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LABELS:SPECIALTRANSFORMER

InstrumentTransformer
SATURDAY,AUGUST20,2011

Inheavycurrentandhighvoltagea.c.circuits,themeasurementcannotbe
donebyusingthemethodofextensionofrangesoflowrangemeterbyproviding
suitableshunts.Insuchconditions,speciallyconstructedaccurateratiotransformers
calledinstrumenttransformers.Thesecanbeused,irrespectiveofthevoltageand

currentratingsofthea.c.circuits.Thesetransformersnotonlyextendtherangofthe
lowrangeinstrumentbutalsoisolatethemfromhighcurrentandhighvoltagea.c.
circuits.Thismakestheirhandlingverysafe.Thesearegenerallyclassifiedas(i)
currenttransformersand(ii)potentialtransformers.
1.1ComparisonofC.T.andP.T.
ThecomparisonofC.T.andP.T.isgiveninthefollowingtable,

SOCIALICONS

LABELS

Basic(21)

basicsoftransmissionanddistribution(24)

1.2RatiosofInstrumentTransformers C.Bdevices(112)
Thevariousratiosdefinedfortheinstrumenttransformerare, cables(21)
1.Actualratio(R)
CircuitBreaker(26)
The actual transformation ratio is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the
actualprimaryphasortothecorrespondingmagnitudeofactualsecondaryphasor. D.C.Generator(42)

D.C.Motor(40)

DiodeandCircuits(41)

ElectricalInstruments(23)

GroundingSystem(13)
Theactualratioisalsocalledtransformationratio.
2.Nominalratio(Kn) InstrumentTransformerandPowerManagement
(P1)(20)
Thenominalratioisdefinedastheratioofratedprimaryquantitytotherated
secondaryquantity,eithercurrentorvoltage. Library(18)

PowerGeneration(28)

Powersystemprotection(68)

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PowerTransformerTheory(29)

SemiconductorTheory(31)

SinglePhaseInductionMotor(10)

SinglePhaseTransformers(38)
3.Turnsratio(n)
SpecialMachines(24)

SpecialTransformer(15)

Synchronousgenerator(55)

SynchronousMotor(22)

ThreePhaseInductionMotor(57)

1.2.1RatioCorrectionFactor(RCF) TransmissionLineParameters(36)
Itistheratiooftransformationi.e.actualratiotothenominalratio.
Videos(20)
...RCF=R/
i.e.R=RCFxKn
FOLLOWERS
Theratiowhichisindicatedonthenameplateofatransformerisalwaysits
Followers(204)Next
nominalratio.
1.3ErrorsinInstrumentTransformers
For an instrument transformers, it is necessary that the transformation ratio
mustbeexactlyequaltoturnsratioandphaseofthesecondaryterms(voltageand
current)mustbedisplacedbyexactly180ofromthatoftheprimaryterms(voltage
and current). Two types of errors affect these characteristics of an instrument
transformerwhichare, Follow
1.Ratioerror
2.Phaseangleerror
ABOUTME
1.3.1RatioError
In practice it is said that current transformation ratio I2/I1 is equal to the turns HAM ADA
ratio N1/N2. But actually it is not so. The current ratio is not equal to turns ratio i'mhamadaragehelectricalpowerengineermytalent
becauseofmagnetizingandcorelosscomponentsoftheexcitingcurrent.Italsogets towritearticlesaboutelectricalengineeringandi

affectedduetothesecondarycurrentanditspowerfactor.Theloadcurrentisnota dependongooglebookssitetowritemyarticles

constant fraction of the primary current. Similarly in case of potential transformers, V I E W M Y COM P LE T E P ROF I LE
thevoltageratioV2/V1isalsonotexactlyequaltoV2/V1duetothefactorsmentioned
PoweredbyBlogger.
above.Thusthetransformationratioisnotconstantbutdependsontheloadcurrent,
power factor of load and exciting current of the transformer. Due to this fact, large
errorisintroducedinthemeasurementsdonebytheinstrumenttransformers.Such
anerroriscalledratioerror.
Theratioerrorisdefinedas,

1.3.2PhaseAngleError
Inthepowermeasurements,itismustthatthephaseofsecondarycurrentisto
bedisplacedbyexactly180ofromthatoftheprimarycurrentforC.T.Whilethephase
of secondary voltage is to be displaced by exactly from that of the primary voltage,
forP.T.Butactuallyisisnotso.Theerrorintroducedduetothisfactiscalledphase
angle error. It denoted by angle by which the phase difference between primary
andsecondaryisdifferentfrom180o.
Thephaseangleerrorisgivenby,

Approximateresults:Inpractice,theloadareinductiveandispositiveandvery
small.

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...sin0andcos1hencetheequations(4)and(7)becomes,

IntermsofIp,thesecanbewrittenusingn=Ip/Is.

