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HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER ANALYSIS

OF A GARI FRYING MACHINE

BY

NWANKPA, GODWIN UCHENNA


PG/MENG/05/40264

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.

JUNE, 2010
i

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF A GARI

FRYING MACHINE

BY

NWANKPA, GODWIN UCHENNA


PG/MENG/05/40264

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF POST


GRADUATE STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
NSUKKA. IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF
ENGINEERING DEGREE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

JUNE, 2010
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CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this project report entitled, HEAT AND MASS
TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF A GARI FRYING MACHINE is a research
work carried out by Mr. Nwankpa Godwin Uchenna, a postgraduate student
in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria
Nsukka.

-------------------------------- ---------------------------
STUDENT Prof. S.O. Enibe
Nwankpa Godwin Uchenna SUPERVISOR

--------------------------------- ------------------------------
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT EXTERNAL EXAMINER
Engr. Prof. S.O. Onyegegbu
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DEDICATION

With love to my late mother Mrs. Veronica. A. Nwankpa


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to recognize the support of the following people:

Prof. S.O. Enibe,

For his advice, guidance and patience throughout the duration of the project.

Engr. B. Iteke,

For his assistance in getting the gari frying machine ready and also in seeing

that all the measuring instruments were made ready for the experiment

Awhum Monastery,

For the opportunity given to me by allowing me to use the gari frying

machine in their monastery and also provision of necessary assistance during

the experimentation.

Special thanks to,

Dad (Mr. N.O. Nwankpa), brothers, sisters, friends, typist and youths of

Ibagwa Road for their continued support, encouragement and motivation

during the entirety of this project. Also to anyone I forgot to mention.


v

ABSTRACT

An experimental and theoretical study of the heat and mass transfer process
in the gari frying chamber of an existing gari frying machine was
undertaken. Cassava tubers were peeled, grated, fermented and dewatered to
make the dough ready for frying. During frying, the temperature readings of
the trough, walls, atmosphere, flue gas, flame from the burner and gari were
taken at different positions and time interval. Also theoretical analysis was
carried out in which the numerical solution was obtained by MATLAB
BVP4C code. The experimental results obtained were compared with the
theoretical results. The experimental results showed three noticeable stages
along the trough. The first was the cooking stage where the temperature rose
and came down sharply as a result of temperature distribution of the flame of
the burner. The second was the mass transfer stage where the temperature on
the trough remained constant. And finally the third stage where drying took
place and the temperature rose a little before dropping. For a frying rate of
54kg/hr and fuel consumption of 5 litres per hour, it was found that the
useful efficiency was about 24% while the overall efficiency of the machine
was 85%.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ----------------------------------------- I

CERTIFICATION ----------------------------------------- II
DEDICATION ----------------------------------------- III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT --------------------------------------- IV
ABSTRACT ----------------------------------------- V
TABLE OF CONTENTS ---------------------------------------- VI
LIST OF FIGURES ---------------------------------------- VIII
LIST OF TABLES ---------------------------------------- XI
INTERPRETATION OF SYMBOLS ------------------------- XII
CHAPTER ONE: LITERATURE REVIEW --------------- 1
1.1 Introduction ------------------------------ 1
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review ------------------------------ 6
2.2 Mechanized Methods ------------------------------- 12
2.3 Discussion and Conclusion ------------------------ 18
2.4 Objectives -------------------------------------- 21
CHAPTER THREE: EXPERIMENTATION ---------------- 22
3.1 Preparation of Dough ------------------------- 22
3.2 Materials ---------------------------------------- 24
3.2.1 Cassava ---------------------------------------- 24
3.2.2 Fuel ---------------------------------------- 26
3.2.3 Diesel Burner -------------------------------- 27
3.2.4 Trough ---------------------------------------- 28
3.2.5 Combustion Chamber ------------------------ 28
3.2.6 Chimney --------------------------------------- 28
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3.2.7 Grinding Machine ------------------------------ 29


3.2.8 Jack Compression Machine ------------------------------- 30
3.2.9 Metal Sieve ------------------------------------------- 31
3.2.10 Paddles ------------------------------------------- 32
3.2.11 Electric Motor ------------------------------------------- 33
3.2.12 Switch Board ------------------------------------------- 34
3.2.13 Measuring Tape and Calipers --------------------------- 35
3.2.14 Temperature Measuring Device ------------------------ 35
3.2.15 Weighing Balance ----------------------------------- 35
3.3 Experimental Data ----------------------------------- 38
3.4 Experimental Results ----------------------------------- 39
CHAPTER FOUR: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS -------------- 44
4.1 Derivation of Governing Equations ------------------ 44
4.1.1 Energy Balance of the System ------------------ 47
4.1.2 Derivation of Governing Equations ----------------- 50
4.2 Numerical Solution ---------------------------------------- 58
4.3 Theoretical Results ---------------------------------------- 62
CHAPTER FIVE: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS --------- 65
5.1 Calculated Result --------------------------------------- 65
5.1.1 Calculation of Adiabatic Temperature -------- 65
5.1.2 Calculation of Heat Transfer Coefficient -------- 71
5.1.3 Calculation of Efficiency of the Machine -------- 88
5.2 Result and Discussion ------------------------------- 95
5.3 Conclusion ---------------------------------------------- 102
REFERENCES ------------------------------------------------------ 104
Appendix A Matlab Program Used in Obtaining the Theoretical Result 108
Appendix B Calculation of Adiabatic Temperature ---------------------- 109
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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1.1 GROWING CASSAVA 2


FIGURE 1.2 HARVESTED CASSAVA TUBERS 3
FIGURE 1.3 FLOW SHEETS OF GARI PRODUCTION STARTING WITH
RAW CASSAVA ROOT 4
FIGURE 2.1 UNIBADAN MODEL 7
FIGURE 2.2 IITA GARI FRYERS 8
FIGURE 2.3 UNN Mechanized Fryer 16
FIGURE 2.4 UNN Mechanized Manual Gari Frying Machine 16
FIGURE 2.5 UNIBADAN MECHANIZED FRYER 17
FIGURE 3.1 PHOTOGRAPH OF WOMEN PEELING CASSAVA TUBERS 22
FIGURE 3.2 PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING STACKS OF GARI SACKS BEING
DEWATERED IN BEACH JUNCTION GARI PROCESSING
VILLAGE (NSUKKA) 23
FIGURE 3.3 PHOTOGRAPH OF A DIESEL BURNER AT AWHUM
MONASTERY 27
FIGURE 3.4 CASSAVA GRINDING MACHINE IN BEACH JUNCTION

GARI PROCESSING VILLAGE (NSUKKA) 29

FIGURE 3.5 PHOTOGRAPH OF JACK COMPRESSION MACHINE 30

FIGURE 3.6 PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SIEVE AT AWHUM MONASTERY 31


FIGURE 3.7 PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING THE PADDLES DURING
EXPERIMENTATION 32
FIGURE 3.8 PHOTOGRAPH OF ELECTRIC MOTOR OF THE MACHINE AT
MONASTERY 33
FIGURE 3.9 PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN DURING THE CONNECTION OF THE
ELECTRIC MOTOR AND THE BURNER SWITCHES OF THE
MACHINE 34
FIGURE 3.10 PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN DURING PREPARATION OF THE
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EXPERIMENT 36
FIGURE 3.11 PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN DURING FRYING OF GARI 37
FIGURE 3.12 COMBINED GRAPH OF EXPERIMENTAL FLUE GAS AND
PLATE TEMPERATURES. 41
FIGURE 3.13 THE GRAPH OF EXPERIMENTAL FLUE GAS AGAINST
MACHINE LENGTH. 42
FIGURE 3. 14 THE GRAPH OF EXPERIMENTAL PLATE TEMPERATURE
AGAINST MACHINE LENGTH. 43
FIGURE 4.1 DRAWING 1 OF THE GARI FRYING MACHINE SHOWING
THE PARTS OF THE MACHINE. 44
FIGURE 4.2 DRAWING 2 OF THE GARI FRYING MACHINE WITH BASIC
DIMENSION. 45
FIGURE 4.3 THE DRAWING OF THE FRYING TROUGH 45
FIGURE 4.4 DRAWING OF THE TROUGH SHOWING THE DOUGH INSIDE
AND THE FLUE GAS BELOW THE TROUGH 46
FIGURE 4.5 CROSS-SECTION OF THE GARI FRYING MACHINE 46
FIGURE 4.6 ENERGY BALANCE OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER AND
FRYING TROUGH. 47
FIGURE 4.7 ENERGY BALANCE OF THE FRYING TROUGH 48
FIGURE 4.8 ENERGY BALANCE OF THE FRYING TROUGH 48
FIGURE 4.9 HEAT FLUXES ON A DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT OF THE FLUE
GAS 51
FIGURE 4.10 ENERGY BALANCE OF A DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT OF THE
FRYING TROUGH. 53
FIGURE 4.11 MASS BALANCE FOR THE GRANULES 56
FIGURE 4.12 ENERGY BALANCE ON DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT OF THE
DOUGH GRANULES. 57
FIGURE 5.1 GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF THE THEORETICAL ANALYSIS 95
FIGURE 5.2 GRAPH OF THEORETICAL FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE
AGAINST MACHINE LENGTH. 96
x

FIGURE 5.3 GRAPH OF THEORETICAL PLATE TEMPERATURE AGAINST


MACHINE LENGTH. 97
FIGURE 5.4 GRAPH OF THEORETICAL DOUGH TEMPERATURE AGAINST
MACHINE LENGTH. 98
FIGURE 5.5 GRAPH OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL PLATE
TEMPERATURES AGAINST MACHINE LENGTH. 99
FIGURE 5.6 GRAPH OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL FLUE GAS
TEMPERATURES AGAINST MACHINE LENGTH. 100
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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE READINGS


ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE TROUGH IN 20 MINUTES
INTERVAL. 39
TABLE 2.2 EXPERIMENTAL PLATE TEMPERATURE READINGS ALONG
THE LENGTH OF THE TROUGH IN 20 MINUTES INTERVAL .40
TABLE 3.1 THEORETICAL FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE READINGS ALONG
THE LENGTH OF THE TROUGH. 64
TABLE 3.2 PLATE TEMPERATURE READINGS ALONG THE LENGTH OF
THE TROUGH . 64
TABLE 3.3 DOUGH TEMPERATURE READINGS ALONG THE LENGTH OF

THE TROUGH. 64
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NOTATIONS

A = Constant in modified Oswin equation


afg = Flue gas specific heat constant (dimensionless)
B = Constant in modified Oswin equation
bfg = Specific heat constant (dimensionless)
bp = btr = Breadth of the plate (m)
btr = Breadth of the trough (plate) (m)
C = Carbon
C02 = Carbon dioxide
Cpdough = Specific heat capacity of dough (J/kgk)
Cpdiesel = Specific heat capacity of diesel (J/kgk)
Cpfg = Specific heat capacity of flue gas (J/kgk)
Cpgari = Specific heat capacity of gari (J/kgk)
CpN2 = Specific heat capacity of Nitrogen (J/kgk)
CpO2 = Specific heat capacity of oxygen (J/kgk)
CpsO2 = Specific heat capacity of sulphur di-oxide (J/kgk)
D = Characteristic length(m)
de = Characteristic length.(m)
G = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
Gr = Grashot number (Dimensionless)
H = Hydrogen
H2O = Water
Hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (J/kg)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation at prevailing pressure (J/kg)
Hp = Enthalpy of products (J)
HR = Enthalpy of reactants (J)
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htr = Heat transfer coefficient from flue gas to trough. (W/m2K)


