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# Power System Dynamics

Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 01
Introduction to Power System Stability Problem

Friends, during this semester we will be studying a course on power system dynamics.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

This power system dynamics is also popularly known as power system stability. The modern
power systems are very widely interconnected while this interconnections result in operating
economy and reliability through mutual assistance. They also contribute to the stability problem,
what I am trying to emphasize here is that the power systems are widely interconnected and the
stability problem has become a very important challenge to power system engineers because of
this large scale interconnections.

The powers for power system stability analysis the mathematical model of the system is required
to be developed. The mathematical model is a set of nonlinear differential equations and a set of
algebraic equations, for this nonlinear differential equations and set of algebraic equations there
is no formal solution available. These equations are to be solved using non-linear using
numerical techniques, I am sorry using numerical techniques and the numerical techniques take
lot of time to solve the equations.

Over the years the power system stability has posed a problem to the power system engineers.
The problem is posed in two respects; the one is the modeling of the system. To get the correct
assessment of power system stability a detail model of the power system need to be developed.
Once the mathematical model is correctly developed, one has to obtain the solution through
numerical techniques. Because of the large size of the power system, the numbers of differential
equations are large in number and therefore solution through numerical techniques takes
enormous time.

Historically, historically the stability problem has been attempted from 1920 onwards. Earlier we
were not having digital computers and therefore computations were mainly done using hand
calculations or in those days slide rules were available for calculating. Somewhere in 1950 or so
the analog computers were developed and these were used for simulating the power system
stability problem.

Then in late 1950s digital computers came in and the first digital computer program for power
system stability was developed in 1956. At that time the program was mainly to analyze the
transient stability of the system. Over the years another development took place that is the
implementation or application of high response excitation systems. The high response excitation
systems were capable of improving transient stability of the system but with the application of
the high response excitation systems resulted into a problem of poor damping of the system
oscillations.

This problem of poor damping of system oscillations has been overcome by implementing what
is commonly known as the power system stabilizers. During this semester we will try to
understand, the development of mathematical model of the power system, the mathematical
model includes the mathematical model for synchronous machine, excitation systems, voltage
regulators, governors and loads. For having the correct assessment of the stability the models
need to be accurately developed.

Earlier due to the computational difficulties, many assumptions were made and therefore the, the
assessment through computation and the actual groundility there used to be lot of difference.
Now, this course we will cover in about 40 hours the text for, textbook for this course is power
system stability and control by Prabha Kundur. This is a very nicely written book. Over the years
a number of books have been develop, written a lot of research work or research papers are
available, from time to time i will refer to other books and research papers which are relevant to
our study.

The first lesson on power system dynamics is, introduction to the power system stability
problem. Today, we will address to these aspects, basic concepts and definitions classification to
the power system stability rotor dynamics and swing equation and swing curve.
(Refer Slide Time: 07:14)

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:49)

Now let us first define what is power system stability? Power system stability may be broadly
defined as that property of a power system that enables it to remain in state of operating
equilibrium under normal condition and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being
subjected to a disturbance.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:32)

If you carefully look into this definition, you will find that one has to emphasize on ability to
remain in operating equilibrium and second point we have to emphasize is the equilibrium
between opposing forces. A power system is subjected to a variety of disturbances, it is never in
steady state condition. Small disturbances in the form of load changes continuously come, while
large perturbations in the form of faults, tripping of lines, change in large load and dropping of
generators do come in the system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:46)

A power system is designed and operated in such a fashion. So that it can withstand certain
probable contingencies. For the purpose of understanding this problem, the power system
stability problem is classified into 2 broad categories, one is called voltage stability and second is
called, I am sorry one is called angle stability and second is called voltage stability. Earlier years
the stability means angle stability. During the last one decade the another type of stability that
has come into picture is the voltage stability.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:06)

The angle stability is further classified into small signal stability, transient stability, mid-term
stability and long-term stability. We will briefly define these different types of stability problems
and try to understand what we mean by the different terminologies. Voltage stability is also
defined into two broad categories, one is called larger disturbance voltage stability and second is
small disturbance voltage stability.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:26)

Now, let us define what is rotor angle stability? The rotor angle stability is the ability of the
interconnected synchronous machines of a power system to remain in synchronism. Here the
emphasis on ability to maintain synchronism. This is the primary requirement for the operation
of a power system where, where all the machines of the system remain in synchronism.

Now for the system to remain in synchronism we have to study the torque balance of
synchronous machines, that is synchronous machine is the primary component here, where we
have to maintain equilibrium between the torque supplied by the prime over and the
electromagnetic torque developed by the synchronous generator. To analyze this power system
stability, we have to first understand the dynamics of the rotor and develop a mathematical
equation to describe the dynamics of the rotor.

For developing the basic equation, we make use of the principle of dynamics, elementary
principle of dynamics as for the rotational dynamics we all know that the accelerating torque is
the product of moment of inertia and angular acceleration that is for any rotating body the
accelerating torque is equal to the moment of inertia multiplied by angular acceleration and this
is the fundamental law on which actually the swing equation is best. Now as you know that
synchronous machine may operate as a synchronous generator or a synchronous motor.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:57)

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:01)

When we look at the rotor of the synchronous generator there are two torques which act on the
synchronous generator rotor are, one is the mechanical torque which acts on the system and
another is the electrical torque or we can call it electromagnetic torque which acts on the, these
two torques operate or act on the rotor in opposite direction.

The mechanical torque is provided by the prime over and electrical torque is developed due to
interaction of magnetic field and a stator currents. The rotor rotates in the direction of
mechanical torque that is if you just look here, if I show the direction of rotation, it is in the same
direction as the mechanical torque is applied to the system.

Under steady operating condition, these two torques are equal and the rotor of the synchronous
machine rotates at synchronous speed. However, however when disturbance is occur, there exist
a unequilibrium between the two torques, these two torques are not equal and this this difference
is called accelerating torque.

When I look at the synchronous motor thus the driving torque is developed by the flow of
electric power from the supply and it meets the load torque, therefore load torque becomes the
breaking torque while the driving torque is the electrical torque and the rotor rotates in the
direction of in which the electrical torque is developed.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:22)

The swing equation or actually I will the swing equation is to be derived, a differential equation
can be written relating the accelerating torque moment of inertia and acceleration. This can be
written as J into d square theta m by dt square equal to Ta, where Ta is difference of Tm minus of
Te. Tm is positive for generator operation and T is also positive for generator operation, while for
motor operation they take negative signs. When they use mks system of units, J the total moment
of inertia expressed is in kilogram meter square, theta m the angular displacement of rotor with
respect to the stationary axis in mechanical radians. Now I am here emphasizing that in this
equation theta m is measured with respect to a stationary axis
(Refer Slide Time: 17:40)

Time is measured in seconds. Tm is the mechanical or shaft torque supplied by the prime over
less retarding torque due to rotational losses in Newton meters, that the unit for the torque is
Newton meters, this Tm is torque supplied with the prime over to less rotational losses. It is the
torque which is available for rotating the rotor. Similarly, Te is the net electrical torque or
electromagnetic torque in Newton meters. Ta is the net accelerating torque in Newton meters.

## (Refer Slide Time: 18:35)

Now, if you see this equation then this theta m increases continuously even under steady state
conditions because theta m is measured with respect to stationary axis, okay. Now instead of
measuring the angle with respect to a stationary axis, the angle can be measured with respect to a
synchronously rotating axis, therefore theta m can be defined as omega sm into t plus delta m,
where omega sm is the synchronous speed of the machine. This is measured in radians per
second.

## (Refer Slide Time: 20:08)

Delta m is angular displacement of the rotor in mechanical radians from the synchronously
rotating reference axis. Now this equation two, when you when you take the derivatives of this
equation with respect to time, the first derivative is written as d theta m by dt2 equal to omega
sm plus d delta m by dt, that is we can see the rotor speed is equal to synchronous speed plus this

Now we take the second derivative, d2 theta m divided by dt square is equal to d square delta m
by dt square, okay. Omega sm being constant its derivative is 0. Now we substitute the value of
rotor acceleration in the equation 4, we get expression as J times d square delta m by dt square
equal to Ta Tm minus Te. Now at this point I want to emphasize that all the terms in this equation
are torque terms in Newton meters. In power system studies, we are more comfortable with the
terms in power, power may be watts, kilowatts, megawatts and therefore, what we do is we
multiply this equation 5 by omega m that is d theta m by dt.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:18)

Now when we multiply this by this term omega m, our equation becomes J into omega m d
square delta m by d square equal to omega m Tm minus omega m Te. Now here, this speed into
torque, this is the power, the speed is measured in radians per second, power or torque is
measured in Newton meters this product is power in watts.
(Refer Slide Time: 22:34)

Now we will represent this term omega m Tm as Pm, omega m Te as Pe, where Pm is shaft power
input to the machine less rotational losses. We are emphasizing all the time, the term rotational
losses here. The meaning here is that this is not the torque supplied by the prime over but it is the
prime over torque minus rotational losses.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:45)

Pe is the electrical power crossing the air gap also called air gap power. I mean in this equation 7,
we substitute the expression for power and the equation become J into omega m d square delta m
by dt square equal to Pm minus Pe equal to Pa. Now this term J into omega m, J is the moment of
inertia in kilogram meter square, omega m is the speed in radians per second. Now this product
is called angular momentum. Now in practical situations, the rotor speed omega m is very nearly
equal to the synchronous speed.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:33)

The difference is very small, the difference may become large only when machine loses
synchronism right and therefore, what we do is for the purpose of simplicity, if it represents
omega m in this equation by this omega sm, then this product of omega sm and moment of
inertia J, it will be denoted as the inertia constant M and therefore my equation take the shape M
d square delta m by dt square equal to Pm minus Pe, where m is known as inertia constant.

Strictly speaking this coefficient should be J into omega m and since omega m is not constant
therefore this coefficient term, strictly is not constant but by assuming making this assumption
omega m is equal to omega sm, this coefficient become constant and it simplifies our analysis,
further the error incurred by making this simplification is negligible. Okay therefore we are
justified in assuming this coefficient of the acceleration term as constant and this is called inertia
constant M.

Now at this stage, I would like to emphasize that this term M, varies over a wide range
depending upon size of the machine, type of machine because we have two main types of
synchronous generators hydro machines, hydro generators and turbo generators and these two
machines have widely different value of inertia constant M and this inertia constant M will be
different depending upon the size of the machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:30)

Now to overcome this problem, we define another term or another inertia constant which is
denoted by the symbol H. You have to we have to very clearly understand the definition of H,
the inertia constant H or the constant H is defined as the stored kinetic energy in mega joules at
synchronous speed divided by machine rating in MVA. For any synchronous machine, when is
when the rotor is rotating at synchronous speed, we can find out what is the kinetic energy stored
in the rotor and we divide this kinetic energy stored in the rotor by machine rating. If we denote
the kinetic energy stored in mega joules and machine rating in MVA, then the unit of this term
becomes mega joules per MVA. We can also represent in kilo joules per kilo watt, per KVA not
kilo watt, per KVA but still the machine ratings are normally in MVA, we prefer to use the rating
in MVA and energy stored in mega joules, okay. Therefore, this can be written as 1 by 2J omega
sm square upon the machine rating in MVA as mach.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:23)

Now we will develop a relationship between the inertia constant M and constant H. So that the M
which is there in our differential equation will be replaced by constant H, from this equation 10,
we can write the inertia constant M as 2H upon omega sm into ah machine rating S mach.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:48)

Now we substitute for inertia constant M in our equation, we find here that this becomes 2times
H omega sm d square delta m upon dt square equal to Pm minus Pe upon of S mach. Now if we
assume, MVA based for the system as the machine rating in MVA, then Pm upon S mach
becomes the per unit mechanical power, similarly Pe divided by S mach becomes the per unit
electrical power okay. Therefore, this equation can now be written in terms of power expressed
in per unit, further as you all know that in power systems the per unit system of calculations are
very convenient and therefore the equation is manipulated and written in terms of per unit power.

Therefore, the equation 13 here is written as 2H upon omega sm d square delta m divided dt
square equal to Pm in per unit minus Pe in per unit. Now every time writing per unit is not very
convenient, therefore what we do with that, we drop this nomenclature here but we keep in mind
that power is expressed in per unit.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:47)

Therefore with this, we can write down equations describing the rotor dynamics of the
synchronous machine as 2H upon omega sm d square delta m by dt square equal Pm minus Pe. At
this stage we have to very careful and understand very clearly that this P m and Pe are expressed in
per unit while expressing Pm and Pe in per unit, the MVA base is the machine rating in MVA.
For any machine which I am writing this differential equation, if we assume the MVA base okay
then the MVA base is the machine rating in MVA and therefore Pm and Pe are expressed in per
unit in terms of MVA base of the machine.

Now here, this delta m is expressed in radians per second, I am sure radians not radians per
second, this is the correction omega sm is expressed in radians per second. The units of these two
terms should be consistent. We know a term known as angle in electrical radians, speed in
(Refer Slide Time: 32:53)

per second, we can use delta in electrical radians and omega sm in electrical radians per second
and therefore what we do is that keeping in mind that these 2 terms would have the consistent
units, we drop the subscript m and we write the equation in the form 2 times H upon omega s
equal to d square delta by dt square equal to Pm minus Pe. In this is, this equation is known as the
swing equation of the synchronous machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:19)

This is applicable to generator as well as to motor, only difference is when we write this equation
for motor Pm becomes negative and Pe also become negative. So, that this term becomes Pe
minus Pm. Now here, we can express delta in radians, omega s in radians per second. If we do in
this manner, we can write the equation in the form H upon 2, H upon phi f that is omega s can be
replaced by 2 phi f and you will have the equation in the form H upon phi f d square delta by dt
square equal to Pm minus Pe okay, many time we express delta in electrical degrees and omega in
electrical degrees per second.

In that case omega s will be replaced by 360 into f. So that the resulting equation will be in the
form H upon 180 f d square delta by dt square equal to Pm minus Pe. We do use swing equation
either in this form or in the previous form but while using this equation, we have to very careful
in expressing the delta in proper units. You can in this case delta is in the electrical degrees while
in the equation 16 coefficient is H upon phi f delta is in electrical radians. As we will see here
actually that, this is the basic swing equation on which or around which the stability analysis of
the power system depends

Now we have 2 terms here Pm minus Pe, this Pe which is the electrical power output of the
machine is, is non linearly related to or it is non-linear function of delta and therefore, this
differential equation becomes a non-linear differential equation or we can say that the swing
equation is a second order non-linear differential equation. Suppose, you have any system a
number of machines number of synchronous machines then we have to write down swing
equation of each machine while in this, we have to write down the correct expression for
electrical power output.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:18)

Now when this swing equation is solved, the solution of the swing equation is known as swing
curve that is what we will get actually when we solve this equation, if you solve this equation
you will get the delta as a function of time delta as function of time and therefore we can define
this swing curve.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:43)

When the swing equation is solved we obtain the expression for delta as a function of time. A
graph of the solution is called swing curve of the machine and inspection of the swing curves of
all the machines of the system will show whether, whether the machines this is the wrong
mistake, I have whether the machines remains in synchronism after a disturbance.

I am writing here whether the machines remain in synchronism after a disturbance again this is a
big mistake here after a disturbance. For the purpose of solving the second order differential
equation, using numerical techniques or standard practice is to represent the second order
differential equation in terms of 2 first-order differential equations because when we apply the
numerical techniques for solving the differential equations using digital computers, it handles
first-order differential equations.

We can write down the second order differential equation as 2 first-order differential equations
by defining by defining a term omega but the omega is the actual speed of the machine and
therefore we can define these two differential equations in the form, 2H upon omega s, d omega
by dt that is you are having the d square delta by dt square therefore omega is defined as d delta
by dt okay. So that now here, we have one variable omega, then the second equation becomes d
delta by dt whose expression comes out to be omega minus omega s okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 40:48)

Now suppose you have a practical system where you have more than one machine that is called a
multi-machine system. In a multi-machine system, the output and hence the accelerating power
of each machine depend upon the angular position and, to the more rigorous also upon the
angular speeds of all the machines of the system. Thus for a 3- phase system, this is written for
mistake here again. Thus for a 3 machine system, for a 3 machine system, there are 3
simultaneous differential equations. The equations will look like this.

## (Refer Slide Time: 41:37)

M1 d2 delta 1 by dt2 equal to Pm1 minus Pe1 which is function of delta 1, delta 2, delta 3and it is
also function of d delta 1 by dt, d delta 2 by dt, d delta 3 by dt. I will tell actually why this Pe1 is
function of this derivative terms also the, for the second machine we have to put inertia constant
of that machine and the electrical output of this machine is function of all these angles and these
derivatives.

Similarly, for the third machine, we have Pe3 function of all these derivatives. Now since the
system, we are considering here is in dynamic condition. Okay when system rotor is in dynamic
condition, it develops some damping torque and this damping torque is proportional to the speed
deviation. Then, let us correct it is proportional to the speed or speed deviation with respect to
the synchronous speed. Now this d delta 1 by dt, d delta 2 by dt, d delta 3 by dt, these are the
rotor speeds with respect to the synchronously rotating reference speed.

Now to simplify our stability analysis, we ignore this damping terms. Once we ignore this
damping terms, the electrical output will exclusively be function of these angles only okay. Now
I would like to tell something more about the electrical power output.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:58)

The important characteristic that has a strong bearing on power system stability is the
relationship between interchanges power and the position of rotors of the synchronous machines,
this relationship is highly non-linear. I have told you here the electrical power Pe right is function
of rotor angels and it is non-linear. Now if I take a simple example to illustrate this, let us
consider this case, we have 2 machines connected by a transmission line.
(Refer Slide Time: 44:39)

We can represent this machine 1 by a voltage source in series with a reactance. Similarly, the
machine 2 can be represented by a voltage source in series with a reactance. The machine 1 is
supplying power to machine 2. This can be understood as machine 1 is a synchronous generator
machine 2 is asynchronous motor. For this simple system, if we develop an expression for
electrical power output from machine 1, then this can be derived by writing or by first drawing a
phasor diagram.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:39)

The phasor diagram can be simply drawn in this fashion. We can start with the terminal voltage
of the machine, synchronous machine 2. Let I is the current, the internal voltage of the
synchronous motor is represented by this phasor Em, to this Em we add this voltage drops, where
the voltage drops which take place in the internal reactance of the motor 9 reactance and
generator reactance to get the internal voltage.

Therefore, this phasogram diagram shows that Em to this Em, if we add this voltage drop I into
XM, we get the voltage ET 2, to this we add the voltage drop I into XL, we get the voltage ET 1
and to this we add the voltage drop I into XG, we get the internal voltage of the synchronous
generator. Delta which is the phase difference between EM and EG is called power angle and
this delta is sum of all these three angles delta G delta L and delta M.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:29)

If we plot, a graph relating power angle delta and power P or electrical power Pe, we call this as
Pe, then this graph comes out to be a sine curve, the expression for Pe is the internal voltage of the
generator, the magnitude of this voltage, internal voltage of the motor EM divided by the total
reactance X into sine. Now, if we see here as the delta increases, the power output increases and
becomes maximum at delta equal to 90 degrees, on the same diagram if I draw the mechanical
input line, the mechanical input is not function of delta and therefore it comes out to be a line
parallel to delta axis okay.

In this diagram, we will write this as Pm mechanical power, now this mechanical power line and
this power angle characteristic intersect at 2 points, this is 1 point I call it a, this is another
point we call it b, a is stable equilibrium point while b is unstable equilibrium point that is
we will denote this a as stable equilibrium point normally called SEP and b is unstable
equilibrium point.
The system, if it is operating at this point a and if it is perturb then it develops the forces so as
so that it returns back to this operating point a. However if the system is made to operate
which is at the point b which is also the equilibrium point but if suppose some perturbation is
given then the system will lose stability. It cannot come back it cannot rest develop restoring
forces to come back to the positing point b and therefore, our stable operating point is a and we
shall represent this operating angle as delta that is when the system is under steady conditions the
mechanical power is equal to electrical power and operating angle delta naught.

Now I conclude here, what we have learn in this lecture. I have tried to give you the basic
classification of the power system stability. We have defined the stability involved terms, we
have developed swing equation of the machine and we have also defined a very important term
inertia constant H. We will continue further in the next lecture.
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 02
Introduction to Power System Stability Problem (contd)

Friends, today we continue our discussion on introduction of the power system stability problem.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:09)

Today, I will discuss something more about inertia constant H, we introduced last time. I will
also discuss certain assumptions that commonly made in stability studies. We will discuss small
signal stability and voltage stability concepts; we shall be dealing with these topics in depth at
later stage. Today our intention is just to give you basic concepts related to a small signal
stability and voltage stability.

Last time, we have derived this swing equation, the swing equation is very important for analysis
of the stability of a power system, this equation is used for transitivity analysis and this is the
basis for small signal stability analysis also. This equation has the form the coefficient is 2H
upon omega s ah d square delta by dt square equal to Pm minus Pe. Initially when the equation
was written, the coefficient was M, the inertia constant. However, we define a another constant
known as the inertia constant H, let us see why we prefer inertia constant H for analyzing the
stability of the system.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:09)

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:24)

The inertia constant H has the desirable property, that its value unlike that of M does not vary
greatly with the rated MVA and speed of the machine but instead has a characteristic value or set
of values for each class of machines. I had very clearly, very in particularly told you last time
that the coefficient M varies over a wide range depending upon the size of the machine, speed of
the machine, type of the machine.
(Refer Slide Time: 04:17)

However, the inertia constant H has some characteristic values and in that respect H is similar to
per unit reactance of machines as you all know that the per unit reactance of the synchronous
machines have some characteristic values. Similarly, the inertia constant H also has certain
characteristic values and sometimes in the absence of the specific knowledge about inertia
constant H, we can assume some characteristic value and do our calculations, manufacturers
specify or provide the value of H on the MVA rating of the machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:06)

This diagram shows the typical value of the inertia constant H for turbo generators. On this axis,
we have marked the rating of the machine in MVA and on this axis we have marked the inertia
constant H in mega joules per MVA. Now machines, where turbo generators are of different type
and different speeds, if you take a turbo generator whose lateral speed is 800 rpm a powerful
machine then the variation of the inertia constant is shown by this graph, that is when the rating
varies as something like about 10 mega, 10 MVA to say 100 MVA, the variation of H is in the
range starting from about 9.5, it goes to 6.5.

Similarly, for a turbo generator whose speed is 3600 rpm , the variation is seen in this graph, it
varies from 4 to as much as 7 or 7.5. Another graph which is shown here is the known
condensing type of steam turbines, the inertia constant again varies but over a certain range.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:02)

Now this graphs shows the characteristic value of inertia constant H for a hydro generator. Again
on the x axis, we have marked the rating of the machine in MVA and y axis, the inertia constant
H in mega joules per MVA. Here, you see actually that again you find that the machines having
different speeds do have different value of inertia constant H, it increases with increase in the
MVA rating of the machine but still you can see actually it lies in a certain range.

Now I would like to know from you what this inertia constant H is whether it is the inertia
constant of the prime over or whether it is inertia constant of the rotor of the synchronous
generator or it is inertia constant of the prime over and rotor grouped together, who will reply
this? The question I imposed is, that I am talking of inertia constant H for the synchronous
machine. This inertia constant whether it corresponds to the total inertia constant of the turbine
plus generator rotor or only generator rotor or only turbine.
Yes you are correct, the inertia constant is the total inertia constant of the system that is for the
rotating body okay. Now, here I will just give you a small example suppose in a power plant we
have two machines okay of different ratings and the information which is provided to us is about
the inertia constant on the MVA rating, if this two machines are tightly coupled. So that they
form a coherent group, coherent group means the machines will swing together then we can the
place this machine by equivalent machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:47)

Now just take the example, let us say that unit 1, there are two units are there in the plant, unit 1
is 500 MVA and its is a constant H1 is specified as 5 mega joules per MVA, unit 2 7000 MVA its
inertia constant say H2 is 3mega joules per MVA because the manufacturer provide the

These two machines are in the same plant, we want to find out the equivalent inertia constant of
the2 machines, how do we compute the equivalent inertia constant for that, we need one more
information that on both MVA basis. We want to find out the equivalent inertia constant. Let us
assume that we want to find out the equivalent inertia constant H on base MVA equal to 100
okay. Then the calculations proceed in a straight forward manner, first we find out the total
kinetic energy stored in the two machines, that is total kinetic energy will be equal to, take the
basic definition for the first machine it is going to be H that is 5, MVA rating is 500 plus second
machine H is 3 and MVA rating is 1000. This comes out to be 5500 mega joules.
(Refer Slide Time: 11:44)

Therefore, H I can say equivalent on base MVA equal to 100 is 5500 divided by 100 because
base MVA is 100, it comes out to be 55 mega joules per, this is the way one can find out the
equivalent inertia constant of a number of machines which are running in the same plant and are
coherent. Now before we talk further about the different types of stability, I would like to tell the
the commonly made assumptions for stability analysis.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:05)

The first assumption which is very commonly made is the mechanical power input remains
constant during the period of the transients, if you look into the swing equation, our swing
equation is 2H divided by omega s d square delta by dt square equal to Pm minus Pe okay. But
this assumption which I am telling you here is that this Pm will be assumed to remain constant
during the transient okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:21)

The logic for making this assumption is that in any any prime over whether is a stream turbine or
is a hydro turbine right, the mechanical power input is governed by governor and by
supplementary control action which you normally call a set point control. Now the governors
sense the speed deviation and actuate the turbine walls. So that more steam enters when the
speed drops and when speed increases the walls will be closed to decrease the speed decrease the
speed by decreasing the steam input to the machine.

In practice, the speed deviation is very small during the transient stability analysis until unless
the machine looses synchronism, the machine deviation is very the speed deviation is very very
small and therefore governors do not act okay and therefore, this assumption is a very very valid
assumption in all stability studies. We will assume this Pm to remain constant during the transient
period.

The second very important assumption is, we neglect damping or asynchronous power in the
stability studies and you can say the damping or asynchronous power is negligible. In fact when
the machine is in dynamic condition, it develops a synchronous power as well as asynchronous
power. This asynchronous power results into damping, now the swing equation which I have
derived, in this swing equation we have not accounted for damping.
Suppose, I want to modify this swing equation including damping aspect then I have to add one
more term here and that becomes minus D times d delta by dt. The damping torque will always
act in a direction opposite to the dragging torque, okay. So that is the accelerating torque at any
instant of time will now becomes Pm minus Pe minus D times d delta by dt but to simplify the
analysis we ignore this damping term and therefore, the second assumption is the damping or
asynchronous power is negligible.

## (Refer Slide Time: 18:28)

The third assumption which is made the synchronous machine can be represented by constant
voltage source behind a transient reactance. This assumption is, is not very truly applicable
however, for classical stability studies when you make this assumption the results obtained are
not very far away from the actual results. As we will see when we talk about, the detail model of
the synchronous generator right, we can represent this synchronous generator model in more
detail while for performing classical stability analysis, this assumption can be made and this
results into a very simplified model or simplified representation of synchronous generator.

However actually in our studies, we will develop detail mathematical model of the synchronous
generator and this assumption will need not be made at that time. Another very important
assumption which is made is the mechanical angle of the synchronous machine rotor coincides
with the electrical phase angle of the voltage behind transient reactance, okay as here we have
assumed that a synchronous machine can be represented by a constant voltage behind transient
reactance okay and further assumption which is made is the phase angle of this voltage coincides
with the rotor angle

The last and the most important assumption here is the synchronous power may be calculated
from a steady state solution of the network to which the machines are connected because in our
swing equation, we have to compute the Pe , that is the electrical power output from the machine
this is the synchronous power okay and for computing the synchronous power, we assume that
the network is in steady state okay, although when the rotors of the synchronous machines are
oscillating right, the network is not in steady state in the real sense that is the voltage and the
frequency also is deviating slightly depending upon the but since this quantity is very small as
compared to the power frequency and the computations can be conveniently done by assuming
that the network is in steady state condition.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:36)

Now while classifying the power system stability we have classified into 2 categories angle
stability and voltage stability, angle stability was further classified into different categories.
Now, we will just look quickly, how we define the small signal stability the small signal stability
is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small perturbations, this is a
important point, that is the machine or synchronous machine has the ability to maintain
synchronism, this is primary requirement for stability under small perturbations or small
disturbances.

## (Refer Slide Time: 23:22)

The small disturbances are small variation in loads and generations, any power system loads
keep on changing continuously therefore this is one example of small disturbance, the second
important aspect here is the disturbances are considered to be sufficiently small for linearization
of the system equations to be permissible for purpose of analysis. As I have told you earlier the
swing equation is a non-linear differential equation, okay but when we consider small
perturbations this equation can be linearized around a nominal operating condition.

Once the equation is a linear equation, we can make use of linear control theory as well as we
can get the closed form solution of the differential equation once it is a non-linear differential
equation I have to solve by applying numerical technique however, if the differential equation is
a linear differential equation, we know the closed form solution for the equation and once the
differential equations are linear we can use a linear control theory to design controllers for the
system. Now here, I would like to take one example how do we linearize a non-linear differential
equation.
(Refer Slide Time: 25:18)

Our non-linear differential equations which we will consider is, same as the swing equation
derived okay. Now, when I say that we linearize this equation around a nominal operating
condition or point. The nominal operating condition here can be characterized by the initial value
of the angle delta. Let us say, machine is operating where delta is equal to delta naught and we
will assume here that Pe is the electrical power is given by this equation Pmax sin delta okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 27:15)

Now under steady state operating condition Pm is equal to Pe that is Pmax sin delta O, that is I
substitute the value of delta equal to delta O, that will give me the electrical power output and
under steady state condition these 2 powers are equal. Now what we do is that we give an
incremental change or we make an incremental change in delta, let us say that delta is equal to
delta naught plus delta okay.

Let us substitute, this in our equation, swing equation it becomes 2H upon omega s d square delta
naught plus delta divided by dt square, Pm we assume to be constant it remains Pm, Pmax sin I put
here delta naught plus delta, okay. Now you expand this equation and write down Pm minus Pmax
sin delta O cos delta, okay plus plus cos delta O, sin delta okay. Now let us look the at this
equation and since we know that, delta delta is a incremental change, small one.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:36)

So that cos delta delta is very nearly equal to 1, sin delta delta is very nearly equal to delta delta
good okay. We will make this substitution in this equation now let us write down what is the
value of this derivative. The derivative of delta O is 0 and therefore this derivative term becomes
d square delta delta divided by dt two equal to Pm minus Pmax into sin delta O cos delta delta we
have made it one, okay and I put plus here plus cos delta O delta delta

Now Pm minus sine P max sin delta O, Pmax sin delta O is equal to Pm therefore this becomes now
equal to minus Pm cos delta O delta delta okay or now I can write down my differential equation
as 2H upon omega s, d square delta delta by dt square plus Pm. Pmax right, we will write in Pmax
here cos delta O, this is also Pmax delta delta. This differential equation is a second order linear
differential equation, do you agree, why it is second order linear differential equation?
Because, here we do not have delta delta or any term, it is trigonometrical term or non-linear
term. So far this term is concerned, this coefficient is concerned this is a constant because Pmax is
known, delta O is known Pmax cos delta O is known. Pmax cos delta naught is known as the
synchronizing power coefficient, this term is known as synchronizing power coefficient and may
be denoted by the symbol Sp, that is Sp is equal to P max cos delta naught. So that we can write
down the swing equation as 2H divided by omega s d2 delta delta by dt2 equal plus Sp delta delta.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:24)

Further this is generally written in the form, sorry is written in the form d square delta delta by dt
square plus omega s, Sp divided by 2H delta delta equal to 0, in case Sp is positive the solution of
this equation will be similar to, similar to the solution of a simple harmonic motion. It is going to
be a sinusoidal, in case Sp is negative then it gives you a exponentially increasing value of delta
as a function of time. Therefore primary requirement for the system to be stable here stable under
small perturbations is that this synchronizing power coefficient should be positive.

Now, when we write the equation for simple harmonic motion the equation is written as d square
x by dt square plus omega n square x equal to 0, where omega n is the natural frequency of
oscillation. Now here by comparing the coefficients, we can write down that omega n is equal to
square root of omega s, Sp divided by 2H. This will be in radians electrical radians, we call it

Now further, you can see that the synchronizing power coefficient is the slope of the power angle
characteristic at the operating condition, that is if you find out dPe divided by d delta it comes out
to be Pmax cos delta O and therefore dP by d delta is the slope of the power angle characteristic
and our primary requirement is that the synchronizing power coefficient should be positive for
the system to be stable under small disturbances, and that is why when I talk to you about the
stable and non-stable operating points, where this was our power angle characteristic P versus
delta.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:45)

This was your mechanical input line, these are the operating condition and this is the stable
operating condition because at this point the slope of the power angle curve is positive. I shall
take one small example to find out what is the frequency of oscillations, which we normally
come across.
(Refer Slide Time: 38:47)

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:06)

Let us take a case where a synchronous machine as H equal to 5 mega joules per MVA. Further
we assume that Pe equal to 2 sin delta expressed in per unit 2 is your Pmax now. Let delta equal
to delta naught equal to 60 degree, okay. Then Sp comes out to be equal to 2 cos delta naught
which is equal to 1 okay. Let us take system frequency as 50 hertz, f equal to 50 hertz, omega n
natural frequency of oscillation of the rotor can be computed by substituting the values of small
s, omega s is 314 for 50 hertz system, Sp has come out to be equal to one synchronizing torque
coefficient 2 into 5H is 5.
This quantity is square root of 31.4, if you calculate it comes out to be equal to 5.6 electrical
radians per second. Frequency of oscillation in hertz can be obtained as omega n by 2 phi which
comes out to be in this case 0.89 hertz. This example is given here to give you the frequency of
oscillations we come across, system frequency is 50 hertz but when the rotors oscillate the
frequency of oscillation depends upon initial operating condition which determines the
synchronizing power coefficient, it depends upon the initial constant H of the machine and it also
depends upon the system frequency okay and it is of the order of 1 hertz in this case but it does
vary depending upon the value of this parameters but the variation is in the range of point 5 to 2
hertz normally.

## (Refer Slide Time: 42:41)

Now we have defined the small signal stability and small signal stability is the ability of the
synchronous machines to remain in synchronism under small perturbations. Now when the
synchronous machines rotors are oscillating it develops an electrical power delta T, when the
rotors are oscillating it produces a electrical torque we call delta T. This torque can be
decomposed into two components, one is called synchronizing torque, another is called damping
torque.

The synchronizing torque is in phase with speed deviation, I am sorry there is a correction it is in
phase with phase with angle deviation delta delta and the damping torque is produced in phase
with speed deviation. when the rotor is oscillating and if the oscillations are sinusoidal in nature
then we can represent this torque as a phaser in a plane where, delta delta is the x axis and delta
omega is the y axis
(Refer Slide Time: 44:05)

Look here, actually in this diagram the plane is x axis is marked as delta delta y axis is delta
omega and in case, the delta T the change in electrical torque lies in the second quadrant then
you have 2 components, 1 component is damping torque component, another is the synchronized
torque component. Damping torque component is positive while synchronizing torque
component comes out to be negative

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:02)

In case delta T lies in the first quadrant of the delta delta delta omega plane, then both
synchronizing torque and damping torques are positive for stability of the system both
synchronizing and damping torque should be positive. Okay I will discuss these aspects slight in
more detail when we talk about the small signal stability problem.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:58)

The small signal stability can be classified into 2 categories, one is called non oscillatory
instability not a stability instability, it can be non oscillatory instability this occurs because of
insufficient synchronizing torque, another is oscillatory instability this is due to insufficient
damping torque or by due to unstable control action.

Now we can see the response of the system under small perturbations, under 2 conditions, one is
that synchronous machine has constant field voltage there is no voltage regulator acting, another
case is where the synchronous machine is provided with a voltage regulator where we call this as
one as a constant field voltage another is with excitation control . Now suppose a situation is like
this where you have a negative synchronizing torque while positive damping torque the response
of the rotor to small perturbation will be of this form, starts from 0 and these oscillations are
oscillations are like damp because damping is positive but since synchronizing torque coefficient
is negative it increases monotonically. Therefore, this represents a case of insufficient
synchronizing torque.
(Refer Slide Time: 47:55)

Here is another case where synchronizing torque coefficient is positive but damping torque
coefficient is negative, the response of the rotor or del to perturbation starts from 0, you can see
actually that the oscillations are growing. Okay, therefore this is the case of oscillatory instability
and this is primarily due to lack of damping torque or here I can say that the system has negative
damping. In any power system, we will come across different modes of oscillations, a power
system is a large interconnected system okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:00)

We come across a local modes, inter area modes, control modes and torsional modes. The local
modes are the one where a synchronous machines located in a power plant oscillate with respect
to rest of the system and the frequency is in the range of .7 to 2 hertz. We have been taken the
example we found that frequency came out to .89 okay. Similarly, another case comes where a
group of machines of a power system oscillate with another group of machines connected by a
weak tie line and these group of machines will form one area another group forms, another area
and therefore we say this is inter area oscillation and when the group of machines are considered
the inertia constant H is large and the frequency of oscillation is in the range of point 2 to 1 hertz.

So for control modes are concerned the frequency of the different modes depend upon the
actually control phenomena therefore, no specific frequency is specified. The torsional modes is
another phenomena which occurs in the steam turbine and the different frequencies which we
come across are for typicals mass system it comes out be 16.3, 24.1, 30.3 and 44 hertz.

We will devote about two lectures to deal with about the torsional modes in detail at that time it
will be clear, how the different masses which are mounted on the same shaft will result into
different modes of sub synchronous oscillations and I will conclude here, my today is
presentation by summarizing what we have done.

We have addressed to 3pecific aspects, one is inertia constant H its importance, second aspect we
have considered here is the basic assumptions which are made instability analysis and the third
aspect we have studied is the small signal, stability, its definitions ,we have also talked about
how to linearize a non-linear differential equations and how to compute the natural frequency of
oscillations through an example. We will cover rest of the aspects of the introduction to power
system stability in the next lecture.
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 03
Introduction to Power System Stability Problem (contd)

Friends we shall discuss today, 3 important aspects of stability analysis, One is the transient
stability voltage stability and long term and mid-term stability. All these topics will be covered in
detail in subsequent lectures.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

Today I will simply give you the basic concepts related to these three stability problems. First we
consider the transient stability. As I told you earlier that originally, the transient stability was the
only stability which was of concern and which was analyzed in detail.

The transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism when subjected
to severe transient disturbances. Let me emphasize here, that transient stability is the ability of
the power system to maintain synchronism subjected to severe transient disturbance, the word
severe transient disturbance is to be carefully understood the disturbances occur suddenly they
are severe in nature.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:05)

Now the examples of the disturbances are transmission line faults sudden large load changes is
loss of generation, generating units and line tripping. Now these are the examples which can be
consider which are considered for studying the behavior of the system. Now some of the
important features we have to understand about the transient stability are, the resulting system
response involves large excursions of rotor angles and is influenced by non-linear power angle
relationship.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:25)

Now here I am again trying to emphasize that whenever large disturbances occur then the, then
the resulting response involves large excursion of rotor angles, the delta varies over a wide range
and therefore the power output is highly non-linear with respect to delta, this is one important
aspect and therefore transient stability analysis require the solution of non-linear swing
equations.

The stability depends on both initial operating state of the system and the severity of the
disturbance that is for each operating condition the behaviour of the system is going to be
different. Similarly, the severity of the disturbance, now severity can be depends upon the type of
fault, location of fault and duration of fault.

Similarly, when we talk about the large load change what is the quantum of load which has come
on the system. Similarly, when we talk about the generator dropping what is the amount of
generation that has been taken out from the system and therefore these two important points we
have to carefully understand are that it depends upon the initial operating condition and severity
of the disturbance.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:35)

Usually the system is altered, so as so that the post disturbance steady state operation differs
from that prior to the disturbance. Here, suppose the system is initially operating in a bulk steady
state operate condition, the moment disturbance occurs there will be a change in the topology of
the system and therefore if the system is stable, the new steady state operating condition will be
different from the previous one.

The disturbances of usually varying degrees of severity and probability of occurrence can take
place in the system. Now when you talk about a practical system, the disturbances which occur
have different degree of severity and different probability of occurrence. When you talk in terms
of what you mean by the probability of occurrence in any power system faults occur in the
system but the probability of occurrence of line to ground fault is the maximum and the
probability of occurrence of 3 phase fault is minimum right and therefore one has to look into
this aspect while analyzing the transient stability of the system and also while designing the
system for operation and planning.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:32)

The system is designed and operated so as to be stable for a set of contingencies for example,
single phase to ground fault, phase ground fault or 3 phase fault. Now here when we talk about
the contingencies, we have to contingency stand for these all abnormal conditions okay and
whenever we design the system we have to see that what are the most probable contingencies
and the system should withstand those contingencies and it should not loose synchronism when
such contingencies occur.

Now when we analyze the transient stability of the system usually we assume the faults
occurring on the transmission line, sometimes we consider the faults at the buses or on the
transformers. In any system, when the faults occur the faulty system or faulty element is
disconnected by the operation of protective system and circuit breakers therefore, we have to be
very careful when we consider the analysis of transient stability, the operation of circuit breakers
and protective relays. In some cases, we consider the high speed reclosure also that is circuit
breakers have the capability to reclose after sometime delay.

Now this reclosure may be successful reclosure or it may be unsuccessful reclosure, in case the
fault is transitory in nature and it clears by itself then when you reclose the circuit, you will
regain the original operating condition. However, if suppose there is a permanent fault right then
the reclosure is going to be unsuccessful we will study the affect of auto reclosure on the
transient stability in our late, later lectures. With this basic points related to the transient stability
I will just show you a typical response of delta as a function of time for a particular for a given
disturbance.

## (Refer Slide Time: 10:38)

This figure shows the behaviour of a synchronous machine under stable and unstable operating
conditions. Now I have shown in this diagram 3cases: case 1, case 2, and case 3. Case 1 shows
that following the disturbance, the power angle increases attains maximum value then further
decreases and oscillates with decreasing amplitude, this is a stable case. Case 2 is 1 where the
response is shown in curve 2, in this case the delta increases continuously till system becomes
unstable or till machines loose synchronism.

This type of instability is generally called first swing instability and this happens particularly due
to insufficient synchronizing power, the third case is a case where the power angle delta
increases attains maximum but subsequently the oscillations grow in magnitude This is a case
where system is stable from the point of view of first swing stability but the system is becoming
unstable due to, due to lack of damping torque that is the new operating condition is not small
signal stable.

Now these curves can be plotted for any operating condition, for any given severity or given
disturbance and then we can examine whether the system is stable or not by examining the swing
curves, they are all swing curves. These swing curves are obtained by solving swing equation of
the system, the method of solving this swing equations we will learn subsequently, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:25)

We shall be devoting significant amount of time for analyzing the transient stability of a system
in our subsequent lectures. Now we address the problem of voltage stability, the voltage stability
has become the subject of studies during the last one decade. Now voltage stability is the ability
of a power system to maintain steady state voltages at all buses in the system under normal
operating conditions and after being subjected to a disturbance. You have to very carefully
understand the definition that is again it is the ability, stability is the ability of the system such
that it maintains steady state voltage at all the buses under normal operating condition and also
after disturbance.
Now here, we will see that actually when we talk about normal operating voltages that means
that acceptable voltage profile of the system sometimes the voltage may become very low it will
not be acceptable, we call this as a unstable system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:50)

A system enter, enters a state of voltage instability when the disturbance increase in load demand
or change in system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable drop in voltage. Now here
we have emphasizing the occurrence of voltage instability that is whenever a disturbance occurs,
the voltage drops and it is not controllable because any system, we have certain controllers which
control the system voltage but disturbance may be of such in nature. So that the controllers are
not in a position to control the system voltage and that is the condition for voltage instability.

