistan. [35]. Recent studies have also conrmed the potential
and economic feasibility for wind farms at Gwadar and Ormara
 Wind and solar resources will contribute at least ve percent and microhybrid systems at Nokkundi [3741]. A major break-
(  9700 MW) in the total power generation capacity of the through in the development of renewable energy sector as a whole
country by 2030. and wind energy in particular was the implementation of rst
 A wind power project of capacity 100 MW will be set up in two renewable energy policy of Pakistan in 2006. By August 2006, the
towns of Sindh (Keti Bandar and Gharo) which will be upgraded AEDB had already delivered 56 Letters of Intent (LOIs) for instal-
to 700-MW by 2010 [35]. ling wind power projects of different capacities which were fol-
lowed by more investors later on, increasing the count of the
In June 2005, PMD in nancial collaboration with Ministry of proposed projects to 97. Some of these rms later were either
Science and Technology (MoST), accomplished the rst phase of its disenchanted with the idea or did not have the required capacity
project Wind Power Potential Survey of Coastal Areas of Paki- to pursue the opportunity [42]. The Renewable Energy policy 2006
stan. In July 2005, second phase commenced which was wind was not immediately successful and faced a number of challenges
resource mapping for northern areas of the country. The potential but nonetheless it was the rst big step to green power [20]. By
areas found along the Sindh Coast include Jamshoro, Hyderabad, this policy, the wind risk was to be tolerated by the central power
Nooriabad, Gharo, Kotri, Thatta, Matli, Talhar, Keti Bandar, Shah purchaser to immune the project developers and investors to the
Bandar and Mirpur Sakro. The potential areas in Balochistan variability of wind resource. This policy also ensured full purchase
include Gwadar, Liari, Chowki, Hub, Jiwani, Pasni, Gadani and of electricity from wind farms and offered many attractive scal
Ormara. It was also established that the coastal areas in Sindh have incentives such as exemption from import duties and taxes and
better quality resource than Balochistans coastal areas. The income taxes [29]. Soon after, the results of wind resource
windier areas cover an area of 9700 km2 in Sindh. The potential assessment and mapping done by National Renewable Energy Lab
wind power of this area was determined to be 43,000 MW while in association with PMD and USAID were published for Afghani-
the technically feasible potential was determined to be about stan and Pakistan. Sophisticated mapping techniques using the
11,000 MW. A feasibility study was prepared for an 18 MW model Geographical Information System software indicated the regions
project and the payback period was calculated to be 78 years and their energy potential as shown in Figs. 24 show the stations
[27,36]. This was also mentioned in a 2009 report by Asian and for wind data measurements. According to this study the total
Pacic Center for Transfer of Technology of the United Nations that exploitable potential of wind resource in Pakistan is 132,000 MW
PMD had launched measurement of wind parameters in the as shown in Table 1 [43].
northern areas of Pakistan after completing its six year project of In 2007, The EU Asia Invest initiated a European Union funded
wind data acquisition for the coastal sites of Sindh and Balochi- program for solar, wind and small hydro projects in Pakistan. The
stan. According to this report, the actual land used in wind power aim was to enhance private investment for selected renewable
generation is very small in terms of area, 23% of total area energy technologies including wind power. By 2008, there was no
encompassed by the wind farms. Low height cultivation and cattle single grid connected wind farm however steps to have some had
grazing can be done in the rest of the area. However, in Pakistan started. A short term plan was formulated for 20092014 in which
nearly all windy sites are situated in barren areas where cultiva- three clusters of wind farm were proposed in three areas of Sindh,
tion is not a choice, hence the best utilization of the land is wind Jhimpir, Kuttikun and Bhambore allocating lands to 23 developers,
farming in those areas. The potential wind farming areas in the for 50 MW each. Transmission facilities were analyzed to ensure
four provinces of Pakistan for the wind farming are Hyderabad, smooth grid integration of these wind farms. It was stated in this

Fig. 2. Wind power mapping for Pakistan [43].


S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361 355

Fig. 3. Wind measurement from towers in Balochistan [43].