Kp = Thermal conductivity of the plate Units (W/m.K)
Mgari = Mass of gari (kg)
Mm = Mass moisture (kg)
Mdiesel = Mass of diesel (kg)
Mdough = Md Mass of dough (kg)
Mfg = Mass of the flue gas (kg)
MN2 = Mass of Nitrogen (kg)
Mo2 = Mass of oxygen (kg)
MsO2 = Mass of sulphur di-oxide (kg)
Mvap = Mass of moisture removed from dough (kg)
N = Constant in modified Oswin equation
N2 = Nitrogen
Nu = Nusselt number (Dimensionless)
O2 = Oxygen
Pr = Prandtl number (Dimensionless)
Qair = Heat energy of air (J)
Qdough = Heat energy of dough (J)
Qdrying = Heat energy used for drying (J)
Qflame = Heat energy of flame (J)
Qflue gas = Heat from flue gas (J)
Qfp = Heat energy from flue gas to plate (J)
Qfuel = Heat energy of fuel (J)
Qgari = Heat energy absorbed by gari (J)
Qp = Qflue = Heat energy from the plate (J)
Qp-d = Heat energy from plate to dough (J)
Re = Reynolds number (Dimensionless)
xiv

Rh = Relative humidity
SO2 = Sulphur dioxide
Tad = Adiabatic temperature (oC)
Tboil = Boiling temperature of the moist in the dough (K)
Td = Dough temperature (oC)
Tf = Flue gas temperature oC
Tfg = Temperature of the flue gas (oC)
Tfg = Temperature of the flue gas (K)
Tgari = Temperature of gari (K)
Tp = Plate temperature (oC)
tp = Thickness of the plate (m)
Ttr = Temperature of trough (plate) (oC)
Uda = Heat transfer coefficient between the dough and air (W/m2K)
Ufp = Heat transfer coefficient between the flue gas and the plate (W/m2K)
Upd = Heat transfer coefficient between the plate and the dough (W/m2K)
V = Velocity (m/s)
Ya = Solution at y = O
Yb = Solution at y = 1
x = Increment in x-axis (m)
y = Increment in y-axis
1

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important

energy sources in the human diet in the tropics. The estimated annual

production ranges from 34 42 million tonnes (RMRDC, 2004), with

Nigeria accounting for over 70% of the output from West Africa. It is

estimated that 172 million tonnes of cassava was produced worldwide in

2000. Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean accounted for 54,

28 and 19 per cent of the total world production respectively. The average

yield in 2000 was 10.2 tonnes per hectare, but this varied from 1.8 tonnes

per hectare in Sudan, to 10.6 tonnes per hectare in Nigeria, and 27.3 tonnes

per hectare in Barbados. In 2002 Nigeria produced 34 million tonnes,

making it the world's largest producer. Figure 1.1 shows young cassava

plants in a farm, while figure 1.2 shows freshly harvested cassava tubers.

Fresh cassava has a very short post-harvest storage life, and it must be

used or processed into durable forms soon after harvest (Ayernor, 1981)

Cassava is used extensively for human and livestock consumption as

well as for other industrial products. In Nigeria cassava can be processed

into gari, fufu, topioca (sliced chips), flour, starch etc.


2

Among all the above mentioned products of cassava, gari is the most

common and forms the main meal of the day for majority of people in West

Africa. Gari production is the most improved technology in cassava

processing. It is a pre-gelatinized grit with particle size ranging from below

10m (fines) to over 2000m (coarse) (Ayernor, 1981, F.I.I.R.O) Gari

processing involves such operation as peeling and washing, grating,

fermenting, Dewatering, pulverization, sieving and frying as illustrating in

fig 1.3

Fig.1.1 Growing Cassava


3

Fig.1.2 Harvested Cassava Tubers


4

Cassava for processing


PEELING

WASHING

GRATING

FERMENTING

DEWATERING

SIEVING

FRYING

GARI

Figure 1.3 Flow Sheet of Gari Production Starting with Raw Cassava Root.

One major bottleneck in gari processing has been gari frying. Gari

frying involves pressing, scraping and stirring of sifted cassava mash over a

hot plate at 120 to 200oC in a repetitive manner. Heat transfer from the hot
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plate results in the toasting of the gari particles, while starch pressed out

from the granules coats the gari particles and is partially gelatinized to form

a tin enveloping film. Odigboh (1982) has termed this process garification

to emphasize the fact that gari frying involves more than mere high

temperature drying.

The need to upgrade the indigenous food processing techniques calls

for the understanding of the fundamental scientific and technological

principles involved (Ayernor, 1981, Sefa-Dedeh, 1989). This would be

useful in fostering technology improvement. Most of the unit operations in

gari production have been mechanized, but to some varying degrees.

Attention has been only focused on machine design, fabrication and testing

with very little efforts devoted to mathematical modeling and simulation. A

better understanding of the machine can be gained by subjecting the

machine/processes to detailed mathematical analysis and system

optimization. By doing this, many design details and performance

parameters can be verified for a large number of operating conditions at a

very low cost even before a physical system is built.


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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

Igbeka [1988] worked on the University of Ibadan (UI) improved gari

fryer. It is made of a fireplace oven with a chimney and a frying pan. The

frying pan which is 200cm x 60cm x 10cm is designed to have a trapezoidal

shape with its sides inclined at 60o to the horizontal. The inclination of the

sides allows for gradual gravitation flow of gari down the sides of the fryer.

It is made from a 4 inches thick black steel sheet, which is not easily

corroded and does not turn black after heating. The frying pan has an

opening or chute on one side for discharging the finished product into a

receiving pan. The frying pan sits on a rectangular fireplace built of clay

which is 60cm high and has an opening on one side of the breath or width

from where fire wood is fed into the oven, while the other width carries the

chimney. There are two small ventilation openings on one side of the length.

The wall thickness of the fireplace is 22.5cm and the effective volume of the

heating chamber of the fireplace is 0.73m3. It can use up to 20kg of wood as

source of heat. The structure is housed under a shed made of corrugated iron

sheets.
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Figure: 2.1 Sketch of Gari Frying Machine developed at the university of


Ibadan (UI)
Source: Igbeka (1988)

The fryer is operated by two people sitting on both ends of the fireplace

without ventilation. Details of the construction can be obtained in Egba

(1987). Fields tests amongst gari producers showed that the improved

models had the following advantages over the village fryer:

a) The nuisance of smoke was totally eliminated.

b) Sweating by the operator was drastically reduced as a result of the

improved fireplace.
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c) The capacity and rate of frying were increased. (e.g. 5kg dewatered

and sieved mash took 20 min to fry as opposed to 1hour).

d) Improved working environment.

The IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan,

Nigeria) model is a one-man operated gari fryer with an elevated fireplace

oven. This is illustrated in figure 2.2. The frying pan is circular, made of cast

iron and is smaller than the normal traditional pan in diameter but has more

depth. The pan sits on a circular oven which has a chimney and can use

either dense rice husk or wood shavings as fuel.

Figure: 2.2 IITA Gari Fryer


9

A modified version (Igbeka et al., 1992) of the IITA model eliminates

smoke and heat hazards from the operator. As a result of the elevated

fireplace, the sitting position and comfort of the operator are enhanced. The

capacity of the fryer is much higher than the usual traditional fryer.

The RAIDS (Rural Agro-Industrial Development Scheme) developed

by the Nigerian Federal Department of Agriculture and Rural Development

is an improved fryer package for the rural processors of gari. It is similar to

the UI model and is rectangular in shape. The frying pan is made from cast

iron which sits on an elevated oven fireplace with a chimney. It has outlet

gates or spouts for discharging the finished products from the pan and is

operated by two persons.

The RAIDS model has been found to increase output per unit time and

eliminate smoke and heat discomfort to the operators. The model produces

good quality of gari

Nwabanne [2009] studied drying characteristics and engineering

properties of fermented ground cassava.

The effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of

fermented ground cassava was studied in order to generate data for

design and optimum performance of various dryers used in cassava

processing. His research was designed to provide data on the engineering


10

properties such as moisture content, specific heat capacity, thermal

conductivity, thermal diffusivity and bulk density. One native cultivar

and two high yield improved cultivars (TMS 30572 and NR 8082) were

used for the study. The specific heat capacity obtained ranged from 1.40

to 1.45 KJ/Kg K and for bone dry fermented ground cassava. The

average thermal conductivity obtained was 0.24 W/MK. The bulk

density, specific heat capacity, and thermal conductivity increased with

increase in moisture content while thermal diffusivity decreased as

moisture content increased.

Sanni et al [2007] worked on safety aspects of processing cassava to gari in

Nigeria

Cassava roots are perishable and contain potentially toxic cyanogenic

glucosides. Therefore, they need to be processed. Gari is a favorite cassava

food in Nigeria which is produced mainly by female small-scale processors.

They buy the fresh roots and hire the grater, presser and fryers necessary for

the semi-mechanized procedure. The need for a rapid turnover of capital can

result in short-cuts in processing. These short-cuts have been associated with

high residual amounts of cyanogens in gari and hence, with dietary cyanide

exposure. The processors are liable to eat a lot of cassava products, and they

may also be exposed to hydrogen cyanide by inhalation during processing.


11

Cyanide exposure was assessed by determining urinary levels of the main

metabolite, thiocyanate, in a representative group of gari processors in

Ibadan. The mean urinary thiocyanate level SEM was 10112 M in 40

adult processors and 26335 M in 10 children producing gari; in eight adult

controls from the same social group the level was 506 M. These

differences can be partly explained by the different amounts of insufficiently

processed cassava consumed, but the high levels seen in the children, who

also had the longest working hours, suggests that inhalation exposure may

contribute. The study recommended that if gari processing is to be promoted

as an effective way of removing cyanogens from cassava roots, measures to

avoid short-cuts in the process and occupational inhalation exposure among

processors should be developed and promoted as well.

Aiyelari et al [1995] studied ergonomic evaluation of fuel power

requirements in gari frying. In their work a two-year study (1994 and 1995)

was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, to evaluate the fuel power requirements in

gari (a product of cassava) frying. In 1994, three fuel sources (wood, a

mixture of wood and palm kernel shell (wood + PKS) and charcoal) were

used, while for the 1995 study, two additional fuel sources (kerosene and

gas) were included. Questionnaire surveys and physical measurements were

employed for data collection. These comprised the environmental


12

temperatures, anthropometric data, biodata, metabolic and production

measurements. The study revealed that wood + PKS required more human

energy (7.73 and 5.77 KJ/minute in 1994 and 1995, respectively) while

wood (3.08 KJ/minute) and kerosene (1.66 KJ/minute) required the least.

Charcoal (N7.70) and gas (N15.51) fuel were the most costly in producing a

unit weight of gari in 1994 and 1995, respectively, while wood + PKS gave

the least cost (N0.87 and N1.26) in both years. Wood and gas fuel sources

produced the highest frying rate (8.69 and 8.66 kg/h) in 1994 and 1995,

respectively, while charcoal and kerosene indicated the least (6.34 and 0.95

kg/h, respectively). Analyses of metabolic data showed increases (but not to

a lethal level) in the subjects' body temperatures, heart rate and blood

pressure after frying. The studies suggest that gari frying is a light grade of

work and that fuel wood seems most appropriate in terms of cost

effectiveness.