The main factor causing instability is the ability of the power system inability of the power
system to meet the demand of reactive power. When you talk about the angle stability it is a
balance between reactive active power that is mechanical input of the turbine or mechanical
input from the turbine must be equal to electrical output from the generator, it is a real power
balance, here in voltage stability we require the balance between the reactive power that is
reactive power generated and the reactive power consumed in a system and in if in case the
system is unable to maintain this balance then the problem of voltage instability occurs.

The heart of the problem is usually the voltage drop that occurs when active power and reactive
power flow through inductive reactances associated with the transmission network. When you
again look, what are the main causes of voltage drop the, the voltage drop takes place in
transmission system in transformers or any part of the ah system due to the flow of real and
reactive power and the system has its impedance resistance and reactance and because of this
there is a voltage drop in the system and this drop is the primary, primary cause of voltage
instability. We shall be studying this voltage stability problem in detail in our later or subsequent
lectures however, I will just give you one basic ideas that the criteria of voltage stability.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:09)

When do we say that system is voltage stable or system is voltage instable? A simple criteria is a
criteria for voltage is stability is that a given operating condition for every bus in the system, the
bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection at that at the same bus is
increased this point is very important suppose, you have a large system you have number of
buses. Okay, if we inject reactive power at a particular bus then the voltage of that bus would
increase, if the operating condition is such that by injecting voltage at any of the buses and the
just correct me by injecting reactive power at any of the system buses, the voltage should
increase there should be no case where where I inject the reactive power and the voltage
decreases. This concept can be further stated in the form when we talk about voltage stable to say
voltage unstable.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:51)

A system is voltage instable, unstable if for at least one bus in the system. The bus voltage
magnitude V decreases as the reactive power injection Q at the same bus is increased because
when I talked about the voltage stability the condition posed was that at all buses, the voltage
should increase when reactive power is injected if at any one of the buses the situation is
different that is when you inject reactive power, the voltage decreases right then if any at any of
the one buses this happens the system is voltage instable or voltage unstable.

Another way of stating this problem is a system is voltage stable, if V-Q sensitivity is positive
for every bus and voltage unstable, if V-Q sensitivity is negative for at least one bus, it may be
more than one bus. Okay but if at any one bus, any one bus the voltage sensitivity becomes V-Q
sensitivity, we know what is in V-Q sensitivity that is change in voltage divided by change in
reactive power injected if you find this ratio right this is called the voltage V-Q insensitivity and
if the V-Q sensitivity becomes negative at any one of the buses, we say the system is voltage
unstable, voltage instability is essentially a local phenomenon however, its consequences may

## (Refer Slide Time: 23:06)

Another next one which I wanted to mention is, the concept of voltage collapse sometimes we
say that voltage collapse taken place in the system. Now this voltage collapse is a very complex
phenomena which occurs due to occurrence of a sequence of events but when, whenever the
system voltage becomes unacceptable, the system voltage profile becomes unacceptable to us we
say that voltage collapse has taken place.

Okay for analyzing the voltage stability problem it is divided again into 2 categories, one is
called large disturbance voltage stability and another is called small disturbance voltage stability,
just like as we had in the angle stability we divided this problem into 2 categories, small signal
stability and transient stability, transient stability is particularly related to large disturbance is a
large disturbance stability right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:31)

So the power system stability was classified as angle stability and voltage stability. We have
studied basic concepts of angle stability, now we shall study the basic concepts of voltage
stability. The voltage stability is also classified like angle stability into 2 categories, a large
disturbance voltage stability and small disturbance voltage stability. This voltage stability a
phenomena has been studied during the last one decade in depth a lot of research work has also
been done in the area of voltage stability.

We will just study today the basic definitions of large disturbance voltage stability and small
disturbance voltage stability and the factors which determine these 2 stability problems. The
large disturbance voltage stability is concerned with systems ability to control voltages following
large disturbances such as system faults, loss of generation and circuit contingencies. Here I
emphasize that systems ability to control voltages, now in any power system, the power system
voltage is controlled by controlling the controllable devices, the controllable devices are the, the
automatic voltage regulators on the synchronous machine.

We have online tap changers on the transformers, we have capacitors a shunt capacitors, shunt
reactors and other devices are static wire systems and these devices when they are controlled to
maintain the voltage on the system and if the system can control the voltage following the
disturbance then such system is said to be voltage stable.
(Refer Slide Time: 26:55)

The voltage stability is determined by system load characteristics and the interaction of both
discrete and continuous controls and protections when we talk about the system load
characteristics, you have to understand very carefully that the power consumed by load depends
upon the magnitude of the voltage and frequency. There are some loads whose power consumed
depends upon the voltage only, there are some loads whose power consumed it depends upon
voltage and frequency both, an example is a heating load, where the power consumed is directly
proportional to voltage square.

However, it does not depend upon the system frequency but if I consider the induction motor
load, then the power consumed depends upon voltage and frequency both and therefore, when
we talk about the power system stability then the power system voltage stability that it is
primarily determined by the load characteristic and the interaction of both discrete and
continuous control protections.

When I talk about discrete controls these are the on off controls and continuous controls the
example is automatic voltage regulators. Similarly, the static wire systems are continuous
controls the criteria for large disturbance voltage stability is that following a given disturbance
and following system control actions, the voltages at all buses reach acceptable limits. In any
system, we can operate the system in case the voltages are within certain acceptable limits, in
case the voltages can be controlled within the acceptable limit the system is said to stable. Now
we discuss the small disturbance voltage stability.
(Refer Slide Time: 29:04)

Small signal voltage stability is concerned with a systems ability to control voltages following
small perturbations, such as incremental changes in system load. When we talked about the large
disturbance voltage stability the disturbances were large in magnitude while here when we talk
about the small disturbance voltage stability the disturbances are small in magnitude, the
example of small disturbance is incremental changes in system load.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:42)

A criteria for small signal disturbance voltage stability is that for a given operating condition a
system is voltage stable, if V-Q sensitivity is positive for every bus and unstable if V-Q
sensitivity is negative for at least one bus. I will again repeat here the meaning of V-Q sensitivity
that is at any bus if I inject a reactive power then the change in voltage divided by change in
reactive power injected this gives the V-Q sensitivity and for the system to be stable at all buses
in the system V-Q sensitivity should be positive and if V-Q sensitivity is negative at anyone of
the buses system is said to be unstable voltage unstable.

The voltage instability does not always occur in pure form, often the angle and voltage stability
go hand in hand, here I want to emphasize that system is one and whenever disturbances occur it
affect the system angle as well as the voltage and therefore both these phenomenon go together
and whenever we analyze the total system stability, one has to take care of both the aspects we
shall study the voltage stability phenomena in detail in subsequent lectures.

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:36)

Now we will define another very important term known as the long-term and mid-term stability
this is also a new phenomena earlier, the designers and operators of power system did not
consider this problem this long-term and mid-term stability has been introduced as a result of a
need to deal with problems associated with the dynamic response of the power system to severe
upsets. The severe upsets are those disturbances that result in excursions of frequency and
voltage and power flow is either so great or so long lasting that they invoke the actions of short
ah slow processes protection systems and controls which are not modelled in the conventional
transient stability analysis because when we analyze the transient stability problem we do make
certain assumptions but however in long-term and mid-term stability problem, the disturbances
are so severe in nature, so it results into severe upsets in the system, the frequency and voltages
fluctuate over a wide range and this will invoke the action of certain controls which otherwise
were not modeled.
(Refer Slide Time: 33:35)

Long-term stability analysis assumes that, inter machine synchronizing power oscillations have
damped out and the result being uniform frequency and here I want to emphasize that whenever
disturbance occur system is in dynamic condition but the movement sufficient time has elapsed,
then the system will settle to a low frequency, low voltage and frequency can be assumed to be
reformed all through the system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:18)

The focus is now on the slower and longer duration phenomena that accompany large scale
upsets and on the resulting large, sustained mismatches between generation and consumption of
active and reactive power.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:52)

These phenomenon include boiler dynamics of thermal units, penstock and conduit dynamics of
hydro units, automatic generation control, power plant and transmission system protection and
controls transformer saturation and off nominal frequency effect of loads and the network. This I
will just discuss these thing one by one, when we talked about the transient stability analysis, we
assumed that mechanical power remains constant. We did not model the boiler dynamics, turbine
dynamics for hydro turbines; we did not model the penstock and conduit dynamics. We also do
not model the automatic generation control which is a secondary control to regulate the real
power output of the generator. We have also not modelled the protection system in the
transmission transformer situation and the effect of off nominal frequency effect on loads and
network now here, when the system voltage and frequency deviate widely from the nominal
value, the transformer core may get saturated and it has effect on the system performance.

Similarly, when the voltage and frequency are low all these controls get activated or invoked
similarly, when frequency is quite away from the nominal voltage is away from the nominal it
effect the system load and therefore when we analyze the long-term stability, these phenomenon
need to be modelled and dynamics need to be analyzed considering the detail models of these
devices.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:48)

The next point is about the mid-term stability, the mid-term stability is between the transient
stability and long-term stability. Now we can say that mid-term response represents the
transmission between short-term and long-term responses that is it is basically transition,
transition between short-term and long-term responses.

In mid-term stability studies the focus is on synchronizing power oscillations between the
machines including the effect of slower phenomena and possible large voltage and frequency
excursions. As I mentioned that when we talk about the long-term stability, we do not consider
the synchronizing power oscillations while in mid-term we consider the synchronizing power
oscillations
(Refer Slide Time: 37:21)

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:00)

Now severe system upsets result in large excursions of voltage frequency and power flows that
thereby invoke the actions of processes, controls and portions of and portions not modelled in the
transient stability studies.
(Refer Slide Time: 38:17)

The typical ranges of time responses, the transient stability is studied for a period of 0 to 10
seconds generally it is over a period of 0 to, 3 to 5 seconds only on those cases where we have a
large system and there are interior modes of low frequency exists in those cases the time period
of oscillations may be large and therefore the transient stability is analyzed approximately in this
range of 0 to 10 seconds. It is not a very a very rigid boundary between a transient stability mid-
term and long-term stability.

Now mid-term stability is from 10 seconds to few minutes while long-term stability is from few
minutes to 10 of minutes. Now with this, I will conclude that today we have, we have addressed
transient stability problem, voltage stability problem and and mid-term and long-term stability
problem. We have seen actually that the transient stability is the ability of the system to maintain
synchronism following large disturbance, it depends upon the system operating condition
severity of the disturbance.

Similarly, the small disturbance stability which we studied earlier that also depends upon the
operating condition of the system and type of disturbance. The voltage stability we have
addressed the basic concepts related to large disturbance voltage stability and small disturbance
voltage stability. We have seen actually the primary criteria for analyzing the voltage stability of
the system while talking about mid-term and long-term stability which are new in the area of
power systems, we have seen actually that whenever there are severe upsets in the system one
has to model the dynamics of slow processes controls and the effect of frequency and voltage
excursions on the system loads with this one is in a position to analyze the behaviour over a long
duration.
Further I would like to emphasize that these 3 stability problems mid-term stability, mid-term
and long-term stability, transient stability and voltage stability they are interrelated the modeling
is similar in nature with this I conclude my todays presentation. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 04
Solution of Swing Equation
Method 1
Method 2

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends we start today, the next topic that is on solution of swing equation. We have
derived swing equation or a synchronous machine we have also derived swing equation
for a multi-machine system. We have seen that the swing equation is function of or is a
non-linear function of the power angles, the there is no formal solution available or
possible because the swing equation is a non-linear differential equation and therefore
numerical techniques have been developed to solve the swing equation. The 2 methods
which is called method 1 and method 2 will discussed today. Before I tell you about the
method 1 and method 2 for solving the swing equation, let us consider a simple case.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:56)

## A synchronous machine connected through a transformer to a double circuit transmission

line and hence and then connected to an infinite bus, a large system on this transmission
lines we provide circuit breakers at these locations. The purpose of providing circuit
breakers it is location is that as and when any fault occurs on the transmission line by
operating the circuit breaker this faulting line can be taken out.

We will consider a disturbance where due to some unknown reason this line trips, okay.
Now here before before the occurrence of this disturbance these 2 lines are in service.
Now if I draw the power angle characteristic I will denote this as Pe on this axis, we put
delta, okay for this case the power angle characteristic will come out to be a sin curve on
this path okay.

Now in case the system is operating under steady state condition I will represent the
mechanical input line by a straight line divided by Pm then this is our operating, now the
moment a disturbance occurs where out of the 2 lines, 1 lines trips then the post fault
system will have only 1 line in operation and the new power angle characteristic will be
different from the power angle characteristic before the occurrence of fault or we call it
pre-fault disturbance or pre-fault power angle characteristic or we can call it pre-
disturbance power angle characteristic.

Now let us represent the power angle characteristic after the disturbance we will this
characteristic can be represented as Pe1 equal to Pmax sin delta and this characteristic may
be represented as Pe2 equal to, let us say r into P max sin delta okay. Our initial operating
point is here, this denoted by this angle delta naught. Now what we see here is that the
moment fault has occurred or a disturbance has occurred the operating point will shift
from this position a to position b because the moment disturbance occurs right the angle
cannot change instantaneously, angle will remains same.

However, the power angle characteristic becomes Pe2 equal to r Pmax sin delta r is, r is a
quantity or a fraction which is less than 1 and it depends upon what where the values of
the transformer reactance, synchronous machine, transient reactance and transmission
line reactance and so on. Now what we see here is that the moment this disturbance takes
place there is difference in the mechanical input and electrical output, electrical output
determined by this point, this difference become the acceleration power Pe, we call it
accelerating power Pa.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:25)

Now this as we will see actually that because of the accelerating power the rotor will
accelerate okay and delta will increase, the increase of delta right as a the function of
time right or we call it actually the delta versus time this plot is our swing curve and they
are interested in plotting the swing curve of the system okay. Our primary objective is to
obtain the solution of the swing equation and that solution is your swing curve. Now what
I do here is that I plot the accelerating power Pa as a function of time.

We start with time t equal to say 0 at time t equal to 0, the accelerating power is equal to
ab and it is a positive as time passes the accelerating power is going to decrease okay.
Therefore, let us represent the variation of accelerating power by this graph I am not
showing the complete one because as far as this problem is concerned in this problem the
accelerating power is going to be positive all through and the resulting system will be
unstable system.

Now what we do is that for is solving the swing equation, we will divide the time into
small time steps. Let us consider 2 consecutive time intervals we will represent the nth
time interval, the let us say this is nth time interval. Now this nth time interval at the
beginning of this interval, let us call it time is t1 at the end of the interval, let time is say
ah t2. Okay then if this is the nth interval right then t1 is equal to n minus 1 delta t and t2
will be equal to n delta t, right this is the notation which we will be adapting. Now in the
step by step solution or we normally call point by point solution because these 2 terms are
used interchangeably in the method 1.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:47)

we assume that the accelerating power remains constant during the time interval and
equal to equal to its value at the beginning of the interval that is we calculate the
accelerating power at the time t1 which is the beginning of n minus 1th interval and we
presume at, we that this accelerating power remains constant during this interval it means
the accelerating power remains constant, okay and we shall denote this accelerating
power by the symbol Pa n minus 1 okay, with this introduction we can proceed to discuss
the method 1 for solving the swing equation.

As I stated in the beginning this, this method is called point-by-point solution therefore,
the point-by-point solution of the swing equation consists of two processes which are
carried out alternatively which are those two processes that is what we have to
understand.

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:17)

The first process is the computation of the angular positions and angular speeds, I am
putting the word angular positions and angular speeds. At the end of each interval from
the knowledge of from the knowledge of angular positions and speeds at the beginning of
the time interval that is the, that is and the accelerating power is assumed for the interval.

Now this is general statement what will be the assumed value of the accelerating power
during that interval right is a subject of concern and we will see actually that the method
1, there is one way of choosing the accelerating power during that interval method 2, we
have another way of choosing the accelerating power. However, the accelerating power
during the time interval remains constant right and therefore the fist step we understand is
that we calculate the value of angular positions, angular speeds at the end of time interval
with the knowledge of angular positions, angular speeds at the beginning of the time
interval okay, this is the first step.

Now once we have obtained the angular positions at the end of the time interval then the
next step we want to second step will be or the second process we call it the second
process is the computation of accelerating power of each machine from the angular
positions of all the machines of the system because when we go from one step to the next
step right, we have to again compute the accelerating power of each machine, okay and
this accelerating power can be computed from the knowledge of network solution.
In general for a multi-machine system, one has to solve the network to find out the
accelerating power of each machine at the beginning of interval or we can say at the
beginning of next interval. Now this uh these 2 processes are carried out alternatively that
you can understand now that suppose I know the angular positions, angular speeds at the
beginning of time interval and I start with the knowledge of accelerating power at the
beginning of the time intervals or accelerating power during that interval, with this
knowledge we compute the angular positions, angular speeds at the end of the interval.

Then using this information we go to second step where we solve the network and we
find out what will be the accelerating power to be used for the next interval right and this
this these 2 steps are carried out alternatively that is I discuss in method 1.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:26)

The accelerating power is constant throughout the time interval delta t and has the value
computed for the beginning of the interval that value we have computed at the beginning
of the interval to presume this to remain constant during that interval, okay.

Now here in this diagram, instead of showing the plot of accelerating power versus time
what we are showing here is the acceleration that is d2 delta by dt2 which is equal to
accelerating power Pa by that is M is constant you divide this by M. So that instead of
plotting accelerating power if I plot acceleration versus the number of time steps. Now
instead of plotting here ah time in seconds I plot this as t by delta t. Okay and this plot is
similar to the plot for accelerating power except the units will be different because the
accelerating power has been divided by M.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:00)

Now if you see here actually that suppose I compute for time interval n minus 1 then this
is the assumed value of the accelerating power that is I compute the accelerating power at
beginning of the time interval and this will remain constant. Then when I come here, we
again compute what is the acceleration and this acceleration that assumed to remains
constant here like this okay. Please note down actually this graph here what we observe
in this graph. In this method 1, when the accelerating acceleration is decreasing the
assumed acceleration is always more than the actual acceleration and the we will see that
the error will depend upon what is the time step which we choose.

## (Refer Slide Time: 20:46)

Suppose if I take very small time step then the assumed value of accelerating power will
very close to the actual value of acceleration or accelerating power. We will derive now a
simple algorithm to implement this method one. We start with our swing equation. Now
to illustrate this problem I am considering a simple system where one machine connected
to infinite bus and there is only one swing equation. Now this is our swing equation dt
delta by dt2 equal to Pa by M, okay.

Instead of using this coefficient here H by phi here, we prefer to use this M because it is
easy to what I told the time then you integrate this equation assuming that Pa is constant
accelerating power is constant then this integration will give you d delta by dt equal to
omega, this is the definition of dt delta by d, dt represented as omega this is going to be
equal to omega O plus Pa into t by M. Omega O is the initial value of angular speed.

Now here d delta by dt is not the actual speed of the rotor it is, it is excess speed of the
rotor over synchronous speed. Initially when the system is operating under steady state
condition then what happens Pa will be 0 and d delta d delta by dt is also 0 because there
is no acceleration, there is no difference in the in the rotor actual speed and the
synchronous speed, the rotor rotates at synchronous speed.

Now here with finite value of Pa the accelerating power right d delta by dt is omega and
this is the excess speed over the synchronous speed, now if you further integrate this
equation 4.2 with respect to time, we will get delta equal to delta naught omega O into t
Pa into t square by 2M. Now you have to very clearly understand the meaning of all the
terms which are involved in the these 3 equations 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3. Is there any doubt, this
is state forward okay. Now what we do is we will use these equations to write down the
speed and angular positions at the end of interval in terms of information at the beginning
of the interval.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24: 44)

In the equation 4.2, I will substitute the value of the speed at the end of the nth interval.
The speed at the end of nth interval is omega n, the speed of the rotor at the beginning of
the nth interval is omega n minus 1, t delta t is the time, time state and Pa n minus 1 is the
accelerating power at the beginning of the interval. Okay, therefore from the equations
which we have obtained from swing equation by integrating.

Now what we are trying to do is that we are implementing or applying this equations to a
particular time interval. Now if we substitute the values of angular positions at the
beginning and at the end of time interval, we get the equation 4.5, delta n equal to delta n
minus 1,omega n minus 1 into delta t delta t square by 2M Pa n minus 1 okay and these
equations are valid for any value of n, they can start with n equal to 0 that is time t equal
to 0 okay and then we go from n equal to 1, 2, 3 like this, that is from one step to the next
step next step to next step and so on.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:57)

From the equation 4.5, we can write down the change in speed during the nth interval as
omega n minus omega n minus 1 as delta omega n which is equal to delta t by M Pa n
minus 1.This can be easily understood because this is the accelerating power accelerating
power by M is the acceleration and we are assuming this acceleration to remain constant
during the time interval therefore deviation in the speed during the time interval is called
delta omega n equal to the assumed value of acceleration multiplied by time period.

Similarly, we can write down the change in angular position during the nth time interval
as omega n minus 1 delta t equal plus delta t square by 2M Pa n minus 1. Now with the
information of the quantity at the beginning of the interval what are the quantity at the
beginning of the interval omega n minus 1, delta n minus 1 and Pa n minus 1.

We can solve this equation 4.6 and 4.7 okay and obtain this swing curve okay what we
have to we have to do is that we change, this angular change during the interval and we
can find out the actual angular position by adding this change to the angular position at
the n minus 1th at the beginning of n minus 1th interval okay and you can find out the
swing curve. Now when I said that there are 2 steps involved, this is the first step, the
second step will be that you obtain the value of this angle delta and substitute in the
power angle characteristic applicable during that transient period to find out the new
value of accelerating power that is your second step.

Once you obtain a new value of accelerating power we will substitute here in this
equation and obtain the new values of angle deviation and speed deviation. Now do we
require the information about speed deviation as function of time for assessing the
stability of the system, the answer is no. If I know the plot of delta as function of time
then by examining the swing curve I can say whether system is stable or not as we have
seen in last time and therefore if I am interested only in plotting the swing curve then
what we do is that we eliminate this speed term and obtain an expression which is
independent of or which does not contain speed term.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:48)

Now this can be easily done easily done, here equation 4.8 is same as equation 4.5, I will
just written for the safe of convince. Now what we do is that we write a similar equation
for the preceding time interval that is instead of n we put it n minus 1, n minus instead of
n minus 1 you put n minus 2.

So that we can write down the equation of this form delta n minus 1 equal to delta n
minus 2 delta t omega n minus 2 delta t square by 2 M Pa n minus 2. This equation is for
nth interval this equation is for n minus 1th interval, okay our next step will be that you
subtract these 2 equations, you will get delta n minus delta n minus 1 equal to delta n
minus 1 minus delta n minus 2 plus delta t into omega n minus 1 minus omega n minus 2
plus delta t square by 2 M Pa n minus 1 minus Pa n minus 2.
Now what we do is that we make some substitutions, we denote the speed change I am
sorry, correction we denote the angle change or angle deviation during nth interval as
delta delta n. Similarly, for n minus 1th interval delta delta n minus 1 and so on now if we
make these substitutions here in this equation we can write down expression in the form
delta delta n equal to delta delta n minus 1.

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:53)

Now we had the term delta t into omega n minus 1 minus omega n minus 2, now this
term is nothing but delta omega n minus 1 this is the speed deviation in n minus 1th
interval and using this equation 4.4, we can write down that the speed deviation during
the n minus 1th interval can be written as or nth interval can be written as delta t by M Pa
n minus 1 that is equation 4.4 okay. Now you make that substitution here.

So that now what we find that in this equation we do not have speed term speed has been
eliminated okay. This equation these 2 terms can be combined and you get the resulting
expression for delta delta n equal to delta delta n minus 1e plus delta t square by 2 M Pa n
minus 1 plus Pa n minus 2. Now this is the algorithm for obtaining the swing curve or a
machine connected to infinite machine.

Similar equations can be derived if you have a multi machine system. A process goes like
this when I want to find out the change in total angle position during nth interval I know
what was the change in angle rotor angle position during the n minus 1th interval but that
was that computation has already been completed, we know this information, we also
know the uh assumed value of accelerating power at the beginning of n minus 1th
interval and at the beginning of nth interval, this is the accelerating power at the
beginning of nth interval.

The accelerating power at the beginning of n minus 1th interval is also known because
we have already done the calculation for that interval and therefore this algorithm goes in
a iterative manner you know the complete information on the which is required to
compute the expression on the right hand side of this equation, you get the value of delta
n.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:47)

Then the moment you get the value of delta delta n, you obtain the new value of delta n
as delta n minus 1plus delta right and you continue to do it because as I told you that the
process has 2 steps, the step one is to compute the new angular positions and new angular
speeds. However in the method one if you are interested only in swing equation then we
do not require the information about the angular speeds right.

Then once we get this new value of angle we refer back to the power angle characteristic
compute the electrical power output, mechanical power input is assumed to be constant
we compute what is acceleration power and use that accelerating power for the next
interval okay and therefore this process is to continue alternatively.

We have discussed actually this technique now how good this technique is in giving you
the correct solution and as we will see actually they are numerical techniques are not the
exact solutions they will give you always approximate solutions because we make some
assumptions. Only this is that you would like to get the solution which is very close to the
exact solution and to evaluate the method 1 step by step method 1 there we assume swing
equation of this form.

Let us presume that swing equation is given by this equation, now this is the swing
equation which we want to solve. Let me know whether this swing equation is a linear
differential equation or non-linear differential equation. This is a linear differential
equation, I have chosen the linear differential equation deliberately to illustrate the we
will say illustrate the effect of, effect of time step on the accuracy of the solution.
(Refer Slide Time: 39:04)

Now so far this swing equation is concern the initial conditions are given as delta naught
equal to phi by 4 and the initial speed is 0 d delta by dt initial is 0, with these initial
condition the formal solution of the swing equation is delta equal to phi by 2 minus phi
by 4 cosine square root of 2 f by H, t. This you can obtain yourself please do the it is an
exercise find out the formal solution of this linear second order equation. Now to
compare the accuracy of step by step method one we solve this equation by step by step
method because step by step method which is applicable are suitable for solving non-
linear equation can also be applied for solving a linear differential equation, for solving
this H is equal to 2.7 mega joules per MVA is assumed.

## (Refer Slide Time: 41:31)

This graph shows ah swing curve obtained using the formal solution and by using this
method 1, this firm curve shows this graph 1, a firm curve it shows the solution obtained
using the formal solution. The graphs which are shown here in this diagram are obtained
for different values of time step delta T equal to 0.15 second. Then next graph is for delta
T 0.1 second then the third graph is for 0.05 second and the last one which is obtained
using the method 1 point by point solution is 0.0167 delta T equal to 0.0167 is one third
of the delta T equal to .05, originally a delta T equal to 0.05 second is chosen and in order
to understand how much improvement one gets in the solution delta T is reduce by a
factor of 3 and graph is obtained for delta T equal to 0.0 second.

This axis shows the time in seconds and y axis shows delta in electrical degrees, it can be
very clearly seen that as the time step increases the accuracy of the solution of the swing
equation decreases or deteriorates and hence one concludes that for getting solution
closer to the accurate solution one has to use very short time step. However, if we use a
short time step it will require more time for computation and this is the major drawback
of method 1.

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:42)

In order to overcome this shortcoming of this method 1, a method 2 has been developed
and this method two is different from method 1 in terms of the accelerating power which
is assumed to remain constant during the time step. Now to understand this method 2 let
us look at this graph which shows the acceleration versus t by delta T, now here on this x
axis we have put t by delta T.

So that it shows the u the time step count, now this graph shows the variation of
acceleration with t by delta T or with t, now in this method two instead of assuming the
accelerating power remaining constant at the value equal to the 1 computed at the
beginning of the time interval.
We compute the value of the accelerating power or acceleration at the beginning of the
time interval for example, say time interval starts at n minus one and ends at n that is the
nth time interval. Now at this time step n minus 1, we compute the acceleration alpha n
minus 1 and assume that this acceleration remains constant from half the preceding
interval to the next half interval that we if we see in this diagram the accelerating power
computed at the beginning of nth interval remains constant from n minus 3 by 2 to n
minus half it can be very clearly seen actually that by assuming this accelerating power in
this fashion, the assumed value of the accelerating power is equal to the average value
over the time step.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:37)

Now we can write down with this assumption the change in speed during the time step n
minus half this can be written as delta t into alpha n minus 1 where alpha n minus 1 is the
acceleration computed at at step n minus 1. Now alpha n minus 1can be replaced by this
Pa n minus 1 by M. So that we can say that speed deviation delta omega n minus 1 by 2 is
equal to delta t Pa n minus 1 by M.

Now we can write down the rotor speed rotor speed at the end of n minus 1 by 2 interval
as the speed at the beginning of this interval that is omega n minus 3 by 2 plus delta
omega n minus 1 by 2. This quantity is the change in speed during the time step delta t.
Further, since the acceleration assumed to remain constant during this time step speed is
obviously going to vary during this time interval.
(Refer Slide Time: 49:47)

However, the total change in the time and total change in the speed will be accounted by
considering a step change in the speed that is the total change in the speed which is equal
to delta omega n minus half which is equal to delta t into alpha n minus 1, this changes in
the speed is assume to take place in a step manner at the instant at which we compute the
accelerations of the rotor, with this assumption with this assumption the speed remains
constant during the nth interval and it is its value is equal to omega n minus half, with
this speed, with this speed during this interval the change in rotor angle is equal to delta t
into omega n minus half.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:52)

Since omega n ,omega n minus half is constant during this interval therefore change in
angular position is obtained as the constant speed a omega n minus half into delta t
therefore, angular position of the rotor at the end of nth interval is equal to angular
position at the beginning of the nth interval plus change during the nth interval therefore,
we can write down delta n equal to delta n minus 1plus delta delta n.

Now when we solve this equations four point 1, 2 to 4.14 we can get the swing curve as
well as we can get the speed of the rotor as a function of time. However if we want to
obtain swing curve only we may use a formula for delta delta n from which omega has
been eliminated from the equations 4.12, 4.13 and 4.14.

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:14)

We get an expression for delta delta n as delta t omega n minus 3 by 2 plus delta t square
by M Pa n minus 1. By analogy with equation 4.14, one can write down the change in
angular position during the n minus 1th interval as delta delta n minus 1 equal delta t into
omega n minus 3 by 2. So, that we can substitute the value of delta delta n minus 1 that is
the change in the rotor angular position in the equation 4.16 using equation 4.17. We get
the expression for delta delta n equal to delta delta n minus 1 plus delta t square by M Pa
n minus 1.

This is a equation which can be used for computing the swing curve the left hand side
term delta delta n, shows the change in rotor position rate rotor angular position during
the nth interval, this is expressed in terms of the change in angular position during n
minus 1th interval plus delta t square by M Pa n minus 1 and this can be easily
programmed and using this expression the problem which was solved using method 1 is
again solved here.
(Refer Slide Time: 53:20)

## (Refer Slide Time: 54:25)

Now this graph shows the swing curve obtained using formal solution of the second order
differential equation and using method 2 considering the several values of time step. This
graph shows the solution obtained using the this graph shows the swing curve obtained
from the formal solution, you can say formal solution. Now I say formal solution means
it is the closed form solution of the second order differential equation. Now here this
swing curve is for delta t equal to 0.25 second, well this swing curve is for delta T equal
to 0.05 second.
Now if you, if you carry if we carefully examine this swing curves we can notice that,
that the amplitude of the swing curve or the maximum deviation of delta obtained using
the formal solution and that obtained using method 2, have hardly any difference, only
difference which we observe is the time, time period of the solution obtained within the
formal solution and that obtained using the method 2 have some difference and therefore,
I can conclude here that the method 2 provides the accurate swing curve and we can use
reasonable value of time step as we see that for time step equal to delta T equal to 0.05,
the solution obtained by method 2 that is the step by step method 2 is very close to the
formal solution.

## (Refer Slide Time: 57:25)

Now we consider how do we account for the discontinuities in the accelerating power,
discontinuities in the accelerating powers occurs at the occurrence of disturbance or at the
instance of switching. In case the discontinuities at the beginning of the time interval that
is the first time interval then this can be computed delta delta 1 can be computed by using
this expression delta t square by M, Pa O plus by 2, where Pa O is the accelerating power
just after the disturbance and by putting 2 we are taking the average value of the
accelerating power half the accelerating power.

In case the discontinuity occurs at the beginning of mth interval then this can be the
accelerating power during the m th interval will be computed by this formula Pa m minus
1 minus plus Pa m minus 1 plus by 2, this minus indicates the accelerating power just
before the occurrence of disturbance and Pa m minus 1 plus indicates the plus sign
indicates just after the occurrence of incidence.

With this, we conclude the computation of the swing curve using 2 different methods
method one and method 2, method 2 is more accurate and this can be used. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 05
The Equal Area Criterion for Stability

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends today, we shall discuss ah the equal area criteria for stability.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:04)

We have studied that to analyze the stability of a power system, we have to solve swing
equations and solution of swing equations is through a numerical technique and it is a
time consuming process. The equal area criteria of stability is very powerful tool to
understand the basic concepts of stability. However, as we will see that this criteria has
its limited applications.

Now, today in our study we will establish this basic concepts pertaining to equal area
criteria and we will analyze considering a one machine swinging with respect to the
infinite bus, then we will develop the equivalent of one machine infinite bus system of a
2 machine system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:20)

Then we will study the applicability of equal area criteria under what circumstances the
provoke systems this criteria is applicable and what are its limitations. Then we will
illustrate the applications of this criteria considering two examples, a sustained line fault
and second a line fault with subsequent clearing.

The equal area criteria of stability is a graphical method for determining whether the
system is in stable or not, that is in any stability studies our primary requirement is that
for given operating condition and for a given disturbance whether the system is stable or
not, many times we are interested in knowing if it is stable how much stability is and
what is the stability margin.

This information we can get by plotting the swing curve but as I told you that the
computation of swing curve is time consuming and for simple system for a two machine
system or a one machine connected to infinite bus, we can obtain this information by
applying a graphical method and that method is the equal area criteria.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:48)

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:52)

Now when this criteria is applicable, its use wholly or partially eliminates the need of
computing swing curve and thus saves considerable amount of time. I am emphasizing
here, that it eliminates the computation of swing curve wholly or partially. Okay that we
will see actually when we attempt some example.

This criteria is applicable to any two machine system for which commonly made
assumptions are applicable right. We have studied the commonly made assumptions for
analyzing the transient stability problem and when these assumptions are applicable, this
can be applied to any two machine system.
(Refer Slide Time: 04:58)

Now first we will mathematically establish the equal area criteria of stability to establish
we start with the swing equation of a machine, here we are considering a machine
connected to the infinite bus, infinite bus is one which can be represented by a constant
voltage source its internal impedance is 0 and its inertia is infinite. Now you multiply this
both sides of this equation by a term 2 delta d delta by dt.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:40)

When we multiply both the sides by this term 2 times d delta by dt, we get equation in
this form 2 times d square delta by dt square into d delta by dt equal to 2 times Pa by M, d
delta by dt. Now this left hand side of this equation can be identified as derivative of d
delta by dt square, you look it very carefully that is if you take this term and find out its
derivative you will get the term 2 times d square delta by dt square d delta by dt, okay
and right hand side we are writing as it is 2 times Pa by M d delta by dt okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:26)

The next step is you multiply both sides of this equation by dt and we are getting
differentials instead of derivatives that is when you multiply both sides of this equation
5.3 by dt it becomes a differential that is d of d delta by dt square equal to 2 times Pa by
M, d delta. Okay, which is written here actually as d of d delta by dt square 2 times Pa by
M d delta okay. Now you integrate this equation 5.4, integrate it.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:11)

When you integrate, you will get d delta by dt square equal to 2 by M integral Pa d delta.
This integration we are doing over certain range of delta that is start with initial value of
delta naught delta equal to delta naught and go to some value of delta. I am just putting it
general that is delta naught to delta, I am not specifying what should be the value of delta
here.

Now from this equation 5.5, we can write d delta by dt equal to square root of 2 by M
integral Pa d delta, the limits are implied okay. Now we look at this equation and we
know that the condition which indicates the stability of the system is that d delta by dt
should be 0 that is a system starts where it is perturbed right with the initial value delta
naught and when it is, when delta increases it will attain a maximum value then start
decreasing that is the condition of stability, it means that when it goes to maximum and
start decreasing that maximum point, at that maximum point d delta by dt is 0 therefore,
the condition to indicate the stability is that d delta dt should become 0.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:45)

Now for this d delta by dt2 become 0 which is the condition to indicate the stability of the
system, our requirement is that the integral of Pa d delta from a initial value of delta equal
to delta naught to some value of delta m should be 0 that is if I, if I plot the area under the
curve Pa that is accelerating power starting from initial value of delta equal to delta
naught to some maximum value of delta m and in case the in the area under this curve is
0 right, then at the value of delta equal to delta m the d delta by dt will become 0 right.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:41)

Now this I will show here in this diagram, this is the power angle characteristic of the
system, this was the mechanical input line. Now in this diagram I am simply showing that
suppose initially the system was operating at delta naught and the power angle
characteristic applicable for the initial operating condition was not this but something
different. The moment fault occurs on the system the operating point has shifted from this
point to this point okay then delta will increase from initial operating from the point a on
the power angle curve Pe.

The initial acceleration is given by this or initial accelerating power is given by this line,
this is the initial accelerating power, okay therefore rotor accelerates when rotor
accelerates the delta will increase, speed increases then delta increases and now when it
reaches the point b right, the accelerating power becomes 0. Now at this point what is the
rotor speed?

The rotor speed is more than the synchronous speed because, because from when it is
travels from this point a to b, the rotor is accelerated gain some kinetic energy it has
gained some extra speed over and above the synchronous speed therefore, at this point
the rotor will not stop it will continue to, the angle will continue to increase. Now the
moment it crosses this point b we see that the accelerating power becomes negative that
electrical power output becomes more than the mechanical input.

Therefore, now the rotor will be subjected to retardation and when it reaches the point c
point c, if suppose whatsoever the kinetic energy it has gained if it is return back or is ah
lost then at point c the rotor will again attain a speed equal to synchronous speed and
therefore for the system to be stable, the rotor will swing from delta naught to delta m and
the area under the accelerating power.
Now here the accelerating power is obtained by separating therefore here I can say that
accelerating power curve is given by this difference, okay and therefore this area should
be 0. Now for this area under the accelerating power curve to become 0 requires that the
this this positive area, we call this as a positive area because accelerating power is
positive this is called negative area, the accelerating power is negative therefore these 2
areas should be equal and this is what is known as the equal area criteria of stability. Now
this equal area criteria of stability can also be interpreted in terms of the kinetic energy
gain and kinetic energy lost right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:05)

Now we know actually that suppose a rotor is subjected to a torque T, torque T and when
it swings from delta naught to delta the, the work done on the rotor is equal to or work
done by the rotating body is equal to T into d delta. This is actually when the delta is
small and you integrate this expression from delta naught to sum value delta then this
becomes the work done when the rotating body accelerates, okay or decelerates it
depends upon the situation and hence we can say that the area a1 represents kinetic
energy gained by this machine or I can say this area a1 is directly proportional to kinetic
energy gained there has to be some proportionality constant I cannot say that a1 is in in
joules or mega joules or so it will depend upon what is the unit which we have attached to
it.

Now the derivation is which we have seen just now is considering a machine connected
to infinite bus. Now suppose you have 2 finite machines, 2 finite machines a problem that
of a synchronous generator supplying power to a synchronous motor through a
transmission line. Then this 2 finite machine system can be replaced by an equivalent
machine infinite bus system, this derivation is very straight forward we take the swing
equation of machine 1, d square delta 1 by dt square equal to Pa1 by M1 that is Pm1 minus
P1 by M1. Then we take a swing equation of second machine ah d2 delta 2 by dt equal to
Pa2 by M2 that is Pa2 is Pm2 minus P21 okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:53)

Now suppose we define here the relative angle between the two machines as delta equal
to delta 1 minus delta 2. Now whether these 2 machines are going to remain in stable
condition or become unstable is going to determine not by delta 1 and delta 2 individually
but the difference between this 2 angles delta 1 and delta 2, in case this difference
difference right remains within certain limits system will continue to be stable and
therefore the this 2 differential equations which we have written right, if we can be
written in this form that is you can subtract these 2 equations you will find that d square
delta 1 delta d square minus d square delta 2 by dt square. Okay this difference can be
written as d square delta by dt square because delta 1 minus delta 2 is delta and on this
right hand side you have Pa1 by M1 minus Pa2 by M2.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:12)

We can multiply both sides of the equation by this product M1 M2 or M1 plus M2 and we
may get the expression in this form. M1 M2 or M1 plus M2 d square delta by dt square
equal to M2 Pa1 minus M1 Pa2 or M1plus M2 .Okay now if we replace Pa1 and Pa2 by Pm1
minus P1 and Pm2 minus P2, we get this expression that is I have put here in this
expression wherever you had Pa1 Pm1 minus P1, Pa2, Pm2minus P2 and then simplify it in
this we find here that we can write this as M1 M2 or M1 plus M2 d square delta by dt
square equal to M2 Pm1 minus M1 Pm2 divided by M1plus M 2,that is in this term we have
the inertia constants and mechanical powers while here in this term we have inertia
constants and electrical powers P1 minus P1 and P2 okay.

Now this equation may be considered to be the swing equation of a machine connected to
infinite bus, where where the equivalent inertia constant is M1M 2 or M 1 plus M2, the
equivalent mechanical input is given by this expression and equivalent electrical output is
given by this expression.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:02)

Therefore, we can say that this expression written as M times d2 delta by dt2 equal to Pa
Pm minus Pe, where Pm is given by this expression, Pe is given by this expression, we can
say that Pm is the equivalent mechanical input Pe is the equivalent electrical output and
the equivalent inertia constant is M1 M2 over M1 plus M2. Now at this point you can
understand that the equivalent inertia constant is as if we are connecting 2 resistances in
parallel to find out the equivalent resistance.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:21)

Suppose you have 2 resistances r1 and r2 and you put them in parallel the equivalent
resistance is r1, r2 or r 1 plus r2 therefore this is the equivalent inertia constant is primarily
determined by or is going to be closer to the smaller one that is suppose I put M1 M2 M
plus M2 values, if M2 is large as compared to M1. Okay then we will find out the value let
us say I will just take example take just values actually let us say M1 is 5 and M2 is say 50
what will be the resultant? It is going to be less than 5 but it is closer to 5 not closer to a
50 therefore, the equivalent machine will have the inertia which is less than, less than the
the inertia of a smaller machine or inertia of a machine which has a smaller inertia
constant.