Fig. 4. Wind measurement from towers in Sindh [43].

plan that there are no technical constraints in bringing 500 Table 1


Good to excellent wind resource at 50 m in Pakistan [43]
700 MW wind power on board in terms of load ow, dynamic
performance and power quality in the three areas of interest in Wind resource Wind Power Speed Area (km2) Capacity
Sindh [44]. During 200809 masts were installed at three areas in quality scale class (kW/m2) (m/s) (GW)
Sindh namely, Baburband, Keti Bandar, Hawksbay. The wind
Good 4 0.40.5 6.97.4 18,106 90.53
energy potentials of these areas were analyzed and Baburband
Very Good 5 0.50.6 7.47.8 5218 26.09
was marked as a great site for wind power production in the 2010 Excellent 6 0.60.8 7.88.6 2495 12.48
annual report by AEDB [45]. During 20062009, 135 units of Excellent 7 40.8 48.6 543 2.72
microwind turbines were installed at Sindh providing electricity to Total 26,362 131.8
1431 houses by a generation capacity in excess of 151 kW. Gul
Assumptions:
Muhammad village is reported to be the rst village of Pakistan Capacity installed per km2 is 5 MW. The land area of Pakistan is 877,525 km2 and
electried to be provided wind electric power by setting up 26 offshore area is not included.
units of 500 W capacity each. In Lasbela, wind powered battery
charging facilities and wind powered guard check posts were set
Distribution Companies (DISCOs) Performance Improvement Pro-
up in villages. AEDB established a 4 MW grid interconnected wind
power station at Gharo, Sindh in 2009 the then biggest instal- gram (PDIP). The objective of the program was to improve the
lation of the country. AEDB also set up forty small wind turbines in electricity supply, ensure the operational and nancial health of
Karachi and 500 W microwind turbines in universities of Balo- the power sector and take appropriate steps to make the power
chistan for research on wind power. In 2009, US Secretary of State sector self-sufcient. The absence of smart metering in Pakistan
announced US support for the project entitled Pakistan Power and the need of sophisticated technology to reduce losses during
356 S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361

transmission and distribution was highlighted. Funds are being later on in 1958, to ensure unity and coordination in the sector,
offered by USAID to install required technology [46]. Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) was formed by
In 2011, Government of Pakistan passed the Alternative Energy the 1958 WAPDA Act. Electricity distribution services in different
Development Board Act, 2011 which empowered AEDB to develop areas were being executed by regional ofces of WAPDA. In 1982,
plans and policies for renewable energy utilization in the country to provide more independence and representation to provincial
and to evaluate and certify renewable energy projects. AEDB was governments and other interest groups, Area Electricity Boards
also instructed to act as the middle-man while interacting and (AEBs) were set up through the AEB scheme. A total of eight AEBs
coordinating with national and international agencies for renew- was established for this purpose. In 1994, by the Strategic Plan for
able energy technologies [47]. Also the previous policy of 2006
Pakistan Power Sector Reform the power wing of WAPDA was split
was replaced by Alternative and Renewable Energy Policy of 2011.
into 14 companies for power generation, transmission and dis-
It was reported in the Act that Pakistan has an estimated wind
tribution of electric power. The purpose was to commercialize and
power potential of 346 GW out of which around 6070 GW is
then eventually privatise these 14 organizations, known as gen-
technically exploitable [47]. The target by government given to
eration companies (GENCOs), power distribution companies
AEDB of a minimum ve percent contribution in national energy
mix through wind and solar sources by 2030 was reinstated [47]. (DISCOs) and National Transmission and Power Dispatch Company
(NTDC) [48]. For wind power projects, a number of other institu-
tions interact with the independent wind power producer to
5. Wind turbine manufacturing/assembling facilities ensure a transparent and productive process.