2.2 MECHANIZED METHODS

There are few mechanized gari processing plants in the Nigerian

market which have been found to be performing well as regards the quality

of gari. As a result, some new designs and improvements have been made by

Nigerian engineers and manufacturers to solve the problems associated with

the models already in the market.


13

The first equipment for mechanical gari production was designed

jointly by the Newell Dunford Company in London and the Federal Institute

of Industrial Research (FIIRO), Oshodi in Nigeria. It is a gari producing

plant of which the fryer is just one of the components.

In the Newell Dunford model, the frying section gets heat from a gas

fire which is controlled and regulated by thermostats at various points in the

process. The fryer structure is a circular stainless steel, heated from outside

with the fryers curve linearly lined internally. The fryer containing the

sieved dewatered cassava mash is rotated in such a manner that the mash

granules agitate against the sides of the fryer and move along the paths of

the line curves. The result of this type of heat treatment is roasting. The

product obtained with this model was not very much acceptable to the

consumers because it did not have the basic characteristics of gari.

The Brazilian model fryer consists of a semi-circular steel plate and

operates on a hatch process drying. Atop the plate is a large ring gear

mashed to an inner annulus which is connected to a vertical shaft with large

steel paddles. A specific batch of sieved cassava mash is dropped into the

circular plate and the eccentric paddles shift the mass circularly to produce a

dry product. An automatic gate is opened at the side of the plate and the

dried product falls into a funnel by gravity.


14

The model, designed and manufactured in Brazil, seems to be better

than the Newell Dunford model and the product obtained from it is similar to

gari in Nigeria, even though it is not exactly the same. In this model, frying

was not evenly spread within a given batch and the product looked more like

dried cassava mash than cooked and fried gari.

Fabrico model is a simple continuous process plant and consists of a

semi-circular steel plate with rotating paddles. The paddles are eccentrically

located in such a manner that their motion compels the gari granules to move

from one end of the plate to the other. Drying occurs during this period. Heat

is supplied by either wood or gas-burners.

This model which was designed and manufactured by a company,

FABRICO, in Nigeria, produces an end-product that is closer to gari. The

product was not cooked but looked more like roasted gari. This model has

been improved upon by the University of Nigeria Nsukka, and the

University of Ibadan.

Iteke (2005) worked on Simulating wood fires in diesel fired gari

troughs. In his work he tried to convert wood fires heating chamber to

diesel burners.
15

Odigboh, and Ahmed (1985), faithfully simulated the village manual

frying operations. The equipment has a semi-circular 1.7 m long frying

trough of 57cm diameter mounted at an inclination variable from 0 to 20o to

the horizontal. Sixteen spring-loaded paddles are attached to a 1.75m long

shaft also mounted axially in such a way as to locate the paddles inside and

in permanent contact with the trough as shown in Figures 1.6 and 1.7. The

paddles overlap and are angled relative to the axis of the trough to act as a

sort of conveyor. They are driven by an electric motor through several speed

reducers and linkage arrangements. As the gang of paddles oscillate through

180o at 40 reversals per minute, sieved cassava mash is automatically

metered into the trough, once in a cycle of the to and fro motion. Swinging

to one direction, the paddles press the mash against the hot surface of the

trough while in the opposite direction, they scrape, stir and move it slightly

forward to the exit end of the trough.

By appropriate adjustments of the trough inclination, the quantity of

mash metered and the heating rate, the fryer operates automatically to

produce a continuous flow of well fried gari at 15% moisture content. An

average through-put of 66kg of gari per hour has been reported for this

equipment. Through-put of the manually operated version (Figure 2.1) is 20

to 45kg of gari per hour.


16

Figure 2.3 UNN Mechanized Fryer

Figure 2.4 UNN Mechanized Manual Gari Frying machine

Source: Odigbo and Ahmed (1985)


17

Igbeka and Akinbolade model (1986) is a continuous flow fryer which

is an improvement and modification of the UNN model, hence a modified

version of the Fabrico model.

The basic differences are in the feeding device, the heat source and

the arrangement of the paddles. The UI model is made up of a fryer plate,

feeding hopper, power transmission devices, shaft with paddles, pulverizers

and an oven on which the fryer sits . This model is still in its prototype stage

and has not been commercialized.

Figure 2.5 UI Mechanized Fryer


Source :Igbeka and Akinbolade (1986)

The fryer plate, like in the UNN model, is a semi-circular trough open

at the top and both ends. It is inclined at an angle of between 5 and 18o with
18

a length of 2.44m and diameter 0.67m. The hopper contains a metering

device which is one of the basic innovations in the design. The metering

device is connected to the central shaft through a belt and pulley system and

the rate of metering is very crucial to the quality of the final product.

Another innovation in this model is in the paddles. Instead of just paddles, as

in the UNN model, the central shaft has 28 paddles and pulverizers arranged

in such a way that they have a conveyor effect at the same time as they press

scoop and agitate (figure 2.3). The pulverizers press the sieved cassava mash

against the hot pan surface while the paddles scoop and agitate it. The oven

is built with red oven-dry bricks and has air vents at specific points and uses

wood or coal as fuel. The vent openings can be reduced or increased

according to the heat requirements. Power supply to the fryer could be either

a petrol engine or fire wood.

Field tests using this model showed that the final product was

acceptable to the public. At 15rmp, the capacity was 80kg/hr of finished

product.

2.3 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Gari frying is an arduous and intricate operation which is not a

straightforward frying operation but one which requires a good

understanding of the factors that affect the quality of the final product.
19

The best quality gari is obtained by the village technique but it is time

consuming, uncomfortable and lends itself to health hazard for the operator.

Developments in the processes and equipment have been more on the

accurate simulation of the village technique. Therefore, in developing any

mechanized gari fryer the following features have to be considered as basic

requirements:

1. A continuous process operation leading to mass production of

moderate capacity.

2. A regulated temperature mechanism which ensures simultaneous

cooking and dehydration, without roasting, to desired moisture

content after a specific period.

3. A mechanism that provides both stirring and lump breaking actions so

that uniform cooking and dehydration in the entire mass is ensured

and the desired texture produced.

4. An arrangement of paddles so as to produce a conveyor effect which

will give the product a forward movement during the process.

Mechanized fryers are not within the reach of the rural farmers who are

the main producers of gari in all the gari-producing countries including

Nigeria. Commercialized models are for large-scale producers while the


20

developed prototypes by the universities which could have been within the

reach of the small-scale farmers are not yet in the market.

Efforts should be made to mechanize the garification operation for large-

scale processing without losing sight of improving the village method. The

improvements in garificaiton should be in the areas of ergonomics (sitting

position, comfortable work environments and health hazards). Igbeka (1993)

recently carried out studies on the ergonomics of Nigerian women in gari

frying. The factors investigated were the comfort, fatigue and arm-reach of

the operators as they affected the efficiency of operating three types of

traditional gari fryers. It was found that the sitting posture and excessive heat

were the two main factors that affected the arm-reach and comfort of the

operator, respectively. Improved designs that reduced heat and changed the

sitting posture were found to increase efficiency.

In conclusion, although most of the equipment reviewed in this chapter

performed relatively well, the best results were obtained from the improved

village techniques. The adoption and adaptation of any of these techniques

(improved traditional or mechanized) will depend on the socio-economic

status of the users. The improved village technique is recommended for the

rural small-and medium-scale gari processors.


21

2.4 OBJECTIVES

The literature survey carried out revealed that gari frying is an

arduous and intricate operation which is not a straightforward frying

operation but one which requires understanding of the factors that affect the

quality of the final product. Consequently the objectives of this work are:

(1) To undertake a detailed analysis of the heat and mass transfer

processes in the gari frying chamber of a gari processing machine.

(2) To employ a computer program to solve the resulting algebraic

equations that will produce the temperature distribution of the frying

trough.
22

CHAPTER THREE: EXPERIMENTATION

3.1 PREPARATION OF DOUGH

Fig 2.1 Photograph of Women Peeling Cassava Tubers

Cassava tubers are harvested, peeled, removing the covering, washed

and the pulp is grated in a gari grinding machine. The grated produce is then

put into a jute sack and the sack tied. This is dewatered and left to ferment

for three to seven days depending on the type of gari being produced. This
23

step is very important, as the fermentation process helps to reduce and

detoxify the high cyanide content of cassava.

Fig 3.2 Photograph Showing Stacks of Gari Sacks being Dewatered in Beach Junction Gari
processing village

While inside the sack, sacks are stacked up on each and a wooden

board placed below and above the sacks as shown in figure 3.2. The wooden

boards are tied together with the sacks full of the grated cassava in between.
24

Tension is created by tightening the rope and thus allowing water to run out

of the grated cassava being processed.

Usually, by day three, the grated cassava would have lost quite some

water and become reasonably dried. This step is also being by-passed with

the use of machines that compress and squeeze water out of the grated

cassava.

Thus fermented, and dried grated cassava is now sieved to remove

large particles and fibres and the smaller grain-like bits are collected for

further processing. At this stage, grain-like bits are now ready for frying.

3.2 MATERIALS

3.2.1 CASSAVA

Cassava is a very versatile commodity with numerous uses and by

products. Each component of the plant can be of value to its cultivator. The

leaves may be consumed as vegetable, or as soup ingredient or dried and fed

to livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is needed for plant

propagation and grafting. The roots are typically processed for human

consumption and industrial uses. Originating in tropical and sub-tropical

areas of Central and South America, cassava arrived on the west coast of
25

Africa at the end of the sixteenth century and then spread inland across the

continent.

Cassava, (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial woody shrub with an

edible root. It has several advantages as a crop:

It can grow on marginal lands where cereals and other crops do not

grow well.

It can tolerate drought.

It can grow in low-nutrient soils.

The roots can remain in the ground for up to 24 months (some

varieties last p to 36 months), so harvest can be delayed until market,

processing or other conditions are favourable.

In Nigeria, the consumption pattern varies according to ecological

zones. Gari, a roasted granule is the dominant product and is widely

accepted in both rural and urban areas. It can be consumed without any

additives or it can be consumed with a variety of additives such as sugar,

groundnut, fish, meat and stew. Cassava is the main material used in

preparing gari

Estimates of industrial cassava use suggest that approximately 16

percent of cassava root production was utilized as an industrial raw material


26

in 2001 in Nigeria. Ten percent was used as chips in animal feed, 5 percent

was processed into a syrup concentrate for soft drinks and less than one

percent was processed into high quality cassava flour used in biscuits and

confectionary, dextrin pre-gelled starch for adhesives, starch and

hydrolysutes for pharmaceuticals, and seasonings (Kormawa and Akoroda,

2003). This estimate leaves 84 percent or 28.9 million tonnes of production

for food consumption, and this is the main material used in preparing gari

for this work.

3.2.2 FUEL

The fuel used for combustion is diesel fuel. It is a liquid product

distilling over the range of 150 to 400oC (300 to 750oF). The carbon number

ranges on average from about C13 to about C21.

The chemical composition of a typical diesel fuel and how it applies

to individual specifications API gravity, distillation range, freezing point,

and flash point are directly attributable to both the carbon number and the

compound classes present in the finished fuel.


27

3.2.3 DIESEL BURNER

Fig 3.3 Photograph of a Diesel Burner at Awhum Monastery

The burner used is a double nozzle diesel burner designed to atomize

fuel by pump pressure only. Air supplied by the fan is split into primary and

secondary streams by the use of a swirler and a flame holder. The flame

holder is conical in shape. The burner produced heat which was channeled

into the heating chamber.