Now here at this stage, to illustrate the application of equal area criteria for analyzing
stability of a system, I will consider an example, the example we consider is a simple
example. Let us consider this example, we have a synchronous generator connected to a
double circuit transmission line to an infinite bus, we put infinity here to show that it is
infinite bus its inertia constant is infinite. To illustrate the application of equal area
criteria of stability what we will consider is that yes there is a machine infinite bus
system. We will consider a fault at the middle of the transmission line, one of the
transmission lines at the point P.
(Refer Slide Time: 21:11)

We will consider a three phase fault, a balance 3 phase fault okay. I will consider the
unsymmetrical faults in my next lecture because in any system we do come across
symmetrical, unsymmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are more frequent in
occurrence okay. Now let us assume some parameters okay, let us say Xd prime for this
system is 0.2, reactance of this transformer is say 0.1 that is impedance is j times 0.1.

The transmission line is loss free and its reactance is j times 0.4 and further we assume
that the infinite bus voltage V is 1.0 and we consider this infinite bus voltage as
reference, so that V 1.0 angle 0this is the terminal of the synchronous generator. We
denote the terminal voltage by the symbol Vt and let us assume that Vt magnitude is
given to be equal to 1.0 per unit and also it is assumed actually that this machine delivers
electrical power Pe equal to 1.0 per unit okay.

Now for this system, for this system we will obtain the power angle characteristic for 3
conditions, one is pre-fault operating condition, second is during fault or fault on
operating condition. Now once the fault is there in the system the fault will be cleared by
operating these circuit breakers at the two ends of the transmission line and therefore the
third operate, third power angle characteristic which we will obtain is post-fault power
angle characteristic, although we are considering a simple system but this exercise is
required to be performed even for a multi machine system.

We have to obtain the expressions for power outputs of machines under pre-fault
condition, during fault condition and post-fault condition and the approach we are
following here will also be applicable for a classical multi machine stability problem.
I am using about classical means here, we will be making those basic assumptions that is
synchronous generator can be represented by a constant voltage behind direct axis
transient reactance.
Now with this information given how to find out the pre-fault power angle characteristic
Therefore, here our primary requirement is that to get the pre-fault power angle
characteristic what do we need is the voltage behind transient reactance which is not
given, what is given is the voltage at the terminal of the machine. Now we can use this
information to compute, to compute ah pre-fault power angle what is first step is you
draw from the one line diagram a reactance diagram.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:39)

The reactance diagram can be drawn as a voltage source, we will denote this voltage
source as E prime, reactance Xd prime the value of this impedance is given to be is given
as j times 0.1, the transformer reactance is .1 per unit that its impedance is I am sorry, the
generator reactance is 0.2 not point .2 transformer is 0.1. These 2 transmission lines and
infinite bus voltage, we denote this as V at this point which is the terminal of the
synchronous generator the voltage is Vt and this magnitude of this voltage Vt is 1.0 while
this magnitude of V is 1.0 and delta 1 is taken as our delta is 0 the delta 1 is 0, okay. I can
call it delta, now the with this information or with this equivalent circuit what do we do is
we find out what is the phase angle of this Vt with respect to infinite bus voltage.

This can be obtained simply by using the relationship that the power output P can be
written as Vt magnitude into V divided by the reactance connecting the terminal voltage
or terminal of the generator to the infinite bus and let us say that the, the phase angle
between Vt and infinite bus voltage is alpha. Now we substitute the values of power
because it is we are supplying 1 per unit power Vt magnitude is given as 1 this is one and
the reactance between the infinite bus voltage and the generator terminal is how much
0.3 sin delta because here we are substituting only the reactance value there is it is not
impedance it is the magnitude okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:28)

Therefore with this, you can calculate the value of I am sorry there is a mistake here this
we will call alpha comes out to be equal to you calculate it and alpha in this case comes
out to be equal to 17. 458 degrees okay. Therefore I can say here that the terminal voltage
Vt is equal 1.0 angle 17 .458 per unit. Now the using this information we find out the
current supplied by the generator or I can be written as Vt minus V they are all phases
divided by the total reactance between the 2 machine or impedance, the impedance here
is how much j times 0.3.

Okay now if you substitute the value of Vt and V, the current comes out to be equal to
1.012 angle 8.729 degrees, okay. Now once you get the current I supplied by the
generator we can find out now the internal voltage E prime that is E prime can be written
as Vt plus j times Xd into I okay and you substitute the value of Vt Xd and I the calculated
value of E prime comes out to be equal to that is magnitude of E prime because at this
stage I am not interested in phase angle right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:27)

Now E prime comes out to be equal to 1.05 per unit and the pre-fault power angle
characteristic Pe1 becomes now 1.05 into 1divided by total reactance between infinite bus
voltage and internal voltage that is coming out to be how much .5 sin delta here now
because when you are talking in terms of the relations with the power considering the
terminal voltage of the machine, we have written alpha.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:30)

Now delta is the angle and therefore the pre-fault power angle characteristic is now 2.10
sin, okay this these steps are extremely important. We will follow we may have to follow
the similar steps for a multi machine system also. The next step is we want to find out the
power angle curve or power angle characteristic when fault is on.

When the fault is on, on the system we can write down or we can again draw the
reactance diagram, since the I have consider the fault at the middle of the line therefore I
will divide this line reactance into 2 parts and show as .2 .2 on both the sides of the
faulted point or voltage at the point P.

Now since, we have considered a balanced three phase fault this P will be connected to
the reference bus directly connected there is no impedance involved however when we
consider the unsymmetrical fault we will see that to analyze the or to obtain the power
angle characteristic during fault conditions there will be some impedance connected
between the faulted point P and reference bus. This impedance will depend upon the type
of fault but for a 3 phase fault the impedance to be connected is 0.

Now here we are considering a three phase metallic fault okay there is no fault
impedance. Now in this the total reactance of the this these two components that is the
Xd prime and the transformer can be combined and this can be written as impedance is
0.3, this is j times 0.4, this is j times 0.2, this is j times 0.2 and this voltage is this voltage
magnitude is this is V voltage, this is E prime okay. Now what we do is we will try to
simply this network, so that we can find out the power angle characteristic during fault on
period.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:07)

This diagram can be redrawn as, now we will denote this node as 1 denote this node as 2,
okay this node as 0 and this as now here, if you examine this network then these
3reactances which are connected in star, j times between 1 and 3, 3 and 2 and 3 and 0.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:59)

Okay this star can be replaced by an equivalent delta, the equivalent using the standard
star delta transformation technique this exercise I have obtained and I find the equivalent
network after this star delta transformation as, E prime this reactance comes out to be
when you calculate actually comes out to be or this impedance comes out to be j times
0.65, this comes out to be j times 0. I am sorry it is j times 1.3, this is j times 0.266 and
what is this value? j times 0.2 and this is your V and this is E prime.

Now these terminals are this is your 1, this terminal is 2 and the node 3 has been
eliminated by star delta transformation this is our reference. Now the power angle
characteristic will depend upon the reactance connecting these 2nodes 1 and 2, one is the
node of at which E prime is connected two is the node at which the infinite bus voltage is
connected this characteristic is not going to be affected by the shunt branches because
whatsoever is the, you now current which is flowing through the certain branches, okay is
not going to affect what is the power which is going to be transferred and therefore the
the power angle characteristic, the power angle characteristic during fault condition can
be obtained as now I will call it as Pe2 equal to 1.05 which is the E prime into 1 divided
by the reactance connecting node 1 and 2 and that is 1.3 sin delta and this comes out to be
there.
(Refer Slide Time: 40:30)

We computed and its value comes out to be 0.808 sin delta or what you observe here is
that this Pe2 which is the equal to Pe max into sin delta right, the the maximum value of this
power angle characteristic will depend primarily upon what is the reactance connecting
the internal voltage of the synchronous machine to the infinite bus voltage more is this
reactance less will be the voltage okay.

Now we can very easily obtain the post fault power angle characteristic under the post
fault condition one of the transmission line is cleared or it is removed and therefore the
reactance connecting the two nodes, internal voltage of the synchronous generator and
infiltrate bus voltage that comes out to be how much .7 therefore our characteristic is now
this divided by .7 sin delta. Okay now these are the 3 important power angle
characteristics which one has to compute or obtain for analyzing the stability of a
machine infinite bus system either we apply equal criteria or you directly solve the some
equation, it is the a material. The these 3 characteristics if you draw it can be shown like
this.

I will call this is a Pe1 this is pre-fault power angle characteristic in this particular case
this is 2.1, P maximum value under faulted condition or the power angle curve under
fault condition was found to have the maximum value equal to around .808 and therefore
the characteristic can be shown to be like this and this is 0.808 after the fault is cleared,
the amplitude of this power angle characteristic how much what is the value of this1.5,
1.5 that is very good and therefore the third characteristic can be plotted here, then this is
(Refer Slide Time: 42:49)

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:53)

In some of our representations what we will do is that the Pe1 is written as Pmax sin delta
Pe2 will be written as r1 times Pmax sin delta, okay and Pe3 will be written as r2 times Pmax
sin delta. Okay now this r1 and r2 these are the multiplying factors constants they will
always be less than 1 and now I shall take these 2 examples to illustrate how we apply the
equal area criterion of stability.
(Refer Slide Time: 45:58)

Now let us consider the first case where, we assume that there is sustain fault, fault is not
cleared. Okay now in this particular case the diagram shows that this is the output on
normal conditions or can say pre-fault power angle curve this is the output when fault is
on this is the during the fault power angle characteristic, the mechanical input line is
shown here Pm the initial operating angle is operating angle is delta naught where the pre-
fault power angle characteristic intersect.

Now the movement fault occurs the operating points shifts from A to B then it moves
from B on this during the fault power angle curve and as you have seen that when its
comes to this point C right the accelerating power becomes 0 and it swings beyond this
point and its swings to the point up to say D, this is corresponding to angle delta M if
these two areas become equal the rotor will swing up to an angle equal to delta M and
then from this point it will start returning back why it starts returning back because it is
now subjected to retardation electrical power is more than the and when it comes back to
this A what will happen will it stop here, no it will continue to move and ultimately it is
going to settle to this point C because because system has some damping which we have
not considered while writing the swing equation.

Now here depending upon actually the power angle curve, in case actually the height of
this power angle curve is less you will find actually that you may have to swing to to
larger angle to make this 2 areas equal. Now maximum swing up to which rotor is going
to be subject to retardation is where where the power angle characteristic intersects with
the mechanical input line at this point. In case suppose the energy or kinetic energy
gained is not returned back when it comes to this point then suppose the movement it
crosses this point, you will find that the machine is again subjected to acceleration and
therefore rotor is going to lose synchronism.
(Refer Slide Time: 49:06)

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:25)

Now this is shown in this diagram, where the situation is slightly shown to be different
where even when the rotor has come to the point e these 2areas are not equal and
system may lose synchronism. Now the third case and the last case which I am discussing
here is that we have a situation where we, we switch off the faulted line or fault is
cleared.
Now you start looking at this there are 3 power angle curves this is the mechanical input
line initially we are operating at this point A, the movement fault occurs you shift to the
point B on the during the fault power angle curve. Now when you are moving on this
curve at this point C at on the angle equal to delta C the fault is cleared. We call this as a
fault clearing angle, the angle at which the fault is cleared then you will shift from this
point now to the post fault power angle curve then that is this is the, this curve is the post
fault output again as you know that this is this this is the area a1 that is this is bound by
these 2 angles and this power angle characteristic and mechanical input line this becomes
the accelerating area from e it will continue to swing it come to the point f and the
maximum angle becomes delta M at this point we find actually that these 2 areas equal
and therefore the maximum swing is up to delta M and the system will return back.

Now a new new stable operating point is now where the post fault power angle
characteristic intersects the mechanical input line that is in this diagram this is the new
stable operating point therefore, the rotor is going to swing around this point okay
oscillate around this point and because it has some damping, it will settle to this new
condition. Now with this I will just summarize what we have discussed today.

We have established the equal area criterion of stability. We have also obtained for a two
finite machine system an equivalent a machine infinite bus system. We have also
obtained for a given particular system the pre-fault, during fault and post fault power
angle characteristic a simple method is you can say discussed here and at the end I have
considered the 2 cases, one is considering a sustained fault and another is the fault cleared
after small amount of time, small time. Okay I conclude my presentation here and thank
you very much.
Power System Dynamic
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 06
The Equal Area Criterion for Stability (Contd)

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

Today, we will cover I will address the following problems. The basic definitions of a transient
stability limit, the meaning of critical clearing angle and critical clearing time then we shall study
the effect of fault clearing time on transient stability limit, next we shall study the effect of type
of fault on stability when we talk about the type of fault on stability we, I shall introduce the
concept of fault shunts then we will study the effect of grounding on stability.

Now, before I address these issues I would like to mention that this subject has been very well
addressed in power system stability written by Edward Wilson Kimbark there are 3 volumes,
volume 1, volume 2 and third volume is now known as synchronous machines. These basic
concepts are very well addressed in volume 1.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:35)

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:27)

(Refer Slide Time: 03:00)

Now, let us define what the transient stability limit. We have defined earlier the transient
stability, now today we will emphasize on this word transient stability limit. The transient
stability limit refers to the amount of power that can be transmitted through some point in the
system with stability when the system is subjected to severe aperiodic disturbance that here the
stability limit is referred in terms of the amount of power that is what is the power in mega watts
that can be transmitted and this is referred to some point in the system.

Now the emphasis here is on some point in the system. Now if you take a machine infinite bus
system then there is only one transmission line and therefore whatsoever power that can be
transmitted on that line with stability becomes the transient stability limit. However when I
consider a multi machine system okay, in that system this limit refers to a point in the power
system that is there may be number of transmission lines and you may refer that in this particular
transmission line how much power can be transmitted for a given operating condition with given
type of severe disturbance, given type of severe disturbance here.

Now here we emphasize the word aperiodic the disturbance is disturbance comes not in
periodical manner but it comes in aperiodic manner it comes and goes it is not actually that after
every 5 second the disturbance keeps on coming. Okay, this is what is the meaning of transient
stability limit therefore, any power system when we operate, we have to operate below transient
stability limit.

Okay so that it will withstand the the particular type of disturbance for which the system is
designed. Now next term is the critical clearing angle. This critical clearing angle is specifically
referred to a machine infinite bus system because in the multi-machine system, you will have
number of angles right and therefore the definition to a multi-machine system is not that easily
available.
(Refer Slide Time: 05:29)

Now for a given system and for a given initial load, there is a critical clearing angle, if the actual
clearing angle is smaller than the critical value a system is stable and if larger the system is
unstable. I will explain this point in detail okay in our further discussion that here the meaning is
that there is some critical clearing angle and actual clearing angle, if it is less than this value
system is stable in case the actual clearing angle is more than the critical clearing angle system
will become unstable.

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:46)

Similarly, we define another term critical fault clearing time again for a given system and for
given initial loading there is a critical fault clearing time, if actual fault clearing time is smaller
than the critical value the system is stable, if larger then the system is unstable. Now this
definition is applicable to machine infinite bus system or a multi-machine system because
whenever a system is operating okay and if fault occurs on a particular element of the system
then this fault is cleared by removing the faulted element by operating the circuit breaker at the
two ends and therefore there is certain time required to clear this fault.

In case this actual fault clearing time is less than the critical clearing time system is stable
otherwise, it is unstable further if suppose the critical clearing time for a system comes out to be
say .2 second and actual fault clearing time is say .1 second then the difference .1 second is
called the stability margin. Okay therefore, we have been discussing in these days in terms of
what is the stability margin and stability margin can be quantified in terms of difference in the
critical clearing time for the system and actual fault clearing time because actual fault clearing
time depends upon the operating time of the protection system and circuit breaker fault
interruption time.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:53)

Now let us understand what is the effect of fault clearing time on transient stability limit, now
here when I say it is a transient stability limit it means it is a certain amount of power that can be
transmitted without loss of stability. The transient stability limit depends on type of fault and the
duration of fault, a very we shall state these aspects type of fault and duration of fault. The power
limit can be determined as a function of clearing angle suppose it is a machine infinite bus
system we can find out the transient stability limit or power limit as a function of clearing angle
and clearing time can be found by solving the swing equation up to the time of fault clearing that
if I want to know know the transient stability limit as a function of fault clearing time.
The approach we will discuss here but for a machine infinite bus system the simple approach is
that you first apply the equal area criteria, find out for a given power what is the critical clearing
angle and then once we know the angle, we solve the swing equation up to the up to the fault
clearing angle and corresponding to that we read the value of time and that becomes our critical
clearing time and therefore when I say here, when I discussed earlier that when you apply this
graphical method that is equal area criteria of stability.

We do not completely diverse the need for solving swing equation but partially we do it wholly
or partially this is what we are the they are partially means partly you have to solve it and
suppose a swing curve is required to be solved for say 2 seconds for normal stability steady
analysis but in this particular case the time for which it is to be solved is very small suppose the
for critical fault clearing time comes out to be it is a .2 second okay, then I solve it from 0 to .2
second not from 0 to 2 second and therefore this saves my time or computation time.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:42)

As I have stated that fault clearing time is sum of the time that the protective relays take to close
the circuit breaker trip circuit and the time required for the circuit breaker to interrupt the fault
current.

The general conclusion that decrease in fault clearing time improves stability and increases
transient stability limit is just as valid for a multi machine system as for a 2 machine system.
This point I stated earlier also again we reiterate that general conclusion is the decrease in fault
clearing time improves stability and it improves the transient stability limit okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:00)

Now this conclusion is valid for machine infinite bus system 2 machine system and even for a
multi machine system and that is why the efforts have been made all through to reduce the fault
clearing time this has been possible by applying fast acting protective relays and fast acting
circuit breakers.

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:27)

Now to illustrate this that how do we calculate the transient stability limit and obtain a curve
relating the transient stability limit and the fault clearing time, we will consider these 2 machine
system and a generator infinite bus and consider that the fault occurred at the middle of the line.
Now for this system we can find out the 3 power angle curves, pre fault, during the fault and post
fault, once we know this power angle curves we can apply the equal area criteria and determine
the certain points on the transient stability limit versus the fault clearing time.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:04)

Now we will consider the 2 extreme cases, first case we will consider that the fault is
instantaneously clear. Suppose fault occurs in the system and the time which it takes to clear the
fault is instantaneous it does not have any time practically it does not happen okay. Now this can
also be considered similar to that one transmission line is stripped, okay by operating the circuit
breakers.

Now in that case if you want to find out what is the transient stability limit then the approach
would be you make use of these two power angle characteristic, pre fault output characteristic
and the post fault output where during fault we do not require it because the system has not
operated with fault on the system.

Now in this case what we will do is, this mechanical input line, the mechanical input line Pm is
moved up and down, Pm is moved up and down till these two areas are equal that is a1 and a2 is
the area bounded by mechanical input line, the post fault power angle curve that is from delta
naught to delta 1 and a2 is again the area bounded by the post fault power angle curve and the
mechanical input line but they have opposite signs.

Now when these two areas are equal that will give us the stability limit that is this Pm becomes
the stability limit you have, what a what is to be done is that you have to move this mechanical
input line up and down you have to do 1 or 2 you know iterations and the movement these two
areas becomes equal that becomes the stability limit because here the fault has been cleared
instantaneously.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:32)

Now we will take another extreme case, where the the sustained fault on the system, that is fault
is not cleared in this situation we require the two power angle curves, one is the pre fault another
is the during the fault power angle curve. Now these 2 curves are plotted here again the approach
will be that you move the mechanical input line up and down till these 2 areas a1a2 are equal that
is when you do this computations you assume some value of Pm.

You know the value of delta naught initial operating angle, you can find out what is the value of
this angle delta 1 that will depend upon the intersection of mechanical input and fault on power
angle curve. Okay similarly, you can find out delta m which is equal to phi minus delta 1, okay
now you find out this area by process of integration and you equate this with the area a2, in case
these 2 areas are equal then this Pm becomes the transient stability limit with sustained fault.
Now the third situation will be that the fault is clear infinite time.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:07)

Now under this situation we require all the 3 power angle curves, okay. Now one way is that you
move this mechanical input line Pm up and down and see that these 2 areas are equal and but this
there actually we required the information and what is the fault clearing angle there were 2
parameters involved, one is the fault clearing angle another is the mechanical input line. The
easiest process will be we assume some value of Pm and instead of moving this mechanical input
line up and down you adjust this clearing angle, you will you move this line either on left or on
right it means you assume some value of fault clearing angle and see whether these 2 areas are
equal.

In case you find actually that for a assumed value of angle a1 is greater than a2 move this line on
left so that a1 decreases and a2 increases right and you do this exercise still these 2 areas are
equal it means what we have done now here is for given input Pm we have obtained the critical
clearing angle and then we integrate the swing equation from this point delta naught up to this
critical clearing angle and find out the corresponding value of critical clearing time.

Now this is the way you can find out a number of points assume some value, suppose the value
of Pm is small you will find that delta c will be very large and a stage may come when delta c
will coincide with delta m right that is the case for sustained fault that is when you are moving
here right and if this fault you find actually that Pm is such that system is stable when delta c
equal to delta m that is the condition for sustained fault then when you, if you are moving if the
Pm is moved up and when you are you have to move this line the moment you find actually the
delta critical clearing angle delta c same as delta naught that become the instantaneous occurring
time and therefore by this approach we can plot the curve relating the transient stability limit
versus the fault clearing time in seconds.
(Refer Slide Time: 21:07)

For example, this graph shows for a typical system on this x axis by plotting the fault clearing
time in seconds, y axis we are plotting the stability limit in per unit and the stability limit of the
system when the fault is cleared instantaneously is denoted as 1 per unit and for all other fault
clearing time it is going to be less than this okay.

Now here actually this .2 shows the sustained condition because there is a break here in the graph
right because when the fault is sustained the stability limit is going to very small, sustained fault
condition there is a fault is there and system is not losing stability it means that is the situation
which occurs only when the fault, I am sorry a a the power output is small right. Further as we
have seen that the post fault, I am sorry the post fault power angle characteristic depends upon
the element which has been removed and the remaining system.

Similarly, the during the fault power angle curve is concerned it depends upon the location of
fault on the transmission line. Suppose you consider the 2 machine system and for the whole
analysis what we have done is we have assumed the fault in the middle of the line suppose I shift
the fault location from the middle toward the sending end of the line or you shift this from
middle to the receiving end of the line in that case you will find that the stability limit will be
different the curve relating the stability limit versus the fault clearing time will be different.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:14)

Now these 2 curves show the fault at sending end of the line and this show the fault at middle of
the line now you can easily see that where the fault occurs at the sending end of the line okay
what will happen to be power angle curve the during the fault condition during the fault
condition no power will be can be transmitted on this when you consider the machine infinite bus
system let us say the system right, if suppose the fault occurs right at the sending end of the line
then this fault is as good as a fault on this bus.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:04)

Okay and therefore the voltage at this bus becomes 0 or it collapses because I am considering
here a balanced 3-phase fault and therefore no power can be transmitted from generator to the
infinite bus right, therefore you will find actually the r2 r2 which is multiplying r2 Pmax sin delta r2
will become 0. This is a very special case and you will find that the transient stability limit will
be less as compared to where the fault occurs in any other point on the transmission line that is
why these 2 curves have been plotted to illustrate the effect of location of fault on the
transmission line.

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:58)

Now by applying the equal area criteria of stability, we can find out for a given value of
mechanical input and for given fault location we can compute the value of the angle fault
clearing angle delta at which the system just stable that is we can compute the critical clearing
angle for computing the critical clearing angle what is to be done is that you find out this area a1
that is you integrate, you integrate that is a1 can be written as integral of delta naught to delta c
Pm mechanical input minus Pe1 not P1 Pe2 d delta where Pe2 is equal to r2 times Pmax sin delta
okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:14)

Then the area a2 can be computed integral delta c to delta M, here we will be writing this as P e3
minus Pm d delta where Pe3 is equal to r2 Pmax sin. Okay, if you equate these 2 areas that is you
equate a1 with a2 and you can find the expression for critical clearing angle or the equation for
computing critical clearing angle. This equation has been obtained and it is a cos delta c equal to
delta m minus delta o, sin delta o minus r1 cos delta o plus r2 cos delta m divided by r2 minus r1
this, this expression can be derived without any difficulty by equating those 2 expressions.

Now, when you apply this formula, you have ensure that these angles are the delta m delta
naught they are they are yes substituted in radians sometimes people committed mistake they put
directly in degrees and therefore the result will be observed.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:13)

Now this angle delta m has to be calculated by using this formula delta m is equal to phi minus
sin inverse Pm divided by r2Pmax because delta m is delta m is obtained where the where the post
fault power angle characteristic intersects with mechanical input line like it intersect at 2 points
one is the angle which is given by this this equation and another will be phi minus this, therefore
delta m is equal to phi minus this therefore another sometime people commit mistake in
computing the value of delta m correctly and where this r1 is the x12 before fault and x12 during
fault r2 is x12 before fault x12 after fault, that is x12 is the reactance connecting the nodes that is
internal voltage of the generator to the infinite bus voltage and this formula is applicable to a 2
machine system only we do not have such formula for a multi machine system.
(Refer Slide Time: 30:36)

Now next point we have to address is how to determine power angle curve for unsymmetrical
fault, till now till now we have assumed a balanced 3-phase fault for our analysis and we also
assume that this 3-phase fault is a metallic short circuit there is no fault impedance involved,
under this situation the, the faulted point is directly connected to the reference bus in the
equivalent network and we analyze it but the moment you have unbalanced fault then things
cannot be as simple as in a 3-phase system because as you know actually that unbalanced faults
can be analyzed by by using the method of symmetrical components.

Okay and when we apply the method of symmetrical components we will come across positive
sequence network negative sequence network zero sequence network and we can compute
depending upon the type of fault the positive sequence currents, negative sequence currents, zero
sequence currents.

We also know that how to draw for a given system the positive sequence network, negative
sequence network and zero sequence networks before I tell you how to account for the
unsymmetrical fault for determining power angle curve during fault condition. We have to
understand some basic concepts one basic concept is which I will introduce and explain in
subsequent discussion.
(Refer Slide Time: 32:37)

The concept of fault shunt now here to ah before we understand this fault shunt, let us understand
a since the internal electromotive forces of 3-phase synchronous machine are of positive
sequence that is so for the three phase synchronous generators are concerned we always generate
positive sequence voltages. We do not generate negative sequence or zero sequence voltages, no
power results from interaction of positive sequence voltages with negative or zero sequence
currents. Although, the stator may be carrying negative sequence current, zero sequence current
but when this negative sequence current interacts with the positive sequence voltages no power is
generated no average power is generated.

Similarly, no average power is generated when positive sequence voltages interact with 0
sequence current, okay and therefore to compute the power angle characteristic which basically
relates with the power transfer from machine to the infinite bus okay. We are we have to, we
have to compute primarily the positive sequence currents okay and to compute the positive
sequence currents as we know actually that during fault condition the positive sequence, negative
sequence zero sequence networks are connected in a particular fashion if suppose there is a line
to ground fault these three networks will be connected in series if it is a line to line fault then
these two networks will be connected in parallel looking into the looking into the faulted
terminals.

We have to look where do we connect in parallel where the fault occurs in two faulted points
similarly, we have it is a double line to ground fault then the three networks will be connected in
parallel.
(Refer Slide Time: 34:48)

The simplest approach to account for the unbalanced or unsymmetrical fault is by connecting
shunt impedance ZF at the point of fault that is in the positive sequence network we return the
positive sequence network as it is earlier between the fault point and the reference we were
connecting zero impedance that is directly connected.

## However, when unbalanced or unsymmetrical fault is there we have to connect an impedance of

value ZF that is called fault shunt ZF. The value of ZF depends upon the impedance Z2 and Zo
of the negative and zero sequence networks viewed from the point of fault that is ZF is function
of positive sequence I am sorry, negative sequence and zero sequence impedances. Here, I will
without a derivation right now I am just giving the result the this table shows the type of short
circuit and the fault shunt ZF is the impedance of the fault shunt, if it is a line to ground fault the
value of ZF is Z0 plus Z2, if it is a line to line fault the fault shunt impedance is Z2, if it is a
double line to ground fault if the fault shunt is the parallel combination of Z0 and Z2 and if it is 3
phase fault ZF is 0 okay.

Now this table is very important and I will show you a list through illustration, how do we get
this in time, now a typical statistics of the occurrence of type of faults or frequency of occurrence
type of fault.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:09)

A typical 132 K. V system the data were obtained and out of the total 72 faults which occurred
on the system, 58 were lined to ground faults double line to ground faults were 8 and 3-phase
faults were 6 in fact line to line faults generally gets converted into line to line to ground fault.
You can see very easily here that the frequency of occurrence of 3- phase fault is lowest and the
the frequency of occurrence of line to ground fault is the highest and therefore, in case you
design your system or operating condition of the system is design, considering 3- phase fault it
means we are very very pessimistic in our approach, it may be assumed actually that faults are
would be very severe and we are taking a very safe margin.

However, if you apply only considering line to ground fault definitely you are optimistic where
you feel that these faults may not occur because if you design considering line to ground fault
and if 3- phase fault occurs, system is going to lose stability similarly double line to ground fault
occurs it is going to loose stability in case you do not have any margin right and therefore the
practices I will tell you what are the practices which are as followed ah for designing the system
because we have to make a balance.
We have, we should not be very optimistic we should not be very pessimistic in our approach
before I tell you about the effect of grounding, let us just see how do we account and compute
the value of fault shunt impedance ZF okay. I have told you actually that fault shunt impedance
ZF is different for different fault and the the table had been shown to show you the expressions.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:31)

Okay let us take this the simple machine infinite bus problem where you have generator neutral
of the generate is grounded double circuit transmission line. In this case I have taken only one
transformer there is no transformer shown here but if that is there is a transformer here that can
also be considered this delta star connected transformer start point grounded infinite bus system.

Now when you solve the problem considering unsymmetrical fault we need information about
positive negative and zero sequence reactances of the system components for generator Xd
prime is 0.35, the negative sequence reactance of the generator is less than Xd prime is 0.24, X
naught is the lowest that is zero sequence reactance is always low 0.06, for the transmission line
is concerned its positive and negative sequence reactances are equal that is Z 1 is 0.4 and j times
0.4 the and the negative sequence reactance is also 0.4 the zero sequence reactance of the
transmission line is always more than the positive or negative sequence reactance, in this case it
is 0.65 the typical values it may be even more it may be sometimes 2 to 2.5 times even 2 to 3
three times it all depends upon this system. For a transformer we can assume this X1 X2 X0 equal
to .1 that is they are equal, with this the datas which we have assumed let us first obtain the
positive sequence, negative sequence and zero sequence networks.
The positive sequence network is simple is same as what you do actually for analyzing for
balance 3-phase fault condition, this is the internal voltage E prime the direct axis transient
reactance I am putting the reactance value only 0.35 transmission line reactance 0.4, 0.4 and the
transformer reactance here 0.1 and the infinite bus voltage okay this is the voltage V. I am
showing this as a voltage V, now V we shall consider that the fault occurs at the sending end of
one of the transmission lines right at this point.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:38)

This is the sending end of the line and therefore I will added this is as good as the fault occurring
at the bus therefore let us call this point as the point P on the series and this is our reference. Now
so far the negative sequence network is concerned it is it will have the same structure except that
the sources will not be present there are no sources because we do not generate the negative
sequence voltages and therefore the negative sequence network can be drawn.

This is my reference bus, okay we call this o this point continues to be P now what we will do
here is that this point we will call as P2 that is the fault point in the negative sequence network
and we will call this point as P1 in the positive sequence network, the points are same P1 and P2
are same on the physical system. The values here are now because in a zero sequence, a negative
sequence network, the generator reactance is 0.24 per unit, the transmission line is same 0.4, 0.4
transformer is also 0.1 okay.

Now we can find out the equivalent reactance of the negative sequence network looking into this
points P2 and o, this exercise when you do you will find actually that equivalent comes out to be
a reactance whose value is 0.133 for this problem you can say this is P2 and you can even call
this as a o2 the reference bus for the negative sequence network, therefore these 2 terminals are
important for us. The next step is to draw zero sequence I mean to draw the zero sequence
network for the system.

When we draw the zero sequence network, we have to consider the connection of transformers
because transformers may be connected in different modes and we have to also consider the
neutral impedance. In case you have put a impedance, in the neutral circuit in the equivalent
circuit that impedance will appear as 3 times the actual value in this particular case, the neutral
have been solidly grounded therefore they do not appear.

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:25)

In this particular case if you draw this zero sequence network it will come out to be this value is
0.65, this is also 0.65, this is 0.1 this is 0.06, this is the zero sequence reactance of the generator.
This is our reference bus incidentally in this connection, the generator neutrally is grounded
therefore we can connect a neutral point to the reference. Okay if you had it not been grounded
this would have been open the transformer is a start delta transformer with start point grounded
and therefore again this point will be connected.

Now those who do not have the practice of drawing the zero sequence network, I will advice
them to refresh their knowledge about drawing the positive negative in zero sequence networks
particularly zero sequence networks, considering the different types of transformer connections
now here this is the fault point I will call this as a P000 and the equivalent impedance looking into
these two terminals has been computed it comes out to be equal to 0.053 these points are Po and
okay this so far we have obtained the positive negative in zero sequence networks and we have
also obtained the equivalent value of the positive, negative sequence impedances for the network
considering the fault location.

Now in order to consider the effect of different type of fault in the system right, these 3 networks
have to be connected in a proper fashion. They for line to ground fault which we have considered
these 3 networks can be connected in this fashion.

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:52)

This diagram shows the positive sequence network and here we have not simplified this network,
the fault occurs at the point P1 in the negative sequence network is shown in the terminals P2 and
O2, well while zero sequence impedance is on between the terminals Po and Oo.
Now for simulating line to ground fault the 3 networks positive, negative and zero sequence
networks are connected in series that how we can connect these 3 networks in series that is O1 is
connected to P2, O2 is connected to Po and Oo is connected to P1 this becomes a series
connection. It can be very clearly seen here that the positive sequence network is modified and
here we have now and the impedance connected between P1 and O1 for line to ground fault, the
value of the impedance connected is Z2 plus Z0 and this becomes the fault shunt.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:09)

Now this network can be simplified, I will put in this simple form here between the node 1 and 3
the reactance is the transient direct axis transient reactance of the generator, this is the equivalent
reactance of transmission line and the transformer and between this node 3 and O, reference node
we have connected the fault shunt. If we have considered the lossless system then the fault shunt
impedance becomes a pure reactance that is j times XF. This network can be further transformed
that is the start connected three impedances can be replaced by an equivalent delta connected
impedances.

This figure shows the equivalent delta the nodes 1 and 2 are retained, the reference node is also
retained as it is now the reactance connecting the node 1and 2 is X12 and the reactance which is
directly coming across the E prime source E prime is shown here. Similarly, the reactance
coming directly across the infinite bus voltage is also coming and is shown here now know that
these 2 reactances do not affect the power transfer capability or power transmission capability of
the system therefore we concentrate only on the reactance connecting the nodes 1and 2. Now for
line to ground fault X12 is equal to 0.35 plus 0.3 plus 0.35 into 0.3 divided by XF where XF will
be the sum of the 2 impedances that is zero sequence and negative sequence impedance.

Now the value of XF will be different for different type of fault. The value of X12 is computed for
three different types of unsymmetrical faults for line to ground fault condition the X 12 is 1.22 per
unit, for line to line fault X12 comes out to be 1.44 per unit and for double line to ground fault it
comes out to be 3.41 per unit.

## (Refer Slide Time: 53:18)

We can see here that the reactance connecting the nodes 1 and 2 which is primarily affects the
power flow on the transmission line increases as we go from line to ground fault to double line to
ground fault, if we determine the power angle characteristic during fault considering different
type of faults for line to ground fault, for this particular system consider the power angle
characteristic comes out to be P2 equal to 0.82 sin delta, for line to line fault the power angle
curve is P2 equal to 0.695 sin delta and double line to ground fault P2 is 0.293 sin delta that is if
you examine these 3 power angle curves we find that the power angle curve with line to ground
fault has the highest amplitude while the power angle curve corresponding to line to line to
ground fault or double line to ground fault is having the smallest amplitude or and hence the,
from the consideration of the transient stability limit or the power which can be transferred
without loss of synchronism, the line to ground fault will provide more transient stability limit as
compared to double line to ground fault.

## (Refer Slide Time: 54:31)

This figure shows the plot of transient stability limit or power limit as a function of fault duration
in seconds. This curve shows the relationship between transient stability limit and fault duration
for line to ground fault, the second curve is for line to line fault, third curve is for 2 line to
ground fault and the last curve is plotted for a 3- phase fault.

Now we can easily see here that in case the fault is clear instantaneously that is when the fault
duration is 0, then the transient stability limit is same in all the 4 cases and therefore we can
conclude that the transient stability limit is not affected by the type of fault, if the fault is cleared
instantaneously.

However, if the fault is cleared the time delay then it is very clear actually that the transient
stability limit is lowest when 3- phase fault occurs and transient stability limit is highest for line
to ground fault therefore, we can see that from the point of view of severity the line to ground
fault is the least severe as compared to 3- phase fault or we can say that 3- phase fault is the
severest fault from the stability consideration.
(Refer Slide Time: 56:02)

Now we study the effect of grounding on stability the methods of grounding of a power system
modify the 0 sequence impedance this affects the impedance of the fault shunts for representing
the ground faults and thereby affect the severity of such faults.

## (Refer Slide Time: 56:19)

A typical to a system has been examined and transient stability limit is computed for different
values of ZS and ZR for a 2 machine system.
(Refer Slide Time: 56:34)

Here the value of ZS and ZR are varied from resistive to the reactance value and this stable
shows that as the as the value of the impedance connected in the neutral of the receiving end side
and in the sending end side are varied from ohmic value to the reactance value, the stability limit
varies thus we can say that is grounding affects the stability. Now I can say conclude my
presentation that today we have examined the affect of fault duration type of fault location of
fault and the grounding on the stability of the system, thank you.
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 07
Transient Stability Analysis of a Multi Machine System

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends, today we will study the transient stability analysis of a multi machine system
using a classical approach.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:06)

We shall address to some of the important issues related to the transient stability analysis
of a multi machine system, I shall discuss the node elimination by matrix algebra,
classical model of the system using that model we will develop the power output
equations of generators in the multi machine system, then we will write down the swing
equations in a multi machine system and then for transient stability analysis whatsoever
preliminary computations are required to be made then we will discuss those.

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:24)

One of the requirements while pursuing the multi machine stability problem is the
elimination of some nodes in the system where there is no current injection that is if you
have a system right and at some nodes in the system if there is no injection then these
nodes can be eliminated okay.

Now to understand how these nodes can be eliminated we start with the general system
and the mathematical model of the system is expressed as I is equal to Y bus into V
where I is the current vector and V is the voltage vector that is I are the currents which
are injected at the buses and V are the bus voltages okay, Y bus is a matrix which is a
square matrix okay and this is symmetric matrix you all know about it.

Now to understand how the nodes can be eliminated what we will do is that we will
partition this equation that is the current vector I can be partitioned into two sub vectors
similarly, the voltage vector will be appropriately partition and then Y bus matrix is also
partitioned, after partitioning this matrices we can write down IA IX this is the I vector and
IA is a vector, IX is also a vector.

## It can be partitioned as the sub matrix Y matrix is partitioned as K, L, L transpose M,

VA, VX that is we are when we are doing the partitioning right of the system then when I
partition this current vector then the Y bus matrix is also appropriately partitioned and
bus voltage that is also appropriately partitioned. After this partitioning we can write
down the equations, the two basic equation in the form, IA equal to K times VA plus L
times VX and IX can be written as L transpose VA plus M times VX that is this is simply
obtained by multiplying the uh this two matrices on the right hand side of this equation
okay therefore, I get IA is equal to K times VA plus L times VX, IX is equal to L transpose
VA plus M times VX.
(Refer Slide Time: 04:37)

Now in case in case this IX is a null vector in the sense all elements are 0, okay in that
case what we can do is that we can write down VX in terms of VA and other elements of
this equation, what we do is that you subtract both the sides of the equation by L
transpose VA IX is anyway 0 and multiply by M inverse. Now when you do this two
operations that is you are subtracting both sides by this L transpose V A right and then you
multiply by M inverse, you will get an equation in the form minus M inverse L transpose
VA it is wrong it is L transpose VA.

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:01)

Okay this is equal to VX, now we have obtained the expression or equation for VX in
terms of other non-quantities okay. So that what we do is that we substitute the
expression for VX in equation 7.3 right. So that this VX is eliminated and the moment we
eliminate this VX you can write down the equation in the form IA is equal to K times VA
minus LM inverse L times VA. Okay and therefore this equation can be put in the form IA
equal to K minus LM inverse L transpose into VA right that is if I write the equation in
this form, IA equal to K minus LM inverse L transpose this is L transpose into VA.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:13)

Here, I and V have the same dimensions and this is a matrix is going to be square matrix
have the same dimensions as that of the K and therefore now I can say that the my model
becomes IA equal to Y bus reduced Y bus reduced into VA. Therefore, this reduced Y bus
this you can say this is Y bus reduced okay and this reduced Y bus can be written in the
form as K minus LM inverse L transpose. Therefore, here the network which initially had
certain number of nodes and those nodes where there was no current injection okay.
These nodes have been eliminated and therefore this is now a reduced order model and
there are no nodes where there is no injection. Actually I will just illustrate this with the
help of a example

Now, let us consider that we have a simple system is the third order system let us say
okay and the Y bus matrix as original system is minus 3.330, 3.330 minus 7.5, 2.5, 3.333
and in, I can put 3 here also 2.5 and minus 10.833. This is let us say is Y bus of a system
which has 3 nodes okay. Now let us assume that the node number 3 is 1where there is no
current injection and I want to eliminate that node, what we do is that we partition this
matrix because there are 3 nodes 1 and 2 and 3, okay therefore we partition it in the
fashion.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:17)

So that K becomes now matrix minus 3.3300 minus 7.5 okay. L is a vector in this
particular case 3.33, 2.5, j will be there in all the cases okay and M is minus j times
10.833. Okay now you substitute the value of KL and M in the expression, K minus L M
inverse L transpose.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:03)

Now we make the substitution here this is a column column matrix this is simply a scalar
quantity this is a row where when you multiply this 2 it will be a 2 by 2 matrix and then
subtract this form the elements of K matrix and the resultant matrix which comes out to
be j times 2.308, 0.769, 0.769 minus 6.923.
Now I have illustrated through a very a you know small example but this is applicable to
any system which may have ah any number of nodes to be eliminated and this simplifies
the process to a great extent okay. Now our next step will be in solving the multi machine
problem, we have to develop the classical model.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:20)

When I say it is a they are using the classical approach we will have to develop the
model. Now in the classical approach for transient stability analysis we make all those
assumptions which are made earlier. These 5 assumptions which we made earlier I will
just reiterate them, first was that mechanical input power remains constant, second was
all asynchronous powers or dumping torques were assumed to be 0, third assumption was
asynchronous generator can be represented by a constant voltage behind direct axis
transient reactance, fourth was that synchronous power can be computed from the steady
state solution of network and the fifth was the phase angle of the voltage behind transient
reactance coincides with the total position with respect to the synchronously rotating
reference plane.