No large manufacturing company or facility exists in Pakistan 6.1. Alternative energy development board
that can manufacture all parts required in a wind farm and wind
turbines are not available on immediate demand in the global AEDB was founded in 2003 with the purpose of reducing
market. One of the reasons is that some countries e.g. United
Pakistan's dependence on fossil fuels by identifying alternative
States offer attractive rebates and discounts to manufacturers
energy resources like solar, wind, biogas and small hydro projects
therefore all top notch manufacturers of wind energy equipment
[49]. The Alternative Energy Development Board Act, 2011
are fully dedicated in supplying to the American market. Through
empowered AEDB to develop plans and policies for renewable
extensive marketing efforts, AEDB claims to have reserved equip-
energy utilization in the country and to evaluate and certify
ment from leading manufacturers, Gamesa of Spain, VESTAS of
renewable energy projects. AEDB can set up its own projects or
Denmark and Fuhrlander in Germany and GE of USA, to supply the
apparatus needed in Pakistan. Local manufacturing of 500-W wind through partnership with other rms and provide its technical
turbine under transfer of technology from China has been reported expertize to the government [42]. AEDB issues Letters of Intent
[35,27]. and Letters of Support to competent rms interested in developing
However, as the demand for wind energy technology is independent wind farms after detailed analysis.
increasing some small companies have begun operation. Marine
Private Limited in Karachi is making windmills for lifting up to 22
6.2. National electric power regulatory authority
thousand gallons per hour of water seventy feet deep. The three
types of windmills made by this company are Mojahid, Zorawar
NEPRA issues licenses to the power projects for generation,
and Jawana, having a blade diameter of 10, 15 and 20 feet
transmission and dispatch of electric power. It forms and imposes
respectively. Engineering Concern Private Limited and Agro Tool
standards to safeguard quality and protection during the proces-
Private Limited are developing windmills for lifting water and
sing and supplying electric power to end users. It controls
generating electricity. Pak Wind Energy Limited, Karachi have
windmills with a capacity ranging from 1 kW to 15 kW. Quetex investment deals and acquisition of the utility companies and also
International, Karachi manufacture windmills with a capacity determines the tariffs for buying, selling and distribution of elec-
ranging from 0.5 to 20 kW. Grace Accumulators, Karachi build tric power [50]. An independent wind power production company
windmills with a capacity ranging from 1 kW to 5 kW. Euro Tech, submits its nancial reports that details all project costs according
Karachi have windmills with a capacity ranging from 0.5 kW to to which NEPRA determines and justies the tariff that the wind
2 kW. Energen Energy Generation have windmills with a capacity power company can charge for selling electric power. NEPRA
ranging from 0.5 to 1.00 kW [35]. determined an upfront tariff regime for wind power projects in
A 2012 study surveyed the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of April, 2013. The upfront tariff was set to be 13.5244 US cents/kW h.
wind turbine blades facilities in Pakistan and concluded that This tariff is being offered for projects on take-and-pay agreement
Pakistan's composite manufacturing units are capable of produc- while the wind risks are borne by the developer unlike the cost
tion of wind turbine blades although some improvements in the plus regime in which the wind risk is borne by the power pur-
available facilities are needed. 62 organizations/manufacturing chaser. The companies that opt for an upfront tariff are instructed
units are presently involved in composite manufacturing of any to achieve nancial close by a xed date.
nature and level. The technology base of the industry has the
absorptive capacity to diversify itself to the wind turbine blades'
manufacturing technology [36]. 6.3. Pakistan council of renewable energy technologies

Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET)


6. Institutional infrastructure was set up in 2001 by merger of National Institute of Silicon
Technology and Pakistan Council for Appropriate Technologies
The electricity supply service in the new born Pakistan was (PCAT). It coordinates research and development activities and
offered by both the public and private sector agencies initially. But promotional events for renewable energy technologies.
S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361 357

Fig. 5. Pakistan's Power sector organizations [47].

6.4. National transmission and despatch company limited (NTDC) closure is achieved followed by commercial operation of the wind
Pakistan power plant. 15 independent power producers have been issued
Letter of Support amounting to 806.4 MW. 3 wind power projects
National Transmission and Despatch Company Limited was have achieved commercial operation. The details of different wind
incorporated in November, 1998 and commenced commercial power producers and their projects is as follows.
operation in December, 1998. Its main functions are:
7.1. FFC wind power project
 procurement of power from conventional fuel power plants and
renewables based plants on behalf of distribution companies, FFC Energy Ltd.'s wind farm is located in Jhimpir, Sindh occu-
 protected, safe and dependable operation and control of gen- pying an area of about 1283 acres. The wind farm has been set up at
eration facilities, a total cost of US $ 134 million. The grid connection was activated
 planning, expansion, operation and maintenance of the 220 kV on October 30, 2012. It is now in commercial operation since
and 500 kV transmission network, December, 2012. FFCEL wind farm consists of 33 Nordex S77 of
 recording and monitoring of contracts relating to bilateral 1.5 MW each. The nameplate capacity of wind farm is 49.5 MW
trading system [51]. with a net annual energy production of 143.6 GW h [53]. NEPRA has
determined tariff of 16.109 cents/kW h for FFC Energy Ltd. [54].
According to the renewable energy policy, NTDC is bound to
purchase the electric power produced by wind power plants at the
7.2. Zorlu energy project
tariff determined by NEPRA. A graphical representation of the
institutions and their interactions is shown in Fig. 5. The Private The wind farm is located at Jhimpir, Sindh. It was established by
Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB)is a state owned facilitator Zorlu Energy Pakistan, which is a subsidiary of Zorlu Enerji (Fig. 6)
for investors in establishing private power projects and related . The investment on this project was US $ 143 million. Initially,
infrastructure, implements Implementation Agreement with the Vensys 62 turbines of 1.2 MW each were installed in April 2009
sponsors and issues sovereign warranties [52]. Pakistan Atomic
Energy Commission (PAEC) is concerned with the research and
development of nuclear electric power and energy conservation.
DISCOs are power distribution companies and GENCOs are power
generation companies. As stated earlier, National Transmission
and Despatch Company (NTDC) acts as Central Power Purchasing
Agency (CPPA) in Pakistan.