28

3.2.4 TROUGH

The trough is made of metal or iron sheet and folded in a semi-

circular form; heat gets to the gari through conduction from the steel trough.

It is too thin that we assumed that there is no temperature variation from the

bottom to the top. The dimension of the trough used is 360cm by 160cm,

and thickness of sheet is 0.005m.

3.2.5 COMBUSTION CHAMBER

It is a rectangular structure made with bricks. The trough sits on it

throughout the frying process; the brick walls help in reducing heat losses

from the chamber. The burner is positioned at one end of the width of the

chamber. There exists also an opening at the opposite end of the chamber

where the flue gas leaves the chamber. The heating chamber is 360cm long,

126cm wide and 77cm high.

3.2.6 CHIMNEY

The chimney is used for the exit of the hot gases from the heating

chamber. When the gases are heated, they become lighter and rise up the

chimney, drawing cold air beneath them. The higher the chimney height the

greater is the draught, if the heating chamber gases are hotter. The chimney
29

used has a height of 450cm and of 58cm square cross section. It is made up

of steel at the top and bricks one-fifth of the length from the ground.

3.2.7 GRINDING MACHINE.

Fig 3.4 Cassava Grinding Machine in Beach junction Gari Processing Village (Nsukka)

The grinding machine was used to grind the peeled cassava into pulp.

The machine used is a diesel powered grinding machine.


30

3.2.8 JACK COMPRESSION MACHINE.

FIG 3.5 Photograph of Jack Compression Machine for Casava Dewatering.

This is the machine used in dewatering the grated cassava by

compressing and squeezing water out of the grated cassava.


31

3.2.9 METAL SIEVE

FIG 3.6 Photograph of the Sieve at Awhum Monastry

This sieve was used to separate the dried pulp into smaller sizes. The

larger particles are disposed of while the smaller sizes are re-introduced into

the frying trough.


32

3.2.10 PADDLES

FIG 3.7 Photograph Showing the Paddles During Experimentation

These are metals attached to a long shaft positioned at the centre along

the trough. They are used for scraping, spraying and pressing the gari on the

hot plate. They are also responsible for the motion of the dough from the

point the dough was introduced to the point of exit of the gari.
33

3.2.11 ELECTRIC MOTOR.

Fig 3.8 Photograph of Electric Motor of the Machine at Awhum Monastry

This is the machine that produces the motion of the shaft where the

paddles were attached. The electric motor is connected to the shaft through a

belt. The shaft rests on a ball bearing at both ends of the trough for free

movement.
34

3.2.12 SWITCH BOARD

Fig 3..9 Photograph Taken During the Connection of the Electric Motor and the Burner Switches of Power Source

Through the help of these switches, the burner and the electric motor

are put on and off as the need arises. The two have different switches, the

switch for the burner is used to turn helps to off the burner when the

temperature gets too high while the electric motor remains on.
35

3.2.13 MEASURING TAPE AND CALIPERS

The measuring tape was used to take the dimensions of the heating

chamber, chimney and frying trough, while the trough thickness was

measured by the use of vernier caliper.

3.2.14 TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVICE

Thermocouples were used in measuring the temperature at various

points on the trough. They were also used to measure other parameters like

the flue gas temperature, flame temperature, ambient temperature, wall

temperature and gari temperature before and after frying. The specifications

of the temperature controller used are (MODE: TED-2001, TYPE:CA(K),

RANGE:0-4000C, VOLTS:AC220V and FREQ:50/60HZ)

3.2.15 WEIGHING BALANCE

This was used in weighing the dough before and after frying. It was

also used in weighing the cassava tubers before and after peeling. The

ground cassava was also weighed with this instrument before and after

dewatering.
36

fig 3.10 Photograph Taken During Preparation of the Experiment


37

fig 3.11 Photograph Taken During Frying of Gari

3.3 EXPERIMENTAL DATA

Initial dough temperature 40oC

Average final gari temperature 85oC

Average paddles temperature 65oC

Average ambient temperature 27oC

Diesel temperature 25oC


38

Mass of the dough before frying = 18kg (for one batch)

Mass of the gari after frying = 12kg (for one batch)

Fuel consumption = 5 litres per hour

Mass of gari fried = 54kg/hr

The length of the frying trough =3.6m

The width of the frying trough = 1.26m

The length of the arc at ends of trough = 1.65m

The side of the square hole where the burner supplies the flame = 0.23m

Diameter of the burner outlet = 0.125m

Diameter of the chimney =0 .67

Height of the chimney 4.50m

Thickness of the bricks wall housing the heating chamber = 0.08m

Thickness of the trough(plate) = 0.005m


39

3.4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Table 3.1: Flue Gas Temperature Readings along the Length of the

Trough in 20 Minutes Interval

Position Distance of 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Average


through from reading reading reading reading reading temp.
the burner end temp. temp. temp. temp. temp. (oC)
(m) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)
1 0.0 151 200 201 200 200 200
2 0.4 265 301 300 300 302 301
3 0.8 290 375 380 377 380 378
4 1.2 313 350 352 351 351 351
5 1.6 311 323 323 324 323 323
6 2.0 336 320 321 321 321 321
7 2.4 340 320 311 311 312 311
8 2.8 240 210 225 235 240 230
9 3.2 115 121 128 124 127 123
10 3.6 50 80 91 92 87 80
40

Table 3.2: Plate Temperature Readings Along the Length of the Trough

in 20 Minutes Interval

Position Distance of 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Average


through from reading reading reading reading reading temp.
the burner end temp. temp. temp. temp. temp. (oC)
(m) (oC) (oC ) (oC) (oC) (oC)
1 0.0 145 130 155 160 160 150
2 0.4 169 169 172 179 175 173
3 0.8 175 176 178 177 179 177
4 1.2 167 166 170 170 172 169
5 1.6 160 158 158 163 161 160
6 2.0 147 150 149 149 150 149
7 2.4 138 138 143 142 144 141
8 2.8 135 137 138 140 140 138
9 3.2 140 140 139 144 142 141
10 3.6 89 90 90 93 93 91
41

GRAPHS

400
experimental flue gas and plate temperatures (oC)

350

300

250

200

150

100

50
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Length of trough??

fig 3.12 Combined Graph of Experimental Flue Gas and Plate Temperatures (flue gas: yellow line

and plate : red line)

At the initial stage the temperature rose, this was as a result of much

heat required for cooking. At the middle of the graph we have almost

constant temperature this was the stage where there was vaporization of

moisture from the gari (change of state). At the end of the graph we have the

temperature dropping, this was as a result of drying of the gari.


42

400

350
experimental flue gas temperature[0C]

300

250

200

150

100

50
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig. 3.13 Graph of Experimental Flue Gas Temperature Against Machine Length
43

180

170

160
experimental plate temperature[0C]

150

140

130

120

110

100

90
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig 3.14 Graph of Experimental Plate Temperature Against Machine Length


44

CHAPTER FOUR :THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

4.1 DERIVATION OF GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Chimney

Cover

Trough

Gari exit end


Flame entrance Brick wall covering the
heating chamber.

Fig 4.1 Drawing 1 of the Gari Frying Machine Showing the Parts of the Machine
45

0.77m
1.26m
3.6m
Fig 4.2 Drawing 2 of Gari Frying Machine with Dimension

Fig 4.3 Drawing of the Frying Trough


46

Fig 4.4 Drawing of the Trough Showing the Dough Inside and the Flue Gas Below the

Trough

Fig 4.5 Cross-Section of the Gari Frying Machine


47

4.1.1 ENERGY BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM

We assumed that the combustion takes place externally yielding hot

gasses at the adiabatic flame temperature, Tad as shown in figure 3.5. These

hot gasses then heat the frying trough, with all the other processes taking

place. We also assumed that heat loss through the walls is negligible.

ENERGY BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM

Dough feeding

Heat losses by convection


Fuel Combustion Flame and radiation
at Tad
Air Chamber
Heat loss by drying of
dough

Heat loss to Heat loss to


the gari produced flue gases

Fig. 4.6 Energy Balance of Combustion Chamber and Frying Trough


48

Combustion
Q fuel
Chamber Q flame
Q air

Fig. 4.7 Energy Balance of the Combustion Chamber.

Frying Q gari
Q dough
Q drying
Trough
Q flue gas
Q flame

Fig. 4.8 Energy Balance of the Frying Trough

Energy Balance of the Trough

The energy balance of the trough is given by

Q dough + Q flame Q drying Q flue gas Q gari

= Rate of energy storage in the system. (4.1)

To simplify the equation, let us assume that the rate of energy storage

in the system is negligible compared with the other energy flows. In that

case, we shall have


Q dough + Q flame = Q drying + Q flue gas + Q gari (4.2)
49

o
Q dough = M dough CP dough T dough (4.3)

o
Where M dough = mass of dough (kg)

CP dough = specific heat capacity of dough (J/KgK)

T dough = the inlet temperature of the dough (K)

o
Q flame = M fg CP flame Tad (4.4)
o
Where M fg = mass of flue gas (kg)

CP flame = specific heat capacity of flame (J/KgK)

Tad = adiabatic temperature. (K)

o
Q drying = M vap [CP dough (Tboil T dough) + hfg ] (4.5)
o
Where M Vap = mass of moisture removed from dough (kg)

h fg = enthalpy of evaporation at prevailing ambient pressure.(J/kg)

CP dough = specific heat capacity of the dough. (J/KgK)

T boil = boiling temperature of the moisture in the dough (K)

T dough = inlet dough temperature. (K)

o
Q flue gas = M fg CP fg Tfg (4.6)

Where Tfg = flue gas temperature (K)


50

o
M fg = mass of flue gas (kg)

CPfg = specific heat capacity of the flue gas. (J/KgK)

o
Q gari = M gari CPgari Tgari (4.7)
o
Where M gari = mass of the gari (kg)

CPgari = specific heat capacity of gari (J/KgK)

Tgari = Temperature of the gari (K)


o o o
Now, M dough = M gari + M vap (4.8)

4.1.2 DERIVATION OF GOVERNING EQUATIONS

We shall assume the following in formulating the problem

1. Flow of the hot combustion gasses under the trough. A one

dimensional steady flow of a perfect gas is assumed for simplicity.

2. The trough is a thin plate made of a metal of high thermal conductivity.

One dimensional steady state heat conduction is assumed.

3. The dough flows through the plate as well mixed granules. It is

analyzed as a one dimensional steady flow of homogenous granules.

4. The semi-circular trough is approximated to a rectangular plate

We now, consider each of these in turn.


51

1. Flow of the hot combustion gases under the trough

An energy balance for a differential element of the hot exhaust gases

may be undertaken with the aid of figure 4.9 below.

htr y btr (Ttr Tfg)

Qfg Qfg + Qfg

y y + y

Fig. 4.9 Heat Fluxes on a Differential Element of the Flue Gases

The combustion gases exchange heat with the trough of width btr .

Thus, an energy balance of an element of the exhaust gases gives

Qfg + htr y btr (Ttr Tfg) = Qfg + Qfg (3.9)

Collecting like terms, this simplifies into

x htr btr (Ttr Tfg) = Qfg


4.10

Assuming the exhaust gas behaves as a perfect gas, we have


o
Qfg = M fg CPfg Tfg
o
:. Qfg M fg CPfg Tfg-
52

o dT fg dC P fg
M fg [CPfg x T fg x ] (4.11)
dx dx

Now for the temperature range under consideration, the specific heat may be

related with temperature with a linear expression of the form

CPfg = afg + bfg Tfg (4.12).

Where afg and bfg are constants.