These were the 5 assumptions which we had made, the next assumption which we will
make here is all loads because in any power system we will have loads at various buses
all loads may be considered as shunt impedances to ground with values determined with
values determined by conditions prevailing immediately prior to the transient conditions
that is in the system we have loads connected and we will convert the loads loads by
equivalent shunt impedances okay and while calculating the shunt impedances, we will
consider the condition prevailing prior to the transient.

Okay whatsoever are the condition before the occurrence of transient or steady state
condition, okay using that condition we will find out the equivalent load admittances or
load impedances. Okay this is very important next assumption which is made
Now for analyzing the transient stability or for any a stability problem we always require
the initial operating condition or the steady state operating condition prior to the
occurrence of disturbance.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:57)

Now for a multi machine system the steady state pre fault conditions for the for the
system are computed using load flow, there is a mistake by mistake I did not write. The
steady state pre fault conditions for the system are computed using a load flow.
Therefore, a load flow for the system becomes a pre condition for starting the solution of
any stability problem in a multi machine system. Okay now the model for the system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:32)

Okay now the model of the system actually with this all the assumptions which we have
made it looks like this. The transmission network is shown here, to this transmission
network we have generators connected at certain nodes. We can, so that these are the
points at which the generators are connected. There are certain points in the network
where the loads are connected. Okay now these loads are represented by constant
impedances connected to the reference bus.

Now this generators are replaced by ah voltage behind transient reactance direct axis
transient reactance. Now here, here we will not neglect the armature resistance of the
synchronous machine okay. Once we account for the armature resistance then we are
representing the generator by a impedance r1 plus j times xd1 prime r2 plus j times xd2
prime and we find out the voltage behind this impedance, if you neglect this resistance
then it becomes simply the voltage behind direct axis transient reactance but here when
we do the transient stability analysis there is no need to ignore the resistance and we can
account for it.

Once you account for this then these are the voltages behind the transient reactance.
Therefore, now if you see here the network which is enclosed in this rectangle is a
passive network it does not have any source now, okay all the sources have been taken
out that is at this nodes we have connected the voltage sources and all the loads have
been replaced by constant impedances and therefore what we exactly do when solving
this problem is that initially you will perform a load flow analysis okay and once you
perform the load flow analysis you will find out the voltages at all these nodes and all the
nodes where the all the nodes where the loads are connected.

Okay then using using this information the loads will be converted into equivalent
impedances and we will replace the generators by equivalent voltage in series with
impedance. Okay then then this becomes my model which is going to be used for
transient stability analysis.

Now in this case what we have done is that I have shown n generators okay and there
may be ah r nodes where the loads are connected. Okay therefore the system may have
originally n plus r nodes. Now when you perform this load flow analysis you will, you
will find out that the Y bus matrix considering only the line parameters. Okay therefore
now when you perform the transient stability analysis the Y bus matrix will be modified
and it will be obtained considering the machine impedances and this load impedances.

Okay once you obtain this Y matrix accounting for this machine impedances and the load
impedances, the load buses can be eliminated okay and therefore you will be left with
only these n buses where the generators are connected okay all the load buses you
eliminated and the the buses where this generators are connected they are also eliminated
because there is no injection here also but ultimately you will need or you will get a
model which will have the n nodes, where the generators are connected and these are the
constant voltages that is the voltages of constant magnitude their phase angles will very
during the dynamic conditions okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 20:05)

Now for this network we can write down the equations in the from I equal to Y bus E,
where I is the current vector are or current injected at all the n buses and Y bus is the
admittance matrix obtained after eliminating all the nodes. Okay therefore using this we
shall be in a position to obtain the equations for for electrical power output from all the
machines because we know actually that where we have to obtain or we have to analyze
the transient stability analysis we need the expressions for electrical power output from
the generators, okay. Therefore using this model which is having only the n nodes where
the generators or internal voltage of the generators are connected and this exercise is a
important exercise for which I have already the explained the methodology.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:23)

Now here, we will represent the uh diagonal elements of the Y bus matrix which are
called Yii will be equal to magnitude Yii angle theta ii, which will have real and
imaginary parts Gii plus j times Bii. Similarly, the diagonal elements will be shown as Yij
magnitude Yij angle theta ij, Gij plus j times Bij and these voltages, Ei will be written as Ei
angle delta i.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:59)

Now here I am not writing this prime right because once we understand that this is the
voltage behind the direct axis transient reactance and the state of resistance included.
Okay then there because writing every time E prime is little what inconvenient okay
therefore we consider that these are the internal voltages and the magnitudes of these
voltages will remain constant. Now we can find out the electrical power output Phi by
this basic equation that is the real part of Ei Ii star real part of Ei Ii star this is very
important.

Now here you look like this that this is the bus at which the voltage source is connected
say Ei this is i th bus, this Ii is the current which is injected by this voltage source. Okay
and we know actually the the complex power injected is equal to Pi Si equal to Pi plus j
times Qi and this can be obtained by the formula formula always and in this particular
system Ei into Ii conjugate, this star stands for conjugate. Okay and therefore when I take
the real part of this Ei Ii star that becomes the electrical power output from the I th
generator.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:28)

Now you we make the we substitute the expression for Ii, the expression for Ii is we have
the vector Ii can be obtained as Yi1 Yi2 Yin multiplied by this vector E1 up to that is you
have this is this is the I th row of the Y bus matrix and when you multiply this with the
voltage vector, bus voltage vector you will get actually this Ii as Yi1 plus Yi2 E2 plus Yin
En that is we can write down this Ii as summation of Yij Ej where j varies from 1 to n, this
is the way we will be writing the expression for Ii .

Now when you make this substitution here for the expressions for Ii that is you have to
the conjugate of this current and then perform simplifications you will get the expression
Pei that is electrical power output of I th machine as Ei square Gii plus j equal to 1 to n Ei
Ej cosine of theta ij minus delta i plus delta j and j will not take the value equal to i and
this equation is valid for i varying from 1 to n for all the machines that is you put i equal
to 1, 2, 3, 4. You will find that you will be in a position to get the expression for electrical
power.
This is a very important expression and for n machine system we will get n such
equations. Now you can if you just look this look at this expressions carefully, you will
find actually that this depends upon the magnitudes of all the voltages which are known
to us, they remain constant during the transient stability analysis that is during the
transient period. These are the Gii there is one term which is missing here actually just
please correct it. It is Yij it is there will be Ei Ej, Yij will also be there.

Okay cosine of theta ij minus delta i plus delta j therefore this, Yij is also known to us
only thing which is not known will be the quantity which vary the delta i delta ij
therefore, what happens is that these angles will be computed by using the numerical
technique and at the end of each step of computation these angles will be known.
Therefore, you substitute the value of these angles which are computed when you solve
the swing equations right and you get the expression for Pei at each step. Now, once we
know the expressions for electrical power output of the machines for all the n machines
then we can write down the n swing equations okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:10)

The swing equations for each machine will be 2 times Hi upon omega s, d omega i by dt
equal to Pmi, that is the mechanical input to i th machine minus the electrical output of the
i th machine again here. Yij term is missing. Okay that is what we have done is that this
expression is same as I have computed this is the expression for electrical power output
from i th machine okay then this is the main equation and we write down this d delta i by
dt equal to omega I, which is equal to the actual speed of the rotor minus synchronous
speed because d delta i by dt is the access speed of the rotor right and this it is access over
synchronous speed. Therefore, I am writing d delta i by dt equal to omega i which is
equal to d theta i by dt minus omega s.
Okay therefore what we see here is that we have written 2 equations, 2 first order
equations for one machine and therefore, if you have n machines in the system then you
will get total 2 n such first order equations. Now we need the information of what is the
mechanical power input to the machines Pmi and we assume that this Pmi is constant over
the transient period that is mechanical power input to all the machines are assumed to be
constant right. Therefore, there is a necessity to find out what will be the mechanical
power input initially okay.

Now how to do it because under steady state conditions the electrical power output is
equal to the mechanical power input and the system is in steady state condition that is the
derivative terms on the right left hand side of the equations are all 0 okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:48)

Therefore, with this condition we can write down the expression for mechanical power
input as Pmio equal to Ei square Giio, I am putting o here means this is the this is the
element of the Y bus matrix before the occurrence of transient again here you have Yij
okay, that is the complete expression of wherever actually ah angles were delta i, I put
delta io, delta j, delta jo, now theta ijo here you will find actually that when the system is
subjected to disturbance.

Okay therefore during fault conditions the Y bus matrix of the system will be different,
during post fault condition it is again going to be different right and therefore we will
have 3 different ah Y bus matrices one pre fault condition, one during fault condition,
third post fault condition. Now here to compute the mechanical power input initial
mechanical power input Pmio right. We use the conditions which are prevailing the in the
system before the occurrence of disturbance and this is, I am denoting by putting a further
subscript o, okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 32:26)

Now the equations which we have written were 2n equations, these 2n equations can be
written in the general form as X dot equal to a function a non-linear function X, Xo, t
where, X is a vector of dimensions 2n into 1X is a vector of dimension 2n into 1 where, n
is the number of machines and these are all first order nonlinear differential equations or
we can say a set of 2n first order couple non-linear differential equations they are all
couple.

Now X transpose is actually the X is the state vector the state variables are omega 1, delta
1, omega 2, delta 2, omega n, delta n right and let me just summarize here, how we obtain
the mathematical model of the system. The first step is therefore a given system you
perform a load flow study and find out the initial steady state operating condition okay,
once you have done this the next step will be to replace all the loads by constant
impedances.

Then next step will be to knowing the information which you have obtained in the steady
state ah condition you replace all the generators by constant voltage behind a impedance r
plus j times Xd prime okay. Once you have done this thing, you can illuminate all those
nodes where they are no current injections or no source is connected okay using the
matrix algebra.

Once you have done this thing you can find out the set of non-linear coupled differential
equations for the machine okay. Once these equations are there our task is to solve these
equations using numerical technique and plot the graph relating delta versus time that is
the, we have to plot swing curves for all the machines and then we examine the swing
curves to see whether the system is stable or not okay this is what is step.
(Refer Slide Time: 35:10)

Now here before we do all the transient steady analysis one has to perform some
preliminary computations. The preliminary preliminary computations to be computed
done are, all system data are converted to a common base this is a pre important
requirement that when you assemble the system data you will find actually that data are
given on the basis of there name plate ratings. Suppose you have a generator of 5hundred
MVA, okay then the generator parameters will be given on the basis of name plate rating
of the machine.

Okay but once you are consoling a system you have to convert all the data on a common
base and the common base generally chosen is hundred MVA, okay 100 MVA is
common because it looks to be little convenient for computations okay. Otherwise there
is no such hard and fast rule you choose the common base and when you say the one is
MVA base another is the voltage voltage in a particular circuit you will choose and then
you will compute the per unit values of all the system parameters on common base.

The second step is the loads are converted into equivalent impedances or admittances the
needed for this is obtained from the load flow study, okay this is what I have already told
you. Now how do we convert actually the loads into constant admittances these steps are
also important this we can write down here, that at suppose the load is represented as PL
plus j times QL at any bus as load is a PL plus j times QL.
(Refer Slide Time: 36:45)

This load can be written as VL into IL star because this is the complex complex load right
and with this can be written as the bus voltage , of the load bus, the voltage of the load
bus into the conjugate of the current drawn by the load IL star. Okay using this expression
we will compute the value of elements of the admittance which is going to replace the
load by a constant admittance. Now the admittance will be written as YL plus j times YL
equal to GL plus j times BL, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:43)

This can be simply obtained that in this expression in this expression you can substitute
the value of IL, we know that the current drawn by an admittance is equal to admittance
current and admittance is given by this formula, load voltage is V L therefore IL star is
going to be VL star into YL star IL star is VL star into therefore VL into VL star becomes
VL square and IL then YL will become GL minus times j times BL, YL star.

So that we can write down this load as VL square into GL minus j times BL right and
therefore, using this expression equation 7.8 right, we can say that the load admittance is
equal to PL minus VL square minus j times QL by VL square that is you can say that the ah
real part is PL divided by VL square and reactive part is BL divided QL minus VL square
okay and the proper sign is to be consider.

Therefore, this is one important step and this voltage is VL which are substituting in this
expression are the obtained by load flow analysis. Okay another computation which is
required to perform is the voltage behind the transient reactance. Okay now here you can
use this expression Ei prime equal to Vti plus j times Xdi prime into Ii.

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:17)

Now here I have not considered the armature resistance right but you can modify this by
putting here instead of j times Xdi prime, we can put here Ri plus j times Xdi prime okay
and since the all information is are known, current is known, terminal voltage is known,
you can find out the while finding out this internal voltage we will use this expression,
the current injected by the generator is Pi minus j times Qi divided by Vti star.

This is very standard equation which can be used to compute the value of current and this
current is required in the equation 7.10 to compute the internal voltage. The internal
voltage which you compute, the internal voltage which you compute right will have its
magnitude and phase angle right and this phase angle which you get become the initial
value of deltas, okay and the magnitudes will remain constant during the transient.
Now once you have done these preliminary calculations okay we obtain using this
information, the swing equations. Now you know that we require swing equations under
3 different conditions, one is the pre fault operating condition, second is the during fault
and third is the post fault and therefore when you solve the swing equations suppose I
start solving the equations at time t equal to 0, okay now if the perturbation or
disturbances occur at time t equal to 0 right then immediately from that initial steady state
condition I will be using the swing equations, I will be solving the swing equations which
are applicable during the during the fault on period.

Then once I know that okay after this much time the fault is cleared right it means the
movement I reach that particular point i will change over from the fault on period swing
equations to post fault swing equations and continue to solve it right. Now one should
know actually that suppose the fault occur in the system, how to obtain the ah the swing
equations which will be applicable during fault conditions, pre fault conditions we have

Now the faults can be ah symmetrical faults or unsymmetrical faults. Now in case it is a
symmetrical fault then the problem is bit simple, if it is unsymmetrical then also it is not
difficult because we have already seen how to account for the unsymmetrical fault. Now
if it is suppose I take fault at a particular bus, let us say that fault occurs at a particular
bus then voltage of that bus will collapse it will become 0. Therefore, the occurrence of
fault at the particular bus is accounted by considering or by is by setting that voltage of
that bus to 0.

Okay then once the voltage of that bus becomes 0 we have to modify the Y bus matrix
which will be applicable to this period, this particular fault on condition. This
modification are not difficult one can, once you see that a particular bus is grounded okay
looking into that condition you can modify the Y bus matrix. Now simplest way is that if
you have Y bus matrix for the pre fault condition then if suppose at a particular bus let us
say ah bus number five bus number five if suppose there is a 3-phase short circuit then
the row and column corresponding to the bus number 5 can be deleted from the pre fault
Y bus matrix and the remaining, the remaining Y bus matrix right will become the Y bus
matrix applicable to post fault condition.

In fact actually suppose one particular bus is grounded or since it is sorted it gets get
grounded it they the number of buses which remain now will become less by one right
therefore Y bus matrix also reduce in dimension. Similarly, once you consider the post
fault condition right then, you can obtain the Y bus matrix during the post fault condition
because under post fault condition what happens one line may be out therefore for the
remaining system you have to find out the Y bus matrix.

Now this Y bus matrix will not be assembled fresh one can be modify the existing Y bus
matrix by modifying the elements of Y bus matrix some elements will be affected, for
example actually if suppose there is a Y bus matrix and if the line connecting the node
one and two that is tripped.
Okay then what is that is going to affect the or which elements of the Y bus matrix will
be affected that is Y11 will be affected because that line is out, Y22 will be affected and
Y12 will be affected others will not be affected, right. Therefore once we know that
particular type of line element has been removed right you can easily find out the Y bus
matrix applicable during the post fault period and once we know the Y bus matrix which
are applicable during post fault, during fault and during pre-fault conditions that you
already known because our equations that is the equations for electrical power output are
written using the reduced Y bus matrix therefore this reduction process has to be done for
all the 3 conditions pre-fault fault on condition and post fault condition.

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:48)

Now I will suggest you to refer to these problems or these two examples which are given
in here, one example is given in the book written by P. M. Anderson and Fouad, power
system control and stability volume one, example 2.6 and 2.7, these two examples this is
example which is very very commonly used for illustrating the transient stability
analysis. It is a 9 bus system, it has total 3 generators, 9 buses okay and in these two
examples all the step by step computations have been carried out to illustrate the steps
involved in solving the transient stability problem.

One more simple example which is given in the ah basic book on power system analysis
that is elements of power system analysis by Stevenson, everybody is aware of this book
Stevenson here he has solved 5 bus system. Okay and in this 5bus system he has
illustrated all the steps which are required to obtain the complete transient stability
solution. Now once the model is obtained and you solve the swing equations, couple a set
of the coupled swing equations, you will get the swing curves.

Okay the swing curves will plot actually as delta one delta two delta three as function of
time. Now to examine whether the system remains stable or not we have to see the
relative variation of the swing curves that is not the absolute values of delta 1, delta 2
delta n that is important what is the relative value that is more important.

Suppose the two machines may accelerate simultaneously okay but the angles may
remain very close to each other or angle difference may remain very close then system is
not losing synchronism therefore, when you examine the stability of the multi machine
system we have to examine the ah the plots of relative ah angles that is we plot actually
delta 12 that is delta 1 minus delta 2.

You plot delta 1 minus delta three suppose there is a three machine system they are only
a 3angles involved and once this curves are plotted in case actually the curves or we can
say delta 12 reaches the maximum value and decreases it shows the stability condition,
in case delta 12 increases continuously it shows unstable condition. Okay with this let me
conclude what we have done today.

We have an we have given or we have studied the basic steps involved in analyzing the
transient stability of a multi machine system. Here we have used a classical model for
analyzing the stability I have mentioned that how do we obtain the required required
models for pre-fault, fault on and post fault operating conditions. Okay and the swing
equations which we obtained for the system are solved by using numerical techniques
and the stability of the system is understood by examining the swing curves which we
plot and particularly the is the swing curves are relating the relative relative angles of the
machines, okay thank you very much.
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 08
Modelling of Synchronous Machine

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:05)

Till now the synchronous machine was model as a constant voltage behind direct axis transient
reactance. The synchronous machine modeling has been a challenge all through and lot of work
has been done over the years to develop more accurate models of the synchronous machine.
Today in our study we will develop the basic equations of synchronous machine and then we will
go to dqO transformation which is also commonly known as parks transformation.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:05)

Now this synchronous machine has two major parts, stator and rotor. We shall represent stator
has provided with 3 windings and we assume that these windings are sinusoidally distributed. On
the rotor, we have a field winding on the direct axis and we have amortisseur or damper
windings. In a synchronous generator we provide dampers and these dampers can be represented
by considering considering the amortisseurs located on the d axis and on the quadrature axis.

Now here in my presentation we will presume or we will assume one amortisseur on the d axis
and another amortisseur on the q axis. The convention which we will follow here is that the q
axis leads d axis by 90 degrees, although there are some some you know cases where the q axis
has been taken as lagging the d axis but in IEEE standards consider the q axis leading the d axis
by 90 degrees.

Now here the d axis is along the axis of north pole, it coincides with the axis of north pole then
we will measure the angular position of the, angular position of the direct axis with respect to the
axis of phase A of the stator that is here this straight lines shows the axis of phase A and the the
angular position of the rotor is measured with respect to the axis of phase A and we call this
angle as theta. Further we will be following the generator convention there is the stator currents
are leaving the terminals of the machine that is ia, ib and ic are leaving the machine terminals. The
rotor is rotating in the anticlockwise direction this is direction of rotation of the rotor which we
are presuming.

Now the currents in the rotor circuits are entering the rotor circuit, if you just see here this field
winding the current is entering the field winding and the applied voltage is efd the damper
windings are closed circuits amortisseurs are closed circuits. The current flowing is again into
the amortisseur windings closed circuit.
(Refer Slide Time: 06:05)

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:46)

Some of the important nomenclature are ah will be use here, a, b, c stands for the stator phase
windings, fd stands for field winding, kd stands for d axis amortisseur circuit, kq stands for q
axis amortisseur circuit, this K stands for 1, 2, 3, n, the number of amortisseur circuits that is if I
put one amortisseur circuit on the d axis, k becomes 1 I can say 1 d if there is one amortisseur on
the q axis it is 1q. Okay therefore in general the amortisseurs are represented by putting
substitute kd or kq, theta is the angle by which the d axis leads the magnetic axis of the phase a
winding in the electrical radians and omega r is rotor angular velocity is electrical radians.
(Refer Slide Time: 06:59)

The ea, eb and ec are the instantaneous stator phase to neutral voltages that is the voltages which
are shown here these are the instantaneous values and they are with respect to phase to neutral
there is a raise from neutral to phase, instantaneous stator currents are shown as ia, ib and ic.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:22)

The field voltage is efd, the field and amortisseur circuit currents are denoted as ifd, ikd and ikq the
rotor circuit resistances will be denoted by Rfd, Rkd, Rkq with Rfd is the resistance of the field
winding, Rkd is the resistance of direct axis amortisseur circuit and Rkq is the resistance of the

Now here, we will see that we have stator windings, we have windings on the rotor and rotor is
rotating and because because of this we will find actually that the, we come across various types
of inductances in the synchronous machine, the inductances are the self- inductances of the stator
windings, the mutual inductance between the windings of the stator then mutual inductances
between the stator winding in the rotor circuits and self-inductances of the rotor circuits and
mutual inductances between the rotor circuits therefore we come across different types of
inductances in the stator in the synchronous machine.

The, we represent this by double circuit same circuit laa to denote that it is a self laa, lbb and lcc
stand for self-inductances of stator windings that is we will use double circuit notation to denote
the self-inductances or mutual inductances if there are self-inductances the two circuits will be
same if they are mutual inductances the two circuits will be different, like say lab lbc and lca stands
for mutual inductances between stator winding that is lab is the mutual inductance between stator
a phase and stator b phase, so on.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:35)

Then lafd, lakd and lakq represents the mutual inductances between the stator a phase and rotor
windings that is lafd is the mutual inductance between the stator a phase and field winding lakd is
the mutual inductance between the stator a phase and amortisseur on the d axis and similarly, lakd
then lffd, lkkd and lkkq represents the self-inductances of rotor circuit. Ra is armature resistance per
phase and we will represent this differential operator P which is your d by dt by the symbol P, P
is the differential operator.
Now in the case of synchronous machine, the self-inductances of the stator winding and the
mutual inductances between the stator windings and they they they are affected because of the
the non-uniform air gap. As we know that the magnetic field produced by the stator winding it
passes through passes through the stator core, through the air gap, through the rotor iron then air
gap and again return backs through the stator core right and therefore the flux produced by the
stator winding will be affected by the position of the rotor.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:15)

Now here in this diagram we saw the variation of permeance with rotor position means you
know that permeance is the reciprocal of reluctance. Okay now here I am considering a salient
pole machine and these are the pole location and we are just showing the expanded version. Now
the permeance is maximum when the, when the permeance is maximum along the d axis or we
can say the reluctance is minimum. This graph shows the variation of permeance as with respect
to the position that is angle alpha which is measured with respect to the d axis which coincides
with the North Pole axis okay.

We can easily see that this is maximum position, when it coincide with the Q axis it is minimum
and it again coincides with the d axis it is maximum and this variation is of the form P equal to
Po plus P2 cos 2 alpha that is when alpha is 0, alpha is 0 its value is Po plus P2 and when alpha is
ninety degrees its value is Po minus P2 right that is cos2 alpha becomes minus 1 and it is this
variation of this permeance right is having a strong bearing on the variation of self-inductances
mutual inductances and so on.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:59)

Now to understand the whole thing what we start with this we first write down the stator circuit
equations. The basic stator circuit equations are ea is equal to p, psi a minus Ra ia, eb equal to p
psi b minus Ra ib and ec equal to p psi c minus Ra ic, ia ib and ic are the instantaneous value of the
phase currents and p psi a stands for d by dt of psi a, psi a, psi b and psi c are the flux linking
phase a phase b and phase c respectively. Okay that means straight forward that the induced emf
is d by dt of psi a and this will be equal to the terminal voltage plus the resistance drop or now
this equation is drawn considering the generator action okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:59)

Now here, let us see actually that what determines the flux linkage in the stator phase winding
the flux linkage in the stator phase winding can be written as psi a equal to minus laa ia, now here
I will explain this minus terms but laa is the self-inductance of phase a la into ia minus mutual
inductance between a and b and multiplied by ib minus iac ic plus lafd ifd where lafd is the mutual
inductance between a phase and field winding ifd is the field current similarly lakd, ikd, lakq, ikq.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:59)

Now since we have assumed in the basic model here that the flux linkages are shown in the
direction opposite to the current and that is why actually the negative signs are appearing here
that is in these terms you can just see these are the negative signs while the currents are entering
the other three rotor windings therefore they are the positive signs. Now we will see that that
these self-inductances mutual inductances these are not constant these depend upon the position
of the rotor with respect to the windings, the stator windings and we will show that these depend
upon the angular position of the rotor and since the rotor is rotating the angular position of rotor
keeps on changing and therefore these inductances are going to be a function of angular position
theta. Okay now to understand this let us first start with the stator self-inductances, the stator
self-inductances.

Now here the stator self-inductance is denoted by the symbol laa okay and how when we define
this stator self-inductance, the basic definition is the flux linking the phase a winding divided by
the current that is the self-inductance of phase a winding with no currents on other windings that
is when only current ia is flowing and we find out what is the total flux linking the stator winding
a that is the self-inductance of stator winding a laa.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:05)

Now when the current ia is flowing okay then the MMF, MMF which is produced due to the flow
of current is Na into ia and this MMF is sinusoidally distributed along the surface of the stator or
along the air gap okay because the stator is suppose to produce a sinusoidally distributed MMF
okay and this MMF has the maximum value along the d axis right it is it is peak is along the d
axis and when you go away from the d axis both sides this is going to decrease.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:39)

Now here this diagram shows, this diagram shows the MMF produced by the stator phase a that
is the I am just showing this is the this is the axis of phase a okay and the MMF produced by the
axis of phase a MMF produced by the phase a or stator phase a is having its peak along the d
axis, this is the d axis. I am sorry, this is the not d axis, I am sorry this is the axis of the phase a,
the axis of the phase a. Okay it is a little correction this is the axis of phase a.

Now what we do is we split this MMF into two components both are having the sinusoidal
distribution, one having its peak along d axis another having its peak along q axis therefore this
this graph red graph which I have shown here, this shows the sinusoidal distribution having its
peak coinciding the d axis, this is the again sinusoidal distribution its peak is coinciding with q
axis and the q axis is leading d axis by 90 degrees okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:04)

Now this can be seen here in this diagram that the MMF produced by the stator right along its
own axis that is the MMF produced by a stator winding of phase a right is having its maximum
value along its own axis that is axis of phase a. Now we have assumed likely that the rotor is
rotating in the anti clockwise direction therefore axis of, now the d axis is shown here and q axis
is leading points and what we do is that this MMF is resolved into two components one along d
axis another along q axis. The d axis component is Na ia cos theta and q axis component is minus
Na ia sin theta, okay.

Now with this MMFs then we can find out what will be the flux produced at the air gap along
this d and q axis. Okay, now here we are showing that the MMFad that is MMF due to due to
current flowing in the stator a phase and it is component along d axis ad is equal to Na ia cos theta
and these are the peak values therefore when ia attains its peak value this will also become this
varying this is varying along as the ia is varying, then the along the q is minus ia Na sin theta
okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 20:59)

Now the flux produced long these two axis because of these MMF can be written as MMF into
Pd that is phi gad, g stand for air gap or gap flux okay the phi gad is equal to Na ia cos theta into
Pd and phi gaq is equal to minus Na ia sin theta into Pq. Now here this is the MMF and to relate
this MMF to the flux we are using this term Pd therefore, Pd is in general a permeance coefficient
we call it it is not only the absolute value of permeance but all other parameters which relate
flux to MMF because this is the MMF only this is the flux okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:53)

Now what is done is we again make use of this phasor diagram, the flux which is produced along
d axis in the air gap, flux which is produced along q axis in the air gap, we resolve them back
along the axis of phase a. that is when you resolve this right then this component will come out
to be equal to phi gad cos theta and the second component comes out to be phi gaq sin theta with
negative sign because there was negative sign already attached with it and therefore we can say
that the air gap flux due to current flowing in the stator winding a only comes out to be equal to
Na ia substituting these values on the previous equations in this form.

The Na ia Pd cos square theta plus Pq sin square theta and this expression when simplified it can
be put in the form Na ia into Pd plus Pq by 2 plus Pd minus Pq by 2 cos 2 theta.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:09)

Now here this is very important point to understand that the air gap flux produced, air gap flux
produced by current flowing in the stator winding of phase a is equal to is proportional to a term
Pd plus Pq by 2 and another term Pd minus Pq by 2, cos 2 theta that is this term does not depend
upon angular position, while this term depends upon the angular position. Now we define the
inductance.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:44)

The inductance, the self-inductance of the stator phase a due to gap flux only the flux which is
produced in the air gap, lgaa is equal to Na affective number of terms into the gap air gap flux
divided by ia and this comes out to be we substitute the value of phi gaa it comes out to be Na
square Pd plus Pq by 2 plus Pd minus Pq by 2 cos 2 theta okay therefore this can be put in the form
that is this is your Lgaa is the self-inductance of phase a due to gap flux only which can be put as
a constant terms Lg0 plus another term Laa2 cos 2 theta right because as I have seen the I have told
you that the permanence of the air gap varies as a with the position of the rotor and there we
found actually that it has a second harmonic variation. Here, also you find there is a constant
term plus a quantity varying as a function of cosine 2 theta okay.

Now to make the whole thing more complete there is some a leakage flux which does not cross
the air gap. Okay and this leakage flux also contributes the self-inductance of the stator phase
and therefore, when you account for the leakage flux then we can say that the self-inductance Laa
of the stator phase is equal to self-inductance due to leakage flux plus lgaa which I have obtained
in the previous equation that is due to the gap flux and then when you combine these two terms.
We can see here that this mutual inductance or the this second term will not be affected by the
leakage and therefore this leakage term is combined and you find here that the self-inductance
can be written as Laao plus Laa2 cos 2 theta.
(Refer Slide Time: 25:30)

Now this is the most important equation to understand that how the self-inductance of stator
phase varies as the position of the rotor varies the angular position of the rotor. Now this angular
position is measured with respect to axis of phase a.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:44)

Now this graph shows the plot for the variation of the self-inductance of stator phase a as
function of theta okay and you can identify here that this is the term Laa2 which varies this Laa2 is
constant and this is another term which we call Laao and the total inductance of the stator phase is
now written as Laa equal to Laao plus Laa2. These two terms are constant these constants these are
constant they do not depend upon the angular position that mean the total self-inductance
depends upon the angular position but these two coefficients are constant. Now when we
perform the similar exercise for phase b and phase c, since the the axis of the phase b and phase c
are displaced by 120 degrees with respect to axis of phase a right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:26)

Therefore, the expressions which we have written here for self-inductance of phase b right will
be of the same form except theta is replaced by theta minus 2 phi by 3 and since these the
everything remains same therefore these terms are also same therefore it is not Lbbo but Lbbo is
same as Laao okay similarly, we write down lcc as Lao plus Laa2 cos 2 times theta plus 2 phi by 3
okay very straight forward.

Now next very important point we have to understand is the stator mutual inductances, the stator
winding mutual inductances again we will see that the stator winding mutual inductances also are
function of rotor position that will be function of theta. Now here, here when the when the axis
of the rotor is in the middle of the axis of stator phase a and stator phase b then at that position
the mutual inductance between a and b will be maximum for example the mutual inductance
between phase b and c when you try to see it will be maximum when theta is theta is 30 degree
minus 30 degrees and 150 degrees these they are the positions which we have to see. Okay, using
this information the flux linkage is, flux linkage is of phase b.

When current is flowing in phase a is are obtained that is we want to to find out the flux mutual
flux right that the flux linking flux, linking phase b due to current flowing in phase a okay and
then once you find out this flux. Okay, we can find out the mutual inductance because the the
inductance is the flux linkage by the current mutual inductance will be the flux linking phase b
due to current in phase a and then you divide by the current you will get the mutual inductance.
Here here following the same approach as we have done for done for obtaining the self-
inductance the, the air gap flux flux again the gap flux linking phase b with when current is
flowing in phase a is obtained in this form that is this is obtained in terms of these 2 components
phi gad and phi gaq that is this is the air gap flux along d axis this is the air gap flux along q axis
and after making the substitutions we find actually that mutual flux comes out to be equal to Na ia
minus Pd plus Pq by 4 plus Pd minus Pq by 2 cos 2 theta minus 2 phi by 3, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:33)

Now you can easily see here actually that if you substitute here to make this quantity one to
make this quantity one. You can find it out actually ah what should be the value of theta right
and since this term is minus here Pd is always greater than Pq permanence along the d axis is
more then the permanence along q axis and therefore this is minus to have this also minus so that
the total quantity is added up. Okay you can find out the value of this angle theta and you will
find actually that when theta occupies either 30 degrees or 150 degrees it will be maximum. Now
this, this mutual inductance can be obtained as lgba divided by after dividing the the expression
for phi gba by ia okay.

Therefore, the expression for Lgba comes out to be in this form. Okay, now again it can be written
as minus 1 by 2 Lgo, Lg0 plus Lab2, now if you very carefully examine then this Lab2, Lab2 will be
of the same amplitude as Laa2, Laa2 right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:08)

Similarly, you can find out the mutual inductance between b and a and we this ba mutual
inductance between the phase a and b that is equal ba or ab, they are always equal okay and the
expressions are written in the form minus Labo minus, now here actually when you have written
in this form what we have done is that we have accounted for some some leakage flux which also
leaks to windings right because there are, there is a air gap flux and there is some flux which
does not cross the air gap and once you account that we can write down these mutual inductances
in this form, okay again you can see that this depends upon theta. Similarly, you can write down
for bc and cb it comes out to be in the similar form and similarly lac and lca can be written like this
okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 34:02)

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:10)

(Refer Slide Time: 34:18)

This diagram shows the variation of mutual inductance as a function of theta between the 2 stator
phases that is here we have shown the Lab and you can easily see that first thing which we see
here is that the the mutual inductances all through negative. Okay and its variation is shown in
this form therefore, this this quantity a constant quantity is Labo and over this is you superimpose
this sinusoidally varying quantity and variation is as a function of 2theta. Therefore what we
have seen till now that the self-inductances of the stator phases or stator winding and mutual
inductances between the stator winding.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:01)

Now we will consider the mutual inductances between stator and rotor windings, stator and rotor
winding. Now so far the mutual inductances between stator rotor windings are concerned that
they are function of angular position but they are not because of the variation in permanence here
because so far the rotor is concerned, rotor will always see the same permanence because the
stator stator is having the ah a uniform shape right and therefore, so far the so far actually the
rotor is concerned, rotor windings are concerned right the the there will be no variation in
permanence.

Now here the mutual inductances between stator and rotor windings vary because of angular
position. Now for example, if you take take the stator phase a and field winding in case the axis
of these windings coincide they will have maximum mutual inductance in case the axis of stator
winding of phase a and the field winding they are in quadrature, the mutual inductance will be 0
right and since the rotor is having rotating it occupies different positions therefore, when it
coincides where the direct axis of the rotor coincide with the stator phase a axis or b axis or c
axis they will have maximum mutual inductance and when the quadrature axis of the rotor
coincides with the stator phase axis, okay phase a axis or phase b axis or phase c axis then the
mutual inductance will be 0. Okay therefore, we can write down this mutual inductance Lafd
equal to L, Lafd into cos theta.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:39)

When suppose as we know that the theta is measured right considering the axis of phase a as
reference and theta is the angle between the d axis and axis of phase a. Okay therefore when
theta is 0, the mutual inductance between stator stator winding and the field winding is
maximum. Okay and 90 degrees it is now, so the the amortisseur on the direct axis is is also
going to have the inductance, mutual inductance in the form Lakd cos theta right because this the
the direct axis amortisseur is having axis coinciding with the field winding right and therefore
the variation is going to be similar.
Now the mutual inductance in the quadrature axis amortisseur and the stator winding will be
written by the formula Lakq cos of theta plus phi by 2, why this theta is replaced by theta plus phi
2 by 2 because q axis is leading d axis by 90 degrees therefore, this can be written as minus Lakq
sin theta.

Now what we have seen here is till now, we have obtained the expression for the self-
inductances of the stator windings, mutual inductances between stator windings and we have also
obtained the mutual inductances between the rotor windings and stator winding and we have
seen that all these are function of angular position. Okay now we again come to our fundamental
equations that is the stator voltage equations stator circuit equation ea equal to p psi a minus Ra ia
and we have seen that the flux linkage of phase a is now written as minus laa ia minus lab ib minus
lac ic plus lafd ifd plus lakd ikd plus lakd ikq therefore, now in this equation we substitute the
expression for laa, lab, lac, lafd, lakd, lakq.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:20)

Okay, then we get the expression for flux linkage of phase a as minus i a into Laa plus ib into Labo
Lab2 cos 2 theta plus phi by 3 this plus sign has come because there was negative sign here
earlier. Okay when you see this mutual inductance there was a negative sign therefore it becomes
plus here. Similarly, you have ic into Labo plus Lao cos 2 theta minus phi by 3 and so on, that is
what we have done is that in this in this basic equation, we have substituted value of all the
inductances okay, which were all found to be function of theta. Similarly we can write down the
flux linkage of phase b and flux linkage of phase c, they are exactly similar except you will find
that theta is replaced by theta plus 2 phi by 3 or theta minus 2 phi by okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 39:31)

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:01)

(Refer Slide Time: 41:04)

## (Refer Slide Time: 41:09)

Now after having written the equations for the stator windings, voltage equation for the stator
windings we can write down the rotor circuit voltage equations. The, in the rotors on the rotor we
have considered 3windings, 1 filed winding and 2 amortisseurs. Okay therefore efd the voltage
applied to the field winding is equal to P psi fd plus Rfd ifd. Now here, since we have assumed
that the current is entering the field winding and therefore the term here is P psi fd plus this is a
simple Rl circuit.
Suppose you have Rl circuit, then the applied voltage is equal to the rate of change of flux
linkages plus voltage drop in the resistance. Okay then the other 2 equations these relate to the
direct axis amortisseur, winding amortisseur circuit and quadrature at the amortisseur circuit here
since there is no external applied voltage therefore we have 0 term here. Okay therefore, there
are 3 basic rotor circuit voltage equations we have 3 basic stator circuit voltages equations. Now
let us write down the expression for these flux linkages psi fd psi kd and psi kq.

## (Refer Slide Time: 42:47)

Now psi fd can be written as Lffd that is the self-inductance of field winding into ifd plus mutual
inductance of the mutual inductance between between field winding and amortisseur that is Lakd
into ikd okay and there will be no there will be no flux linking the field winding due to the
quadrature axis amortisseur because the the 2 axis are that that the the displacement of 90
degrees between the 2 axis okay and therefore there is no flux linkage contributed by by

Then these 3 terms are here Lafd into ia cos theta Lafd into ib cos theta minus 2 phi by 3and Lafd
plus ic into cos theta plus 2 phi by 3 that is when the 3 stator currents are carrying the values ia, ib
and ic and depending upon their mutual inductances this will be the flux linkage in the stator
winding. Now one point which I wanted to mention here is the so far the self-inductances of the
rotor circuits are concerned that is self-inductance of field winding, self inductance of
amortisseurs they do not depend upon the angular position because because so far actually the
the the magnetic circuit is concerned for computing the self-inductances of rotor circuits are
concerned, these the self-inductances are constant and the since that we have assumed like with
uniform internal surface of the stator okay and therefore no variation of reluctance so far actually
the rotor circuits are concerned.
Similarly, similarly the mutual inductance between the rotor circuits there is mutual inductance
between the field winding and amortisseur on the d axis they will be fixed, they do not depend
upon the rotor position right. Therefore for example, Lfkd is a mutual inductance between field
winding and direct axis amortisseur this is a constant quantity they will not depend upon the
rotor position.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:59)

Now this similarly you can write down the flux linkage of amortisseur on d axis and flux linkage
of amortisseur in the q axis okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:55)

Now with this with this we have developed the complete mathematical model that we have
written three stator circuit equations, we have written the rotor circuit equations we have
expressed all the inductances as function of currents and I am sorry ,not all the flux linkages as
function of currents and the self and mutual inductances.

Now this that is ah this is what is called complete model of the system however the basic
problems which arise are due to due to the variation of these inductances with the variation of
rotor angular position and to overcome this problem and seeing very carefully the expression for,
you see the expression for psi fd, we find here a term Lafd that is the along with this term where
ia cos theta plus ib cos theta minus 2 phi by 3 therefore, this has prompted us to obtain a
transformation and once we go we use this transformation, we will find that the equations can be
simplified and we can make these equations equations where they do not exclusively depend
upon or the inductances do not depend upon the angular position.

Okay the the transformation is of this form that is we define, we define this term ia cos theta plus
ib cos theta minus 2 phi 3 plus ic cos theta 2 phi by 3 multiplied by some constant kd as id that is
these 3 terms ia cos theta ib cos theta minus 2 phi by 3, ic cos theta plus 2 by 3 this complete term
multiplied with some constant kd is denoted by a term id.

Similarly we denote another term iq as minus ikq multiplied by ia sin theta plus ib sin theta minus
2 phi by 3, now this with this with this assumption or this transformation if we consider balance
three phase currents that is ia equal to Im sin omega s t, ib equal to Im sin omega s t minus 2 phi
by 3 ic equal to Im sin omega st plus 2 phi by 3. Okay that is, we are assuming that the 3 stator
currents are balanced with this 3 stator currents to be balanced, okay what we do is if you
substitute and find out the expression for id, the id will come out to be as kd into 3 by 2 Im sin
omega st minus theta. This is very important term that is with this transformation, this id current
id is equal to kd into 3 by 2 Im sin omega st minus theta.

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:02)

Now if you assume kd equal to 2 by 3, if you assume kd equal to 2 by 3 then the the peak value of
id will be same as Im okay and therefore in the Parks transformation, Parks transformation kd
and kq are taken equal to 2 by 3, that is iq will also be taking the same minus iq into 3 by 2 Im cos
omega st minus theta.

## (Refer Slide Time: 50:36)

Okay and therefore, if I take kq equal to 2 by 3 then the peak value of iq will be same as Im.
Okay now to make this model complete complete and assuming that suppose the 3 currents are
not symmetrical right then we can define one, 0 sequence current io as 1 by 3 ia plus ib plus ic and
with this definition the transformation looks like this it is very interesting thing this
transformation looks likes this that we can say id, iq, io, a vector consisting of d axis current, q
axis current and i0.

These 3 currents can be written in terms of the phase currents ia, ib and ic in terms of this matrix
and this is called transformation matrix that is transformation matrix is 2 by 3 the first row is cos
theta cos theta minus 2 phi by 3, cos theta plus 2 phi by 3. Okay similarly similarly the second
term and third term.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:17)

With this now inverse transformation that is if you write down the expression for phase currents
in terms of the dqO currents then this can be written in this form cos theta minus sin theta 1like
this this is called inverse that is sometimes if you know the value of id, iq, io we can find out the
phase currents.