1.4CharacteristicofCurrentTransformers
Letussteadytheeffectofvariousparametersonthecharacteristicsofcurrent
transformers,
1.Effectofpowerfactorofsecondarycircuit
Thep.f.ofthesecondarycircuitdependsonthep.f.oftheburdenonsecondary.
Thisdirectlyaffectsthetwoerrorsofthetransformer.
a.Ratioerror:Forallinductiveloads,ispositivehencesin(+)ispositivehence
actual ratio R is always greater than the turns ratio n. Foe capacitive burdens, is
negativeandRislessthantheturnsratio.
b.Phaseangleerror:Whenloadisinductiveandissmallpositivethenispositive.
Butasapproaches90oasloadbecomeshighlyinductivethenbecomesnegative.
Forcapacitiveload,isnegativeandisalwayspositive.
2.EffectofchangeinIp
TheIpandIs are directly related thus as Ip changes,Is also changes. For low
values of Ip, Io is dominating thus Im and Ic are also dominating parts of Ip. Thus
errors are higher. As Ip increases, part of Io becomes insignificant from Ip hence Ic
andImalsoarelesssignificantcomparedtoIpi.e.Is.Thuserrorsareless.
3.Effectofchangeinburdensecondary
The secondary winding circuit burden increases means volt ampere rating
increases. Due to increased current, secondary flux increases which induce more
voltage on secondary. Thus both Im and Ic increases to keep flux constant. Due to
this,errorsalsoincreases.Thusmoresecondaryburdenmeansmoreerrors.
4.Effectofchangeinfrequency
If frequency is increased at constant voltage then the flux and flux density
decreases.ThusthereisreductioninImandIchenceerrorsalsogetreduced.
1.5CharacteristicsofPotentialTransformers
Letusstudytheeffectofvariousparametersonthecharacteristicsofpotential
transformers.
1.Effectofpowerfactorofsecondarycircuit
Thep.f.ofsecondarycircuitdependsonthep.f.ofthesecondaryburden.Asp.f.
decreases, angle increases. This shifts Ip towards Io, as seen from the phasor
diagram.ThusVpandVsbecomesalmostinphasewithEpandEs respectively.Thus
VpbecomesmorecomparedtoEpbutasVpinconstantassupplyvoltage.,theresult
isthereductioninEp.SimilarlythevoltageVs also reduces compared to Es. Hence
fromequation(11)itisclearthat,RincreasesasVsdecreasesduetodecreasesdue
to decrease in the p.f. of secondary circuit. While Vs advances in phase and Vp
retardshencenegativephaseanglereducesaslaggingp.f.ofsecondarydecreases.
2.Effectofchangeinburdenonsecondary
The change in burden on secondary changes the secondary current and
secondary VA. As the secondary current increases, primary current increases. This
increases the voltage drops. For constant Vp, Vs decreases. This increases the
transformation ratio R. Thus ratio error increases as the secondary current i.e.
burdenincreases.

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Duetoincreasedvoltagedrop,VpadvanceswhileVsretardsinphase.Thusthe
phase angle between Vp and Vs increases and becomes more negative as the
secondarycurrentincreases.
3.Effectofchangeinfrequency
If frequency is increased at constant voltage then the flux and flux density
decreases. This reduces the values of Im, Ic and hence Io. This tends to reduce
errors. But increase in frequency increase the leakage reactance increasing the
voltage drops. This increases the ratio and ratio error. This effects are opposite to
eachotherandtheresultanteffectdependsonrelativevaluesofIo andtheleakage
reactance.
Whilethephaseangleincreasesduetoincreaseinleakagereactanceaswellas
decreaseinIo.
4.Effectofprimaryvoltage
The primary voltage is practically constant and there is hardly any significant
changeithencethereisnosignificantchangeintheerrors.
1.6ReductionofErrorsinInstrumentTransformers
Theratioandphaseangleerrorcanbeminimizedbyusingfollowingmethods:
1.ReductionthecorelossandmagnetizingcomponentsofIo
Theequationsofratioandphaseangleerrorsshowthattheerrorsdependon
the core loss and magnetizing components of no load current Io. The following
precautionsaretakentoreduceIcandIm,
1.Choosinglowreluctancecore.
2.Usingmaterialofhighpermability.
3.Providingsmallermagneticpathstotheflux.
4.Usinglargecrosssectionofthecore.
5.Keepingfluxdensityinthecoretolowvalue.
6.Takingsuitableprecautionswhiledesigningtheassemblyandinterleavingthe
core.
2.Reductionofresistanceandleakagereactance
Theerrorsdependsonthevoltagedropswhichareinturndependonthevalues
ofresistanceandleakagereactance.
Theresistancecanbereducedbyincreasingcrosssectionofconductorsand
decreasingthelengthofthemeanturn.
Theleakagereactancesdependontheleakagefluxes.
Note:Thusmutualcouplingbetweenthewindingsmustbehighhencewindings
mustbeascloseaspossible.
Similarly keeping flux density as high as practicable, the number of turns
requiredarelesshenceleakagereactancesgetreduced.
3.Providingturnscompensation
Thusonnoload,actualratioexceedsbysomefactor.Theremedyforthisisto
reducetheprimaryturnsorincreasingthenumberofsecondaryturns.Thusforone
particular value of load, the actual ratio can be made equal to nominal ratio. This
reduces the ratio error over the entire range of the burden. This is called turns
compensation.However,theturnscompensationdoesnotaffectthephaseangle.
1.7AdvantagesandDisadvantagesofInstrumentTransformer
Theadvantagesofinstrumenttransformerscanbelistedas,
1.Thenormalrangevoltmeterandammetercanbeusedalongwiththese
transformerstomeasurehighvoltageandcurrents.
2.Theratingoflowrangemetercanbefixedirrespectiveofthevalueofhighvoltage
orcurrenttobemeasured.
3.Thesetransformerisolatethemeasurementfromhighvoltageandcurrentcircuits.
Thisensuressafetyoftheoperatorandmakesthehandlingoftheequipmentsvery
easyandsafe.
4.Thesecanbeusedforoperatingmanytypesofprotectingdevicessuchasrelayor
pilotlights.
5.Severalinstrumentscanbefedeconomicallybysingletransformer.
Disadvantages:
Theonlydisadvantageoftheseinstrumenttransformersisthattheycanbeusedonly
fora.c.circuitsandnotford.c.circuits.

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Relatedposts:
Currenttransformer
Potentialtransformer
InductionHeatingTransformers
WeldingTransformer
AudioFrequencyTransformers

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