Thus,
o
Qfg = M fg Tfg (afg + bfg Tfg) (4.13)
o
i.e. Qfg = M fg (afg Tfg + bfg T2fg)

dQ fg
Qfg = x (4.14)
dx

dQ fg o dT fg
But M fg
dx dx

Substituting into equation (3.10)

dTdy
o
M fg a fg 2b fgT fg
fg
y


htr btr Ttr T fg y (4.15)

Hence

dT fg htr btr Ttr T fg


(3.16)
dy
M fg a fg 2b fg T fg

Boundary Condition
53

@ y = O, Tfg = Tad (4.17)

2 Heat conduction along the trough

The trough or frying pan is made of metal of high thermal

conductivity. In addition, it is thin. Heat transfer within the trough can

therefore be treated as one-dimensional heat transfer through a rectangular

fin.

Consider a differential element of the plate shown in figure 4.10

below.

Qp-d

bp
Qp
Qp + Qp

y Qf-p

Flow of
flue gas

Figure 4.10 Energy Balance of a Differential Element of the Frying Trough.

Q p d = heat transfer from the plate to the (dough) gari being fried.

Qp = heat conduction into the element


54

Qf p = heat conduction from the flue gas to the plate

An energy balance on a differential element of the metal trough is given as

Qp + Qfp = Qp + Qp + Qpd

Q fp Q p Q pd (4.18)

dTp
Qp = -kp bp tp (4.19)
dy

kp = plate thermal conductivity

bp = plate width

tp = plate thickness

dQp d 2Tp
Qp = y k pbpt p y (4.20)
dy dy2

Qpd = Upd bp y (Tp Td) (4.21)

And Upd is the heat exchange coefficient between the hot plate and the gari

being fried.

Qfp = Ufp bp y (Tf Tp) (4.22)

Substituting equations (4.20), (4.21) and (4.22) into equation (4.18), we have

d 2Tp
Ufp bp y (Tf Tp) = kp bp tp y Upd bp y Tp Td
dy 2

Dividing through by bpy, we have

d 2Tp (4.23)
k pt p 2
Upd Tp Td U fp T f Tp
dy
55

Boundary Conditions

Heat losses through the edges of the plate at y = 0 and y = L are

negligible.

Hence

dTp
O @ y O (4.24)
dy

dTp
O@ y L (4.25)
dy

3. Flow of dough (gari) granules

The dough is treated as well mixed granules which is homogeneous at

each section of the frying trough. As pointed out by Odigboh (1983), the

action of pressing, scraping and sifting of cassava mash over a hot plate

results in the toasting of the granules, resulting in its garification (i.e.

frying of the granules to produce gari). This process involves simultaneous

heat and mass transfer, as well as some biochemical changes of the cassava

dough granules. However, to simplify the analysis, the following

assumptions shall be made:

1. The cassava dough or mash consists of hard porous granules of

constant size.

2. The thermophysical properties of the granules are constant.


56

3. The biochemical changes in the dough during the processing to

gari are negligible.

4. The granules are well mixed during processing. Thus, the dough is

homogeneous at each section.

Heat and mass balance on a differential element of the dough across the

width of the plate is now undertaken with aid of figure 4.11.

o
M m (vap)

o
Md o
Md

o o o
Mm M m M m (l)

Fig 4.11 Mass balance for the granules

At inlet to the differential element, the dry cassava granules flow at


o o
rate M d and contain an initial mass of moisture M m . At exit, the flow rate of

the dry cassava remains unchanged, while the moisture flow rate has
o o o
reduced to M m - M m with the evaporation of quantity M m .

An energy balance of the element is shown in figure (4.11)


57

Uda bp y (Td Ta)


o
M m hg

o
M d CPd Td o
M d CPd Td Td

o
M m hf o o

M m M hf

Uda bp y (Td Ta)

Fig. 4.12 Energy Balance on a Differential Element of the Dough Granules.

For steady state, under the simplifying assumptions indicated

previously, an energy balance on a element of the dough yields

Also note the subscript tr = tp = Trough/plate


o o
M d CPd Td M m hf U pd bpy Tp Td
o
o o
o
(4.26)
M d CPd Td Td M m M m hf M m hg

U dabtr y Td Ta

Simplifying and collecting like terms, we have


o o
U pd bp y Tp Td M d CPd Td M m hg h f
(4.27)
U dabtr y Td Ta

Dividing trough by (y), then in the limit as y 0, we have


o
o dT dMm
M d CPd d
dy dy

h fg btr U pd T p Td U da Td Ta (4.28)
o
i.e. o dT dMm
dy

M d CPd d btr U pd Tp Td U da Td Ta dy
h fg
(4.29)
58

o
According to Chia-Chung Chen (1990) M m can be expressed using

the Modified-Oswin equation M= (A+B*T)*(RH/1-RH) N

where M=moisture content

RH = relative humidity

T=temperature

A,B and N are constant

We calculated RH at 27oC 0291429

From the work of Chia-Chung Chem (1990)

For gari A=13.5656, B=-861.83 and N=0.358539

We shall finally have


dTd btr U pd Tp Td U da Td Ta 9.8650h fg
(4.30)
dy o
m d Cpd 0.0627 h fg

4.2 NUMERICAL SOLUTION

From the theoretical analysis we have the following set of equations

dT fg htr btr Tp TF
o
(4.31) flue gas equation
dy m fg agh 2b fg T fg

d 2Tp U pd Tp Td U fp T f Tp
2
(4.32) plate equation
dy kptp
59


dTd bp U pd Tp Td U da Td Ta 9.8650h fg

(4.33) dough equation
dy o
m d C p d 0.0627 h fg
With the following conditions

Tf (0) = Tad (4.34)

dTp
(0) O
(4.35)
dy

dTp
(1) O (4.36)
dy

Td (0) 40 o C
(4.37)

The first step in solving this set of equations is to write the second order

equation as a first order system.

We shall now convert the equation of the trough which is second

order equation to set of first order equations.

Let Tp1 Tp...........................(3.38)

Tp 2 Tp 1 ..................................(3.39)

1
TP1 Tp 2 ..............................................(3.40)

1
TP2

U Pd TP1 Td U fp T f TP1 (3.41)
kptp

We now have,
60

1 U fp b p T p T f
Tf o
....................................(3.42)
m fg a fg 2b fg T fg
1
TP1 TP2 ........................................(3.43)

1
TP2
U Pd
TP1 Td U fp T f TP1 ..................................(3.44)
kptp

1
Td

b p U pd T p Td U da Td Ta 9.8650hfg. .......................(3.45)
o

m d Cp d 0.06267 hfg

With components of T corresponding to the original variables as Tf = T (1),

Tp1 = T (2), Tp2 = T (3) and Td = T (4) we now have the follow equations.

dT(1)
U fp b p T( 2) T(1) 3.46
o

m fg a fg 2b fg T(1)

dT( 2 T(3) 3.47

dT (3)
U T pd ( 2)
T( 4) U da T( 4) Ta 9.8650hfg
3.48
o
m d Cp d 0.06267hfg

These equations can be coded in MATLAB as function dT = Nwankpa (y, T)

o
dT (1) U fp b p * T( 2) T(1) / m fg * a fg 2b fg * T(1)

dT (2) T (3)
61


dT (3) U Pd * T( 2) T( 4) U fP * T(1) T( 2 ) / kp * tp

o

dT (4) b p* U pd * T( 2) T( 4 ) U da * T( 4) Ta 9.8650 * hfg / m d * Cp d 0.06267 * hfg

dT dT (1); dT (2); dT (3); dT (4);

We record this code in the M-file Nwankpa. M.

Next, we write the boundary conditions as the M-file Nwankpabc.m

Function res = Nwankpabc (ya, yb)

res = [ya (1) 1065

ya (3) 200

yb (3) 120

yb (4) 85];

By residue, we mean the left-hand side of the boundary condition once

it has been set to 0, we try to supply conditions we have for the equations. The

variables ya and yb represent the solution at y = 0 and at y = 1 respectively,

while the numbers in parentheses indicate the component of the vector.

We are now in a position to begin solving the problem. The guess is

supplied to bvp4c in the form of a structure. However, it must contain two

fields that must be called x and y. A guess for a mesh that reveals the behavior

of the solution is provided as the vector solinit. x. A guess for the solution at

these mesh points is provided as the array solinit. y, with each column solinit.

y (:, i) approximating the solution at the point solinit. x(i). a helper function
62

bvpinit makes it easy to form a guess structure. It creates the structure when

given the mesh and a guess for the solution in the form of a constant vector or

the name of a function for evaluating the guess.

MATLAB will solve a family of initial value problems, searching for one for

which the boundary conditions are met.

We solve the problem with MATLABs built-in solver bvp4c.

The guess structure is then formed with bvpinit by

solinit = bvpinit (linspace (0, 3.6, 10), [1065 0 200 40]);

The problem has now been defined by means of functions for

evaluating the differential equations and the boundary conditions and a

structure providing a guess for the solution.

Sol. = bvp4C (@Nwankpa, @Nwankpabc, solinit);

The output of bvp4c is a structure called here sol. The mesh determined

by the code is returned as sol. x and the numerical solution approximated at

these mesh points is returned as sol. y. As with the guess, sol. y (:, i)

approximates the solution at the points sol. x (i).

THEORETICAL RESULTS

MATLAB will give the following results.

sol=bvpinit(linspace(0,3.6,10),[1065 0 399 40]);


63

sol=bvp4c(@nwankpa,@nwankpabc,sol);

sol.x

sol.y

ans =

Columns 1 through 7

0 0.4000 0.8000 1.2000 1.6000 2.0000 2.4000

Columns 8 through 10

2.8000 3.2000 3.6000

ans =

1.0e+003 *

Columns 1 through 7

1.0650 0.9367 0.8117 0.6903 0.5724 0.4584 0.3483


-2.0310 -1.9531 -1.8792 -1.8092 -1.7430 -1.6803 -1.6211
0.2000 0.1897 0.1798 0.1702 0.1610 0.1522 0.1437
0.1069 0.1043 0.1017 0.0992 0.0967 0.0943 0.0919

Columns 8 through 10

0.2422 0.1405 0.0431


-1.5653 -1.5127 -1.4632
0.1355 0.1276 0.1200
0.0896 0.0873 0.0850
64

The result can be summarized in these set of tables below


DISTANCE FLUE GAS
(CM) TEMPERATURE (0C)
0.0 1065.0
0.4 936.7
0.8 811.7
1.2 690.3
1.6 572.4
2.0 458.4
2.4 348.3
2.8 242.2
3.2 140.5
3.6 43.1

Table 4.1 Theoretical Flue Gas Temperatures Along the Length of Machine

DISTANCE PLATE TEMPERATURE


(CM) (0C)
0.0 200.0
0.4 189.7
0.8 179.8
1.2 170.2
1.6 161.0
2.0 152.2
2.4 143.7
2.8 135.5
3.2 127.6
3.6 120.0

Table 4.2 Theoretical Plate Temperatures along the Length of Machine

DISTANCE DOUGH TEMPERATURE


(CM) (0C)
0.0 106.9
0.4 104.3
0.8 101.7
1.2 99.2
1.6 96.7
2.0 94.3
2.4 91.9
2.8 89.6
3.2 87.3
3.6 85.0

Table 4.3 Theoretical Dough Temperatures along the Length of Machine


65

CHAPTER FIVE: RESULTS AND DISCUSIONS

5.1 CALCULATED RESULT

4.1.1 CALCULATION OF ADIABATIC TEMPERATURE


The ultimate analysis of Diesel is 86.3% of C, 12.8 % of H and O.9% of S

The stoichiometirc combustion equation for diesel is given as

0.863 0.128 0.009


C H S a 0.210 2 0.79 N 2
12 1 23
(5.1)
bC 0 2 cH 2 0 dS 0 2 0.79aN 2

To determine the values of a, b, c and d, we perform an atomic balance for

each constituent element.