Now interesting thing which happens is that if I substitute the values of the phase currents in
terms of dqO components right then I get the expression for flux linkage in the d axis called psi d
that is if the the all these fluxes flux linking phase a phase b and phase c right they are also
transformed currents are also transformed that is by applying this transformation. We find that
the flux linkage is can be written in terms of ah the constant coefficients that is psi d is equal to
minus Lao plus Labo plus 3 by 2 Lao Laa2 okay then Lafd ifd plus Lakd ikd that is here the coefficient
of id is a constant term it does not depend upon angular position theta similarly, for psi q and psi
o right we define we define these terms Ld equal to Lao plus Labo plus 3 by 2 Lao similarly Lq and
L0 are defined.
(Refer Slide Time: 51:39)

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:44)

(Refer Slide Time: 53:01)

## (Refer Slide Time: 53:12)

When you make this substitution we can write down the flux linkage psi d as minus Ld id plus
Lafd ifd plus like this. Similarly, when you apply the dqO transformation the flux linking the
rotor circuits are also expressed in terms of the rotor currents rotor currents rotor circuit currents
and the dqO components of currents and again you find actually that these flux linkages as well
as these 3flux linkages with the transform quantities are are independent of rotor angular position
and this is what it helps the whole thing and once you substitute these expressions in our stator
circuit equations.
(Refer Slide Time: 54:01)

We get these equation in the form ed equal to P psi d minus psi q p theta minus Ra ideq is equal to
P psi q minus psi d p theta minus Ra iq and eo equal to P psi o psi 0 minus Ra io. Now these are
the 3 basic equations which are written in terms of transform quantities or dqO terms or
sometimes in case in dq of frame of presentation. Okay today I have discussed the basic circuit
equations of the synchronous machine and discuss the dqO transformation and its importance.
Ultimately, we have obtained the stator circuit equations in terms of the transform quantities.
Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 09
Modelling of Synchronous Machine (Contd)

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends, today we shall continue to study about the modelling of synchronous machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:09)

We have developed in the previous lectures, the basic model for the synchronous
machine and we found actually that if we use the model in the original form then the
coefficient that is the inductances were all function of rotor angular position. In order to
simplify the model the dqo transformation was introduced and with this dqo
transformation we found actually that the, the in the mathematical model synchronous
machine the all inductances become constant.

Now we will further discuss now the stator voltage equation in dqo components. We will
develop the equations for electrical power and torque. We shall discuss the dqO
transformation further and its physical interpretation. Any synchronous machine model,
we always prefer to use per unit system of representation and therefore, we will address
how do we convert the synchronous machine quantities into per unit quantities then I will
also discuss an alternative transformation which has all through been discussed in the
literature on synchronous machine modelling. Let us again look at the stator voltage
equations in terms of, in terms of the dqO components.

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:25)

The stator voltage equations were written in the form of ed equal to p psi d minus psi q p
theta minus Ra id eq equal to pq p psi q plus psi d p theta minus Ra iq and eo equal to p psi
naught minus Ra i naught. Now here, if you look at this first equation we can see here
actually the means identify these terms, the first term p psi d is the rate of change of flux
linkages. Okay therefore similarly, in the second equation p psi q and in the third
equation we have the term p psi naught these are, these terms are known as the the
transformer voltages because they are taking place due to the rate of change flux linking
the circuit. Then we have next term as psi q p theta p theta is d theta by dt that is the
angular speed of the rotor that is omega R, we call it now here this term. Similarly, this
term psi d p theta these two terms are denoted as speed voltages.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:57)

We will further see that in in this equation similarly, in this equation the speed voltage
terms dominate over the transformer voltage terms and in many simplifications we may
neglect the transformer voltage terms as compared to the speed voltage terms the moment
you neglect this then this equation these equations that is the stator voltage equations will
become algebraic equations because if you just look here in this 3 equation then we have
this as a derivative term and the moment you can neglect this derivative term right the
remaining expression that is ed equal to minus psi q p theta minus Ra id Ra id this becomes
a algebraic equation right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:57)

Now we will develop the expression for electrical power and torque in terms of dqO
components. The electrical power output we denote it by the symbol Pt here, as can be
obtained as product, some of the products of instantaneous voltage and instantaneous
currents that is for phase a it is ea into ia, phase b eb into ib, phase e ec into ic right. These
are the instantaneous powers you add these 3instantaneous powers you get the total
instantaneous power.

We all know actually that in case the system is having the stator currents and stator
voltage very sinusoidally right, then the some of the instantaneous powers come out to be
constant. Okay this is denoted by the symbol Pt, now what we do is that we apply dqO
transformation. We can apply the dqo transformation on this voltage as well as the
current currents and when you apply this dqo transformation then the power output P t can
be written as 3 by 2 times ed id plus eq iq plus 2 times eo io that is here the terminal power
is expressed in terms of dq components of voltage and currents okay.

Now we will see here actually in this that instead of having the term e naught, i naught
we have a term 2 times e naught, i naught when we talk about another type of
transformation that is called alternative transformation. We will find actually that the the
Pt will be expressed simply as ed into id plus eq into iq plus eo i naught it is something like
this the that becomes a power invariant transformation. Here this transformation is not
power invariant because you can see there these are 3 by 2 terms then this term is having
the coefficient 2 anyway this is resulting because of the type of transformation.

However when we convert these equations into per unit quantities, the per unit quantities
will be so chosen, so that this becomes a simple expression and this term 3 by 2 and 3 can
be eliminated we will find this thing okay. Now if the system is balanced we do not have
zero sequence quantities a balance system this e naught, i naught will be 0 and therefore
we can write down the total power Pt as 3 by 2 times ed id plus eq iq okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:56)

Now to give further insight into the power expression what we do is that we substitute the
expression for ed and eq, ed and eq in terms of the flux, flux linkages okay that is I
substitute ed equal to p psi d minus psi q p theta minus Ra id that is in this expression for
this power wherever ed and eq are present what we do is that we substitute the expression
for ed okay.

Now if we make this substitution and simplify then we can write down the output power
Pt as 3 by 2 term remains as it is id p psi d plus iq p psi q plus 2 times io p psi naught that
is in this expression we have this derivative terms. Okay the second term is psi d iq minus
psi q id into omega r that the omega r is your d theta by dt that is the angular speed of the
rotor minus id square plus iq square plus 2 times io square into Ra.

Now this 3 terms which we have in the expression for Pt can be identified as the first term
can be identified as rate of change of armature magnetic energy, rate of change armature
magnetic energy, second term is identified as power transferred across the air gap and
third term is armature resistance losses that is we have this 3 terms which can be
identified as the rate of change of armature magnetic energy that is in these in the
armature there is some magnetic energy stored because of flux linkages okay and this
magnetic energy which is stored right is varying at a certain rate right, that magnetic
energy is that are increases or decreases it dependents upon whether p psi d p psi q and p
psi o are positive or negative right and from that point of view this is considered as the
rate of change of armature magnetic energy and therefore when we are looking for
stability analysis right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:32)

The the power which is transferred across the air gap is of concern that is in our swing
equation which we had written right the electrical power pe which we write that is the
power transferred across the air gap because that is responsible for producing the torque
and therefore now we write down Te the electrical torque as three by 2 psi d iq minus psi
q id omega r divided by omega mechanical now this torque is written in Newton meters
okay therefore we had this expression 3 by 2 psi d iq minus psi q id omega r, we are
dividing by this omega mechanical.

We know that this this term was the electromagnetic power that is the power transferred
across the air gap. You divide this power by speed that will give you the torque okay and
therefore, the expression for torque electrical torque is given by this expression now we
know the relationship that the omega r, the rotor speed in electrical radiance per second
divided by the mechanical speed in radiance per second this ratio is equal to Pf by 2,
where Pf is the number of filed faults.

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:40)

Okay therefore, we can write down the expression for Te the electrical torque as 3 by 2
psi d iq minus psi q id Pf by 2 this is the most important expression which we have to keep
in our mind. Now here the next step which we will be studying will be the how do we
interpret the dqO quantities that this transformation what is the physical interpretation
associated with this transformation.

Now we all know that ah the stator of the synchronous generator when it carries balance
three phase currents it produces resultant mmf wave, this mmf wave is sinusoidally
distributed in the space that is the stator of a 3 phase synchronous generator produces
sinusoidally distributed mmf wave in the air gap okay. Now any quantity which is
sinusoidally distributed can be resolved into 2 sign terms.

Okay now here what is done is that this resultant mmf which are sinusoidally distributed
is resolved into 2 quantities one along the d axis another along the q axis okay and
therefore what is done is that the armature of the synchronous generator is replaced by 2
fictitious windings, one is along the d axis of the generator synchronous generator
another is across the q axis of the synchronous generator and when these windings are
made to carry the current id and iq right and they rotate at the same speed as the rotor it
means it means the these two fictitious windings are stationary with respect to the rotor
and therefore the mmf produced by this fictitious windings act on constant permeance
path and therefore the inductances which we come across are constant.

We will see that under steady state conditions, the currents which are flowing in these
two fictitious winding id that is direct axis fictitious winding and quadrature axis fictitious
winding these two current that id and iq will come out to be constant in magnitude they
will be just DC currents, okay this we will just now establish.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:07)

To establish this thing we will start with that let us assume that the armature of the
synchronous generator is carrying balance steady 3 phase currents that is system is
operating under steady state condition, okay no dynamics is involved let us assume that
ia is equal to im sin omega s t plus phi this phi is some initial phase angle of the current ia
this is arbitrary it can be 0 also ib is equal to im sin omega s t plus phi minus 2 phi by 3
and ic equal to im sin omega st plus phi plus 2 phi by 3 that is these 3 currents ia, ib and ic
form balanced balanced set of currents okay.

Now what we do is we apply dqo transformation and when you apply the dqo
transformation we will be in a position to write down id, iq and this io will be 0 because
we are considering the balanced steady state conditions that is in balance system the zero
sequence quantities are absent. Now here I will just add one thing that when you talk
about the zero sequence currents you always talk in terms of zero sequence current to be
the phasor right here the zero sequence term we are putting is as it is the instantaneous
component, instantaneous that is we are writing zero sequence as ia plus ib plus ic by 3 is
the instantaneous quantity but this is applicable here.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:03)

Now after applying this transformation this exercise has to be done that is in between you
have lot of trigonometric simplification to be done after you do this trigonometric
simplification the id the current in the du axis, d axis fictitious winding comes out to be
equal to im sin omega st plus phi minus theta iq equal to im cos omega st plus phi minus
theta and i naught is equal to 0. Okay now here what is this theta, theta is the { angular
position of the rotor and angular position at any time is equal to omega r into t, omega r is
the rotor speed under under steady state operating condition the value of omega r comes
out to be same as the synchronous speed.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:59)

Therefore, now we substitute here omega rt equal to omega s into t right the moment you
make this substitution here in this expression that is theta is to be put as omega s into t
this term vanishes and now we will have the id equal to im sin phi similarly, iq equal to im
cos phi right and therefore you can easily see here that for a given stator currents im is
constant it is a peak or it is the amplitude of the phase current as if id can be written as im
sin phi iq equal to im cos therefore what we see here that is id and iq these are constant they
are not varying as a function of time therefore they become DC current right.

However, under dynamic conditions when the system is dynamic condition rotor speed is
not exactly equal to the synchronous speed right in that case the id and iq will vary but the
variation will be a low frequency variation, it is not going to be the 50 hertz are 60 hertz
variation.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:51)

Okay now some of the advantages which we get by this transformation can be
summarized although we have seen these advantages but I will just summarize the
advantages of dqO transformation. The first advantage is that the dynamic performance
equations have constant inductances we have seen we have seen the mathematical model
which we have written in terms of dqo transformations okay and in this dqo
transformation by after applying this dqo transformation, the equations have constant
inductance this is the one of the biggest merit of applying the dqO transformation, second
is that under balance conditions zero sequence quantities disappear that I am not present
the id and iq under steady state conditions are constant in magnitude.

However, when we perform stability studies then stability studies involves slow
variations of id and iq the frequencies will be below 2 to 3 hertz that is the frequency of
oscillation of the rotor which will come across will be of the order of, order of point 5 to
say 3 hertz or we can say that the frequency of oscillation of these currents will be less
than 2 to 3 hertz is very low frequency variation this is most important point we have to
keep in mind and another very interesting advantage which comes is that that d and q axis
quantities particularly which will inductance ld, mutual inductance lq these can be
measured by performing experiments or by making some measurements on the terminals
of the machine.

Since all of you must have done experiment in your laboratory to measure the direct and
quadrature axis reactance of a synchronous machine. One important test which you
perform in on is the slip test right. Now we come to another important aspect so for what
we have done is we have developed the expressions for the stator voltage equations, rotor
voltage equations. We have also developed expressions for the stator and rotor flux
linkage equations we have also developed the expressions for electrical torque and given
some meaning to the transformation, physical meaning to represent transformation.

Now in any power system studies per unit system of calculation is the most convenient
one and merits of per unit calculations are well known to all of us and therefore now we
will study how do we transform, transform our system equations using per unit quantities.
Now whenever you transform the actual quantities into per unit quantities we have to
choose base quantities.

For example, in any circuit we may choose MVA base and the voltage base then we can
find out the base quantities in different parts of the circuit MVA base remains same while
the KV base depends upon the circuit voltage that is the transformers which are involved.
Now here, we have two parts, one is the stator another is the rotor. Okay therefore first
we will define how we obtain obtained the per unit representation of stator quantities.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:24)

Now to start with here we will define the base quantities, now in any system we can
define some base quantities and other quantities can be derived from those chosen base
quantities like we start with stator quantity we will use this subscript s to denote that
these are the stator quantities or the base quantities for the stator. We will define esbase as
peak value of the rated line to neutral voltage a slight variation is here that is instead of
defining the RMS value as the base value here we are defining the peak value okay.

Similarly, the isbase that is the current in the stator circuit or the base current in the stator
circuit is equal to peak value of the rated current in amperes. The additional quantity
which we have to refer here is the base frequency. Generally, we do not require actually
referring the base frequency when we talk about the power system network calculations
but here this is also an important quantity, therefore these 3 terms are primarily decided
therefore decision comes like this that rated frequency becomes my base frequency.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:03)

Now with this 3 quantities defined other quantities are defined in terms of the basic base
quantities like say omega base becomes 2 phi f base okay, omega m base that is the the
mechanical speed right. The base value of the mechanical speed is written as the base
value omega base into 2 by pf further the impedance base Zsbase is equal to es base upon is
base but we can define. The base value of the inductance in terms of stator base quantities
that is Lsbase is equal to Zsbase upon omega base. We can also define the flux linkage or
base value of the flux linkage that is psi s base equal to Lsbase into isbase. We know that
flux linkage can be written as L into i Lsbase can be replaced by this quantity the Lsbase into
is base can be replaced as esbase upon omega s base that is what we do here is this Lsbase
can be written as Zsbase upon omega base okay and then Zsbase into is base can be written
as esbase. So that the flux linkage the base value of the flux linkage can be written as esbase
upon omega s Weber turns.
(Refer Slide Time: 28:48)

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:56)

Now let us see actually that how we define the three phase VAbase volt ampere base
MVAbase, since we started with the voltage and current bases. Okay therefore we write
down the three phase VAbase is defined as three times Ermsbase into Irmsbase that is the phase
voltage its rms value multiplied by stator current and its rms value this can be written as
now 3 rms value is equal to base quantity by root 2 because base quantity is chosen as the
peak quantity here.
Similarly, isbase by root 2. So that what we see here is very very important relationship
that is 3 phases VAbase comes out to be equal to 3 by 2 times the voltage base into current
base. Okay this relationship is very important because we always make use of the three
phases VAbase for our computations right but the relationship between the quantities
which you have chosen as the base quantities and the 3 phase VA comes out to be like
this.

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:34)

Then the torque base the torque base can be always written as three phase VAbase divided
by omega m base. Now when you talk about the base quantities or base power we always
say base power is equal base MVA if you recollect in your power system calculations or
computations then whatsoever base MVA is there that is equal to base power in
megawatts and therefore power divided by the base speed will give you the torque base
therefore here the torque base is equal to 3 phase VA base that is omega m okay.

Now when you make the substitutions here in this expression for 3 phase VAbase equal to
3 by 2 esbase, isbase and this esbase and isbase, these quantities can be further expressed in
terms of flux linkage base. Therefore, torque is now expressed as 3 by 2 Pf by 2 psi s base
into isbase because we have seen earlier actually the torque is written in terms of flux
linkages and currents right therefore we prefer to specify the base or torque base in terms
of flux linkages and current base quantities. Okay this is in Newton meters.

Now what till now what we have done is that started initially the definition of base
quantities in the stator we have chosen the stator voltage and stator current and the
system frequency as the base quantities okay and then we have derived that what will be
the base quantities for other variables, other variables like say impedance, base
impedance, base torque base flux linkages, base flux base in base inductance and so on.
(Refer Slide Time: 33:55)

Now we start with transforming our stator voltage equations into per unit terms or per in
terms of per unit quantities is it not okay now again let us start or stator voltage equation
is ed equal p psi d psi q omega r minus ia, id into Ra okay this is the equation which we
have derived in terms of dqO components we want to transform this equation in terms of
per unit quantities how do we do it you divide this whole expression by voltage base
because these all these terms are the voltage terms therefore what you divide you divide
this by esbase.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:57)

Now when you divide this by esbase we make use of this relationship that esbase is equal to
is base Zsbase it is also equal to omega s base into psi s base this relationships we have
already derived that is this 3 the voltage can be written as the product of impedance and
current can also be written as product of omega and flux linkages okay. Therefore, what
we are doing here is that ed is divided by esbase p remains as it is we are not touching p
right now psi d since it is a flux term what we do is that we divide this flux term instead
of es base i put omega s base, phi s base here because esbase is same as this quantum.

Similarly, here we put omega s base, omega s base okay and in the third term where I
have Ra into id I put here not in terms of the flux linkages and speed by put errors Zsbase
into isbase because this the denominator terms which I have put here are same as esbase this
can be done okay. Now by doing this what happens is that this ed becomes now per unit
value. Okay that is the direct axis voltage ed can now it becomes a per unit quantity.

Similarly, the flux linkage becomes per unit, the resistance becomes per unit resistance,
now the current becomes per unit current, okay now to distinguish the per unit quantities
from the quantities a real quantities in amperes or ohms or watts right what we do is that
we will put a put a super script bar, okay a super bar on the top that is I will denote this
as ed bar equal to 1 upon omega base p psi d bar minus psi q bar omega r bar minus Ra
bar id bar as we will see subsequently the moment we develop a mathematical model of
the system in terms of per unit quantities right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:01)

We will drop this super bar, drop it because every time writing this bar is not very
convenient but when you are trying to derive it first we will maintain this bar and then at
the end we will drop it for further further use of this model. Now here in this equation p is
d by dt and time is in seconds, okay therefore we can also define define the base value of
time and the definition of base value of time is the time in seconds required for the rotor
second electrical radian that when rotor makes one electrical radian and the time which is
required to make 1 radian rotation that is called tbase that is 1 radial divided by omega
base that is when rotor rotates through a angular displacement of one radian the speed is
omega base base speed then the that particular time is called tbase base time okay.

Therefore, this base time can be written as 1 upon 2 phi fbase and if I now use this base
time then this term can be replaced by p bar, psi d bar minus psi q bar, omega r bar minus
Ra bar that is this expression is now in terms of per unit quantities that is p bar is also
expressed in per unit and all other terms are in per unit.

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:56)

Similarly, you can write down for the q axis voltage and zero sequence voltage. We have
just now mentioned that p bar was defined as d by dt bar where dt bar is a per unit current
which comes out to be p bar comes out to be one upon omega base into p okay and we
have seen here actually that one upon omega base into p is the it comes out to be equal to
p bar that is why we have come to now this model, this model where ed bar is equal to p
bar, psi d bar minus psi q bar, omega Ra bar, id bar and similarly for eq and eo that is we
have developed the stator circuit equations in per unit terms okay.

Now the next step will be to develop the rotor circuit equations also in per unit quantities.
Now here to start with what I will do is we will assume assume the rotor circuit voltage,
rotor circuit currents as the base quantities, I am not I am not addressing at present how
do we choose that we will see later on but assuming that the for the rotor circuit, the field
circuit because in the rotor we have 3 circuits one is the field circuit another is the direct
axis amortisseur circuit, third is the quadrature axis amortisseur circuit and therefore for
the field circuit a base voltage will be efd base which will be written as omega base into
psi fd base that is psi fd is the flux linkage in the field circuit a base quantity in the field
circuit.

Similarly, we will have Zfdbase into ifdbase okay that is as we have done in the case of stator
similarly we specify the quantities in the rotor also. Okay but how do we choose this base
quantities in the rotor that we will establish in few minutes. Therefore, now following the
same approach as we have done for the stator we can write down efd bar equal to p bar
psi fd bar, Rfd bar, ifd bar that is in this equation where actually we have field circuit
applied voltage is efd okay the current flowing is ifd flux linkage is psi fd therefore we
can establish the equation in the per unit quantity they are very simple as state forward
the approach is exactly same you divide by efd base the actual quantities and then
wherever you have this Rfd, ifd divided Zsbase Zfdbase ifdbase.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:13)

Okay and you will get this equation other two equations also in the same form because
here we do not have term because they are all close circuits amortisseur closed circuit
therefore 0 equal to okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:26)

Now we come to very ah crucial thing actually that is how do we express the stator flux
linkages in per unit. Okay because so far what we have done is the stator voltage circuit
equation, stator circuit voltage equations, rotor circuit voltage equations. We have
expressed in per unit terms therefore now our next step is to express the stator flux

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:08)

Now to understand this let me ah rewrite here I have written again psi d is equal to minus
Ld id plus La fd ifd Lakd, ikd this equation was derived this is the direct axis flux linkages
psi d equal to minus Ld id plus Lafd what is Lf this is the mutual inductance between the d
axis and field winding. This is actually amortisseur and d axis winding that is why Lakd.

Okay now what you do is that you divide by this whole equation by base, when you
divide this by base psi d will be divided by psi s base, psi s base is equal to Lsbase into
isbase. Okay therefore you can you can the divide the whole quantities by this base
quantity right. Therefore you will have Ld divided by id divided by Ld into id divided by
Lsbase is base then Lafd into ifd divided by Lsbase into isbase.

Now here the problem comes that the per unit value, per unit value of the field current is
expressed in terms of field current base not in terms of the stator current base okay
therefore what you do is that you multiply this term is okay you multiply this term by
ifdbase into ifdbase. Okay then in this term what we can do here is that this ifd divided by
ifdbase can be written as per unit current in the field circuit then remaining quantities Lafd
divided by Lsbase into ifdbase divided by Lsbase this quantity will be denoted by a term Lafd
bar that is you can see very interesting thing that we have the now this 3 ratios. Okay we
can identity this ratio ifd upon ifdbase as ifd bar right then we have the term Lafd by Lsbase
then ifd base upon isbase okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:57)

Now this these are when you divide these two base currents it comes to be a multiplying
factor only and therefore what we do is that this Lafd will be denoted by a symbol Lafd
bar to ifd bar. Similarly, you will have Lakd bar ikd bar okay is it understood. Now once
you understand this thing actually the I have done it for one direct axis plus linkage
equation. Similarly. We have to do it for other flux linkage equations that is by doing this
exercise we have written the expression for stator winding flux linkage equations that is
the mutual flux linkage this psi d is the mutual flux linkage psi d bar equal to minus Ld
bar id bar plus Lafd bar, ifd bar plus Lakd bar ikd bar.

Now these terms are defined as Lafd bar is defined Lafd bar is defined as now we have just
now seen that Lafd bar is defined as Lafd upon Lsbase into ifd base upon is base right.
Similarly, Lakd bar Lakq bar right these terms were defined in terms of the mutual
inductances, base quantities, the stator and base quantities in the field circuit. This this is
very important actually speaking here here actually it is not state forward where we have
a base actual quantity divided by base gives you a per unit quantity here that is let me just
summarize here that the direct axis flux linkages are written in this form where these
quantities are to be defined okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:31)

Similarly, psi q is written in this form and psi naught is written in this form, okay they are
the three flux linkage equations in the stator circuit okay and where these terms are
defined as Lafd bar by this expression Lakd by this expression Lakq by this expression do
you understood. Now after we have expressed express the stator flux linkages psi d, psi q
and psi naught in terms of or or converted the stator flux linkages equations into per unit
quantities, next step is to convert the rotor flux linkage equations.

Now when you convert the rotor flux linkage equations, we will come across the psi bar
fd that is actually this is the flux linkage of the field circuit you can you again start with
the original equations, original equations and then divide by the base quantities right and
then then these terms may have to be again defined. These terms will not be required to
be defined that is Lffd will be simply equal to Lffd is the self-inductance of the field
winding right therefore, you divide this by the Lfdbase right where this is the rotor quantity
divided by the rotor base quantity it becomes a per unit quantity therefore there is no
problem here.
(Refer Slide Time: 50:11)

Similarly, for the current also there will be no problem but when we talk about this ikd the
La, Lfkd divided by ikd. Okay you will find this similar problem will come right and
therefore these quantities have to be expressed in terms of for example ikd is to be
expressed in terms of ikdbase. Similarly, ikq has to be expressed in terms of its own base
right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:11)

Therefore, when you do this exercise you will find that we can express the rotor circuit to
flux linkages in terms of per unit quantities where these terms Lfda bar, Lfkd bar are to be
defined as all of the all this 5 terms I mentioned this 5 terms will appear in those three
equations are to be defined in this base.

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:35)

Therefore, now what we see here is that that we have established, establish the rotor
circuit equations that is rotor circuit voltage equations, rotor circuit flux linkage
equations, okay in per unit terms while the basic problem here remains is here remains is
that how do we choose the rotor circuit base quantities because synchronous machine is
having stator and rotor parts, what is the relationship of base quantities in the rotor circuit
with the stator circuit base quantities right and for that we have to establish some basic
rules and I will just state what rules are to be established is that when we choose the base
quantities for the rotor and we want our our intention is our our intention or the objective
is we want to simplify the equations make this equations as simple as possible.

Therefore we have 2 major assumptions or requirements but in the per unit mutual
inductances between different winding are to reciprocal. This is one requirement that we
would like to choose the per unit quantities in such a fashion, so that the mutual
inductances become reciprocal right that is mutual inductance between the d axis field
winding d axis winding that is end the the field winding there should be equal therefore if
I write down that Lafd should be equal to Lfda.

Okay another thing which would like to do is that all per unit mutual inductances
between stator and rotor circuit in each axis are to be equal that that is another way of
simplifying that we would like to make this inductances mutual inductances on each axis
equal right with this I conclude my presentation today and let me summarize what we
have done today. We have discussed the stator circuit, voltage circuit equations in terms
of dqO components. We have also transformed the stator and rotor circuit voltage and
flux linkage equations in per unit quantities. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture -10
Modeling of Synchronous Machine (Contd.)

Okay, friends today we will continue with the study of modeling of synchronous machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

Today we will address some of these issues per unit system for rotor circuits, per unit power and
torque and alternative transformations. We have discussed dqO transformation and we will also
talk about the alternative transformation which has also been proposed in the literature and then
we then, we will talk about the steady state analysis of the synchronous machine. Now we have
developed the per unit equations for the stator circuits. Okay we have also developed that to the
per unit equations for rotor circuits.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:20)

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:29)

(Refer Slide Time: 02:35)

Now these terms were defined and the definitions were given like this Lafd bar equal to Lafd
divided by Lsbase, ifdbase divided by s base that is these three terms were defined that they are
basically in the stator circuit equations you see this that the stator circuit flux linkage equations
psi d, psi q and psi o.

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:57)

(Refer Slide Time: 03:01)

Therefore in these three equations we had defined these per unit inductances now these per unit
inductances are the mutual inductances okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:12)

terms these mutual terms Lfkd, Lfda these are all per unit quantities which were defined.
(Refer Slide Time: 03:38)

Now, now we want to establish the per unit system for the rotor. Now when I am trying to say
per unit system for the rotor in the sense that we have chosen the base quantities in the stator
circuits. Now how should we choose the base quantities for the rotor circuits, the rotor circuits
are rotor field winding and rotor amortisseurs. Okay now the primary consideration for choosing
the base quantities in the rotor are to simplify the the flux linkage equations to make this flux
linkage equation as simple as possible.

Now one requirement which we have put is or one way of simplifying is we make mutual
inductances between different windings reciprocal. We make mutual inductances between
different windings reciprocal. Now when I say that we make these mutual inductances reciprocal
in the sense that you there is a mutual inductance between the stator winding and the field
winding okay.

Now the if I write down the mutual inductance between the stator winding and field winding I
can write down Lafd. When I write down between field winding and stator winding it can written
as Lfda we want to make these two inductances equal. So that that is what is the meaning of
reciprocal okay another thing which we would do to simplify the equations will be that the
mutual inductances between stator and rotor circuits on each axis are to be equal that is when I
say each axis means, we have two axis d axis and q axis. The on the d axis we have the stator
direct axis winding, field winding and amortisseurs on the d axis therefore, there exists mutual
inductances between these windings we would like to make them equal.

Similarly, there exists mutual inductance between the q axis winding on the stator and q axis
amortisseur we want to make these mutual inductance also equal therefore we are trying to do
two things, one is that we will try to make or we will make the mutual inductances reciprocal and
the mutual inductances on each axis equal okay.
Now this will simplify the equations to a great extent. Now how do how do we make the mutual
inductances reciprocal, now to make the mutual inductance reciprocal you just look at the
suppose you look actually this equation I just put this, this is slightly I have to make that I think
Lakd. Okay, now this Lakd and another is Lkda we want to make them equal okay. Now these
quantities were defined now when to make them equal reciprocal, okay so that what is to be done
is that we equate the expression for this with the expression for Lkda, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:31)

Now we will start first that is let us say that we want to make the per unit mutual inductance Lfkd
equal to per unit mutual inductance Lkdf right that is the amortisseur and field winding, okay that
is these are the two, you know mutual inductances one between between field winding and
amortisseur another is between amortisseur and field winding and want to make these reciprocal.

Now these quantities were defined now as per the definition this quantity L bar fkd that is the per
unit mutual inductance between field and amortisseur windings were defined like this that is Lfkd
upon Lfdbase, ikdbase upon ifdbase that is in the denominator here is Lfdbase, ifdbase here you have
Lkdbase, ikdbase. Now this is by definition which we have defined actually when we wrote the
equations for flux linkage equations in the rotor circuit. Now when we equate these two, okay we
will get this expression that is you just cross multiply

You will find that it becomes Lkdbase into ikdbase square equal to Lfdbase, ifdbase square you can just
check it it comes out to be like this that is ikdbase comes from this side, so okay and this these two
cancel out they are equal okay and we get this equation. Now here what we do is we multiply
both sides of this equation by omega base, once you multiply by omega base it becomes L omega
base into Lkdbase, ikdbase square similarly, omega base equal to Lfdbase into ifdbase square.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:20)

Now you can identify this quantity omega L into i this quantity this is actually the voltage this is
a voltage therefore I take this base frequency in radiance per second the base inductance and
multiply this by current, base current this will come out to be base voltage okay and now we are
taking these quantities for amortisseur the quantities are for amortisseur Lkd ikd therefore the base
voltage will become the amortisseur circuit base voltage this d axis amortisseur circuit base
voltage similarly, here.

## (Refer Slide Time: 10:23)

Now when you do this you will find this is very important relationship that is the base voltage in
the direct axis amortisseur circuit multiplied by the base current in the direct axis amortisseur
circuit this product must be equal to the the base voltage in the field circuit into base current in
the field circuit, it is very simple that is the the base vi in the amortisseur circuit should be equal
to base vi in the field circuit

Now if you do this you will find actually that the mutual mutual inductances right between the
field winding and the amortisseur winding will become reciprocal. Okay therefore this is one
important requirement that base VA in the field circuit should be same as the base VA in the
amortisseur circuit now we do one similar exercise for mutual inductance between the stator
winding that is the stator direct axis winding and the field winding that is stator and field that is
Lafd, we want to make this as Lfda that we want to make these two per unit mutual inductances
equal right now these quantities were again defined when we wrote the equations for flux

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:59)

Now when we equate this two terms and follow the same procedure as we have done for the for
the mutual inductance between field and amortisseur. Okay therefore here again we come to very
important result and that result is that vibase, v is that is the efd base into ifd base that is the
vibase in the field circuit comes out to be equal to 3 phase VAbase for stator, 3 phase VAbase for
the stator that is in the stator circuit when you assume that the the base voltage as peak value of
the phase voltage, the the base current in the stator circuit is the peak value of the phase current
and we have established that this quantity is equal to 3 times VA, 3 times VAbase for the stator
that is 3 phase VAbase for the stator the total volt ampere rating right.

Therefore, this is a very important relationship because in the we have also established the
relationship that the base VA in the kd circuit direct axis amortisseur should be same as that in
the field circuit it means now we can conclude actually that these 3 windings one in the field
winding, another stator winding, third amortisseur winding, direct axis amortisseur winding.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:17)

Now if you want to make this mutual inductances reciprocal then the volt ampere rating or volt
ampere base in the stator circuit must be equal to the volt ampere base in the field circuit and volt
ampere base in the amortisseur circuit because in the stator with the the volt ampere base is equal
to the 3 phase VAbase 3 phase VA total MVA rating.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:09)

Okay this is exactly similar to what you normally do in any system we take total 3 phase MVA
as the base quantity and then we talk about the base for the rotor circuits we find actually that but
rotor circuit now if the field circuit if you consider it it has a applied voltage Vefd and the current
flowing is ifd therefore efdbase into base ifdbase becomes the this product becomes the VAbase
for the field circuit therefore this one condition will be established that if we want to make, we
want to make the mutual inductances between the circuits reciprocal then this is the criteria
required for choosing the VAbase for these circuits, okay.

Now this the similar exercises have to be done for for quadrature axis, stator winding and the
quadrature axis amortisseur because so for we have talked about the d axis and here also we
established the relationship and the relationship is that ekqbase into ikqbase is equal to 3 by 2
esbase into isbase not now this quantity is nothing but the 3 phase VAbase for the stator
therefore ultimately what is our conclusion that all the circuits state all the all the circuits that is
all which are in the rotor field circuit, amortisseur circuits right these would have their VAbase
equal to the 3 times or 3 phase VAbase of the stator circuit this is the and this will make all the
mutual inductances reciprocal.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:30)

Therefore, now I conclude here that in in order to satisfy the requirement that per unit mutual
inductances between again the emphasis is that we are trying to make the per until mutual
inductances reciprocal actual mutual inductances which exist, we have seen actually that they are
not reciprocal when you see the actual equations which we have written right they are they
appear in the equations in a different fashion between different windings the reciprocal okay and
the requirement is that VAbase must be same and equal to the stator 3 phase VAbase, this is the
main conclusion okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:14)

Now the next requirement which we have posed here is posed here is that the mutual inductances
on the same axis we want to make them equal first we make them reciprocal and then
requirement was there want to make them equal.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:22)

Now to make them equal we we define the per unit self inductance of the d axis winding, d axis
stator winding as leakage inductance per unit leakage inductance plus per unit mutual inductance
that is when you look at the d axis winding on the stator. Okay the total per unit inductance is
defined as Ld bar you know this bar stands for rotor super bar stands for per unit.

Now the total flux which is produced right which links the d axis winding does not pass through
the field circuit or the amortisseur circuits d axis amortisseur circuit there is some flux which is
the local leakage flux therefore this Ll is accounts for the inductance of the d axis stator winding
due to leakage. Okay therefore this is this becomes our mutual inductance Lad bar similarly, for q
axis.

## (Refer Slide Time: 18:44)

Now here our requirement is that in order to make all per unit mutual inductances between stator
and rotor circuits in the d axis equal that is we have in the stator circuit a fictitious d axis winding
okay and the rotor circuit we have on the d axis two windings okay and we want to make them
equal for making them equal or this by definition this is actual value of mutual inductance Lad
divided by the Lsbase okay and this this is equal to Lafd which has which was earlier defined by
this expression when we wrote the wrote the mutual or we can say when we write the
expressions for the psi d psi q and psi naught right, the Lafd was defined like this per unit value of
Lafd was defined by this expression that you can refer to the pervious equations okay.

Similarly, now we want to make Lad to equal to the per until Lakd okay while Lakd was defined by
this expression. Okay now what we want that we equate these 2 as we did in the previous case
and when we equates these 2 we come to one very important relationship that the ifdbase should be
equal to Lad upon Lafd, isbase. Similarly, ikdbase comes out to be Lad upon Lakd divided by Lsbase while
these quantities are the actual inductances, actual mutual inductances right while what we trying
to make them equal are the per unit mutual inductances. Okay, now this this gives a relationship
that suppose I have chosen the stator base current then the base current in the field circuit should
be given by this equation.
(Refer Slide Time: 20:16)

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:25)

Similarly, if I choose in the base current in the stator as is base then the base current in the
amortisseur circuit, direct axis amortisseur circuits will be given by this expression. Okay
similarly you can do for q axis also that is q axis will give you that ikq base should be equal to Laq
divided by Lakq, isbase I hope you understand this one is this is this is a straight forward okay, what
we are trying to do is that what we want to make them equal. We want to make the per unit per
unit the mutual inductances on the same axis d axis equal that is right, we want to make Lad per
unit equal to Lafd which is the definition of Lad same as Lfd we want to make this Lakd and Lafd
equal to make them equal you equate these quantities which was the basic definitions for this per
unit Lafd and per unit Lakd.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:32)

Okay, and we finally get the relationship that the field currents base value of field current base
value of the amortisseur circuit current and the base value of the quadrature axis amortisseur
therefore current are expressed in terms of the stator, the stator circuit base current okay
Similarly, we had also established that VA base for all the rotor circuits in terms of the 3phase
VA base of the stator and therefore since actually when I talk about the VA that the field voltage
base into ah field voltage current base okay.

Now this product is equal to the three phase VA of the stator current right but the individually
currents will be defined by this expression now once the current is current base is given for these
circuits the , we compute the voltage base for the rotor circuits using the previous relationship I
hope it is clear to all of you now once we have done this and define the the model for the
synchronous machine is complete, the synchronous machine model is complete we for all for all
further discussions what we will do is that this super bar which we had put to identify these
quantities as the per unit quantities we will drop it but we will always keep in our mind that these
are per unit quantities once these are per unit quantity because every time writing super bar is not
very convenient okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:17)

Now further we can express the per unit power and torque per unit power and torque the in our
previous derivations the terminal power, total terminal real power was expressed as 3 by 2 ed, id,
eq, iq plus 2 times eo, io. Okay that you can recollect now here what you do is that you replace all
these quantities by that is you divide by base 3 phase base VA of the stator here that is you
divide this by base volt ampere, you divide all these quantities by the base voltage and currents
when you do this exercise the power in per unit can be written as ed bar id bar plus eq bar iq bar
plus 2 times eo bar io bar.
(Refer Slide Time: 25:56)

Okay that is only thing which happens is that 3 by 2 term which appears in this expression
disappears in the expression for per unit generator power, okay other expressions are same
except that the per unit quantities this exercise I will just suggest you to verify, you substitute the
values and then you verify that you get these 3 by 2 is then we obtained the per unit electrical
torque or air gap torque which will come out to be equal to per unit direct axis flux linkage psi d
into iq minus psi q into id. In fact this this is the most important expression when we talk about
the synchronous machine model why is this expression is, so important can you tell me.

Other, other stator circuit rotor circuit equations are also ah equally important right because that
gives the model complete model we have to write down the stator circuit equations, rotor circuit
equations, stator circuit flux linkages, rotor circuit flux linkages. Okay and all these things have
to be written in per unit by establishing proper per unit base but when I say that the per unit air
gap torque is given by this expression and this is quite important, can you tell me why? yes
instead of calculating the torque in terms of three phase we are getting the torque just by 2
values. No, because the torque is computed in per unit using the per unit flux linkages and per
unit currents this expression is going to be used in our swing equation.

When you have written the swing equation in the swing equation, we have to write down
mechanical torque minus electrical torque and this this is the electrical torque that will come in
the swing equation okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 27:56)

I will just mention briefly about alternative per unit systems and transformation that is the dqO
transformation which we discussed till now and another form of dqo transformation which has
been discussed in the literature and also used by some people. Here, in this the the dqo quantities
are expressed in terms of this transformation matrix into the phase currents that is the phase
variables ia, ib and ic.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:22)

Now if you see this transformation matrix the main difference here is that the dqO
transformation which we used right this quantity or this term kd this is a kd was a kd or kq they
have both taken equal to 2 by 3. Here they are taken as square root of 2 by 3 and correspondingly
the the last row that is the third row the terms become instead of 1 by 2, it becomes square root
of 1 by 2 and so on.

Now with this transformation if you write the inverse transformation that is you write down the
phase currents ia, ib and ic in terms of dqo quantities right. Then this this this becomes the inverse
of our transformation matrix, this is the transformation matrix we use therefore if you invert this
matrix right then we can write down using this inverted matrix the relationship between the
phase currents ia, ib and ic in terms of dqO components. This inverse if you just see here then this
inverse is nothing but the transpose transpose of the transformation matrix.

You just see here actually that this row is the column here right while this row appears as column
in the inverse okay and therefore this is this inverse this is the inverse of the transformation
matrix but is also the the transpose of the transformation matrix. Now whenever you have this
type of situation we call this transformation as orthogonal transformation now when you resort to
this transformation one very important result which we get is like this.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:45)

The terminal power Pt right which when we write down as ea into ia plus eb into ib plus ec into ic
this is a terminal power okay. This Pt is average or instantaneous, instantaneous but what is
average?

The average and instantaneous become equal in a 3 phase system, 3 phase system the total power
is total or the average power is constant, instant we say instant is power we calculate this sum
will come out to be equal to average power right therefore now if you substitute here that is you
write this equation, that is this equation can be written as Pt can be written as ea, eb, ec multiplied
by ia, ib, ic is it not this expression is written you can put in the matrix form this is row vector
multiplied by this column vector this will give you ea, ia plus eb, ib plus ec, ic. Now you replace
this row vector by dqO components you replace this also by dqO components and multiply these
2 matrices when you do this multiplication the end result comes out to be of this form that is the
Pt will come out to be equal to ed, id plus eq, iq plus eo, io it is something like this that when I had
3 voltages and 3 currents okay I got the terminal power by multiplying this quantity.

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:45)

Similarly, I have now the direct axis voltage quadrature axis voltage and zero sequence voltage
similarly the direct axis current quadrature axis current and zero sequence current I multiply and
add this comes out to be equal to right now for this this type of therefore this transformation is
called power invariant transformation, power invariant transformation and it has some merits
which has been discussed in literature but it has some demerits also and that is why in most of
the models which have been developed the dqo transformation which was discussed earlier is
used where we use kd and kq equal to 2 by 3. Okay having developed the synchronous machine
model you have developed is synchronous machine model completely in using per unit quantities
and the model is developed in dqo frame of reference okay.