7. Current status of wind power sector in Pakistan

34 independent wind power companies hold Letter of Intent


issued from AEDB aiming to develop a total of 1925.4 MW of wind
power capacity. After the Letter of Intent is issued, land is allotted by
the Land Utilization Department. Letter of Support is issued by AEDB
extending its technical expertize for the successful development of
the project. Thereafter, generation license and tariff determination is
acquired by NEPRA. Energy Purchase agreement is signed by NTDC
and the company and Implementation Agreement is signed by AEDB
and the company. After these steps have been carried, nancial Fig. 6. -Zorlu Enerji's wind farm in Jhimpir, Sindh [56].
358 S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361

Table 2
Timeframe of completion of three wind power projects in Pakistan [54]

Independent Location Capacity Obtained Letter Acquired genera- Obtained tar- Energy pur- Implementation Financial Commercial
Power Producer (MW) of Support (LOS) tion license from iff from chase agree- agreement close operation
from AEDB NEPRA NEPRA ment with
NTDC

Zorlu Enerji Paki- Jhimpir 56.4 December, 2010 May, 2011 December, April, 2011 February, 2011 June, 2011 December,
stan Ltd. 2011 2012
FFC Energy Ltd. Jhimpir 49.5 February, 2009 August,2010 August, 2010 January, 2012 April, 2012 May, 2012 July, 2013
Three Gorges First Jhimpir 49.5 December, 2011 October,2011 December, January, 2013 October, 2012 July, 2013 March, 2015
Wind Farm 2011
Pakistan Limited

Table 3
Timeline of foundation wind energy limited I and II nearing completion [54]

Independent Location Capacity Acquired genera- Obtained tar- Obtained LOS Energy purchase Implementation Financial Commercial
power producer (MW) tion license from iff from from AEDB agreement with agreement close operation
NEPRA NEPRA NTDC

Foundation Wind KuttiKun 50 December, 2011 March, 2012 May, 2012 December, 2012 December, 2012 July,2013
energy Limited-
I
Foundation Wind Kuttikun 50 December, 2011 March, 2012 May, 2012 December, 2012 December, 2012 April, 2013
Energy Limited-
II

amounting to 6 MW capacity. Later on, 28 Vestas turbines of most recent information available, the company has signed
1.8 MW capacity each were installed increasing the total capacity Implementation Agreement with AEDB in February, 2014 and
of the wind farm to 56.4 MW. NEPRA determined a tariff of executed the nancing documents for US $ 95 million nancing in
13.3456 US cents/kW h for this wind farm [54]. The project was March, 2014 [60,61].
concluded in March 2013 [55].
7.6. Yunus energy wind farm
7.3. Three gorges rst wind farm pakistan
Yunus Energy Limited is fully owned by the Yunus Brothers
The wind farm developed by a Chinese company is located in Group and was established in 2011. The site for its 50 MW wind
Jhimpir, Sindh. US $130 million was spent to develop this 49.5 MW farm project is located in Jhimpir, Sindh. The company obtained
wind power project recently inaugurated on 11th March, 2015. 33 the generation license in December 2011. In November 2013,
Goldwind's turbines GW771500 were used. Plans to increase the upfront tariff was approved by NEPRA as opted by the company.
plant capacity to 500 MW have also been reported [57]. NEPRA has On 26th March, 2014, the company signed energy purchase
determined a tariff of 13.9399 cents/kW h for this wind power agreement with the central power purchasing authority NTDC. In
project. The timeframe of these three IPPs is given in Table 2. Since December 2014, the company announced that it faces 210 million
it went into operation, the facility has generated around 93- rupees spike amid volatile exchange rate and an increase in other
million kW h [58]. variable costs [42]. The project has not yet achieved nancial close.