Carbon Balance

0.863
b 0.071916667
12

Hydrogen Balance

0.128 2C C 0.128 2 0.064

Sulphur Balance

0.009
d d 0.00028125
32

Oxygen Balance
66

0.21 2a 2b C 2d

2b C 2d 2 0.071916667 0.064 2 0.00028125


a
0.21 2 0.42

0.1438333 0.064 0.0005625


a
0.42

0.2083958
a 0.4961805
0.42

For1kg Diesel, we shall have, for reactants

1kg diesel

3.33kg 02

10.98 kg N2

Also for 1kg of Diesel, we shall have for products

3.16kg C02

1.15kg H2O

0.018 kg SO2

10.98 kg N2

In Summary

Reactants Products

1 kg Diesel 3.16 kg CO2

3.33 kg 02 1.15 kg H2O

10.98 kg N2 0.018 kg SO2


67

10.98 kg N2

The initial temperature of the reactants is 24oC and the value of Hp is the

sensible heat in the reactants (ref. 25oC).

enthalpy of combustion = 42, 800 kJ/kg

let Tad = adiabatic temperature.

H PTad
H R25 H 25 H R 25 H R24 O (5.2)

H R 25
H R24 mi cpi 25 24 (5.3)

25 24M DieselC p Diesel M O C p O 2 2


M N2 CpN
2

= [25 24] [(1CPDiesel) + (3.33CPO2) + (10.98CPN2] (5.4)

The mean temperature of the reactants over the interval is 24.5oC. At this

temperature the values of the specific heats are

Cp Diesel = 1.8 kJ/kg.k

CPO2 = 0.918 kJ/kg.k

CpN2 = 1.040 kJ/kg.k

:. (HR25 HR24) = 11.8 3.33 0.918 10.98 1.040

1.8 .05694 11.4192

H R25
H R24 16.27614kJkg 1 Diesel (5.5)

But H P H P micpiTad 25
Tad 25
(5.6)

Tad 25M c 0 CPCO 2 2


M H 20
C p H 20 M SO2 C p SO M N 2 C p N
2

68

= (Tad 25) [(3.16Cpco2) + (1.15CpH20) + (0.018Cpso2)

+ (10.98CpN2)] (5.7)

:. Substituting equation (5.5) and (5.6) into equation (5.4) we have,

(Tad 25) [(3.16Cpco2) + (1.15CpH20) + (0.0018Cpso2) + (10.98CpN2)]

42800 + 16.27614 = 0
(Tad 25) [(3.16Cpcp2) + (1.15CpH20) + (0.018CpS02) + (10.98CpN2)] = 42783.72

(5.8)

There should be an initial guess for the flame temperature in other to solve

this equation by trial and error.

Let us assume Tad = 1000oC

:. The mean temperature of the products above 23oC

1000 25
513.5 o C 513 o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 513oC are

C02 = 1.1544

H20 = 2.12388

S02 = 1.090744

N2 = 1.11384

Energy equation is

Tad 253.16 1.1544 1.15 2.12388 0.018 1.090744 10.98 1.11384 42783.72
69

Tad 253.6479 2.442 0.0196 12.2300 42783.72

Tad 2518.3395 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 23328728
18.3395

Tad 2332.8728 25 2357.8728 o C

For the second iteration, the new mean temperature of the product is

2357.8728 25
1191.4364
2

The specific heats of the products at 1191oC

Co2 = 1.321

H20 = 2.5885

So2 = 1.2073

N2 = 1.240

Tad 253.16 1.321 1.15 2.5885 0.018 1.2073 10.98 1.240 42783.72

Tad 254.1744 2.9768 0.0.217 13.6152 42783.72

Tad 2520.7881 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 2058.09
20.7881

Tad 2083o C

We continued until the 9th iteration when the temperature converges


70

9th Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the products is

2113 25
1069o C
2

The specific heat of the product at 1069oC

Co2 = 1.305

H20 = 2.515

So2 = 1.194

N2 = 1.225

Energy equation,

Tad 253.16 1.305 1.15 2.515 0.018 1.194 10.98 1.225 42783.72

Tad 254.1238 2.89225 0.021492 13.4505 42783.72

Tad 2520.488042 42783.72

42783 .72
Tad 25 2088 .228831
20.488042

Tad 2088 .22881 25 2113 .228837

Tad 2113 o C
:. The Adiabatic flame temperature is 21130C
71

5.1.2 CALCULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFICIENT

Heat Energy

The release of heat energy is only the first stage in the heating

process. For this heat energy to be transmitted from one region to another,

there needs to exist a temperature difference between them. Heat is

transferred by three mechanisms conduction, convection and radiation.

During machine use, the heat is transferred by a combination of all three

means, usually with one of the methods predominating.

Conduction

Conduction is the transfer of heat energy by mutual interactions

between vibrating atoms. Atoms with greater kinetic energy (temperature)

pass their excess energy onto atoms with less energy by collisions. In other

words heat will be transferred from an area of high temperature to an area

with low temperature. Conduction occurs mainly in solid where the mobility

of the atoms is minimal. Heat transfer by conduction in this machine occurs

through the trough.

In heat conduction, the equation, rate = driving force/resistance, can be

applied directly. The driving force is the temperature difference per unit
72

length of heat-transfer path, also known as the temperature gradient. Instead

of resistance to heat flow, its reciprocal called the conductance is used. This

changes the form of the general equation to:

rate of heat transfer = driving force x conductance,

that is:

dQ/dt = kA dT/dx 5.9

where dQ/dt is the rate of heat transfer, the quantity of heat energy

transferred per unit of time, A is the area of cross-section of the heat flow

path, dT/dx is the temperature gradient, that is the rate of change of

temperature per unit length of path, and k is the thermal conductivity of the

medium. Notice the distinction between thermal conductance, which relates

to the actual thickness of a given material (k/x) and thermal conductivity,

which relates only to unit thickness.

The units of k, the thermal conductivity, can be found from eqn. (5.9) by

transposing the terms

k = dQ/dt x 1/A x 1/(dT/dx)

= J s-1 x m-2 x 1/(C m-1)

= J m-1 s-1 C-1


73

Equation (5.8) is known as the Fourier equation for heat conduction. Heat

flows from a hotter to a colder body, which is in the direction of the negative

temperature gradient. Thus a minus sign should appear in the Fourier

equation. However, in simple problems the direction of heat flow is obvious

and the minus sign is considered to be confusing rather than helpful, so it has

not been used.

Convection

Convection heat transfer is the transfer of energy by the mass

movement of groups of molecules. It is restricted to liquids and gases, as

mass molecular movement does not occur at an appreciable speed in solids.

It cannot be mathematically predicted as easily as can transfer by conduction

or radiation and so its study is largely based on experimental results rather

than on theory.

The most satisfactory convection heat transfer formulae are

relationships between dimensionless groups of physical quantities.

Furthermore, since the laws of molecular transport govern both heat flow

and viscosity, convection heat transfer and fluid friction are closely related

to each other. Convection coefficients will be studied under two sections,

firstly, natural convection in which movements occur due to density


74

differences on heating or cooling; and secondly, forced convection, in which

an external source of energy is applied to create movement. In many

practical cases, both mechanisms occur together.

Natural Convection

Heat transfer by natural convection occurs when a fluid is in contact with a

surface hotter or colder than itself. As the fluid is heated or cooled it changes

its density. This difference in density causes movement in the fluid that has

been heated or cooled and causes the heat transfer to continue.

There are many examples of natural convection in the food industry.

Convection is significant when hot surfaces, such as retorts which may be

vertical or horizontal cylinders, are exposed with or without insulation to

colder ambient air. It occurs when food is placed inside a chiller or freezer

store in which circulation is not assisted by fans. Convection is important

when material is placed in ovens without fans and afterwards when the

cooked material is removed to cool in air.

It has been found that natural convection rates depend upon the physical

constants of the fluid, density viscosity , thermal conductivity k, specific

heat at constant pressure cp and coefficient of thermal expansion (beta)

which for gases = l/T by Charles' Law. Other factors that also affect

convection-heat transfer are, some linear dimension of the system, diameter


75

D or length L, a temperature difference term, T, and the gravitational

acceleration g since it is density differences acted upon by gravity that create

circulation. Heat transfer rates are expressed in terms of a convection heat

transfer coefficient hc.

Experimentally, it has been shown that convection heat transfer can be

described in terms of these factors grouped in dimensionless numbers which

are known by the names of eminent workers in this field:

Nusselt number (Nu) = (hcD/k) 5.10

Prandtl number (Pr) = (cp/k) 5.11

Grashof number (Gr) = (D32g T/2) 5.12

and in some cases a length ratio (L/D).

If we assume that these ratios can be related by a simple power function we

can then write the most general equation for natural convection:

(Nu) = K(Pr)k(Gr)m(L/D)n 5.13

Experimental work has evaluated K, k, m, n, under various conditions. Once

K, k, m, n, are known for a particular case, together with the appropriate

physical characteristics of the fluid, the Nusselt number can be calculated.

From the Nusselt number we can find hc and so determine the rate of

convection-heat transfer by applying eqn. (5.10). In natural convection


76

equations, the values of the physical constants of the fluid are taken at the

mean temperature between the surface and the bulk fluid. The Nusselt and

Biot numbers look similar: they differ in that for Nusselt, k and h both refer

to the fluid, for Biot k is in the solid and h is in the fluid.

Natural Convection Equations

These are related to a characteristic dimension of the body (food material for

example) being considered, and typically this is a length for rectangular

bodies and a diameter for spherical/cylindrical ones.

(1) Natural convection about vertical cylinders and planes, such as vertical

retorts and oven walls

(Nu) = 0.53(Pr.Gr)0.25 for 104 < (Pr.Gr) < 109 (5.14)

(Nu) = 0.12(Pr.Gr)0.33 for 109 < (Pr.Gr) < 1012 (5.15)

For air these equations can be approximated respectively by:

hc = 1.3(T/L)0.25 (5.16)

hc = 1.8(T)0.25 (5.17)

Equations (5.16) and (5.17) are dimensional equations and are in standard

units (T in C and L (or D) in metres and hc in J m-2 s-1 C-1). The

characteristic dimension to be used in the calculation of (Nu) and (Gr) in

these equations is the height of the plane or cylinder.


77

(2) Natural convection about horizontal cylinders such as a steam pipe or

sausages lying on a rack

(Nu) = 0.54(Pr.Gr)0.25 for laminar flow in range 103 < (Pr.Gr) <

109. (5.18)

Simplified equations can be employed in the case of air, which is so often

encountered in contact with hotter or colder foods giving again:

For 104 < (Pr.Gr) < 109

hc = 1.3(T/D)0.25 (5.19)

and for 109< (Pr.Gr) < 1012

hc = 1.8(T)0.33 (5.20)

(3) Natural convection from horizontal planes, such as slabs of cake

cooling

The corresponding cylinder equations may be used, employing the length of

the plane instead of the diameter of the cylinder whenever D occurs in (Nu)

and (Gr). In the case of horizontal planes, cooled when facing upwards, or

heated when facing downwards, which appear to be working against natural

convection circulation, it has been found that half of the value of hc in eqns.