Now this model is the complete model and now what we will study from this point onwards will
be first we will study the steady state aspect okay and then we will go how this model can be
simplified for our stability studies. Okay that is this is the complete model actually right but
sometimes we can make some assumptions and simplify the model okay and how do we simplify
this model which will be suitable for stability studies that is what we will study in the subsequent
lectures.
(Refer Slide Time: 34:58)

Now let us quickly do the steady state analysis because steady state analysis is one which is
known to everybody all of you know this analysis but now we will develop the steady state
equations for the machine starting from our dynamic model of the synchronous machine. Okay
now when we talk about steady state conditions we are presuming that the synchronous machine
is operating under steady state condition and the stator currents and voltages are balanced 3phase
currents and voltages that is this is the assumption that these steady state operating condition and
the stator and stator quantity stator currents as well as the stator voltages are balanced.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:21)

With this assumption once it is steady state this derivative terms will be absent, in the steady
state condition we do not have anything like d by dt of psi suppose, I take this psi will be
constant therefore this derivative term derivative term will be absent, second is that all all zero
sequence terms will also be absent because it is a balanced 3 phase system okay.

With this assumption the stator circuit equations can be written now in per unit again remember
that these are all per unit stator circuit equations the bar is not written here while the stator circuit
equations are written in the form ed equal to minus omega r psi q minus Ra id eq equal to omega r
psi d minus Raid and efd equal to Rfd, ifd it is very simple actually, you can just in all the 3
equations the p psi d terms have been p psi terms that is the derivative terms have been set equal
to 0 okay.

Now under a steady state operating condition the rotor speed is equal to synchronous speed
therefore, we substitute here omega r equal to omega s and in a per unit system we will see that
omega r is equal to omega s equal to 1. Okay now these are the 3 voltage equations these 2
voltage equations for the stator circuit this voltage equation for the field winding and these are
the flux linkage equations that is psi d and psi q in per unit quantities they are all per unit terms
we have not done anything except that except that in these equations the the derivative terms
have been set equal to 0 right. Another thing while writing here we have also set the mutual
inductances per unit mutual inductances on the d axis windings are equal right therefore, you will
find here actually when you write down this psi d is Lad ifd.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:34)

We will write down psi fd again I have put Lad because the mutual inductance is mutual
inductance between the stator d axis winding and the field winding have been made equal in per
unit in per unit system okay. Therefore, this simply appears as Lad okay. Further actually when
we have written these equations suppose there is one amortisseur on the d axis k becomes one
here, suppose you take 1 or 2 amortisseurs on the q axis one will, one equation will be for psi 1q
there is a second amortisseur will be psi 2q right and they will be written in the by the same
equation minus Laq iq why the same Laq will come because mutual inductances between the 2
amortisseur on the q axis, when expression per unit are equal.

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:16)

Therefore, this is okay now here we can just derive one simple expression for field current what
we do is that in these equations just start with this. Suppose you take my interest is to write down
what will be the value of field current required or field current in per unit required to produce the
required steady state operating condition. So that using this expression you can write down the
expression for ifd that is ifd is written first here as psi d plus Ld id divided by Lad and then this psi
d that is the per unit flux linkages in the d axis will be replaced by the this equation psi d equal to
minus Ld id not not here actually this psi d because we will resort back to our stator winding
equations that is psi d can be written using this equation. Okay that is eq equal to omega r psi d
minus Raiq okay and when we make these substitutions here we get very important relationship
is this relationship that is the field current which is required to produce certain value of eq the iq,
id with these quantities known they are all the circuit machine parameters.

Now stator per unit stator resistance per unit direct axis inductance, per unit mutual inductance
between direct axis and the field winding these are all now circuit parameters or synchronous
machine parameters they are all known. Okay and therefore when system is operating with some
load the that load will determine iq and id, okay and to have then for a particular value of eq this is
the value of ifd required therefore for all our studies actually as we will see further when we talk
about the models of the synchronous machine for our stability studies this information is required
but this is simply obtained using those equations that is the stator circuit equations flux linkage
equations and making some appropriate substitutions.

Now we use this omega r is equal to omega s and this omega s into Ld we will represent by xd
omega s into Ld will be represented by xd right. Similarly, you can see omega s into Lad will be
represented by xad reactance omega L is equal to reactance always okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 42:49)

Therefore if this equation is written again exactly the same but instead of writing in terms of the
per unit per unit d axis inductance and mutual inductance which is written in terms of Xd and Xad
Xd is the direct axis direct axis reactance while Xad is the mutual reactance between between the
field and the d axis winding.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:27)

Now we will quickly see, now the phasor representation before we talk about the phasor
representation let us reinstate the some of the facts. Under steady state conditions the id, iq these
two currents these two currents are constant in magnitude therefore basically the current flowing
in the fictitious d axis winding and the fictitious q axis winding are dc current direct currents.

Similarly, the ed and eq they came out to be constant voltages that we have already established
under steady state operating conditions. Now the question arises is that the when we, when we
draw a phasor diagram right all the phasor are corresponding to a sinusoidally varying quantity
that is all the quantities which vary sinusoidally and having the same frequency right can be
represented in the phasor diagram. Okay but here also although these quantities are constant in
magnitude because of certain trigonometrical relations which exist we will be in a position to
represent this d and q axis voltage and currents as phasor but with the with the clear clear
understanding in our mind that d and q axis quantities are scalars.

\The ed, eq, id, iq they are scalars right but because there exists trigonometrical relationships
between the certain phasors and the d and q axis components therefore we can represent these
quantities in the phasor diagram. Now to start with let us say that we have a balanced steady state
operation the phase voltages are given by these equations. Okay that is ea is equal to Em cos
omega s t plus alpha alpha is some arbitrary angle a reference angle or may be to start with and
this eb is lagging by 2 by 3, 2 phi by 3,120 degrees ec by leading by 2 phi by 3. Now you apply
dqO transformation to this equation.
(Refer Slide Time: 45:58)

When you apply the dqo transformation you will get the d axis component ed and q axis
component eq as Em cos omega st plus alpha minus theta Em sin omega st plus that is in fact when
you apply this transformation right to arrive at this result we have to make use of many
trigonometrical identities that is when you when you when you put these equations right ea eb and
ec this this column vector in that transformation matrix.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:01)

You will find actually that this trigonometrical terms will have to be multiplied with the elements
of that matrix transformation matrix and finally to come to this result you may have to use
number of trigonometrical identities. Okay and the final result is going to be in this form okay.

Now we can represent the angular position theta as omega r into t plus theta o and omega r is
same as omega s because it is a steady state operating condition. Now when you make this
substitution ed comes out to be equal to em cos alpha minus theta o eq comes out to be equal to em
sin alpha minus theta. Okay and therefore in this equation when we find here in this equation the
there is no term like omega st right and therefore ed is constant it depends upon the peak value of
the stator phase voltage and the alpha and theta naught, okay that is why I said that this ed and eq
come out to be scalar quantities under steady state operating conditions.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:19)

Now ed and em the ed is d axis voltage and is in per unit. Okay now we are more more
comfortable when we use the RMS value of the voltage rather than using the peak value of the
voltage. Now suppose, I assume the peak value of the stator voltage as my stator base voltage
then RMS value RMS value of the stator base voltage when it is expressed per unit will come out
be same as the peak value. It is something like this that I have chosen the base voltage in the
stator circuit and that base voltage is peak value of the per phase per unit of the phase to neutral
voltage.

Okay now if I want to express ah any quantity in terms of this then they are expressed in terms of
the peak value. Now if suppose I have chosen the stator base voltage as peak voltage I want to
chose the the base voltage in terms of RMS value, then it is automatically going to be the base
voltage which is the peak value divided by root two and therefore if you express these quantities
that is ed and eq not in terms of peak values but in terms of RMS value the equation will remain
same because the base values of the stator voltage, when it is expressed as a in terms of peak or
where it is expressed in terms of RMS value they will have a relationship of one by root 2.
Suppose I take the stator base as 100 volts then this is a peak value then RMS value, RMS base
value will be equal to 100 by root 2 and therefore this equation can be written in terms of the
RMS value now I put et, et as the RMS value and it remains same there is absolutely no change
this is also per unit, this is also per unit okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 50:33)

Now when we represent these quantities in the phasor diagram it will look like this. Let us say
this is the terminal voltage phasor I represent this Et tilde putting this as a phasor quantity
because we use bar earlier super bar earlier for representing the bar per unit quantities because
that is why we are putting Et tilde and let us show that this is my d axis, this is the q axis, q axis
lead d axis by 90 degrees and here the angle is alpha minus theta because you have seen here
actually that the angles comes out to be alpha minus theta o right. Then, then ed is represented by
Et cosine alpha minus theta o and eq is equal to et sin alpha minus theta o therefore, this phasor
diagram, phasor phasor diagram is expressing these quantities ed, eq in terms of Et.

Similarly, you can draw a phasor diagram showing the currents. Let us say this is my terminal
voltage phasor so this is the current phasor and let us say that phase difference between the
voltages and current is phi right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:12)

Then we can express express the d and q axis components of current as Et, I am sorry current
can be expressed as id equal to It sin delta i plus phi iq is equal to It cos delta i plus phi. This
exercise is done similarly to what we did for voltages right therefore in the phasor diagram I can
simply show It equal to id plus j times iq okay and the diagram I have just now shown to you,
okay.

Now here the angle between the q axis and the terminal voltage we will denote by delta i. Okay
now one small exercise which is important exercise to be done is done is to establish the position
of d and q axis with respect to the terminal voltage that is I know the terminal voltage and with
this terminal voltage as phasor I have to establish what is the position of q axis what is the
position that is if I establish the position of q axis I can automatically get the position of d axis,
now to establish this, now the some of these are equations are all repeated that you know the ed is
given by this expression, we have already established.
(Refer Slide Time: 53:31)

## (Refer Slide Time: 53:33)

To establish the relationship what we do here is we will define a voltage eq, a phasor eq as
terminal voltage plus Ra plus j times Xq into It. This is an this relationship is a very well known
to all of us right that is just start like this that my my intension is that to establish relationship
between the terminal voltage and the d and q axis, we define a voltage eq as Et plus this
impedance Ra plus j times Xq into It.
With this definition and we substitute the expression for ed Et as ed plus j times eq and It as id
plus j times iq and we make simplifications that is you multiply and simplify this expression. You
will find that eq comes out to be j times Xad, ifd minus Xd minus Xq id what this what does we get
from this equation, what this equation conveys to us. This equation conveys that this voltage eq
which I have assumed right is in quadrature with d axis that is the axis this is along q axis not
part of it it is of course quadrature of d axis but it is along q axis because our reference with
reference to the reference this quantity is I had by 90 degrees that is j term is existing because the
other terms are all scalars here actually the terms are all scalar.

## (Refer Slide Time: 55:26)

Okay and therefore the phasor diagram which I draw here showing this Et plus Ra It plus Xq It
this gives a voltage Eq that is with respect to this terminal voltage Et the position of Eq comes out
to be along q axis right and therefore we have now established a relationship between between
the terminal voltage and q axis and once we establish relationship d axis position is known and
all further computations can be done the moment we know the dq and other quantities. Friends I
will conclude my presentation here by by summarizing what we have done in this lecture. First,
thing that we have established the base volt amperes for the rotor circuit.

We have also established the how to choose the base current for the rotor circuits in order to
make the mutual inductances reciprocal and also to make the mutual inductances on d axis and
mutual inductances on q axis equal. Okay then we have also established the steady state relations
and developed a simple phasor diagram to show that, to show that the the q axis can be obtained
by obtaining the position of a phasor which is equal to terminal voltage plus plus an impedance
equal to Ra plus j times Xq multiplied by the current that is if you compute this quantity eq equal
to terminal voltage plus impedance that is Ra plus j times Xq multiplied by the current this gives
me the position of q axis, okay. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 11
Modeling of Synchronous Machine (Contd.)

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

Friends, today we will continue our discussion on modeling of synchronous machine,
okay. We will continue on the steady state analysis and then we will talk about the
magnetic saturation. Now while discussing the steady state analysis we had discussed
earlier that a voltage, a voltage behind voltage behind the impedance Ra plus j times Xq
lies along the q axis and that gives us the location of q axis with respect to terminal
voltage.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:34)

Once we establish the location of q axis we are in a position to obtain the d and q
components of voltage and currents which are required, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:06)

Now here this is the phasor diagram which shows the that voltage Eq bar or Eq is along
the q axis what we have done is that this is the terminal voltage, this is the load current or
terminal current, the phase difference between the terminal voltage and the current is phi
to this we are adding this voltage drop Ra It and adding the voltage drop Xq It this gives
you Eq.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:07)

Now this voltage Eq is along the q axis and the angle between Et terminal voltage and this
Eq that is the q axis right this is denoted by the angle delta i. Now we will establish a term
which is a rotor angle or the power angle, although we have mentioned right now that the
power angle is the angle between the q axis and the terminal voltage.

Now we will establish actually that in case there is no load on the machine that is
machine is under no load condition right then the terminal voltage, terminal voltage Et is
along the q axis and therefore when the machine is loaded right Et falls back with respect
to the q axis right now to establish this we start with our original equations they are the
stator voltage equations that is ed equal to minus omega r psi q minus Ra id eq equal to
omega r psi d minus Ra iq and the field voltage efd is equal to Rfd ifd while the flux
linkages are minus Ld id plus Lad ifd psi q equal to minus Lq iq and the flux linkages in the
field winding is psi fd is equal to Lffd ifd minus Lad id.

In the amortisseur on the d axis psi 1d equal to minus Lf1d, now we are putting
amortisseurs is identified as 1, K equal to 1 ifd minus Lad id psi 1q equal to psi 2q. I have
we have assumed here that they are 2 amortisseurs on the q axis minus Laq iq. Now when
you consider the system under no load condition right under no load condition there is the
id and iq will be 0. Okay now once id and iq are 0, you can see here psi q will be 0. Okay
and once psi q is 0 and id is 0 therefore what you see here is that ed become 0.
(Refer Slide Time: 03:41)

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:59)

Okay now with this substitution we write here the under no load condition the d axis flux
linkage is equal to Lad ifd that is in these equations you substitute id, iq and ed equal to 0
and psi q is also 0 therefore, we when we make the substitution we find here that psi d is
equal to Lad ifd that is the direct axis flux linkage is directly proportional to field current
this is very important relationship under no load conditions psi q is 0 ed is 0 eq is equal to
Xad ifd that is the q axis component of the terminal voltage is directly proportional to the
field current. Okay now we know the terminal voltage Et is equal to ed plus j times eq
right that is what we established earlier. Now since ed is 0 ed is 0 and eq equal to Xad ifd.
(Refer Slide Time: 04:12)

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:19)

So that Et comes out to be equal to j times Xad ifd that is in the no load condition the
terminal voltage is in quadrature with the direct axis that is j is here and is proportional to
the field current ifd right.

Now this is all known to all of you because under no load condition the terminal voltage
is directly proportional to the field current excitation and this voltage is called excitation
voltage under no load condition the terminal voltage is the excitation voltage. Now we
can establish a very simple equivalent circuit under steady state operating conditions for a
round rotor synchronous generator that if you consider the round rotor synchronous
generator then Xd and Xq are equal and this we will denote as Xs synchronous reactance,
Xd equal to Xq equal to Xs for a round rotor right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:03)

Now when you substitute the value of substitute the value of Xd equal to Xq equal to Xs in
the equation for Eq because Eq is now becomes Et plus Ra plus j times Xs It, we have seen
earlier that Eq is equal to j times Xad ifd minus Xd minus Xq id now the moment the
moment the id is 0 id is 0 Eq is equal to j times Xad ifd right. Now this is what we are
trying to establish here that if you do not neglect the armature resistance R a will come
right and Xd Xq neglecting the leakage reactance right Xad becomes Xs right. Otherwise,
Xd is equal to Xq equal to Xs while Xad is the mutual reactance okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:45)

Therefore, we can write draw a simple a simple equivalent circuit of the synchronous
generator where terminal voltage is denoted as Et angle 0 and the excitation voltage as Eq
angle delta i and we put an impedance Ra plus Ra and Xs that is impedance is Ra plus j
times Xs that is a very simple equivalent circuit which is obtained and where this we have
establish that this Eq the magnitude of the Eq is equal to Xad Ifd that is called excitation
voltage, a very simple expression. Now we can derive the expression for the complex
power in terms of d and q axis components okay, complex power S is equal to Et into It
star It star that is I star stands for conjugate now when we substitute the expression for Et
and It right in this expression, we get S equal to ed id plus j times eq iq plus j times eq id
minus ed iq. Therefore, this term is identified as the real power and this term is the
reactive power.

## (Refer Slide Time: 10:26)

So that we can write down here that the real power at the terminal of the machine is e d id
plus eq iq that is you know the dx is component of voltage the dx is component of the
current qs is component of the voltage qs is component of the current right you multiply
the corresponding voltage and currents and add them you get Pt. Similarly, you obtain the
expression for Qt as eq id minus ed iq. Okay now we will establish one very interesting
expression for torque because we have seen that the expression for torque is psi d iq
minus psi q id, this expression is the very general expression which we have established.

Now in these expressions we substitute the expression for psi d and psi q from the
previous relationships established relationships and then simplifies this equation. You
will find that this torque Te that is a air gap torque will come out to be equal to the
terminal power plus Ra into It square or we can say that I square R loss what we what do
we understand here.
(Refer Slide Time: 11:01)

Now since in per unit quantities power and torque are equal when we use the per unit
quantities then the torque is same as the power. Now this torque is the air gap torque or
we can and this air gap torque can be obtained as the terminal power plus the armature
resistance loss right and therefore whenever you performed stability steady analysis this
is one computation which is required to be performed that first we find out what is the
terminal power then to that terminal power we add the armature resistance loss okay and
that gives us the electro magnetic torque and that is what we will be substituting in the
expression for swing equations that is in the swing equation.

We have to substitute Te the Te is computed using these expressions and and under
steady state conditions right the mechanical torque is equal to the electrical torque
therefore mechanical torque is computed by this expression right while electrical torque
will be will continue to be computed by this expression because under dynamic
conditions this is the expression for electromagnetic torque under dynamic conditions for
under steady state condition we can say that the steady state torque is equal to terminal
power plus losses. This is a very important step in case you neglect the armature
resistance then terminal power is same as the electromagnetic torque but today with the
availability of computing facility right and the capability of the digital computers there is
no need to neglect the armature resistance because armature resistance losses are
substantial okay and they have bearing on the stability results.

Now, we come to the very important aspect of modeling of the system. So for, so for we
have neglected the saturation in the magnetic circuit. This was neglected to simplify the
mathematical model. However, however the magnetic saturation need to be accounted
and if we neglect it then the errors in the results are sometimes substantial and therefore
there is a necessity to understand how do we account for the saturation in the magnetic
circuit. Now to understand how do we account for a saturation in the magnetic circuit, we
will look into the open and short circuit characteristic of the synchronous generator all of
you are aware of open circuit characteristic of the synchronous generator short circuit
characteristic of the synchronous generator and we will see that the open circuit
characteristic is very useful in determining the saturation characteristic of the machine
okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:17)

Now we write under no load conditions we established earlier also id iq psi q and ed these
four terms where 0 when the machine is not loaded right the id and iq components of the
current are 0 psi q is 0 and ed is also 0 this is what we have established in our previous
discussion. Then the terminal voltage Et came out to be equal to Lad ifd that is this
terminal voltage is directly proportional to the field current. Okay and this terminal
voltage is also called excitation voltage under no load conditions under no load condition
this is also the excitation voltage now let us look at the at this characteristic.

On this axis I am I have shown the field current ifd and on this axis we are showing the
open circuit terminal voltage in per unit. Okay when you perform the open circuit
characteristic or perform the experiment to obtain the open circuit characteristic what we
do is we run the machine at rated speed okay and note down the terminal voltage for
different values of the field current.

Now here while plotting this characteristic I have neglected the residual flux, okay
otherwise there is some residual flux and you will get that even if the field current is 0
there will be some that is that has been neglected here. Now the the open circuit
characteristic will look like this. Okay that is it remains straight line and then starts
getting saturation, now if you draw a tangent to the open circuit characteristic in the
initial portion right then we get a straight line, we can draw a straight line which is
tangent to the initial portion of the OCC, we call this air gap line.

Now here here we will define two field currents that is if the terminal voltage is one per
unit, the field current required when you consider the saturation is IfNL. In case we
ignore the saturation then the field current required is IfNL (ag), ag stands for that or the
air gap line considering the air gap line. Okay now if we plot short circuit characteristic
that is on this axis I am putting short circuit armature current in per unit there is again the
same field current. This short circuit characteristic comes out to be a straight line while
you perform the short circuit characteristic the machine is run at rated speed and the
terminals of the machine are put short shorted okay.

Now there is no saturation when we are performing short circuit characteristic that is you
consider actually the short circuit current right for different values of the field current
even beyond the rated current, you will find there is hardly any saturation. The basic
reason for for the short circuit characteristic comes coming out to be straight line can be
attributed that under short circuit condition right the armature current is having the
demagnetizing affect okay and because for the demagnetizing affect the resultant
magnetic field which is produced in the air gap or in the iron core is very low and
therefore saturation does not take place and this is very important point.

Now here we can now define unsaturated reactance of the machine and then we define
saturated reactance of the machine. Now to define this that is what we do here is that
when the synchronous machine, when the synchronous machine terminals are shorted and
let us say it carries one per unit current right at that time whatsoever the induced emf due
to this field current is used in overcoming the drop in the short circuited path.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:57)

If we neglect the armature resistance armature resistance then we can say that the induced
emf is a some constant times Ifsc equal to 1 into Xs unsaturated okay that is there under
short circuit condition there is no saturation in the system right therefore the reactance
which we talk about the unsaturated reactance and the voltage induced is some constant
time in the field current okay, then if we see here the open circuit characteristic then one
per unit voltage is produced when the current is equal to IfNL okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:42)

Now being the proportionality constant same that is K IfNL ag equal to one right
therefore I using these 2 equations we can establish that the unsaturated value of
synchronous reactance is equal to IfSC divided by IfNL (ag), this is a very important term
that is what is the value of unsaturated synchronous reactance or unsaturated value of
synchronous reactance that is Xs unsaturated is obtained using the open circuit
characteristic open circuit characteristic and short circuit characteristic that is on this
short circuit characteristic we draw we find out what is the field current required to
produced one per unit current in the armature under short circuit condition.

Similarly, we find out how much is the how much is the current which is required to
produce one per unit voltage under on air gap line again this is I am putting a air gap line
therefore this ratio of IfSC upon IfNL the ratio is of IfSC and IfNL (ag) gives you a
saturated unsaturated value of synchronous reactance. Okay now when we look at the
saturated value of the synchronous reactance.

Now we can find out the value of saturated synchronous reactance that to produce one
per unit voltage under open circuit condition the field current required is IfNL, okay this
IfNL ag was on air gap line while IfNL is on OCC right therefore, since open circuit
characteristic there is some saturation taking place therefore the field current required is
IfNL and following the same approach as we have done earlier now we can write down
that saturated value of the synchronous reactance is IfSC divided by IfNL. Normally, we
perform the open circuit and short circuit test to find out the synchronous reactance of the
machine the synchronous reactance which we compute by doing open circuit and short
circuit test are the will give you the saturated value of the synchronous reactance okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:49)

Now our task is that to relate to relate the unsaturated value of synchronous reactance to
the saturated value of the synchronous reactance. Okay now to relate this before I relate
this one more term which is very commonly used I am just introducing that is the short
circuit ratio, the short circuit ratio is defined as IfNL divided by IfSC and it comes out to
be the reciprocal of reciprocal of saturated synchronous reactance right the if the if the
since short circuit ratio is low that is what that synchronous reactance is high and in fact
in industry we very very frequently used this term short circuit ratio and it also gives the
information about the quality of the machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:39)

Now for representing the magnetic saturation for stability studies we make some realistic
assumptions the assumptions made are that the leakage inductances are independent of
saturation when we talked about a various inductances, we found mutual inductances as
well as the leakage inductances right. For example, Ld direct axis inductance Ld is equal
to Lad plus LL, LL is the leakage component okay and Lad is La ed is due to the flux which
which crosses air gap goes through the field winding and again return backs to the
armature okay.

Now since this leakage flux is mostly takes path through the air right and it crosses the
iron but but it is but it is it does not contribute toward the saturation of the iron right
because the reluctance to the leakage flux path is mostly due to the air and therefore we
make this realistic assumption that is the leakage inductances are independent of
saturation, second is the leakage fluxes do not contribute to saturation of iron cores that is
the same thing because leakage fluxes do pass through the iron core but we assume here
that do not contribute to the saturation. This is an assumption the realistic assumption but
not very very strictly they given but acceptable for stability studies.
(Refer Slide Time: 27:49)

This is another very important is that saturation relationship between the resultant air gap
flux and the mmf under loaded conditions the same as under no load conditions. Now this
is very important assumption here that we will establish the saturation relationship using
the open circuit characteristic right while while we assume here that that this relationship
is also applicable under loaded conditions.

Okay that is the saturation relationship between the resultant air gap flux and mmf under
loaded conditions is same as under no load conditions, okay that is why the open circuit
characteristic is very useful and used for determining the saturation characteristic okay
then another is the there is no magnetic coupling between d-axis and q-axis as a result of
nonlinearities between the nonlinearities introduced by saturation because here here
under linear conditions we assume that the d axis and q axis are magnetic circuit do not
have any coupling okay and even if there is nonlinearities now in the magnetic circuit, we
assume that that coupling does not exist even under nonlinearities this is what is the
meaning of this. Now with this assumption we will now concentrate upon the these terms
mutual inductance that is Lad and Laq, this now this Lad is the mutual inductance
considering saturation and we express Lad their mutual inductance with saturation is equal
to Ksd times mutual inductance unsaturated, u stands for unsaturated Lad u and this term
Kad is called direct axis saturation coefficient Ksd.

Okay similarly for quadrature axis we can write down Laq is equal to Ksq Laq Laqu that u
again stands for unsaturated value of mutual inductance and this Ksd and Kaq are the
saturation coefficients but our basic task is to obtain this coefficients. Okay now here
again we look at the open circuit characteristic.
(Refer Slide Time: 29:34)

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:00)

Now in this open circuit characteristic on this axis that is on y axis, we are putting the
voltage open circuit voltage or flux linkages because we have established that the open
circuit voltage is proportional to the flux linkage okay and on this axis you can put field
current or the mmf. Okay, now we see two important things here that for a given field
current I right, if I consider the saturated characteristic that is open circuit characteristic I
find that the total air gap flux produced is psi at, okay if you neglect the saturation then
the for the same field current the flux produced is psi ato is not because this is a line this
is air gap line okay and we are operating at this point the field current is say I, okay for
the same for this field current the flux produce is psi at when you consider the OCC and
the flux produced is equal to psi at O if I consider the air gap line right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:21)

The saturation coefficient Ksd is defined as psi at divided psi at O this this saturation
coefficient on direct axis or direct axis saturation coefficient Ksd is equal to psi at that is
the flux linkage corresponding to current I on open circuit characteristic and psi at O is
the flux linkage on air gap line for the same current and you can see here very carefully
that this ratio is same as psi O, Io by I and it is going to be always less than 1.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:45)

The saturated value of the inductance is going to be less than the unsaturated value of the
inductance therefore we can see here actually that whether I take the ratio of psi atO to
psi at or psi at to psi ato or I take ratio of Io to I they will give the same result okay. Now
we define here difference that is psi atO minus psi at this difference flux linkage is
designed by psi I and this psi I is very important to determine the saturation characteristic
of the machine or we define psi I as psi atO minus psi at and Ksd can now be written as
psi at divided by psi at plus psi I that is i replace this psi at O by psi I plus psi at right
therefore the major exercise will be that for a given value of psi at, we have to find out
what is the value of this psi I.

So that we can compute the saturation coefficient Ksd now here, now we have to
basically model this OCC open circuit characteristics to be modeled that is we have to
develop a model for the open circuit characteristic once we I know this this is the model
of the open circuit characteristic I can always find out find out this psi I for a given value
of psi at okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:12)

Now for modeling if you look at this characteristic the initially this characteristic is a
straight line. Okay then we will find actually that from then this characteristic is
practically following exponential shape and then once it gets fully saturated again it will
it is going to become a straight line, if you carefully examine the open circuit
characteristic right then you can divide this open circuit characteristic into 3 segments
that is the first segment is one where the flux linkage is proportional to the field current
that is in the unsaturated condition, second segment yes the the iron core starts getting
saturated and the characteristic is a non-linear one.
(Refer Slide Time: 36:54)

Okay, then in the third segment this characteristic becomes a straight line under saturated
condition what happens is that when you increase the mmf the air gap flux is going to
increase right but this increase is going to be linear relationship again therefore, for
modeling the open circuit characteristic or magnetization characteristic of the machine
we divide this characteristic into 3segments and these 3 segments are unsaturated
segment, non-linear segment and third is fully saturated linear segment.

This is the new thing which you have to very carefully understand okay now these 3
segments are shown here and psi T1 is the boundary value of flux linkage for the segment
one psi T2 is the boundary value of the flux linkage for second segment psi T2 and
beyond this it is the linear linear characteristic okay.

Therefore now what we do is that whenever you to try model right we this characteristic
is available to us experimentally you obtain the characteristic whichever way you obtain
it, this characteristic is known to you. Okay, now I can define here in this linear portion if
I take one per unit value on the on the x axis that is I take this as a x axis and I call this
vertical height as L i n e r incr incremental L incremental right then I can write down the
slope equal to the slope of this characteristic can be written as iLncr that is this is the
straight line characteristic with slope you have to obtain. Okay our the these 3 segments
can be model very easily.
(Refer Slide Time: 38:37)

So for actually the segment one is concerned segment one is concerned the psi at is less
than equal to psi T1 which is the boundary for segment one right and therefore the this
psi I term is 0, now this the actual OCC and the air gap line they are coinciding right and
therefore the psi I which is difference between psi at O and psi at is 0. The second
segment is a non-linear segment okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:12)

The boundary values are psi at should be greater than psi T1 and less than equal to psi
T2, okay this is the range we have already established for the second segment that is the
second segment is the psi at anywhere on this line right this is going to be in this range
psi T1 and psi T2. Now this can be modeled by a the equation of this form the
exponential form of equation the psi I can be written as psi I can be written as Asat that is
A saturation this is a coefficient this the subscript sat is used to indicate that we are trying
to model the saturation that is psi I equal to A saturation e to the power B saturation
multiplied by psi at minus psi a T1 what is this psi I, this is the difference between the psi
atO and psi at and this psi I can be model by this expression where you for any value of
psi at psi at you find out this difference psi at1 psi T1 is known to you and these
coefficients have to be obtained, these coefficients have to be obtained actually for a
given machine okay.

Once these coefficients are known psi I can be computed. Now here if you see that if I
put psi at equal to psi T1 right that is actually at the beginning of the segment psi at is
equal to psi T1, you can again look here at this point right at this point psi I is 0 right but
when I use this equation psi will come out to be equal to Asat, this is a slight discrepancy
at this boundary. However, in practice this term psi at is small right and therefore this
discrepancy is not very significant because when I use this equation and try to put
actually the initial value that is psi at equal to psi T1 right then psi I should come out to
be 0 but it is not coming out to be 0 by this equation right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 42:38)

However since A sat this coefficient is generally very small and therefore this
discrepancy is a negligible or can be ignored because again let me emphasize here that
we trying to develop the model okay and for this developing the model we have to very
carefully obtain these coefficients because when I said is exponential I have to do curve
fitting okay and once these coefficients are obtained we obtain actually the model for psi
I. Now the last segment which is again a straight line fully saturated segment third
segment the fully saturated one okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: :42:45)

Now here we have to find out find out what is the value of psi I when psi at is beyond psi
T2 right now to obtain this what we really do here is we may have to write down the
equation for this segment is a straight line, you can write down the equation of the
segment in the form of y equal to mx plus c a straight line okay and then you know this
equation for this line what is the equation for this air gap line, you simply write down psi
at equal to Ladu into ifd because this is a path line passing through origin while this line is
not going to pass through origin therefore, you have to make use of the initial conditions
that is actually that our initial conditions are that when the flux is equal to psi T2 right psi
T2 the field current is ifdo something, you can note it down that is because here this is the
segment which we are trying to model right.

Now you do this exercise look this exercise you can do and obtain the expression for the
psi I which is which is the difference between actual psi at and psi atO right. Now psi I
has been obtained in this case as psi g2 plus L ratio into psi at minus psi T2 minus psi at.
Now this I will suggest all of you to derive the expressions psi I equal to psi g2 plus L
ratio psi at minus psi T2 minus psi at, I have already checked it, it comes out to be okay
there is no discrepancy.

Now here what is done here is that when the flux linkage is psi T2 right we find out
actually the value of flux linkage on air gap that is for the psi T2, you note down this
current and for the same current you can find out a flux linkage which is on air gap line
corresponding to the air gap line that is called psi g2 and using this information that for
this particular current this point is lying on the third segment characteristic right and
using this value that the flux linkage is psi g2 therefore basically at this point at this point
psi I is equal to psi g2 right.

Therefore if I substitute here in this equation in this equation right if psi if I take this psi
at if I take this psi at equal to psi T2 and this term become 0 right and psi I becomes psi
g2 minus psi at, no no psi psi T2 is nothing but psi at right therefore this equation is
satisfied. Okay and this can be derived now once you are in a position to obtain this
quantity psi I the coefficient Ksd is known okay now next point is how to obtain the
saturation coefficient for q axis okay.

Now, so far actually d axis is concerned we have OCC for q axis we do not have similar
open circuit characteristic we cannot plot it. Now here generally we made one assumption
that in the q axis the saturation is 0, a very realistic assumption that you can make this
assumption that on q axis that is the saturation coefficient Ksq is equal to 1 because the
magnetic the flux takes its path, so larger air gap when you talk about the q axis of the
machine, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:34)

that is the flux which we have been talking about right is the total flux in the air gap psi at
equal to psi ad square plus psi aq square.
(Refer Slide Time: 47:52)

Now here we will just establish one very is simple relationship using our expressions for
psi ad and psi aq, psi ad and psi aq these are the expressions which were known to you
the relationships are that is you write down the expressions for psi at that is you write
down the expressions for psi ad which is then psi plus Llid and psi aq as psi q plus Lliq.

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:59)

Okay and psi d can be written by this expression psi d psi ad is equal to eq plus Ra iq psi q
is written as minus ed minus Raid these are the equations which we have already
developed earlier and now if you substitute this in the equation for psi at right, you will
find actually that psi at when you express in per unit because we are all doing per unit
calculations this psi at will come out to be simply as a voltage Ea Et plus Ra plus j times
Xl into It that is this psi at is a voltage behind psi at is a voltage behind or is equal to the
voltage behind behind this impedance that is Ra plus j times Xl that is Eq when we are
talking about that was the voltage behind Ra plus j times Xq. Okay now here it is only
talking about the leakage reactance this is this is established by substituting these
expressions. Now with this we have established how do we obtain the saturated value of
the reactance is required for calculations.

Now if you see it very carefully here then for each operating condition you know for each
operating condition, you have to find out what is the saturated value it is not same for all
operating condition this coefficient Ksd is different for different operating condition you
can easily see here that psi at when I say psi at is obtained corresponding to one particular
operating condition. Okay and for that we have to find out psi atO, okay and this ratio psi
at upon psi atO gives you saturation coefficient and this psi at is different and therefore
we get the different value of saturation coefficient and that is why, when you perform the
stability studies stability studies right the saturation has to be computed as the loading
condition keeps on changes for different loading condition different value of saturation
coefficient is to be used. With this I am concluding here the modeling of synchronous
machines for stability studies. Today, we have talked about the method of modeling,
modeling the saturation right.

How how it has been done basically we started with the basic definition of what we mean
by saturation coefficient and then the OCC open circuit characteristic is divided into 3
segments and for each segment we have written the expression for the flux linkage psi I
which is the difference between psi atO and psi at that is psi atO is the flux linkage for a
given field current on air gap line right and then we compute the value of saturation
coefficient. Further, we have assumed here the saturation coefficient on q axis as 1that is
saturation is neglected and this can be considered with this.

Let me say that we have completed the synchronous machine modeling this modeling is
complete in the next chapter we will study the synchronous machines model for stability
studies. Okay when we talk about the actual model of the synchronous machine we are
considering here now the stator circuit, rotor circuit transient while in the stator circuit we
have we have made the assumption that the derivative terms are negligible as compared
to the speed voltage terms therefore, this assumption will be carried over for a stability
studies also that is when we have written the stator circuit equations we have ignored the
transformer voltages and therefore this assumption will be carried over beyond for
stability studies also.

However, there will be some more assumptions that can be made and simplified to obtain
are made to obtain the simple synchronous machine model for stability studies. Now
when we talk about the modeling the next step will be to model the excitation system and
the models for turbines and governors that makes the complete model for the energy
system that is turbine, governor, excitation system and synchronous generator that is the
complete thing, we will devote few more terms to develop the models for the excitation
system and this okay. Thank you very much.
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 12
Synchronous Machine Representation for Stability Studies

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:45)

Friends, today we shall study about the synchronous machine representation for stability studies.
In this we will study the simplified model with amortisseurs neglected and a constant flux
linkage model. Now here, before I discuss these simplified models let us see the per unit system
of equations which we have developed so far. I will just summarize the per unit system of
equations which we have developed for the synchronous machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:38)

The these 3 equations that is the these represents the stator circuit equations in dqo frame and all
these terms are expressed in per unit all the currents, flux linkages, the voltages are expressed in
per unit, the time is also expressed in per unit. The second set of equations are the per unit rotor
voltage equations. Now here while writing the per unit rotor voltage equations I have considered
one amortisseur on d axis and 2 amortisseurs on the q axis. The field winding circuit voltage
equation is efd equal to p psi d plus Rfd ifd. Similarly, the equations are written for amortisseurs
right 0 equal to p psi 1d R1d, I1d. Now here I put this substitute one to indicate that this is the
there is 1, 1 amortisseur on the d axis or amortisseur number 1on the d axis right if there is a 2
that will become second winding also on d axis okay 0 equal to p psi 1d, psi1q plus R1q, i1d and
similarly the last equations.

Then in these equations which we have written, we need the expressions for stator flux linkages
therefore another set of equations are the stator per unit stator flux linkages, linkage equations
per unit stator flux linkage equations. These are written as psi d equal to minus Lad plus Ll id Lad
ifd plus Lad i1d. Now here if you see here this Lad is the mutual inductance between the stator and
field winding, okay. Now in the per unit system of representation, we have made all mutual
inductances on the d axis equal so that you will find that this Lad appears here.

Similarly, this term in the this term represents the mutual inductance between direct axis
amortisseur and d axis of the stator winding right therefore, again this comes out to be same
similarly, similarly for quadrature axis windings, we have flux linkage psi q equal to minus Laq
plus Ll iq plus Laq i1q plus Laq i1, i2q okay if again these are all mutual inductances are made are
equal the last equation is the flux linkage due to the zero sequence currents.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:20)

Then we have equations for rotor flux linkage equations which which are expressed in per unit
rotor flux linkage equations okay now again if you see here again we find actually that in the

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:47)

Now we have to see the last equation is this per unit air gap torque Te is equal to psi d iq minus
psi q id this is the per unit torque in the synchronous generator. Now this is the complete set of
equations for representing a synchronous machine okay and if you want to study the dynamics of
the synchronous machine then this set of equations plus the swing equation have to be solved and
you have seen that these equations are non-linear differential equations, okay and these equations
can be solved by applying numerical technique. Now in case actually the system is small right
then we can easily solve these equations and obtain the complete solution but when we talk about
the power system stability problem where we may come across hundreds of generators thousands
of buses a realistic power system which we have today even in our country right has large
number of generators and large number of buses.

Therefore the therefore the dimension of the system is very large and for analyzing the stability
of the system right if we use this detailed model which we have developed while developing this
model we have not done any approximations, no simplifications were made further actually I
would just emphasize that in these equations which we have written right the the all inductances
are are the saturated values of these inductances that is you account for the magnetic saturation
also while computing the inductances okay.

Now if you want to use this equations for stability studies it becomes very very difficult because
the system becomes very large and for large system the number of equations become very large
therefore, when we when we look in terms of simplifying the system model we always look from
the point of view of reducing the dimension of the model that is we want to reduce the number of
the differential equations, second is that we would like to have numerical technique which can be
used to solve our these equation quickly that is the fast numerical techniques and low order
model of the system. Okay these are the main thrust looking from that point of view we shall be
studying actually today that how we can make some approximations, simplifications.

Now what we will do that we will consider some various degrees of approximations okay that
can be made to simplify the model minimizing the data requirement and the computational effort
many times we have a problem also that ah certain datas which are required to use the model are
not available, one example is that normally the synchronous machine data related to the
amortisseurs are very are not easily available right and therefore we have to see that what
approximation can be made, so that computations can be fast or computational efforts are
reduced as well as the datas which are not available right can be or we can do the studies
without using those datas or getting some approximate datas.

## (Refer Slide Time: 10:23)

Now while looking at these simplifications, the first simplification which has been looked into is
that we neglect this p psi d and p psi q terms in the stator circuit equations this is the first
simplification. Now let us see what is the justification for making this simplification or
neglecting the p psi d and p psi q terms, these is terms are the transformer voltages. Okay earlier
I talked about these equations and mentioned that these transformer voltages terms are smaller as
compared to the speed voltage terms right but if you see this equation this stator circuit equation
only because of this transformer voltage terms these equations are differential equations right
and if we neglect this transformer voltage term or the derivative terms right then the stator
voltage equations become algebraic equations in fact these terms represent the stator circuit
transients, okay.
Now I will just discuss what is the justification for neglecting these terms? Now the stator circuit
is connected to the transmission network right. Now for so far the transmission side or you say
the transmission network transients are concerned. Okay there is a transmission network
transients the time constants of this transient is generally very low and whenever whenever some
transient phenomena occurs in transmission system it quickly dies time constant is very small
right and therefore for system stability studies, we ignore the transmission system transients. We
assume that the transmission system is in steady state.

We consider only the sinusoidally varying voltages and currents in the transmission system
although whenever disturbances occur in the system like say fault we will find actually that when
the fault occurs it will have decaying DC components of the fault current it will have a high
frequency currents which are also adjusting in the during the fault system okay and but because
of the the low time constants, we always ignore the transmission network transients. Okay now if
we ignore the transmission network transients can we consider the stator transients because they
are part of the same circuit.

Therefore, if you consider the stator transients it becomes inconsistent and therefore therefore for
all system stability studies this assumption is made then the question arises whether this
assumption is a realistic assumption whether the results which we will get by ignoring these
terms will be acceptable, people have done lot of research on this and after performing a detail
studies the conclusions drawn are that yes we can ignore these terms that is the the stator circuit
transients can be neglected.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:50)

I will suggest you to look into the discussion given by P. Kundur in his book on power system
stability and control, power system stability and control. In this he has discussed the results
reported in some research papers and compared the the dynamic performance of the system
including including the stator circuit transients and excluding the stator circuit transients and
compared, okay and once you read this you will, you will come to a very important influence
that yes for stability studies one can, one can comfortably neglect the stator circuit transients
right and therefore the moment you neglect the stator circuit transient we get very big
simplification that the stator circuit voltage equations become algebraic equations right that is ed
equal to minus psi q omega r minus Ra id eq equal to psi d omega r minus Ra iq and eo equal to p
psi o minus Ra io okay they are becoming the algebraic equations, okay the another important
assumption which is made or approximation which is made is in this equation this rotor speed
omega r is assumed to be equal to be synchronous speed that is in per unit system, we make
omega r equal to one right this is another assumption.