7.4. Foundation wind energy limited (FWEL) project I and II 7.7. Sachal energy development project

Two projects of 50 MW each are underway located at KuttiKun Sachal Energy Development Limited is a subsidiary of Arif
New Island, Sindh. The total site land area is 1210 acres for FWEL-I Habib Corporation Limited. It aims to build a 49.5 MW power plant
and 1656 acres for FWEL-II. The total investment required for in Jhimpir, Sindh by 2016. The company employed the Chinese
FWEL-I is around US $ 128 million for FWEL-II the investment is company Hydrochina Ltd. for engineering, procurement, con-
around US $ 127 million with debt equity ratio of 75%:25%. Tariff struction, operation and maintenance services in April, 2012. The
approved by NEPRA for FWEL-I is 14.1359 cents/kW h and for construction phase of the project is expected to begin in 2015. It is
FWEL-II is 14.1164 cents/kW h. The progress of these projects is expected that the wind farm will generate an annual energy of
shown in Table 3. 136,500 MW h and offset greenhouse gas emissions by 85,000 t
annually during operation. Industrial and Commercial Bank of
7.5. Sapphire wind power project China will provide US $ 107 million for the construction of this
wind farm. Under Pak-China Economic Corridor projects, it is the
This wind power project of 50 MW over an area of 1372 acres is rst wind power project to achieve this breakthrough [62]. The
underway at Jhimpir, Sindh. General Electric's 33 latest wind tur- company signed the power purchase agreement on 27th February,
bines are being installed. The project is being sponsored by Sap- 2014.The land allocated for this project is 680 acres [63].
phire Textile Mills Limited and Bank Alfalah Ltd. The Overseas
Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) is also extending nancial 7.8. Metro power project
assistance. Hydro China Corporation is the main contractor for this
project [59]. OPIC and Sapphire Wind Power Limited signed the A 50 MW wind power project of Metro Power Company Lim-
agreement to set up this wind farm in September 2013. The ited is located between Hyderabad and Karachi, Sindh. The project
company has opted for upfront tariff regime. According to the achieved nancial close in February, 2015 and is expected to start
S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361 359

operation in August 2016 [64]. NEPRA announced a tariff of obtained the power generation license for operating the wind
14.4236 cents/kW h for this project in May, 2012 [60]. The land power plant with 33 turbines of 1.5 MW Goldwind wind turbines
allocated for this wind farm is 1553 acres [63].The company exe- but later in November 2014, the company stated that wind tur-
cuted the nancing documents for $ 98.6 million nancing of this bines of Guangdong Mingyang Wind Power Group Co. Ltd. are
wind power project in April, 2014 [61]. more suited to the site conditions. The anticipated date of project
commissioning is June 30, 2016. The company has opted for
7.9. Gul Ahmed wind power project upfront tariff regime. This wind power plant is expected to gen-
erate 130 million kW h of electricity per year, meeting the need of
Gul Ahmed Wind Power Limited (GAWPL) is a 55% owned
about 100,000 families in the local area [58].
subsidiary of Gul Ahmed Energy Limited. Besides Gul Ahmed
Energy Limited, GAWPL is also owned by Infraco Asia. Interna-
tional Finance Corporation is also a minority shareholder in the 7.14. Tapal wind energy project
wind project. The company obtained its generation license in
December. 2011. The proposed wind farm site is located in Jhimpir. Three leading business houses Akhtar Group, Tapal Group
The project is located beside its group company's wind project, and Ismail Group are setting up a 30 MW wind power project over
Metro power Company Ltd. The plan is to install 20  2.5 MW a land area of 200 acres in Jhimpir [67]. The company acquired
Nordex turbines for its 50 MW wind power plant [65]. The area of generation license in November, 2013 for its wind farm. The
the project site is 645 acres [63]. The company has opted for company also obtained the approval for upfront tariff in Novem-
upfront tariff of 13.5244 cents/kW h [60]. The company signed ber, 2013 from NEPRA. It has signed the energy purchase agree-
energy purchase agreement with National Transmission and Des- ment with National Transmission and Despatch Company Limited
patch Company Limited on March 20, 2015. The company is on March 20, 2015. The company is expected to achieve nancial
expected to achieve nancial closure in 2015 and start its opera-
closure in 2015 and start its operation in 2016 [66].
tion in 2016 [66].