(5.16) - (5.20) corresponds reasonably well with the experimental results.

Note carefully that the simplified equations are dimensional. Temperatures

must be in C and lengths in m and then hc will be in J m-2 s-1 C-1. Values
78

for , k and are measured at the film temperature, which is midway

between the surface temperature and the temperature of the bulk liquid.

Forced Convection

When a fluid is forced past a solid body and heat is transferred between the

fluid and the body, this is called forced convection heat transfer. Examples

in the food industry are in the forced-convection ovens for baking bread,

in blast and fluidized freezing, in ice-cream hardening rooms, in agitated

retorts, in meat chillers. In all of these, foodstuffs of various geometrical

shapes are heated or cooled by a surrounding fluid, which is moved relative

to them by external means.

The fluid is constantly being replaced, and the rates of heat transfer are,

therefore, higher than for natural convection. Also, as might be expected, the

higher the velocity of the fluid the higher the rate of heat transfer. In the case

of low velocities, where rates of natural convection heat transfer are

comparable to those of forced convection heat transfer, the Grashof number

is still significant. But in general the influence of natural circulation,

depending as it does on coefficients of thermal expansion and on the

gravitational acceleration, is replaced by dependence on circulation

velocities and the Reynolds number.


79

As with natural convection, the results are substantially based on experiment

and are grouped to deal with various commonly met situations such as fluids

flowing in pipes, outside pipes, etc.

Forced convection Equations

(1) Heating and cooling inside tubes, generally fluid foods being pumped

through pipes

In cases of moderate temperature differences and where tubes are reasonably

long, for laminar flow it is found that:

(Nu) = 4 (5.21)

and where turbulence is developed for (Re) > 2100 and (Pr) > 0.5

(Nu)=0.023(Re)0.8(Pr)0.4 (5.22)

For more viscous liquids, such as oils and syrups, the surface heat transfer

will be affected, depending upon whether the fluid is heating or being

cooled. Under these cases, the viscosity effect can be allowed, for (Re) >

10,000, by using the equation:

(Nu) = 0.027 (/s)0.14 (Re)0.8 (Pr)0.33 (5.23)

In both cases, the fluid properties are those of the bulk fluid except for s,

which is the viscosity of the fluid at the temperature of the tube surface.
80

Since (Pr) varies little for gases, either between gases or with temperature, it

can be taken as 0.75 and eqn. (5.22) simplifies for gases to:

(Nu) = 0.02(Re)0.8 (5.24)

In this equation the viscosity ratio is assumed to have no effect and all

quantities are evaluated at the bulk gas temperature. For other factors

constant, this becomes hc = k' v0.8, as in equation (5.27)

(2) Heating or cooling over plane surfaces

Many instances of foods approximate to plane surfaces, such as cartons of

meat or ice cream or slabs of cheese. For a plane surface, the problem of

characterizing the flow arises, as it is no longer obvious what length to

choose for the Reynolds number. It has been found, however, that

experimental data correlate quite well if the length of the plate measured in

the direction of the flow is taken for D in the Reynolds number and the

recommended equation is:

(Nu) = 0.036 (Re)0.8 (Pr)0.33 for (Re) > 2 x 104 (5.25)

For the flow of air over flat surfaces simplified equations are:

hc = 5.7 + 3.9v for v < 5 m s-1 (5.26)

hc = 7.4v0.8 for 5 < v < 30 m s (5.27)


81

These again are dimensional equations and they apply only to smooth plates.

Values for hc for rough plates are slightly higher.

(3) Heating and cooling outside tubes

Typical examples in food processing are water chillers, chilling sausages,

processing spaghetti.

Experimental data in this case have been correlated by the usual form of

equation:

(Nu) = K (Re)n(Pr)m (5.28)

The powers n and m vary with the Reynolds number. Values for D in (Re)

are again a difficulty and the diameter of the tube, over which the flow

occurs, is used. It should be noted that in this case the same values of (Re)

cannot be used to denote streamline or turbulent conditions as for fluids

flowing inside pipes.

For gases and for liquids at high or moderate Reynolds numbers:

(Nu) = 0.26(Re)0.6(Pr)0.3 (5.29)

whereas for liquids at low Reynolds numbers, 1 < (Re) < 200:

(Nu) = 0.86(Re)0.43(Pr)0.3 (5.30)

As in eqn. (5.22), (Pr) for gases is nearly constant so that simplified

equations can be written. Fluid properties in these forced convection

equations are evaluated at the mean film temperature, which is the arithmetic
82

mean temperature between the temperature of the tube walls and the

temperature of the bulk fluid

Radiation heat transfer

Radiation heat transfer is the transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic

radiation. Radiation operates independently of the medium through which it

occurs and depends upon the relative temperatures, geometric arrangements

and surface structures of the materials that are emitting or absorbing heat.

The calculation of radiant heat transfer rates, for most food processing

operations a simplified treatment is sufficient to estimate radiant heat effects.

Radiation can be significant with small temperature differences as, for

example, in freeze drying and in cold stores, but it is generally more

important where the temperature differences are greater. Under these

circumstances, it is often the most significant mode of heat transfer, for

example in bakers' ovens and in radiant dryers.

The basic formula for radiant-heat transfer is the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

q = AT 4 (5.31)

where T is the absolute temperature (measured from the absolute zero of

temperature at -273C, and indicated in Bold type) in degrees Kelvin (K) in

the SI system, and (sigma) is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.73 x 10-8


83

J m-2 s-1K-4 The absolute temperatures are calculated by the formula K = (C

+ 273).

This law gives the radiation emitted by a perfect radiator (a black body as

this is called though it could be a red-hot wire in actuality). A black body

gives the maximum amount of emitted radiation possible at its particular

temperature. Real surfaces at a temperature T do not emit as much energy as

predicted by eqn. (5.31), but it has been found that many emit a constant

fraction of it. For these real bodies, including foods and equipment surfaces,

that emit a constant fraction of the radiation from a black body, the equation

can be rewritten

q = A T 4 (5.32)

where (epsilon) is called the emissivity of the particular body and is a

number between 0 and 1. Bodies obeying this equation are called grey

bodies.

Emissivities vary with the temperature T and with the wavelength of the

radiation emitted. For many purposes, it is sufficient to assume that for:

*dull black surfaces (lamp-black or burnt toast, for example), emissivity is

approximately 1;

*surfaces such as paper/painted metal/wood and including most foods,

emissivities are about 0.9;


84

*rough un-polished metal surfaces, emissivities vary from 0.7 to 0.25;

*polished metal surfaces, emissivities are about or below 0.05.

These values apply at the low and moderate temperatures which are those

encountered in food processing.

In this work we have the following heat transfer coefficient;

For heat transfer coefficient between the plate and the dough (Upd), for

simplicity according to Enibe we assumed that the thermal conductance at a

solid-solid interface hconst , is high. We choose arbitrary value of hconst

=100W/m2K.

To calculate the heat transfer coefficient between the dough and the air (Uda)

at Ta = 27oC,

We shall have the mean film temperature as Tf = Tdough + Ta where

average temperature of the dough is 62.5oC

62.5 27
Tf 44.75 45o C 318K
2

The properties of air at 318K

Pr = 0.70268

g = 9.8m/s2

1
= 0.00314465 k
318

L = 0.4667m
85

V = 1.74008 x 10-5 m2/s

K = 2.76224 x 10-2 = 0.0276224w/m.k

Raleigh No Ra = g
Ts T L3 Pr
2

9.8 0.0031446562.5 27 0.4667 3 0.70266

1.74008 10 5 2

7.814437814 10 2

3.027878406 10 10

2.580829 108

Ra 2.580829 108

According to Churchill and Chu (1975)


86



1
0.670 Ra 4
Nu 0.68
0.492 9 6
1 49
Pr



1

Nu 0.68

0.670 2.580829 10 8 4


0.492 9 6
1 49
0.70268

8.49209043 10
0.68
1.224952824

0.68 69.325857

Nu 70.005857

kNu 0.0276224 70.005857


but hc =
L 0.4667

hc 4.1434 N / m 2 k

To calculate the heat transfer coefficient between the flue gas and plate

we use the relation by Treybal (1981) for flow of gas parallel to a surface and

confined between parallel plates, as between the trough of a drier.

hc = (0.11Re-0.29CpG)/Pr2/3

Where G= mass velocity = product of density and velocity (kg/m2.s)


87

Re = Reynold,s number

Pr=Prandtl number

Cp = specific heat(J/kgK)

This can be simplified to;

5.90G 0.71
hc =
de0.71

p 0.257 kg / m 3

G 3m / s 0.257

0.771kg | m 2 .s

41.26 3.6 18.144


de = 1.867m
21.26 3.6 9.72

0.71
0.77 1 4.90524
hc = 5.90 0.29

1.867 1.198482928

2
hc 4.092877704 N/m K
88

5.1.3 CALCULATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE MACHINE

Useful efficiency could be defined as sum of rate of heat absorbed by

evaporation and rate of increase in internal energy of dough after frying

divided by the rate of heat supply by fuel.

u=

(Rate of heat absorbed by moisture evaporated + Rate of increase in internal energy of dough after frying)
(Rate of heat supply by fuel)

Qmoisture Qdough
u =
Q fuel

Now, the moisture is evaporated over a range of temperatures between

the inlet and the discharge. It is therefore better to calculate it by integration.


v o
Thus Qmoisture = m m h fg dy
o
o
M m (9.8650 0.06267Td ) / 100.
v
Qmoisture 0.098650 0.0006267T h
o
d fg dy

2
TdL Td
Qmoisture 0.098650Td 0.0006267 h fg
Tdo
2
TdL = 85oC
Tdo = 40oC
hfg = 2257kJ/kg
89


Qmoisture 0.098650 85 0.0006267
852 2257

2

0.098650 40 0.0006267
40 2
2257
2

22578.38525 2.26395375

22573.946 0.50136

13815.76564 7774.55248

Qmoisture 6041.21316kJ / kg
o o
Also, Qdough = m d TdL Tdo CP d m m C P m TdL Tdo

o o
Qdough m d CP d m m C P m TdL Tdo

Where TdL Td @ y L

Tdo Td @ y O
o
m d 54kg
CPL 1.40 KJ / kgK
o
m m 18kg
C P m 2.0267kJ / kgK
Td : 85o 358K
Tdo 40o 313K

Qdough = (54 x 1.40 + 18 x 2.0267) (358 313)


= (75.6 + 36.4806) x 45
= 112.0806 x 45
= 5043.627 KJ
o
Qfuel = m fuel LCV

Where LCV = lower calorific value of fuel LCV of diesel = 46 MJ/kg


90

6041.21316kJ 5043.627 kJ
:. u =
46000kJ

11084.8402 1000

46000 1000

24%

Overall machine efficiency, ov may be defined as

ov =
Rate of heat extraction from the flue gas
Rate of heat sup ply by fuel
Q flue
ov =
Q fuel
o
But Qflue = m flue gas C
T flue | y o CP flueT flue | y L
P flue

o
m flue gas = 31.48kg

CPflue at inlet = 1.31705kJ/kgoC

CPflue at exit = 1.08221 kJ/kgoC

Tflue at inlet = 1065oC

Tflue outlet = 149oC

:. Qflue = 31.48 [(1.31705x1065) (1.08221 x 149)]

= 31.48 [1402.65825 161.24929]