Now in practice by making this omega r equal to 1 there is not much simplification in the system
model however, the very interesting thing which is there is that if you assume omega r equal to
one then this assumption to some extent counter balances this assumption that is where you
neglect the stator circuit transients that is if you analyze the system performance neglecting only
p psi d term p psi q term and p psi o term. Okay second time you do the studies neglecting both
these terms right then not neglecting both the terms sorry by making the second assumption
correction that is we are neglecting this transformer voltage terms or stator circuit transients and
assuming this rotor speed to be equal to the synchronous speed right, if you make both these
assumptions right then the results which we get are more closer to the to the actual results right
and therefore this assumption is also a very desired assumption.

Now in the same book, Kundur in his example 5.1 in example, 5.1 he has established established
considering small perturbations that effect of neglecting the speed variation, counter balances the
effect of neglecting the stator circuit transients I will suggest that you should carefully study this
example 5.1, okay now these are the two major assumptions which have been made.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:38)

Now with these assumptions, let us see develop the model the simplified model which we will
get after okay that is if you make this assumption then the equations will becomes like this for a
balanced three phase system ed will become equal to minus psi q, where omega r is 1 minus id Ra
eq equal to psi d minus iq Ra that is these are the two stator circuit equations which we shall be
using for further system studies and no more simplifications are done so far the stator circuit
equations are concerned.

## (Refer Slide Time: 20:45)

Now with these simplifications, we can derive the expression for the electrical power output and
electromagnetic torque or air gap torque. We will see that the power output Pt is ed id plus eq iq,
now you substitute the expressions for Ed and Eq from these equations, okay these algebraic
equations you substitute this.

With this substitution, we will find actually that the terminal power Pt will come out to be equal
to psi d iq minus psi q id. Okay psi d iq minus psi q id this is the expression minus Ra times id
square plus iq square, this term can be identified as stator circuit loss or stator circuit resistance
loss. Therefore, we say that terminal power is equal to the air gap torque minus armature loss of
the stator that is why I said that when you have to calculate actually the torque Te right or air gap
power we first calculate the terminal power we know it to that we add the armature resistance
drop I am I am sorry armature resistance loss not drop and this is very important equation which
we shall be using.

Okay, now after making these 2 major simplifications we can make some further simplifications
that is if you look into the model in the stator circuit equations become the algebraic equations,
okay but when you look at the rotor circuit equations then the rotor circuit equations are
differential equations. Okay now next next set of simplifications which can be made are that we
neglect the, neglect the amortisseurs.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:29)

We have amortisseurs located on the ah rotor , okay now here I would like to just question you
that manier times manier times people have considered the amortisseurs in the mathematical
model right but we can make some simplification here by neglecting the amortisseurs. Now the
justification for neglecting amortisseurs are like this one is that the synchronous machine
parameters related to amortisseurs or synchronous machine parameters related to amortisseurs
are generally not available or not easily available okay this is one and therefore if the data is not
available we have to take some approximate data and use it, this is one second is that this
transients associated with the amortisseurs are also fast transients their time constants are also
low and generally they decay fast.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:24)

Therefore, the moment you neglect the amortisseurs in the system or amortisseurs on the rotor
circuit what we gain, what do we gain just can you tell me just tell me, what will you what do
you gain actually by this because, I had mentioned that these are the 4 equations related to the
voltage, related to the rotor circuits. Okay this is the equation related to the field voltage and the
field circuit sorry this is related to the field circuit, this is related to the amortisseur on the d axis
and these are the two related to the amortisseurs on the q axis.

Now if I neglect this amortisseurs then these 3 equations disappear and these are the 3differential
equations okay and therefore, the immediate advantage which I get is the ah the model becomes
of lower order number of differential equations which I have to write down for the system will
reduce this is one advantage which I get immediately that is the model order gets reduced and
you can easily understood that if the number of differential equations are less right then the
solution becomes faster.

The second advantage which we will get here is that while performing the simulation studies or
dynamic simulation studies, we can use higher or the larger time step for integration because the
time step which we use for integration of the differential equations it depends upon, it depends
upon the time constants of the system right and in case you want to capture the complete
dynamics of the system right, our time step should be small enough to take care of all the time
constants
In case the moment we neglect these 3 differential equations, we get very important advantage
and that advantage is that the remaining equations have larger time constant and we can use
larger time step for simulation and once you use larger time step then our computational efforts
are reduced therefore we get two major advantages both one in terms of reduction in the order of
the system, second is reduction in the computational time or simulation time by using higher or
larger value of time step for integration. Okay now with this 2 assumptions which we have made
here. The stator circuit you know equations are now algebraic equations.

## (Refer Slide Time: 27:32)

Okay the rotor circuit the the equations related to amortisseurs we have neglected then we are
left only with one differential equation that is efd equal to p psi fd plus Rfd ifd. This equation is
corresponding to the field circuit of the synchronous generator. Now this can be written in this
form p psi fd equal to efd minus ifd Rfd this is a differential equation, we write down the
derivative term on the side and therefore one has to note down very carefully that this is the only
differential equation associated with the electrical characteristic of the machine right.

The the swing equation are always there right therefore whenever you study the dynamics of the
system then we have to consider the differential equation associated with the synchronous
machine the stator and rotor circuits but after the simplifications we find that we have only one
differential equations which is associated with the electrical characteristic of the system and
therefore, my model becomes very very much simplified. Now here I will just present how the
alternatives form of machine equations.

So far the equations which we have written right these equations were written in terms of the
field current okay and flux linkages. Now another form of equations this there is only the change
in the form actually there is nothing new is that we define the terms like this. Here, we define the
term EI this is slight a mistake here EI a voltage proportional to ifd that is Ei equal to Lad ifd a
voltage proportional to ifd that is you know field current right, field current is ifd and a term when
you multiply this by Lad mutual inductance right then all these things are all expressed in per unit
quantity right. Therefore this EI term is proportional to ifd because this Lad becomes a
proportionality constant therefore this is one term which we define here, second term which we
define here is a voltage Eq prime this is proportional to the field flux linkage that is psi fd that is

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:44)

We talk about a voltage term and this voltage term is proportional to its flux linkages and this is
the proportionality constant and the third term which we define is Efd. Now this Efd is the voltage
applied to the field circuit right we transform this by multiplying with a multiplying factor and
again these are per unit quantities and therefore this is a constant and Efd a voltage term
proportional to the field voltage okay therefore instead of calling this term Efd, I will now express
in terms of this term Efd which is related to this voltage by this multiplying term that is the
coefficient.

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:50)

Okay now when I use this when I use these terms now or the newly defined terms and and use
our equations. Okay the equations which we have got are these are the basic equations therefore,
let us write down the equation for psi d, okay the equation for psi d can be written now after
making all the simplifications here psi d equal to minus Ld id plus EI.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:59)

You can just look into the simplified equations which we have developed I will just show you
again anyway okay. Similarly, you can write down another equation for Eq prime using the
previous equations that is equation number 12.9. Okay you multiply these both sides by Lad and
divided by Lffd, you will get the equation in the form Eq prime equal to minus Lad square
divided by Lffd id into Ei. This term which is the coefficient of id has been identified as
difference of difference of the direct axis inductance minus direct axis transient inductance. In
fact, this I shall establish in my next lecture that is Ld minus Ld prime comes out to be equal to
Lad square upon Lffd. This derivation is to be done separately therefore, if you make this
substitution in the equation 12.1 2, 12.12, we will get the result in the form that is Eq prime is
equal to Ei minus Ld minus Ld prime id right. Now here this Id is normally this is small id not
capital id, we use this direct axis component of the stator current okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:33)

Similarly, similarly we can use this equation 12.10 to obtain an equation of the form. This pEq
prime equal to 1 upon Tdo prime Efd minus EI. Now here I think I will just show that equation,
if you take this equation this is the equation where p psi fd equal to efd minus ifd Rfd. Okay you
multiply both sides of this equation by Lad over Lffd, okay when you multiply both sides we will
have the term here p multiplied by Lad divided by Lffd into psi fd and this term is identified as Eq
prime as per our new definition. Okay similarly, this efd when it is multiplied by Lad upon Lffd
you multiply both side by Rfd and divide by Rfd that is you multiply and divide this term by this
term Rfd.

So that what happens is that we can identify this term as one upon Tdo prime this is called the
open circuit field time constant, open circuit field time constant because what it this Lffd it is the
this is the inductance of the field circuit and Rfd is the resistance therefore, the L by R is the time
constant okay and this time constant term is a very important term for our stability studies this
time constant term is generally of the order of 5 to 10 seconds. Okay, therefore this is the
equation now which is put in the from pEq prime equal one upon Tdo prime Efd minus EI that is
the equation which we have earlier which was in this form the differential equation p psi fd efd
minus ifd Rfd this has been transformed in terms of the newly defined variables that is Efd is the
voltage proportional to field voltage, EI is the voltage proportional to field current and Eq prime
is the voltage proportional to flux linkages, field flux linkages. Okay therefore now you have in
this equation you find that we have only voltage terms not the current or flux linkage term this is
the only difference.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:01)

Now I am here summarizing the model of the synchronous machine which is most commonly
used for system stability studies that is we write down psi d the flux linkage of the d axis equal to
minus Ld id plus EI okay, psi q is equal to minus Lq iq Eq prime expression for Eq prime is EI
minus Ld minus Ld prime id and pEq prime dot that is the d by dT of Eq prime is equal to one
upon Tdo prime Efd minus EI. Therefore in these four equations what we see here is that these
three are the algebraic equations and one is the differential equation therefore, the synchronous
machine is very commonly represented by these equations only one differential equation and
what this differential equation is if you look it very carefully this differential equation is related
to the field circuit of the synchronous generator the field circuit.

You know we started with the this was the equation you know Efd equal to p psi fd plus Rfd ifd this
is the equation for the field rotor field circuit okay and this has been transformed in this
particular form and the terms like EI is the related to id Ld like this similarly Eq prime which is in
this equation is related to other terms. Okay therefore these are the inter related terms this is the
differential equation but these algebraic equations are also required to be solved along with the
differential equations.
Okay now next very important thing is that we can we can draw a phasor diagram, phasor
diagram under transient conditions. Sometimes you even feels like actually that how can we
draw a phasor under transient conditions but since we have neglected the stator circuit transients
and therefore, so far the stator circuits are concerned it carries the balanced 3 phase sinusoidally
varying currents right and therefore you can represent or you can draw a phasor diagram under
transient conditions.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:47)

Now to draw the phasor diagram, we again start with our basic model there is original equations
because we have developed these equation ,okay ed equal to minus psi q minus Ra into id or id
into Ra. Okay, similarly eq equal to psi d minus ia iq into Ra okay therefore we will make use of
these equations to develop a phasor diagram .

Now let us take this term eq equal to psi d minus Ra iq, Ra iq there is a mistake here okay now this
psi d term this is the flux linkage term can be replaced by psi d can be replaced by minus Ld id
plus EI and in per unit system the inductance is equal to the reactance that is Ld can be written as
Xd in per unit system right because Xd is nothing but omega into Ld and omega is one therefore I
can write down this equation now eq is equal to minus Xd id plus Xad ifd minus Ra id that is this
term is identified as EI and therefore now i can write an equation very interesting equation for EI.

You can see this started with eq this is the fundamental stator circuit voltage equation okay or
stator circuit equation. Now in this equation we are substituting the expression for psi d which
we have already developed and we are also, we are also replacing this Ld terms or Led terms by
Xd or Xad terms because in per unit system they are same the reactance is the same as the
inductance per unit. You get the equation in the form EI equal to eq plus Xd id plus Ra iq this is
one very one important equation what we do is that this is actually the algebraic equation that
these are all magnitudes of these quantities we have got.

This can be transformed into phasor equation what we do is we multiply both the sides by j, you
multiply both the sides by j then you will get j times EI prime EI equal to j times eq j time Xd id
plus j times Ra iq, you note that anything accept that this equation is multiplied by j all through
once you multiply this by j then this term j EI can be identified as a phasor right therefore I can
represent this as EI delta what will be the location of this phasor it is going to be along be
quadrature axis because there is a term j associated with it j times eq again it is located along the
quadrature axis then here in this term j times Xd id, I put j Xd id tilde.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:03)

Now this j is not replaced because id is a reference therefore id when it is a reference I can call
this as a id phasor ah straight away okay since it is a reference there is no but in the case of eq j eq
is the phasor because it lies along the q axis. Similarly, like this right therefore I get a equation in
this form now when you see this equation here. You will find actually that this this is eq which is
along the q axis this term is also along the q axis that is id when it is multiplied by j times Xd
becomes comes across the q axis this is anyway along the q axis therefore, the this term EI which
we defined as as voltage proportional to field current is is lying along the q axis. Okay then we
make use of this equation Eq prime okay.

Now in this equation, we have Eq prime equal to EI minus Ld minus Xd prime into id okay here
we replace this EI by this term eq plus Xd id plus Ra iq after this replacement and replacing Xd Ld
and Ld prime by Xd and Xd prime we will get the equation Eq prime in the phasor form Eq prime
in phasor form as Eq prime equal to eq plus j times Xd prime id plus Ra iq that is this again these 3
terms you can see here they are this this sum is lying along the q axis that is this Eq prime also
lies along the q axis EI also lies along the q axis okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 45:00)

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:07)

Then earlier we had defined one term Eq that is the voltage behind this impedance Ra plus j times
Xq that is terminal voltage to this terminal voltage we added this term that is R a plus j times Xq
into It this term also came out to be along the q axis. Okay therefore, this Eq in the phasor form is
represented as EI minus j times Xd minus Xq id that is we can express this Eq which was defined
earlier as a voltage behind this impedance okay this is also along the q axis and we have seen
actually that it is this voltage phasor which define the location of q axis with respect to the
terminal voltage therefore whenever we start drawing the phasor diagram, the first requirement is
that we have to establish the location of d and q axis with respect to the terminal voltage and that
now we have established the relationship between this Eq and EI okay. Now this can be written in
this final form.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:26)

This term define not deline, define we can define one more term here. Now let us see what this
um can you just interpret this equation, for example I had the equation in this form Eq equal to Et
plus Ra plus j times Xq into It okay therefore we have another term if we divide E prime, E prime
equal to Et plus j times Et plus this impedance into It, this impedance is Ra plus j times Xd prime a
sub transient direct axis reactance.

Okay it means this is the voltage behind this impedance terminal voltage plus voltage drop in this
impedance therefore, these voltages and these voltages can be simplified and expressed in the
form you just make the substitutions right Et can be written as ed plus j times eq It can be written
as id plus j times iq and therefore this E prime can be written as as ed plus Ra id plus j times Xd
prime iq plus eq plus j times Xd prime id plus Ra iq, this this whole thing will come that is
substitute the value of ed eq from the expressions for ed and eq which we have already developed
that is in the previous expressions I think okay.

Now here one thing which we observe is that if you take this voltage term, okay then this has two
components one will be along the d axis another will be along the q axis. The q axis component
of this quantity comes out to be Eq prime the Eq prime which we define as a voltage proportional
to field flux linkages right and the q axis component of E prime comes out to be quantity Eq
prime right and therefore now I have drawn a simple phasor diagram to represent all these
quantities.
(Refer Slide Time: 50:12)

This is not a very unknown phasor diagram to you right but to make the things complete what we
do is that you start with terminal voltage with Et. Okay let us say this is the terminal current now
this and the phase difference between the terminal voltage and terminal current is always known
to you then to this Et we add this voltage drop Ra It plus plus plus j times Xq It Ra It plus j times
Xq It you will get this term Eq and this Eq will define the position of q axis.

Once this q axis is defined you resolve the terminal voltage into two components Et as Eq and ed.
Similarly, the terminal current can be resolved into two components Iq and id right then in this
phasor diagram we can show this term E prime a voltage behind direct axis transient reactance
that is what you do is that you take Et to this you add Ra It plus j times Xd prime It therefore, this
is the location of E prime and and the when you resolve this E prime into 2 components the q
axis component of E prime is Eq prime right therefore, most of the ah relations which we have
derived can be easily remembered with the help of this phasor diagram.

Okay, now any doubt I will suggest that you start with our basic equations and make the
simplifications step by step, okay and establish establish the new equations or equations in the in
terms of new variables. Once they are established in terms of new variables right you can express
these variables as phasors that is EI is a phasor Eq prime is a phasor and Eq is a phasor right and
then also the term which you defined is E prime this as a phasor then the whole everything is
expressed in the form of a simple phasor diagram okay.

Now let me summarize ah what we have studied today. We started with the complete model of
the synchronous machine then we have made the simplifications, we have discussed the
simplifications, simplifications discussed are that the stator circuit transients are ignored another
simplification we have considered is the the omega r is assumed to be constant then third
simplification which we have incorporated is we have neglected the amortisseur circuits.
With this the resulting resulting model of the synchronous machine to describe the electrical
characteristic has one differential equation and that differential equation is ultimately written in
terms of in terms of the the variables which we have defined in terms of Eq prime in terms of EI
and efd, okay and this model is very commonly used although we do make some further
simplification to obtained a classical model right but this is the model which is very commonly
used and any simplification beyond this will not give you the desired results although it will give
you the information right but sometimes you can get approximate information about the stability
and then go for detail information. Okay with this I conclude my todays presentation. Thank
you very much.
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 13
Synchronous Machine Representation (Contd.)

Friends, today we will discuss about the synchronous machine representation. Now, so far we
have developed the synchronous machine model, considering the rotor circuit and stator circuit
resistances and inductances. Now with this stator circuit and resistor circuit, rotor circuit
inductances the complete model of the synchronous machine is developed.

Now however there is 1 practical problem that the the the various inductances which are used
actually in modeling the synchronous machine are in general not available or cannot be measured
directly from the certain standard tests and the parameters that is the the inductances and
resistances of the stator and rotor circuits are which are used in modeling right have been called
fundamental parameters or basic parameters.

Now the standard ah the the practical practice is now to use derived parameters which can be
measured by performing test at the terminals of the synchronous machine. Now these derived
parameters are very important and the machine data are given in terms of the derived parameters.
Okay therefore, today we will try to relate the the derived parameters with the fundamental
parameters of the synchronous machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:16)

Now to understand this concept of derived parameters, let us first look at the direct axis network
of the synchronous generator. Let us say that this black box represents the direct axis network
and we have 2 pairs of terminals shown here. This this pair of terminals represents the stator side
of the synchronous generator, this pair of terminals represent the rotor side of the synchronous
generator that is at these terminals we we we inject the field voltage. Okay and at these terminals
the the stator circuit current is coming out okay.

Now we are we will be representing this machine by 2, 2 networks 1 direct axis another
quadrature axis right. Now in the direct axis network the the direct axis current is the output from
this network and we are looking for what is the flux linkage in the direct axis due to this
particular excitation at the field winding and the load which is supplied by the synchronous
generator terminals.

Now here the convention is that we have used the synchronous generator convention where the
terminal the the currents are leaving the stator terminals that is the generator convention. Now
with the generator convention the direct axis current is leaving the terminal of the d axis network
okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:20)

This network, this diagram represents the q axis network in this q axis network we represents the
current leaving the network as iq and the at the terminals we look for the quadrature axis flux
linkage psi q. Now here in this 2 diagrams which I have shown here instead of showing the
current id flux linkage psi id and applied voltage efd, we are we will be representing this in terms
of small perturbation. So that input quantity shown are delta efd and the output quantity shown
here are delta id and delta psi d, similar is the situation in the q axis network.
(Refer Slide Time: 06:34)

Now here we will be representing the mathematical model relating the flux linkage delta psi d,
now when we develop this model we will be developing first the model in terms of what we call
as a operational parameters, operational parameters that is we will represent delta psi d as equal
to minus Lds into ids plus a transfer function we will call as Gs delta efds.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:10)

This is a very standard way to start with that is we are trying to relate the the current flux linkage
and the voltage applied to the terminals of the synchronous at the field winding of the
synchronous generator in terms of what we call as the operational parameters that is this Lds is
the operational direct axis inductance, operational we understand what is the meaning of
operational here right but this parameter s which I have shown here the s is the familiar Laplace
transform operator. Now if we recollect actually, your circuit theory then in circuit theory. We
represent the operational impedance of a RL circuit as R plus sL is it not, this is the operational
impedence we can call it Zs that the same approach is used here.

Now the our our problem basically will be to obtain the expression for Lds and Gs in terms of
fundamental fundamental parameters or we call it the basic parameters of the synchronous
generator.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:06)

Now these this equation I have written here because when I consider the small perturbations the
same equation is written here okay, the minus Lds into delta ids plus Gs into delta efds okay equals
psi ds. Now similarly we can write an expression for quadrature axis network the delta psi qs
equal to minus Lqs delta iqs because in the case of quadrature circuit there is no applied voltage
and there is no field circuit on the q axis okay, on the q axis we have always the damper circuits.

Now in this expression this transfer function Gs is the stator to field transfer function, stator to
field transfer function you can easily see here that Gs suppose delta id is 0 that is this machine is
under no load condition, okay then you can easily see that delta psi ds will be equal to Gs times
delta efds therefore, this transfer function relates the stator to field transfer function Lds is the
direct axis operational inductance. Okay Lqs quadrature axis operational inductance okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:54)

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:05)

Now our interest here is now to develop develop a relationship between the operational
inductances and this transfer function Gs with the fundamental circuit parameters or fundamental
parameters of the synchronous generator. Now for doing this, we again start with our basic
equations of the synchronous generator okay. Now in this case of synchronous generator, we had
developed the flux linkage equations these flux linkage equations now are written in the
operational form that is psi ds can be written as minus Ld ids the current is now operational
Now here while writing the equations I am considering 1 damper on the direct axis right
therefore, we were denoting the damper winding by the symbol kd, k used to stand for the
number associated with the damper winding therefore, since k is 1 in this case it becomes L1d
further we are assuming that the all mutual inductances are same, so that the this Lad appears in
both the terms okay.

similarly we write down the flux linkage for equation psi fds as minus Lad ids plus Lad i1ds plus lffd
ifds right and the flux linkage of the damper winding in the per operational form is written here.
Now these 3 equations are were derived earlier and what we have simply d1 is that we have now
put in the operational form okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:55)

Similarly, the efds efds when it is written that is the field winding voltage right, we are writing
now expression for efds in operational form again. Now when you write this expression for the
operational form efds the we will write the equation right then it comes out to be s times psi fds
minus psi fd0 plus Rfd ifds that is you take again the standard equation for the field circuit right
because in the case of field circuit, we have the term d by dt of psi fd efd has a term d by dt of psi
fd and therefore when you take the derivative and then when you take the Laplace transfer of the
derivative, you will have the initial condition that will appear here because in the previous
equation these were the algebraic equations.

Now equation for efd it has a derivative term and therefore this appears similarly, actually we
write down an equation for an equation for the damper winding there is no applied voltage right
but still we have d by dt of psi 1d therefore, again you will find that initial term come therefore
now what we do is that in order to avoid the initial values we express these equations in terms of
incremental values, okay so that under steady state conditions the incremental values are 0.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:58)

Okay therefore, when you use this incremental values the equation will have straight away the
form delta efds equal to s times delta psi fds plus Rfd ifds this is very important equation is very
straight forward actually if you look in terms of our basic equation right then we have applied
voltage is equal to Ri plus Ldi by dt. Okay therefore you can write that Ri plus d psi by dt and this
is what what we have already derived.

Now in this expression you substitute the expression for delta psi fds okay delta psi fds, we have
already written earlier that is use this expression for this delta psi fd and here these are all
constants you can convert this delta id delta i1d delta ifd. Okay and you substitute the expression
for delta psi fds here in this expression and then simplify when you simplify this this delta efd will
appear as minus s times delta Lad delta ids plus Rfd plus s times Lffd delta ifds plus s times Lad delta
i1ds that is we have written now incremental field voltage right in terms of the 3 currents. Okay
similarly you write down this expression for damper winding also because in case of damper
winding the applied voltage is 0 right therefore, you have this is minus sLad delta ids plus sLad
delta ifds plus R1 plus sL11d delta i1ds.

Now at this stage, at this stage again me let me reiterate actually that we want to relate the stator
circuit quantities to the rotor circuit quantities right in terms of the stator variables and rotor
applied field voltage that is that is the expression which I have if you look at this expression delta
psi ds is equal to Gs delta efds minus Lds delta ids in this expression or in the second expression the
rotor currents do not appear rotor circuit currents that is i1d or ifd these 2 currents do not appear
therefore, what we do is that we eliminate this currents that is from this using these equations
what we do is that you eliminate this currents.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:50)

## (Refer Slide Time: 18:01)

(Refer Slide Time: 18:34)

Now to eliminate this what you do is that that you use this equations and write the expression for
delta ifds and delta i1ds in terms of delta efd and delta id that is these 2 equations associated with the
other equations which are ah derived earlier right what we do is that we we write the expression
for delta ifds and delta i1ds in terms of this quantity and this known quantities that is we are trying
to eliminate the field current and the damper circuit current.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:57)

Now this this step is little what involved step but you can obtain it. Once you obtain this
expression next step will be to to substitute this in the expression for delta psi ds because if you
look actually the expression for delta psi ds, delta psi d this is that equation for delta psi d or psi
d equation equation for psi d is here. In this equation we have id, ifd and i1d, okay what we have
now d1 is that ifds the this will be expressed in incremental form then once you express in
incremental form in this expression you replace this delta ifds and delta i1ds using those
expressions.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:32)

Once you express you will find that you can write the expression for delta psi ds as Gs delta efds
minus Ld ids do you appreciate this these steps. Now once you do this thing what will happen is
that this expression for Gs which you get will be written as that is 2 expressions Lds and Gs, the
Lds will be written as Ld multiplied by an expression of this form 1 plus T4 plus T5 into S plus T4,
T6 S square divided by 1 plus T1 plus T2 S plus T1, T3 S square that is when you do this
simplification and express delta psi ds in terms of delta efds and delta ids right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:04)

Then the coefficient of delta efd term will come out to be, coefficient of delta efd term will come
out to be in this form, that is Go equal to ah Gs equal to Go into 1 plus divided by 1 plus T1 plus
T2 S, T1 3S square while the expression for Ld will come out to be equal to this the the yes, then
these constants which are shown in the this equation are related to the fundamental parameters of
the synchronous generator by this expression that is Go equal to Lad by Rfd, Tkd is Lfd by R1d, T1
equal to Lffd by Rfd, T2 equal to L11d by R1d, T3 1 upon R1d multiplied by L1d plus Lad Lfd divided
by Lad plus Lfd T4 1 upon Rfd Lfd plus Lad into Ll divided by Lad plus Ll and T5 as 1 upon R1d
multiplied by L1d plus Lad L1, Ll divided by Lad plus Ll and similarly, T6.

You can easily see that when you perform this simplification right right, the you will be in a
position to express the Lds that express this Gs as a ratio of 2 polynomials right. The denominator
here is of the second order and numerator is 1 order less than the denominator similarly, Lds is
expressed as ratio of 2 polynomials where the order is same further the denominator of Lds and
Gs are same that is this denominator for Lds is same as that of the okay, this is these derivations
can be carried out.
(Refer Slide Time: 22:45)

## (Refer Slide Time: 23:11)

Now at this stage what is d1 is we write the expression for Lds that is the operational direct axis
inductance as Ld multiplied by by numerator that is by this expression which is the numerator as
1 plus s time Td prime into 1 plus s time T double prime 1 plus s times Tdo prime plus into 1 plus
s time Tdo double prime that is what we do is now this this operational inductance will express in
terms of time constants and these time constants as we will see are are the the standard
parameters of the synchronous generator because these are the parameters that is going to
determine the the the transient performance of the system okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 24:07)

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:07)

Similarly since Gs has the same denominator right therefore, we when you put in this formula
where Gs can be written as 1 plus s time Tdo prime and T double prime okay now our interest is
that we know we know the expression for this time constant T1 to T6 in terms of basic circuit
parameters is it not these are all known. We want to relate this these standard parameters that is
this time constant Tdo prime Tdo double prime Td prime Td double prime to our basic parameters
or fundamental parameters. Now to correlate this before I correlate I will just write 1 more
expression that if we follow the same approach as we have d1 for d axis we can write the
expression for Lqs as that is operational quadrature axis inductance as Lq multiplied by 1 plus s
times Tq prime into 1 plus s times Tq double prime divided by 1 plus s times Tqo prime 1 plus Tqo
double prime. Now again these constants Tq prime Tq double prime Tqo prime Tqo double prime
these 4 time constants right are again the standard parameters of the synchronous generator right.

## Now to to obtain an expression for these parameters in terms of T1 to T6 what we have to do is

that we compare this denominator and numerator terms after all actually we had written earlier,
let us say Lds Lds is written in this form see this Lds is written as Ld multiplied by this expression.
Okay and Lds we are now writing in the form of in this form in terms of this time constants, okay
while these are our standard parameters and as we will see that they can be measured from the
certain tests which can be conducted at the tests on the synchronous generator right. Now at this
stage we make to we see here actually this expression look at this expression.

## (Refer Slide Time: 27:48)

First I will just look at the denominator 1 plus T1 plus T2 s plus T1 T3 s square. Now in case
suppose you have instead of T2 here as T3 then this can be broken into fractions, you know
suppose actually you have the expression of this form 1 plus T1 plus T3 into s plus T1 T3 s square
the the partial, you can find out the factors of this expression the factors will be 1 plus T1 s into 1
plus T3 s. Okay now if if it is in this form then directly you can identify that T 1 is equal to Tdo
prime and T3 equal to Tdo double prime but incidentally the expression is here 1 plus T1 plus T2 s
plus T1 T3 s square.
(Refer Slide Time: 28:15)

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:23)

Now here we make use of 1 simplification or approximation we can say, the approximation is
that in practice in practice R1d is very very large as compared to Rfd, R1d which is the resistance
of the damper winding on the d axis or amortisseur on the d axis is very very large as compared
to the field winding resistance. When you make this assumption T3 and T2, T2 and T3 come out to
be very small as compared to T1 and T5 and T 6 will come out to be very small as compared to T4
right therefore in the expression for the the expression which we have is in the denominator we
have 1 plus T1 plus T2 therefore this T2 is negligible as compared to T1 okay.
Now T3 is also very small as compared to T1 therefore first step suppose I neglect T2 I will not
create much error second actually step is that suppose I add T3 to this term then also I am not
going to create big error therefore what we do is that this denominator this is actually 1 plus T1
plus T2 into s plus T1T3 s square right will be replaced by this term 1 plus T1 plus T3 s plus T1 T3
s square, the justification I have just now told you that T2 was is very small as compared to T1
similarly, T3 is also very small as compared to T1 right therefore what we do is that we neglect T2
but we add T3. We do not create much error but we simplify our results and expression.

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:40)

With this you can see here 1 plus s times Tdo prime becomes 1 plus s times Tdo double prime
which is of course is standard. Now when you make this assumptions I just told you the
approximations not assumption the approximations then you can write down this this. You can
equate the 2 denominators and you get this type of expressions, in the case of numerator the
approximation is that T5 and T6 are very small as compared to T4 right therefore, we are now
getting a simple expression of this form. Remember that, remember that when I am making this
assumption that T3 is very small as compared to T1 right in the product term T1 T3 s square I am
not making any approximation T1T3 remain there.

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:28)

Now when you do this you will find actually that Tdo prime can be identified as T1 Tdo double
prime can be identified as T3, Td prime can be identified as T 4 and Td double prime can be
identified as T6 while the while we know that T1 is equal to Lffd divided by Rfd. Similarly, Tdo
double prime is equal to 1 upon R1d multiplied by this expression and expression for Td, T4 and
T6 were also derived therefore they are all time constants.

You can easily see that the this this term T1 is equal to ratio of inductance to resistance that
means it has the characteristic of a time constant. Okay, here also in this bracket you have
inductance term divided by resistance therefore, this also is a time constant right and now we are
relating actually these 2 time constants that is the we call actually the standard time constants
right are related to the the basic parameters of the synchronous generator we will see actually
that this time constant can be measured by performing tests okay

Now at this stage let me just sum up what we have d1 till now is that we have started with with
the ah operational model for d axis and q axis winding for the synchronous generator okay and
then using the the standard equations. Okay for the synchronous generator stator winding and
field winding right we have established the transfer functions for Gs and Ld and similarly, for Lq
then assuming that assuming that this can be expressed in terms of some time constants or the the
standard parameters. We have established actually that this time constant can be related to the
basic parameters okay.

Now till now actually in my all discussion I have not talked about what is the transient
reactance? what is the transient inductance? what is the sub transient reactance, sub transient
inductance but we all know actually that whenever there are sudden changes in the synchronous
machine operation, let us say a fault okay then the currents are induced in the rotor circuits and
this currents will decay at certain rate and the rate of decay of these currents are determined by
the time constants. A certain time constant which determine the rate of decay of the currents I
will just take the case that whenever there is a short circuit currents will be induced in the
damper windings they will induced in the field winding right similarly, in the damper winding of
the q axis and so on and they decay with certain time constants okay.

Now first we will try to establish that what will be the inductances offered offered by the
synchronous machine when sudden changes take place or the transient take place. Now to
understand this what we do is we start with, let us look at this expression for Lds this is the
expression for Lds okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:15)

Now suppose I want to know the behaviour of the machine under sustained disturbance condition
that is the when the machine is carrying the steady state currents at that time I can substitute s
equal to 0, s equal to 0. When I substitute s equal to 0 then this Lds will become equal to Ld that
is this operational inductance for s equal to 0 will become Ld that is Ld is your synchronous direct
axis synchronous inductance because at that time the currents are under steady state conditions in
sustained conditions.
(Refer Slide Time: 37:12)

Therefore, now I can say that under steady state condition s is 0 and therefore, Ldo that is the
operational impedance for s equal to 0 is same as the synchronous inductance or d axis
synchronous inductance. Now you consider another case let us say s is approaching infinity, a
very high frequency transient when s approaches infinity it means actually the transient is of
short duration right then the frequency associated will be very large.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:48)

If you make this situation that is the rapid transient condition then this Ld double prime, we will
represent this operational impedance for s equal to infinity as Ld double prime right and this will
come out to be equal to Ld multiplied by this this expression. Now what we are trying to say is
that the inductance offered by the direct axis under rapid transients is denoted as sub transient
inductance and this sub transient inductance is related to the synchronous inductance by this
expression these time constants further further if you assume assume actually that the there is no
damper winding in the circuit, let us say that there is no damper winding in the circuit direct axis
only there is a field winding right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:55)

Now at that time, at that time when there is a rapid transient right the inductance is denoted as Ld
prime and again s is approaching infinity right, this will come out to be equal to Ld into Td prime
upon Tdo, Tdo prime therefore now I can say here that we have we have identified the 3 different
type of reactances offered by the synchronous machine that is synchronous inductance, sub
transient inductance Ld double prime and transient inductance Ld starting from the operational
inductance point and the expressions for this if you just look into the complete expression
because when you substitute here the expression for Td prime, Tdo prime, okay in terms of the
fundamental parameters you will get the full expression for Ld double prime okay and this these
are expressed in terms of the basic parameters the expressions are quite lengthy you can write it
down.
(Refer Slide Time: 39:50)

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:16)

Similar exercise can be performed for q axis that is you can perform the same exercise for q axis
and you will find actually that the time constants are Tqo prime equal to this and Tqo double prime
equal to this again expressed in terms of fundamental circuit parameters right and this transient
and sub transient inductances of the quadrature axis winding damper, winding and their
parameters are also given. Now we have to just look slightly in more detail about these time
constants.
(Refer Slide Time: 40:48)

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:58)

(Refer Slide Time: 41:36)

Now here if suppose I perform a test on the synchronous generator with with stator terminals
open that is under no load condition. When we perform a test right, where we we we consider the
synchronous terminals open then this term will absent, this terminal will be absent under this
case actually we have relation with the field direct axis field flux linkages, direct axis linkages
with respect to delta efds therefore this transfer function Gs affects the affects the change in d axis
flux linkages as the change in the applied voltage of the in the field circuit. Okay and this change
is determined by the 2 time constants, 1 time constant is Tdo prime another is Tdo double prime.

Now since this test is performed under open circuit condition, okay therefore this time constant
Tdo prime is called direct axis open circuit time constant or we always call the open circuit direct
axis time constant Tdo prime. Okay and the Tdo double prime is called called the open circuit sub
transient direct axis time constant here actually the Tdo prime is called basically full full name is
it is open circuit direct axis transient time constant, the transient word is also there Tdo prime.
Okay and this time constant is very important actually when you model our system in fact 1 can
perform 1 test very simple test actually on the synchronous generator and that is normally called
the steady state frequency response no not steady state h what you can call another term is stand
still frequency response test the stand stand still frequency response test what is d1 is that you
keep the machine stationary not rotating, okay you apply field voltage and vary the frequency of
the applied voltage.

Okay and measure the output voltage of the machine and plot plot actually the phase plot the
gain versus that is the applied voltage at the field winding and the output voltage at the terminal
of the synchronous generator for for a range of frequency right once you make this plot and then
this plot can be that is this can be this curve can be fitted with the characteristic of this Gs. You
can do the curve fitting right and by doing the curve fitting you can identify the time constant Tdo
prime and Tdo double prime and Tkd also right.
Now over the years in the literature actually there is lot of lot of emphasis has been laid down on
measuring the synchronous machine standard parameters therefore, when I talk about standard
parameters the standard parameters are the the synchronous inductance sub transient inductance
transient inductance then these time constants right.

Now these are parameters called as the standard parameters and these parameters can be
measured by by performing tests at the synchronous machine terminals and lot of work has been
going on actually to measure accurately these standard parameters of the synchronous generator
particularly those who are actually working in the field actually right. Sometimes you will come
across where you have to measure these parameters by performing the standard tests and a lot of
literature is available on performing this test even IEEE has given some standards, standard test
to be conducted for measuring these standard parameters.

Now in the case of salient pole machine, salient pole machine there is 1 small additional point to
be learnt and it is something like this in the case of salient pole machine we provide the damper
winding in the phase of the pole there is a the pole is a laminated pole, you know while actually
if you talk the round rotor machine the rotor is as solid it is not laminated 1 right and therefore
you can always identify or you can represent actually quadrature axis by 2 windings, 2 damper
windings right while in the case of salient pole machine there is 1 damper winding provided
there is only 1 damper winding.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:19)

Now once there is only 1 damper winding, you cannot have any distinction between the transient
and sub transient inductances Ld prime and Lq prime and Lq double prime this distinction is not
possible, they are same okay and therefore this for salient pole machine the sub transient and
transient they are same that is the transient there is no mention of transient we always call of sub
transient okay because there is they are considering the damper winding 1 damper winding only
these are the expressions for salient pole machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:35)

Further you will see actually in the literature actually after this discussion will show you that
these are the relationship between the different types of reactance because when we talk in per
unit system the inductance is same as the reactance okay these are the standard relations which
are given.

Now, I will just quickly tell you 1 more point actually before I close my discussion here that
when we started the study of transient stability I talked about the classical model and in the
classical model I said that the synchronous generator can be represented by a constant voltage
behind transient reactance and this representation is valid, when we assume the field flux linkage
psi fd constant that is if you assume this psi fd constant right then the then the voltage behind
transient reactance or direct axis transient reactance becomes constant.

Okay now this we will quickly derive actually and show you that yes how it happens now the
steps involved are like this, you write down the per unit flux linkage in the d axis psi ad, you can
just write down psi ad is equal to minus Lad id plus Lad ifd. Here, we are assuming the mutual
inductance is same, okay psi d is equal to psi ad minus L1 id. Okay this is the difference between
psi ad and psi d psi fd is psi ad plus Lfd ifd these equations are standard. We all know it about now
using this last expression what we do is that is we find out the expression for ifd.
(Refer Slide Time: 48:45)

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:27)

We find the expression for ifd, the ifd comes out to be equal to psi fd minus psi ad upon Lfd. You
eliminate we eliminate the term ifd from the first equation that is psi ad which is equal to minus
Lad id plus Lad ifd, you substitute the expression for ifd then psi ad will be written in the form
minus Lad id plus Lad upon ifd psi fd minus psi ad. Okay when you rearrange the whole thing you
rearrange the term that is psi ad you take it out on this side and express psi ad in terms of other
parameters it will come out to be equal to psi ad is equal to Lad prime into this term where Lad
prime is defined like this okay. Similarly, for psi aq 1 can write down the psi aq as equal to Lq
prime minus L1. Now here we will make 1 more small assumption here that the transient
saliency, saliency we will neglect we assume that Xd prime is same as Xq prime right.
(Refer Slide Time: 50:19)

## (Refer Slide Time: 50:36)

(Refer Slide Time: 50:59)

With this assumption, now we can write down our d axis voltage ed equal to Ra id minus omega
psi q which is written in terms of psi aq id and iq this is ed that is in this expression for ed ed, you
replace this psi aq now once you replace the psi aq ed can be written in terms of id iq and ed prime
that is this expression for ed is written as minus Ra id plus Xd prime into iq plus Ed prime this Ed
prime is a important term here which is expressed here as Ed prime equal to minus omega Laq
prime into this. If we assume this psi 1q constant that is the flux linkage in the q circuit also
constant right then this term is a constant term.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:37)

(Refer Slide Time: 51:46)

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:05)

Similarly when you you can write down for eq where you it will be written in this form minus Ra
id iq minus Xd prime into id plus Eq prime, where this Eq prime is written here as omega Lad prime
into psi fd upon Lfd. Okay therefore this Eq prime is written in terms of psi fd and Ed prime is
written in terms of psi ad therefore, this Eq prime and Ed prime if you assume these 2 fluxes to be
constant they will remain constant right.
(Refer Slide Time: 52:51)

Once these 2 voltages are constant I have established here I have establish here that this voltage
E prime that is the the voltage E prime that is the voltage behind transient reactance can be
written as Ed prime plus j times Eq prime and when these 2 voltages are constant this E prime is
also constant.

## (Refer Slide Time: 53:21)

Now here I you you have to look like this that if suppose consider that this is my q axis, okay this
will become d axis let us say this is our E prime. This quantity is going to be Eq prime this is
going to be your Ed prime. Now if Eq prime is constant Ed prime is constant E prime is constant
if suppose these are our q axis let us say that the reference axis is shown somewhere here this is
R and I these are our reference axiss and we measure the angle with respect to the reference axis
that is E prime this angle is measured as delta.