7.10. Tenaga Generasi project 7.15. Other projects

Tenaga Generasi is a subsidiary of Dawood Lawrencepur Lim- Some other projects have started and are at various stages of
ited. The company is installing a 50 MW wind power plant at development. UEP Wind Power Pakistan Private Ltd. has obtained
Gharo, Sindh at an estimated cost of US $ 130 million. The project Letter of Support from AEDB for a 100 MW wind power plant in
site covers an area of 4881 acres. The project is expected to gen- Jhimpir and also acquired generation license from NEPRA in
erate an annual average of 156 GW h of electricity at 36% capacity November, 2013. It holds a Letter of Intent from AEDB for 350 MW
factor. The company acquired LOS from AEDB in September 2010 wind farm which indicates tentative plan of expansion in future.
and has opted for upfront tariff. Hawa Holding Limted acquired generation license in January, 2013
for its 50 MW wind farm in Jhimpir. The company has opted for
7.11. Master wind energy project upfront tariff. Finerji Private Ltd. acquired generation license in
August, 2013 for its 50 MW wind farm in Jhimpir. Dewan Energy
Master Wind Energy Limited is a subsidiary of Master Group.
Ltd. has been allocated land in Jhimpir for a 50 MW wind farm and
The company secured a letter of intent from AEDB for a 49.5 MW
has opted for upfront tariff. Titan Energy Pakistan Private Limited
wind power plant in Jhimpir. The company has acquired genera-
has opted for upfront tariff for its proposed 10 MW wind power
tion license and tariff from NEPRA under upfront tariff regime. The
estimated cost of this project is US $ 125 million. The project is project in Jhimpir. Pakistan Wind Energy Generation Company
spread over 1408 acres area. The company acquired LOS on August Limited is building a 5 MW wind power project. Hartford Alternate
08, 2012. It signed the energy purchase agreement with National Energy's 50 MW wind farm, China Sunec Energy Private Limited's
Transmission and Despatch Company Limited on March 20, 2015. 50 MW wind power project, Tricon Boston Corporation's three
The implementation agreement (IA) to be signed with AEDB has wind power plants of 50 MW each, Trident Energy Private Limit-
been nalized.The company is expected to achieve nancial clo- ed's 50 MW wind farm and Wind Eagle Ltd.'s two projects of
sure in 2015 and start its operation in September 2016 [66]. 50 MW over an area of 1382 acres each have been allocated lands
to develop wind power projects in Jhimpir. Apart from these two
7.12. Zephyr power project projects by Abbas Steel Group, Zaver Petroleum Corporation Lim-
ited of 50 MW each have been issued Letter of Intent by AEDB. Burj
Zephyr Power Limited is sister company of Omega Limited Wind Energy Limited and Western Energy have also initiated the
which has been a forerunner in Pakistan's wind data analysis. The process of developing wind power projects of 14 MW and 15 MW
company obtained Letter of Support from AEDB in January, 2013 to respectively [60]. Land has been allocated to NBT Wind Power
develop wind farm in Bhambore, Sindh.The Company opted for Limited of 1209 acres for its 500 MW proposed wind power plant.
cost plus regime which was approved by NEPRA at a tariff of Fina Energy Limited has been allotted 424 acres for its 50 MW
15.9135 US cents/kW h in May, 2012. 33 Sinovel wind turbines of project. Ismail Power Limited has been allotted 69 acres and
1.5 MW (SL 82 1.5 MW) are to be installed for a total capacity of
Akhtar and Sons Group has been allotted 62 acres for their 10 MW
49.5 MW of wind farm. The company estimates the total project
projects. Iran Pak Wind Power Limited have been issued
cost of US $ 139.591 million and a net deliverable energy pro-
1250 acres of land for its 50 MW wind power plant. Some com-
duction of 141.763 GW h/year with a net capacity factor of 32.7%.
panies are awaiting land allotment such as Sindh Renewable
7.13. Hydrochina Dawood power project Energy Company and Hydro China XIBEI Engineering Corporation
require 1000 acres of land each for their 100 MW wind power
The company obtained Letter of Support from AEDB in June, plants. Two other companies Koonj's project of 30 MW and Tawa's
2010 for developing a wind farm near Port Qasim, Bhambore project of 20 MW require 150 acres and 100 acres of land for their
Sindh. In June 2013, Hydrochina Dawood Power (Pvt) Limited wind power project.
360 S. Siddique, R. Wazir / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 351361

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