= 31.48 x 1241.40891 = 39079.5225kJ

39079.5225 100
:. ov = 84.96%
46000
91

Calculation of Values of Heat balance of the system (percentage)


o
Qdough m dough CP doughTdough

Tdough is the inlet temperature of the dough


o
m dough 54kg
CPd 1.40kJ / kg oC
Tdough 40o C

Qdough 54 1.40 1000 40

3024kJ

o
Q flame m fg CPflameTad

Where Tad is adiabatic flame temperature


o
:. m fg 31.48 / kg diesel

CPflame 1.31688kJ / kg oC

Tad 2113o C
2113 25
1064o C
2

Q flame 31.48 1.31688 1064


44108.52684kJ

o
Qdough mdough CPdough Tdough

o
Tdough is the inlet temperature of the dough m dough 54kg
92

CPd = 1.40kJ/kgoC

Tdough = 40oC

Qdough = 54 x 1.40 x 1000 x 40

= 3024kJ

o
Q flame m fg CPflameTad

Where Tad is adiabatic flame temperature


o
:. m fg 31.48kg / kg diesel

Cp flame = 1.31688 kJ/kg.oC

Tad = 2113oC

2113 25
1064o C
2
:. Qflame = 31.48 x 1.31688 x1064

= 44108.52684kJ

o
Q drying = M vap [CP dough (Tboil T dough) ]
o
Where M Vap = mass of moisture removed from dough = 18kg

CP dough = specific heat capacity of the dough = 1.40kJ/KgK

T boil = boiling temperature of the moisture in the dough = 100 o C

T dough = inlet dough temperature. = 40 o C

Q drying = 18 x [1.40 x (100 40)]


93

= 18 x 1.40 x 60

= 1512kJ
o
Qgari = m gari CPgariTgari

o
m gari 54hg

C P gari 1.40kJ / kgk

Tgari 85o C

Qgari 54 1.40 85

6426kJ

Values of Heat balance of the system (percentage)

Heat loss in flue gas = 82.91%


Heat gained by the gari = 13.63%
Heat used in drying = 3.21%
Unaccounted losses = 0.25%
Total 100%
94

Other losses = 0.24%


FRYING TROUGH

Gari = 13.63%
Drying = 3.21%
Flue gas = 82.91%
DOUGH

FLAME
100%
95

5.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

1200
theoretical flue gas, plate and dough temperatures[0C]

1000

800

600

400

200

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig 5.1 Grahical solution of the Theoretical Analysis (yellow: flue gas, blue: plate and black: dough)
96

1200

1000
flue gas temperature[0C]

800

600

400

200

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig 5.2 Graph of Theoretical Flue Gas Temperature Against Machine Lenght
97

200

190

180
plate temperature[0C]

170

160

150

140

130

120
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig 5.3 Graph of Theoretical Plate Temperature Against Machine Lenght


98

110

dough temperature[0C] 105

100

95

90

85
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig 5.4 Graph of Theoretical Dough Temperature Against Machine Lenght


99

200

experimental and theoretical plate temperatures (oC)


180

160

140

120

100

80
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig 5.5 Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Plate Temperatures against Machine Length
(green:experimental and red :theoretical)
100

1200

experimental and theoretical flue gas temperature


1000

800

600

400

200

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
machine length [m]

Fig 5.6 Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Flue Gas Temperatures against Machine
Length (green:experimental and red :theoretical)

Calculated adiabatic temperature is very high when compared with the

initial experimental temperature values of the plate and dough. This suggests

that we should have a lower value for it to agree with the experimental

values and there is no perfect adiabatic condition in practice.

The calculated heat transfer coefficients used in this work agree with

the experimental except that of the heat transfer coefficient between the flue

gas and plate where a lower value is expected.


101

The calculated efficiency of the machine predicts the experimental

efficiency very well, both indicate that the useful efficiency is very low

compared with the overall efficiency. This means that a lot of heat is lost

during the frying process.

From fig 5.5, where we have the graph of experimental and the

theoretical plate temperatures, there is a good agreement between both

graphs. We can only notice deviation at the entrance and exit end of the

machine. The deviation at the entrance end is as a result of the burners

flame temperature distribution which was not considered during the

theoretical formulation of equations. For the experimental, we have the

temperature moving from lower temperature to higher temperature before

coming down. This can be explained by Bui Van Ga (2007) work on

experimental study of radiation heat transfer coefficient of diffusion flames.

According to his photographs of flame and result of analysis by two-color

method we have exactly the graph of experimental result of the plate

temperatures at entrance of the machine. We can recall that during the

formulation of governing equations, we assumed that combustion took place

outside the heating chamber contrary to what we have in practice where the

burners flame was positioned at the entrance of the heating chamber of the
102

machine. This explains why we have the deviation at the entrance end of the

machine.

Also we have deviation at the exit end where the experimental temperature

rose sharply above the theoretical before coming down below the theoretical

temperatures.

From fig 5.6, we noticed close agreement of the experimental flue gas

temperatures with theoretical flue gas temperatures at the exit end while the

entrance has a very large deviation which is also as a result of non inclusion

of burners temperature distribution during the derivation of the theoretical

equations.

Finally the theoretical heat transfer coefficients gave us a good idea of

rate of heat transfer on the plate/dough interface and dough/air interface but

require a lower value of about 3.5w/m2k in flue/plate interface to have a

perfect agreement with experimental result.

4.3 CONCLUSION

There is a need for the design and manufacture of intermediate-

capacity processing equipment for gari processing in this country and this

can only be achieved by detailed analysis of existing equipment.


103

This Research work led to the following:

The heat transfer coefficients between the flue gas and plate, the plate

and gari and the gari and the atmospheric air.

There was too much heat lost from the machine that led to low

efficiency of the machine.

There was improper heat distribution due to the position of the burner.

I wish to conclude by recommending that the following areas could be

researched further on this topic:

Analysis that will consider the burner temperature distribution.

Analysis that will include radiation and re-radiation from the

walls of the heating chamber.

Analysis that will include heat losses through the walls.


104

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108

APPENDIX A

MATLAB PROGRAM USED IN OBTAINING THE THEORETICAL RESULT

sol=bvpinit(linspace(0,3.6,10),[1065 0 399 40]);


sol=bvp4c(@nwankpa,@nwankpabc,sol);
sol.x
sol.y

ans =

Columns 1 through 6

0 0.4000 0.8000 1.2000 1.6000 2.0000

Columns 7 through 10

2.4000 2.8000 3.2000 3.6000

ans =

1.0e+003 *

Columns 1 through 6

1.0650 0.9369 0.8121 0.6909 0.5733 0.4594


-2.0311 -1.9532 -1.8793 -1.8093 -1.7431 -1.6804
0.2000 0.1897 0.1798 0.1702 0.1610 0.1522
0.1069 0.1043 0.1017 0.0992 0.0967 0.0943

Columns 7 through 10

0.3495 0.2436 0.1420 0.0447


-1.6213 -1.5654 -1.5128 -1.4633
0.1437 0.1355 0.1276 0.1200
0.0919 0.0896 0.0873 0.0850

>>

>>
109

APPENDIX B

CALCULATION OF ADIABATIC TEMPERATURE

Assuming temperature of 10000C

:. The mean temperature of the products above 23oC

1000 25
513.5 o C 513 o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 513oC are

C02 = 1.1544

H20 = 2.12388

S02 = 1.090744

N2 = 1.11384

Energy equation is

Tad 253.16 1.1544 1.15 2.12388 0.018 1.090744 10.98 1.11384 42783.72

Tad 253.6479 2.442 0.0196 12.2300 42783.72

Tad 2518.3395 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 23328728
18.3395

Tad 2332.8728 25 2357.8728 o C

For the second iteration, the new mean temperature of the product is
110

2357.8728 25
1191.4364
2

The specific heats of the products at 1191oC

Co2 = 1.321

H20 = 2.5885

So2 = 1.2073

N2 = 1.240

Tad 253.16 1.321 1.15 2.5885 0.018 1.2073 10.98 1.240 42783.72

Tad 254.1744 2.9768 0.0.217 13.6152 42783.72

Tad 2520.7881 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 2058.09
20.7881

Tad 2083o C

We continued until the 9th iteration when the temperature converges

For 3rd Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the product is

2083 25
1054 o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 1054oC are

Co2 = 1.294
111

H20 = 2.5067

S02 = 1.1917

N2 = 1.2228

Energy equation is

Tad 253.16 1.294 1.15 2.5067 0.018 1.1917 10.98 1.2228 42783.72

Tad 254.0890 28827 0.0215 13.4262 42783.72

Tad 2520.4195 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 2095.238
20.4195

Tad 2120.23 2120 o C

For 4th Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the product is

2120 25
1072.5 o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 1072.5oC are

C02 = 1.3054

H20 = 2.5185

S02 = 1.1941

N2 = 1.2254

Energy equation is
112

Tad 253.16 1.3054 1.15 2.5185 0.018 1.1941 10.98 1.2254 42783.72

Tad 254.1250 2.8963 0.0215 13.4548 42783.72

Tad 2520.4976 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 2087.2550
20.4976

Tad 2112.255 o C 2112 o C

For 5th Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the product is

2112 25
1063.5 o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 1063.3oC are

Co2 = 1.304

H20 = 2.513

So2 = 1.193

N2 = 1.224
113

Tad 253.16 1.304 1.15 2.513 0.018 1.193 10.98 1.224 42783.72

Tad 254.12054 2.88935 0.021474 13.43952 42783.72

Tad 2520.470894 42783,72

42783.72
Tad 25 2089.978093
20.470897

Tad 2114.978093 2115o C

6th Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the product is

2115 25
1070o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 1070oC are

Co2 = 1.305

H20 = 2.517

So2 = 1.194

N2 = 1.220

Tad 253.16 1.305 1.15 2.517 0.018 1.194 10.98 1.220 42783.72

Tad 254.1238 2.89455 0.021492 13.3556 42783.72

Tad 2520.395442 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 2097.709871
20.395442

Tad 2122.709671 2123o C


114

7th Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the product is

2.123 25
1075o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 1074oC are

Co2 = 1.306

H20 = 2.515

So2 = 1.194

N2 = 1.226

Tad 253.16 1.306 1.15 2.515 0.018 1.194 10.98 1.226 42783.72

Tad 254.12696 2.89225 0.021492 13.461 42783.72

Tad 2520.500602 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 2086.949947
20500602

Tad 2112o C

8th Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the products is

2123 25
1074o C
2

The specific heats of the products at 1074oC are

Co2 = 1.305
115

H20 = 2.316

So2 = 1.194

N2 = 1.225

Energy equation,

Tad 253.16 1.305 1.15 2.516 0.018 1.194 10.98 1.225 42783.72

Tad 254.1238 2.8934 0.021492 13.4505 42783.72

Tad 2520.489192 42783.72

42783.72
Tad 25 2088.111625
20.489192

Tad 2113.111625 2113o C

9th Iteration,

The new mean temperature of the products is

2113 25
1069o C
2

The specific heat of the product at 1069oC

Co2 = 1.305

H20 = 2.515

So2 = 1.194

N2 = 1.225

Energy equation,
116

Tad 253.16 1.305 1.15 2.515 0.018 1.194 10.98 1.225 42783.72

Tad 254.1238 2.89225 0.021492 13.4505 42783.72

Tad 2520.488042 42783.72

42783 .72
Tad 25 2088 .228831
20.488042

Tad 2088 .22881 25 2113 .228837

Tad 2113 o C
:. The Adiabatic flame temperature is 2113