Now you can easily see here actually is that so far this E prime is concerned right the magnitude
of E prime is constant and its position with respect to q axis is fixed right and therefore for
studying the stability I can measure the angle of E prime with respect to some arbitrary reference
it may be synchronous rotating reference prime or so on therefore here you will find actually that
the component of E prime call it say ER and EI this is our actually I and R they will be varying as
the delta varies therefore there are 2 important points to sum up here 1 is that this E prime
remains constant when we make these assumption second point is that position of this E prime
with respect to q axis is fixed and therefore, I can measure the angle with respect to angle
between E prime and any reference frame for performing my stability studies right. Let me sum
up here that today, we have developed the relations between the standard synchronous machine
parameters with respect to the basic parameters and also we have established that that the
classical model in a classical model the the if you assume this flux linkage is constant then the
voltage behind transient reactance is constant right. Thank you!
Power System Dynamic
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 14
Excitation Systems

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:18)

In this topic we will cover what are the excitation system requirements then what are the basic
elements of excitation systems then the dynamic by performance measures dynamic performance
measures are categorized into 2 categories large scale performance measures and small signal
performance measures. Then we will discuss about the various control and protective functions
which are provided in excitation systems the some of the control and protective functions which
we will discuss are AC and DC regulators, load compensation, under excitation limiter, over
excitation limiter and field shorting. Now we will briefly address to all these points.

So far the excitation system is concerned it plays a very significant role in the stability analysis
of a power system and it is also very powerful control which can be used to improve the stability
of the system. Here I would like to tell that ah over the years, over the years the different types of
excitation systems for the synchronous generator have been developed. You know that we have
in today our power plants, the DC excitation systems, AC excitation systems and static excitation
systems and in AC you have brushless excitation systems and the static or stationary rectifier
excitation system right. A variety of excitation system have been developed and these
development has been have been possible with the development of the power electronic devices.
Okay we will read into go into these details as we proceed across or proceed with, now first let
us see the basic function of excitation system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:42)

These are all it is known to all of you that the basic function of an excitation system is to provide
direct current is to provide direct current to the synchronous machine field winding. This is a
very simplest thing that in any synchronous machine right, we have to provide DC current or
direct current right it operates. This is the main purpose of excitation system then the excitation
system also performs various control and protective functions. We will see control and protective
functions, these functions are essential for the satisfactory performance of the power system that
is the modern excitation systems are provided with a variety of controls right and variety of
protection functions, the very propose of providing these control and protection functions are, so
that this excitation system can give you the satisfactory performance for the operation of the
power system as a whole. The as I told you that there are two functions control functions and
protection functions okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:13)

Now what are these control functions let us see, control functions are basically you can put at
control of voltage and reactive power flow. In excitation system right we provide various
controls so that we can maintain the terminal voltage constant under varying load conditions. I
hope all of you aware of the capability chart of a synchronous generator where a synchronous
generator operates operates in the given region in the pq plane, okay and this ah capability
charge is decided from the consideration of over heating of the armature, over heating of the
rotor circuits or field system.

Similarly, the small signal stability or stability considerations right therefore, any synchronous
generator is required to operate within the capability chart. In addition to this the synchronous
generator has ah certain short time capability also. So that under for a short time you can operate
the synchronous generator to enhance the system stability right and we take advantage of short
time capability of the synchronous generator, the short time capability is generally of the order of
30 to 60 seconds right and therefore, when I talk about the excitation system it has large number
of controls right and these controls are provided primarily to the achieve these two goals, one is
the control of voltage and reactive power flow, okay second is enhancement of system stability
okay that is the excitation system can be appropriately controlled so that you can operate the
system with larger transient stability limits. Okay that is called the enhancement of the stability
of the system.

Then the protective functions, why do you require the protective functions? okay the protective
functions ensure that capability limits of synchronous machine excitation system and other
equipment are not exceeded that is you operate the system within the capability limit of the
excitation, limit of the synchronous generator, limits of the excitation system right and any other
associated equipment as I have just now mentioned that a synchronous generator has to operate
within the capability limits and that limits are obtained in the form of a capability chart okay and
this synchronous generator has a short time extra extra capability it can supply extra reactive
power, extra real power but for a short time okay and therefore, our controls are so provided so
that we can use the or we can take the advantage of this short time capability for improving the
transient stability, long term stability, dynamic stability of the system.

Okay but we provide in addition to this control functions protective functions. So that in case any
of the capability limit is violated right the protection functions will operate right and and keep
this or operate in such a fashion. So that you operate within the capability limit we should not go
outside the capability limit because any attempt of the system to go outside the capability limit
means system is likely to be or generator is life is going to be affected. Okay therefore, these are
2 important functions which you have to look into all the time control functions and protective
functions.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:17)

Now we we can look into the excitation system requirements from 2 considerations, one is the
generator considerations from the consideration of synchronous generator and another is from
the consideration of power system where synchronous generator is part of the large power
system right and therefore, we will look into the excitation system requirements from the 2
considerations, one is generator considerations another power system considerations.

When you look into the generator considerations the main function of the excitation system is to
maintain terminal voltage as output varies it has to automatically adjust the excitation current as
the output varies and keeps the terminal voltage constant. This is one of the important
requirements from the generator point of view second is that the excitation system must be able
to respond to transient disturbances with field forcing.

Now this terminology is very important that is our excitation system should be such that such
that whenever there is some transient disturbance okay and that particular following that
disturbance if you want to reserve to field forcing field forcing means we apply a large voltage to
the field winding of the synchronous generator so that more current can flow through field
winding that is excitation current can be increased temporarily or for a short duration.

Now this field forcing capability is one of the important requirement of excitation system as you
will see that that to have good field forcing capacity the ceiling voltage of the excitation system
right the ceiling voltage when you design the excitation system it will have a high ceiling
voltage.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:25)

Now when you look from the power system power system considerations then the excitation
systems which are provided on synchronous generator should be should have effective control of
voltage and enhancement of system stability that is we should be in a position to control the
system voltage by controlling the excitation system okay and we shall also be in a position to
enhance the system stability. Okay, second is to achieve these goals its response should be high,
rapid response, rapid response, so that you can improve the transient stability. Okay that we will
talk subsequent in our subsequent discussion that how the rapid response or high response of the
excitation system improves the stability of the system.

Okay but first we will understand what we mean by rapid response how we quantify the dynamic
performance of the system okay. Then we should have a provision to modulate the field current
to enhance small signal stability that is when the system is oscillating you know whenever there
are some perturbations taking place right the oscillations are created in the system the system is
changes are taking place continuously okay and whenever the load changes take place the
generation changes the load change load changes and therefore in this process of generation
changing the load right the system is in the dynamic condition okay and there are always small
oscillations in the system when I say small oscillations magnitude of oscillations is small and the
frequency is the low frequency oscillations right and to there is a necessity to improve the
damping of these oscillations by providing power system stabilizers right.

Therefore the power system stabilizers are provided in the excitation system to enhance the small
signal stability therefore, the from power system consideration I can say it should have the
capability to enhance transient stability for improving or for achieving this goal its response
should be high right and then we should have the facility or capability to modulate the excitation
system. So that we can improve the damping of the low frequency oscillations, okay now these
are the requirements from the power system considerations. Now let us see what are the main
elements of an excitation system?

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:31)

The elements of an excitation system can be listed as exciter, regulator, terminal voltage
transducer and load compensator, power system stabilizer, limiters and protective circuits that is
if broadly if I look into the complete excitation system then the various building blocks of the
excitation system can be put as the exciter there is a regulator there is a terminal voltage
transducer and load compensator, a power system stabilizer and limiters and protective circuits
okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:29)

Now this is the block diagram which shows how these elements are interconnected or form the
complete excitation system. Now this is the main block where you can say this is our generator, a
synchronous generator this synchronous generator is connected to the power system, okay the
field winding of the synchronous generator gets its current from exciter that is the exciter
supplies the field current this is your exciter then the field the the output of the exciter is
controlled by providing a regulator this is the regulator.

You can see here that regulator has number of inputs here. I will explain but one of the biggest or
very important important building block of the excitation system is a regulator because here we
are not talking about the exciters only we are talking about excitation system okay. As I have
told you that the primary function of the excitation system is to is to provide DC current to the
field winding of synchronous generator, okay and we provide various controls and protection
system so that we achieve the requirements of the system from generator considerations and
from power system considerations.

Now first, let us look at actually at we maintain the terminal voltage How do we do it? we sense
the terminal voltage from the synchronous generator terminals. Okay now this is the block which
compensator but you can understand that when I want to regulate the terminal voltage of
synchronous generator right we sense the terminal voltage okay.
Now since the synchronous generators terminal voltage is AC terminal AC voltage it may be 11
kv may be 16 kv depending upon the design of the machine therefore, at this point the voltage is
stepped down okay and then it is rectified and we get a DC signal which represents the terminal
voltage of the synchronous generator. Okay that is why what I used is the terminal voltage
transducer that is you step down the voltage you rectify and bring down to a level which can be
used for the purpose of control okay and this signal which is the which represents the terminal
voltage or a function of terminal voltage and load current because we will be showing about the
load compensator also this is fed to the regulator, this is one of the input signals that goes to the
regulator. Okay the second block which I have shown here is the limiters and protective circuits
okay.

Now the limiters will also sense the terminal voltage load current okay and looking and it is
going to process these signals current and voltage which are sensed from the terminal of the
machine okay and then we will decide whether the synchronous generator the operating
condition is within the limits or not in case it is going outside the limit it will take appropriate
action, again the action is taken through regulator. Therefore, this this signal which is coming
from the limiters and protective devices also is fed to the regulator.

Then you have one feedback loop around the exciter this this loop is generally we call this the
excitation system stabilizer that is here you sense the output of the exciter okay and in case you
do not have this feedback loop then the exciter itself may become unstable because once you
have a close loop control system right the stability is a very important requirement and therefore,
you will find that there is one feedback loop right that loop is called excitation system
stabilization okay and that again operates through regulator and the last feedback loop is through
power system stabilizer. You can see this power system stabilizer again this power system
stabilizer takes its input signal from the generator terminal, the input signal to the power system
stabilizer is generally the speed deviation.

When a synchronous generator speed deviates from synchronous speed this division is sensed
another signals which have been tried are the deviation in the power output instead of sensing the
speed deviation you can sense the deviation in the power output, the delta pe right or deviation in
frequency also has been looked into it or a combination of these quantity, these signals okay.

Now this power system stabilizer is basically an auxiliary controller it will operate only during
the dynamic conditions not during the steady state conditions okay and this also operates through
the regulator and any regulator basically basic function of the regulator is to is to perform all the
required functions and maintain terminal voltage constant and therefore, we have a reference
therefore input signals which come to the regulator okay they come through the terminal voltage
transducer and load compensator, a voltage signal which is function of terminal voltage and also
have told you that we , we have to see that synchronous generator always operates within the
operating limits whether actually you want to use the short term capability then still the limits are
decided.
Okay we have to operate within the short term and long term operating limits of the synchronous
generator. Then this power system stabilizer is to damp the low frequency oscillations which are
normally provided or which happens because or which exists low frequency oscillators exist
because of because of the perturbations which are taking place continuously in the system and
this oscillations need to be damped they should not increase they should not grow, otherwise
system will become unstable. Okay now these are the basic building block of a complete
excitation system okay is it okay or any doubt.

See see these these functions are provided in a complex manner, complex manner but limiters
have they just they just monitor magnitude of the voltage okay terminal voltage magnitude of the
current which is flowing through a synchronous generator, magnitude of the power which is
output, real power, reactive power not only one quantity they will monitor so many parameters
because when I talk about the capability limit of the synchronous generator then we look into the
pq, pq plane okay for a given value of p there is certain value of q possible.

Okay therefore pq plane we have to we have to maintain this is there therefore this is not only
sensing the terminal voltage but this limiter will sense all other parameters also and not this
block diagram is just to give you basic features of the excitation system but it senses not only the
the generator parameters but excitation parameters also exciters will also not go beyond its
operating limits right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:47)

Therefore this is a it limiters means you just look at the movement limits are crossed it will take
action the action may be that it may even trip the synchronous generator from the system
suppose it feels that now the synchronous generator is going outside the capability limit then
these limiters can even trip the synchronous generator. Okay they are very very I say actually
that ah a very complex control protective functions are provided and our main consideration is
that we take the best out of the synchronous generator right from the system point of view and at
the same time its its safety is safe guard is ensured okay, is it okay. Now we will look into some
basic performance measures.

Here as I have stated that the excitation system control should be such that we are in a position to
improve the stability of the system. Okay and to improve the stability of the system, we have to
look into what are the desired characteristics okay and and therefore we look into the dynamic
performance measures, when the system is under dynamic condition what are the performance
measures okay.

Now this performance measures are further classified into 2 categories, the large signal
performance measures and small signal performance measure that is when the system is
subjected to large disturbances okay we have to achieve certain performance measures related to
large disturbances then whenever the system is subjected to small perturbations, okay then we
have to basically look into the the stability of the system okay.

Now large signal performance measures in the sense that suppose a 3 phase fault occurs in the
system or a important transmission line trips right then the system is subjected to large
perturbations and at that time how the system should behave and how are our excitation system
and excitation control should behave right therefore, we want to quantify that what should be the
dynamic performance measures of such a system. Now related to the dynamic performance
measures there are some basic definitions, we have to clearly understand.

## (Refer Slide Time: 27:42)

The excitation system ceiling voltage is the maximum direct voltage that the excitation system is
able to supply from its terminals under specified conditions. It is the indicative of the field
forcing capability of the excitation system; higher ceiling voltages tend to improve transient
stability. This is a very important factor that the excitation systems which have higher ceiling
voltages right will have a higher field forcing capability and resulting transient stability limit will
be high, the next term in the excitation system ceiling current.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:15)

The maximum direct current the maximum direct current that the excitation system is able to
supply from its terminals for specified time right therefore, time is a constant here for a short
time it can supply current more than the rated value for prolonged disturbances this value
depends on thermal duty of the excitation system. In typical excitation systems the ceiling
current is of the order of 1.6 times the rated current. The next important term is the excitation
system voltage time response.

The excitation system output voltage expressed as a function of time under specified conditions
that is if I create certain control conditions so that the excitation system system causes increase in
the terminal voltage and this increase is when it is plotted as a function of time right then that
graph represents the voltage time response of the excitation system right. Suppose I give given
example actually that suppose you make a step change in the reference voltage right, the terminal
voltage of the synchronous generator is going to increase and if you plot voltage as the function
of time right then that curve is the voltage response curve. Now to quantify the voltage response,
we define a voltage response time.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:30)

The time in seconds for excitation system voltage to attain 95 percent of the difference between
the ceiling voltage and the rated load field voltage under specified conditions just to illustrate this
suppose we this is the rated voltages let us say it is 1.0 if I create terminal conditions or the
voltage regulator operate in such a fashion, so that voltage is made to increase in this fashion and
let us say that this is the ceiling voltage right, this is the ceiling voltage.

Then you find out the difference between the ceiling voltage and the rated voltage and the time
which is required to attain 95 percent of this value. Let us say this time that is this is the 95
percent of the difference between the ceiling voltage and the rated voltage and this time t right,
the time t in which actually the the voltage will rise from no rated value and it will attain 95
percent of the difference between ceiling voltage and the rated voltage this is the voltage
response time.
(Refer Slide Time: 30:57)

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:32)

Now at the modern excitation systems have very high response and we do specifically
specifically characterize the excitation system as high excitation systems whose response time is
.1 second or less than .1 second right that is you have variety of excitation systems okay and
those excitation systems whose response time is .1 second or less than .1 second are
characterized as high response excitation systems.
(Refer Slide Time: 33:20)

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:10)

Then we also define a term which is called nominal response of the excitation system or
excitation system nominal response. Now to understand this excitation system nominal
response, let us look at the voltage response of an excitation system that is here in this graph we
are operating so that the excitation system output voltage is represented by oa and the terminal
conditions are so created so that the voltage increases and follows this graph of this curve right.
(Refer Slide Time: 33:28)

Then on this time axis we choose a time which is equal to .5 second or this is represented by the
line ad okay then we draw a line a straight line passing through this point a in such a fashion. So
that the area of this space that is this area the area abd is equal to the area of this triangle this acd
that is you are this is the actual response curve.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:15)

Okay you draw a straight line such that such that this area abd is equal to the area acd that is the
acd is the area of the triangle then the slope of this graph represents the nominal response and it
is expressed as the slope here, the slope of the um curve is you can see the slope the slope is cd
divided by ad. You get this slope and you divide this slope by the rated voltage okay. So that you
get nominal response now there is a reason for choosing this time .5 second for defining the
nominal response the whenever whenever actually the system is subjected to the large
disturbances right and the the the swing curve which we plot the peak value of the swing curve
normally occurs in the range in the time range of around .4 second to .75 seconds and of course
this these figures are not very rigid but when we subject a system to a large perturbation or large
disturbance like a 3 phase fault.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:06)

Okay then the swing curve when you examine right the for a stable system the swing curve will
attain its peak value in a time something like .4 to .75 second and in case we the excitation
system is to come to rescue the system and improve the transient stability then it must act within
this time. In case suppose it is slow and it acts after this peak is out right then you cannot do
anything right therefore, the the .5 second is the time which is being chosen and used.

Now we will talk about the very important performance measure that is small signal performance
measures till now what we discussed was the certain definitions which are related to large
disturbance performance measures or large signal performance measures. The small signal
performance measures provide a means of evaluating the response of the closed loop excitation
system control to incremental changes in the system conditions that is here these measures which
we will discuss right these measures help us in understanding the behavior of the excitation
system when small perturbations take place right.

Now when we want to examine the performance of the excitation system when small
perturbations take place there we use a linear model that is the system is linearized around the
operating condition. Once we use a linear model we can use the linear control theory to examine
the behavior of the closed loop control system or the excitation control systems okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:32)

The performance measures for small signal behavior or the small signal performance measures
can be categorized or can be put in two ways one is the making use of the time response right
that is the indices associated with time response, another is the indices associated with the
frequency response that is we talk about the performance of the excitation system following
small perturbations either making use of the time response of the system or frequency response
of the system okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:19)

The indices associated with the time response are rise time over shoot and settling time, rise time
over shoot and settling time these are the indices indices with which we can we can quantify the
performance of or small signal performance of the excitation system. Now to understand these
terms, let us look at the at the step response of the excitation system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:57)

Now this step response is plotted under no load condition for a closed loop control system that is
when the generator is not loaded under no load condition right. We obtain the step response, now
this this graph or this curve represents the step response of any closed loop system right in the
series this is step response okay now if you have given a step input equal to 1 per unit that is unit
step input then this is the steady state value that is under steady state condition right the output of
the systems will attain a value equal to 1 because we have given step input or unit step input
okay.

Now the method of defining this rise time, rise time is that you look at this 10 percent value that
is .1 per unit value look at this on the graph the time corresponding to the .9 per unit value. Okay
and then the time required for the for the response to rise from .1 corresponding to .1 to .9 right,
this time is called the rise time. The lower the lower the value of this rise time the response is
fast. Okay the another measure is the overshoot, you can just see here this is the overshoot
actually this is the steady state value the this is the positive peak and therefore overshoot is
defined by this value. Okay therefore, this is another you know measure for for characterizing
the dynamic response or small signal response and third is the settling time that is the time in
which the time in which the response settled to the steady state value within certain specified
limits because you will find that this response is going to have some oscillations.

Okay and the moment it comes within these limits right then this time is called the settling time
that we are not to wait till it attains the value equal to one the moment it comes in this band
which is the permissible band right that is the specified band for settling time right. Now this
band is again ah different actually but normally we can have 5percent plus minus 5 percent band
therefore once it reaches within plus minus 5 percent.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:36)

Okay then this is the therefore these are the three important parameters which characterize the
small signal performance of the excitation system the another indices which are used making use
of the frequency response of the excitation system. The indices associated with the frequency
response are low frequency gain, low frequency gain cross over frequency and phase and gain
margin. These are the three important parameters before I talk about these three parameters I will
like to highlight here that since it is a closed loop control system. Therefore, stability and the
degree of stability these are of importance okay and another thing which we need is actually in
the closed loop control system we want the low steady state error steady, state error should also
be low because suppose I want to regulate the terminal voltage right then I want to regulate the
terminal voltage within a small band and that that the steady state error will depend upon again
the characteristic of the excitation system and as you will also see actually that these
requirements are conflicting.

Suppose you want to achieve achieve a very low steady state error then the stability may have to
be compromised right therefore these are the conflicting requirements and in the frequency
response these are the 3 important indices the low frequency gain crossover frequency gain and
phase and gain margin. Now here here that need to be listed this let me see.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:35)

See the any control system any control system can be put in this form. Okay that is the G1and G2
are the transfer functions right and now what happens is that when we are interested actually
noting the frequency response of this system, we plot the frequency response of this 2 transfer
function G1into G2 right G1 into G2 or you can call it actually the open loop transfer function
open loop transfer function.
(Refer Slide Time: 46:43)

Now this graph shows shows the frequency response of open loop transfer function of a typical
system. Okay now when we plot this graph, we plot 2 curves one is the gain another is the phase
angle we plot phase angle and gain, the gain is plotted in decibel that is gain in dB. Now the gain
in dB is defined that is gain in dB is equal to twenty times the log of G1 G2 that is this G1, G2, G1
G2 is the transfer functions of the open loop system okay and G1 and G2 both are function of
Laplace transform s right and when we plot the plot the frequency response characteristic of the
system then on x axis we mark frequency frequency and on y axis we mark the gain in dB okay
this is the very standard terminology used and since G1 and G2 both are function of frequency
right therefore magnitude and phase angle of this open loop transfer function vary as the
frequency changes .

Now this graph you can just see this is a typical graph this is a typical graph I hope it is visible, a
typical graph is shown like this that is this is the gain this is plotted in dB. Okay and this is the
frequency and then you will see actually that these are plotted actually in the logarithmic scales
the frequency is also marked in log of omega n. Okay now the low frequency gain is shown here
actually when the frequency is low this is the gain right. The higher the value of this low
frequency gain right the steady state error is going to be low right because when the system is
under steady state condition right then at that time the system is not the omega becomes 0, we
can say right therefore, at very low frequencies are actually when omega is 0 steady state
condition this gain will represent the steady state error higher this value, lower will be the steady
state error. Then this is the there is a frequency here at which this gain becomes 0, this is called
crossover frequency, this is the crossover frequency.

Now similar to similar to this graph on the same diagram, we plot the phase angle characteristic
now typical phase angle characteristic is shown here like this. Now on this axis we have marked
the phase angle in degrees okay. The frequency at which the gain becomes 0 is called crossover
frequency and higher is the crossover frequency better will be the response. Okay now when we
talk about the gain margin and phase margin now to understand what the meaning of this gain
margin is, you look at the phase characteristic or phase angle characteristic.

Now you can see here actually that when this phase angle for this particular frequency the phase
angle has become minus 180 degrees. Okay now corresponding to this phase angle that is at this
frequency I find out what is the gain, for example for this phase angle is minus 180 degrees the
corresponding gain is this and this gain is called gain margin, gain margin this this quantity is
called gain margin.

Now then we also specify what is the phase margin to specify the phase margin what we do is
that we look at the crossover frequency what is the phase angle of the system at the crossover
frequency, what is the phase angle of the system and let us say phi c is the phase angle at the
crossover frequency and this difference this 180 minus phi c this represents the phase margin,
this quantity that is the phase angle corresponding to crossover frequency and the phase and this
one eighty degrees phase angle right, this difference is called phase margin.

Now for any control system higher the value of gain margin and higher the value of phase
margin higher is the stability of the system okay now we can see one very interesting thing here
that suppose suppose we want to increase the low frequency gain. Now for increasing low
frequency gain means the I increase the gain setting of the this block G1 or G2, okay now when
you increase this gain setting means this graph will go as a whole up that this graph to make this
quantity more this graph has to be shifted up.

## (Refer Slide Time: 54:30

Now when you are doing this shifting in this graph up both this term this Gm will reduce that is
the gain margin will reduce and phase margin will also reduce and this very clearly shows
actually that when you are trying to tune one parameter right the other it has a detrimental effect
of other parameter, other aspects. Okay and in field actually the AVR tuning is important ah
exercise to be performed where the gain setting and other parameters are to be set so that we
obtain a certain amount of phase margin, gain margin and actually the desired steady state error.

One more important parameter they are not one but they are two more parameters which are also
important which are obtained obtained from the frequency response characteristic and here we
plot we plot the frequency response of the closed loop system that is G1, G2 right this loop is
closed that is the feedback loop is closed and the the the generator is disconnected from the
system that is generator is not loaded under unloaded condition. Okay now the graph which is
plotted here is one is this graph that is the gain gain, you can see this is graph for gain like this
another is the phase angle. Okay now the peak value of this graph that is generated by Mp, let us
say Mp is the peak value which occurs at a frequency omega M.

Now this peak value also represents the overshoot in the time response it has a relationship
between the it is a relationship respect to the time response if this peak value is high then the
overshoot is also going to be high, the another term which is used is the bandwidth bandwidth.

## (Refer Slide Time: 55:54)

Now to understand this bandwidth if we plot a graph that is omega versus the gain in dB right.
Let us say for a typical I am not showing this overshoot anyway that is like this then in case
suppose I instead of plotting gain in dB let us say the actual gain, let us say this is 1.0 and the
frequency at which this drops to 0.707 right then this frequency is called bandwidth and if I plot
the graph in terms of gain in dB, gain in dB then this point will become 0 because if I if I take the
log of 1 to the base 10 it becomes 0 right and this will become minus 3that is on this in the same
graph if I plot gain in dB then this is 0 this is minus 3 and therefore this the bandwidth is
determined by plotting the okay by plotting the frequency response of the closed loop system
okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 57:22)

For any particular system to have good characteristic, the features are the gain margin should be
6 dB, phase margin should be about greater than 40 degrees, greater than equal to 40 degrees and
overshoot should not be more than 5 to 15 percent that is overshoot is around 5 to 156. Now let
me conclude here that we have discussed the excitation system requirements performance
characteristics, the performance characteristic related to large disturbances and small
disturbances. For small disturbances, we have discussed the time response as well as the
frequency response. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 15
Excitation Systems (Contd.)

Okay gentleman, we start with the study of excitation systems. Today we shall cover the control
and protective functions.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:14)

The control and protective functions provided in excitation systems are AC and DC regulators
load compensation, under excitation limiter, over excitation limiter and field shorting circuits.
We shall also study today the types of excitation systems, types of excitation systems briefly.

As you all know the control and protective functions are required to achieve the desired
performance of the generator and power system we have excitation control, excitation limiting
and excitation protection that is there are 3 different functions are control, protection and
limiting. Here this is the most general block diagram of the excitation system which shows,
which shows the different control protection and limiting functions. Now let us just look at here
in this diagram this is our exciter just as usual the the exciter is a field shorting circuit, we will
discuss the need for the field shorting circuit and the output of the exciter is given to the field
winding of the generator right and it is connected to the system.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:05)

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:39)

Now the different controls of protection functions are here, one is the excitation system stabilizer
circuits and just see it here. This is excitation systems stabilizer circuit here what we do is that
we take the signal from the terminal of the exciter and this is fed to AC regulator then there are a
3 limiting circuits, one is the over excitation over excitation limiter, under excitation limiter and
volts per hertz limiter and protection.
Now this say over excitation limiter takes it input signal from the output of the exciter and again
feeds this to the AC regulator, under excitation limiter gets its signal from the terminal of the
generator and again operates through the AC regulator, voltage per hertz limiter as well as the
protection right this also gets its signal from the generator terminals okay and it feeds to the AC
regulator. Okay earlier we have seen that the control functions start like the voltage sensing and
load compensation that also acts through the regulator, AC regulator. We have power system
stabilizer that also acts through the AC regulator right and in addition to the AC regulator
because in the previous block diagram, I had sawn only one regulator.

Now here we have shown two regulator one is called DC regulator another is called AC
regulator. The the DC regulator has a very limited role most of the time only the AC regulator
which functions okay but when the AC regulator is taken out because of some or the other
reasons in that case the DC regulator comes in or is put into service, DC regulator instead of
controlling the terminal voltage in generator it basically regulates the output of the exciter. The
output of the exciter is a DC voltage and in a DC voltage which is regulated by the DC regulator
while the AC regulator is concerned it has all these multiple functions control protection limiter
all these functions are through AC regulator.

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:25)

Now we will briefly discuss these components before I talk about the component separately, let
me mention here that in any excitation system you may have all these functions or some of these
functions it is not necessary that any given excitation system will have all these functions
associated with it depending upon the requirements some functions may be present some
functions may not be incorporated. Now, let us just discuss briefly AC and DC regulators the
basic function of the ac regulator is to maintain stator voltage right that is the output of the
synchronous generator. The dc regulator holds the holds constant the generator field voltage and
is also referred to as manual control okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 07:28)

Now in any excitation system, any excitation system we require the excitation system
stabilization right and the the simple block diagram of the excitation system stabilizer is shown
here. This this block represents the exciter and AVR okay and the output of this exciter is the DC
voltage which is represented by the Efd the voltage which is applied to the field winding of the
synchronous generator then in order to have stable performance of this exciter and AVR, the
simplest stabilizer circuit which is used is derivative feedback, derivative feedback and this
derivative feedback is achieved through this transfer function.

components of the excitation system because after we discuss the basic functions, we will go to
the modeling and while talking about the modeling we will first talk about the models of various
components and then the excitation system model as a whole right. Now this feedback block you
can see here has the transfer function of this form sKF divided by one plus s times TF right.

Now this denominator represents the time delay which is provided and in the numerator, we have
actually this function sKF, the s stands for d by DT and therefore it provides a derivative
feedback signal and by properly adjusting the values of these parameters KF and TF, we can
achieve the desired dynamic performance of the exciter okay.

The next component is load compensation. This load compensation here, we derive a voltage Vc
which is obtained by adding a voltage drop Rc plus j times Xc into It 2 terminal voltage that is to
the terminal voltage of the synchronous generator, you add a voltage drop which is represented
by this term that is a complex number Rc plus j times Xc is a complex number multiply this by
the terminal current right and you perform this phasor addition and then obtained at quantity
which is proportional to the magnitude of this quantity that is Vt Et plus j Et plus Rc plus j times
Xc into It this is a phasor is a complex number find the magnitude of this and therefore, Vc is the
a scalar quantity right and this quantity this Vc represent the terminal voltage plus voltage drop in
the complex impedance or in the impedance Rc plus j times Xc.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:38)

Now in a practical system practical system the the voltage Vc is derived by this basic schematic
diagram using this schematic diagram from the terminal voltage you put a potential transformer
and get a voltage signal which is proportional to the terminal voltage in the output of the
synchronous generator right, we put current transformer and extract a current proportional
proportional to the load current right.

Now these two quantities that is this is a quantity proportional to the terminal voltage here is the
quantity which is proportional to the terminal current. Okay these are fed to a block diagram
which is called load compensator right it has a real term Rc and a imaginary term which is
represented by Xc that is this can be visualized as if you have a impedence of the value of the Rc
plus j times Xc right, practically it will not be an impedence it is only actually a a complex
number which can be used actually to derive a voltage signal Vc.

Now this voltage signal is fed to the regulator right and ultimately the field current of the
synchronous generator is regulated like this. In case in case we do not want any load
compensation then the Rc and Xc will be set to 0, okay so that what you regulate will be the
terminal voltage of the synchronous generator okay.

Now suppose if I take the Rc and Xc positive, positive then the voltage which we regulate is not
the terminal voltage but what we regulate is the voltage which is which is somewhere inside the
synchronous generator because here this that is from the what is all some voltage is generator
inside the synchronous generator right that voltage drops and we get a terminal voltage here.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:11)

Therefore, what we get by a setting Rc and Xc positive the voltage drop across the compensator is
added to the terminal voltage. Okay the compensator regulates the voltage at a point within the
generator and thus provide the voltage drop. Now this is particularly required when you have 2
generators right which are connected in parallel and we want to do the reactive load sharing
right. Now the reactive load sharing by the two generators will depend upon the internal voltage
which is generated and therefore, here we are trying to regulate the internal voltage.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:51)

In case you put Rc and Xc negative right because as I told you that you can make the real term
negative reactive term also can be made negative the compensator regulates voltage at a point
beyond the machine terminals that is terminal voltage is et right from this et we had subtracting
some voltage drop and therefore basically you are trying to regulate a voltage somewhere beyond
the terminal voltage of the machine right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:07)

Now this type of ah compensator is required where you parallel the two generators having
individual transformers there is a terminal voltage, a generator it is on generator transformer, a
generator it is on generator transformer and then they are parallel on the high voltage side. Next
component is the under excitation limiter. Now the under excitation limiter means actually that
in case the excitation current in the field winding of the synchronous generator goes below a
certain value then this type of operation is not permissible that is we should not reduce the field
winding current below a certain set value. The basic reason is here, the under excitation limiter is
intended to prevent reduction of generator excitation, reduction of generator excitation to a level
where the small signal stability limit or the stator core end-region heating limit is exceeded.

Now these details actually one has to look into the capability chart of the synchronous generator
where if the excitation becomes very low right then the small signal stability limit is evaluated
okay and there are different names which are given to this under excitation limiter.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:30)

When we look the operation of the synchronous generator in the PQ plane right. Now this is the
P axis that is the real power output this is the reactive power output when the then it is over
excited it supplies positive Q and where the under excited it supplies negative Q and the
operating limits this is the under excitation limiter which is shown here the under excitation
limiter setting is done. So as that it is coordinated with respect to the small signal stability limit
that is this curve so the small scale of the small signal stability limit that is in case you operate in
this portion of the PQ plane the system is stable for small perturbations. If you operate
somewhere in this region that is on this side of this characteristic system becomes unstable right,
the small signal stability we will be studying separately okay.

Now keeping some margin the under excitation limit is set like this there is also one
characteristic which is also provided it is called the loss of excitation relay that is whenever the
synchronous machine looses its excitation then there is a relay which is used to protect the
synchronous generator right. The characteristic of the loss of excitation relay is also shown here
in this diagram, this is the characteristic of the loss of excitation relay right. Therefore, these
three characteristics actually that when you set the under excitation limiter settings. Okay these
have to be coordinated with respect to the small signal stability limit and loss of excitation relay
characteristic, okay and we have to see at the same time that both these characteristics are
outside the setting of the under excitation limiter. This margin whatsoever we provide that is a
safety margin, the next limiter is the over excitation limiter.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:52)

The purpose of over excitation limiter is to protect the system from overheating due to prolonged
field over current. In case, in case the field current is more than the permissible or the the the
rating of the synchronous generator right and if that current is more than the rated value for a
prolonged time then naturally because of overheating of the field winding the field winding may
get damaged right. Therefore the purpose of the over excitation limiter is to protect the system
from overheating due to prolonged field over current. This limiter is also referred to as the
maximum excitation limiter whether you call it over excitation limiter or maximum excitation
limiter they are the two different names which are used in the literature.

The over excitation limiting function typically detects the high field current condition there is a,
it has to detect the high field current condition and after a certain time delay acts through the ac
regulator to ramp down the excitation to the present value. In case, in case the current in the field
circuit is more it is detected then since actually the over excitation is permitted for some small
amount of time, okay then this limiter what it will do is it will ramp down it will bring down the
field current and bring it to the rated value.
(Refer Slide Time: 21:04)

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:12)

Now this graph shows the characteristic of the over excitation limiting that is on this axis, we
have marked axis what is marked is generator field voltage per unit of rated value that is you
start from a rated value is 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 like this and on this y axis we are putting the
time in seconds right, the times are 30 second, 60 second, 90 second and 120y second. This
gives you the, you know range over which actually the excitation system, over loading is
permitted or over excitation is permitted.
Now this characteristic A which you can see it here right this characteristic shows the field
thermal capability. You can easily understand actually that suppose I the generator field voltage
per unit of the rated value, now here the whatsoever voltage you apply right the corresponding
current will flow because under steady state, steady state conditions the field current is equal to
the field voltage divided by the field resistance right and therefore, this generator field voltage
per unit of rated value also represents the corresponding field current and you can easily see that
as this value increases the time for which it can be permitted is decreasing. This is practically this
type of characteristic inverse characteristic and the characteristic of the over excitation limiter is
to be coordinated with respect to the field thermal capability.

You have to always keep some margin and therefore, the characteristic of the over excitation
limiting is given by giving some margin, in the sense that suppose I take this example here for
example if you let us say field field voltage is 1.3 per unit okay then it can withstand this over
voltage for this much time right but keeping some margin, our limiter will operate in a time
which is less than the upper limit right. Therefore, this this is the margin which is provided a
safety margin you can call it.

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:05)

Now this table shows the time in seconds verses the field voltage of the current in percent of
rated value right that is from this graph we have just picked up some values and that shows
actually that if the applied voltage is 2.08 per unit or 208 percent of the rated value it can
withstand for 10 seconds. If it is 146 percent right it can withstand for 30seconds, if it is 25
percent more than the rated value it can withstand for 60seconds and 12 percent more than the
rated value withstand for about 2 minutes is 120 seconds.

Now this is the this is the thermal characteristic of round rotor generator, turbo generator, round
rotor turbo generator because these characteristics are going to be different for different
machines but typical machines this has to be provided by the manufacturer then the next
important limiter and the protection function is the voltage-per-hertz limiter, voltage-per-hertz
limiter. Now here we all know that the the flux produced in the core is function of the terminal
voltage that is we we have a standard emf equation right therefore, the voltage is related to the
flux and the frequency okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:12)

Now suppose we are operating and at a situation where frequency drops and voltage rises,
voltage becomes more frequency becomes less. Okay it means v by f becomes more under that
situation the the operating flux will become more it will increase and when the flux increases it
will cause additional core losses right and therefore there is a necessity to provide the protections
against such eventuality, one simple example is that when standard generator is you know

At that time the there is tendency for the machine to speed up and the frequency rises voltage
also rises right and in case the v by f ratio is beyond a certain permissible value then this limiter
will come into action and take necessary, you know action right. Therefore, basically this is
provided to safeguard the generator from the excessive magnetic flux. Now not only the
generator actually the transformer which is connected to the generator is also effected when
when a v by f ratio is more than certain value.

Now the ratio of per unit voltage and per unit frequency referred to as volts per hertz is readily
measurable quantity that is proportional to the magnetic flux that is v by f ratio but here the ratio
is taken the voltage is expressed in per unit frequency is also expressed in per unit right and that
ratio v by f not the absolute value, this per unit ratio reflects the over fluxing of the synchronous
generator this is also called over fluxing.
(Refer Slide Time: 28:27)

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:06)

Here this table shows the voltage per hertz in per unit you can see it is a this is 1.051. I think this
this is slightly mistaken, no this is 1.25, 1.2, 1.15 this may be 1.1, okay this is 1.1 correction 1.1,
1.05. Now here damage time of the machines right damage times are given in minutes here. The
time is expressed in minutes instead of putting in seconds here write is in minutes.

Now damage time for generator and transformer are separately mentioned here that is in case this
ratio V by hertz or voltage per hertz is 1.25, the the generator can withstand this for .2 minutes if
it is 20 percent more than for 1 minute, it is if 15 percent it is about 6 minutes, it is 10 percent it
can be withstand for 20 minutes and if it is 5 percent more than infinite, this is the capability that
is if this V by f ratio right in per unit is 1.05 then there is nothing to worry. For the transformer
the permissible times are more, we can easily see here that instead of .2 here it is ones minute for
20 percent ah V by f right ah 1.2 times V by f is 5 minutes 1.15 it is 20 minutes and 10 percent is
infinite right. Therefore, based upon this permissible values right the setting of the limiter or the
voltage per hertz limiter settings are decided.

Now this ah field shorting is very special provision which is provided on the synchronous
generator. Especially when when we have the the excitation systems where we use the rectifiers
to supply the field current because you will you will see that we have two categories of
excitation systems ah one is AC excitation system where the output of the AC excited is rectified
and given to the field winding.

Similarly, the static excitation system right. We take the terminal voltage terminal current rectify
and give the field current to the synchronous generator right. In these 2 types of excitation
system we cannot make the field current to reverse because rectifiers are provided therefore, the
field current cannot reverse and under certain situation, certain situation it is desirable to allow
the current to flow in the reverse direction particularly during pole slipping or during short
circuit conditions where in the stator carries the stator carries the dc component whenever the
fault occurs at the terminal of synchronous generator right. The the voltages which are produced
in the field winding of the synchronous generator right if they try to drive the current in the
reverse direction.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:03)

In case we do not have this provision then the voltage produced will be very high which may
damage the field winding of the synchronous generator and therefore there are two different
circuits which are provided, one is that across the field winding you put a thyristor control field
field discharge resistance right that is this resistance is always provided actually along with the
excitation system right and the moment actually the voltage across the field winding becomes
more than a certain set value then this thyristor is switched on right and it will allow the current
to flow in the reverse direction right.

Otherwise actually the the the field current is flowing say in this direction okay and this thyristor
is off therefore, this there is no current flowing here and this field current cannot reverse it
cannot flow in the reverse direction it will flow only is in this direction. Now suppose the due to
some ah faults on the terminals of synchronous generator right in the field winding some
voltages are produced which have this type of polarity and in case this the in case actually the
this we provide a path for the reverse current to flow then this voltage will not go beyond a
particular limit. If this path is not provided then this voltage becomes high and it is dangerous to
the life of the synchronous generator field winding.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:41)

Another arrangement is that use make use of varistor, varistor which is a non linear resistance
when the voltage across this circuit is below set value or some less value then it offers infinite
resistance and when voltage goes beyond certain value it offers low resistance and therefore it
allows the field current to flow in the negative direction right. They are the two arrangements
which are provided as a special ah protection for the field winding of the synchronous generator.
Therefore with this I can say that we have discussed the various control and protection functions
provided on the synchronous generator excitation system it is not it is synchronous generator
excitation system.
(Refer Slide Time: 35:42)

Now we will briefly talk about the different types of excitation systems. Excitation systems are
broadly classified into 3 categories DC excitation system, AC excitation system and static
excitation systems. The excitation power required for a synchronous generator is of the order of
2 to 3.5 kilo watt per mega watt rating of the machine or per MVA rating of the machine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:00)

The DC excitation systems were the oldest of all the excitation systems and the main limitation
of DC excitation system is the amount of power which can be delivered and the commutation is
the main problem in the excitation system, the more the current to be delivered, more is the
commutation problem. The in nineteen sixties the DC excitation system has been superseded by
AC excitation systems in AC excitation systems we have 2 different type of excitation systems
ah stationary rectified systems and rotating rectifier systems while we study excitation systems
we have different types of arrangements, one is the potential source controlled-rectifier system,
compound-source rectifier system and third is the compound-controlled rectifier excitation
system. Now this figure shows the schematic diagram of a DC excitation system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:27)

The this the DC generator is the source of power for supplying DC current to the field winding of
the synchronous generator. If you see here then this represents the DC exciter this is the armature
this is the field winding the output of the DC generator is feeds the field winding of the
synchronous generator through slip rings. The DC exciter may be driven by the turbine shaft or
by separate motor also and this may be self excited or a separately excited machine. The the
voltage regulators may be a rheostatic type or they magnetic amplifier or amplidyne time and
this type of excitation systems are still existing in many of the power plants and therefore,
modeling of this DC excitation system is also important. We shall discuss the modeling of DC
excitation system separately. Now this diagram shows the AC excitation system.

In AC excitation system the the field power is obtained from AC exciter, the AC exciter is a AC
generator and this AC generator may be driven again by a separate motor or by a shaft of the
turbine. Generally in this AC exciter is driven by the turbine shaft itself. Now here in this
arrangement we are using the stationary diode arrangement that is the output of the AC exciter is
rectified with the help of stationary diodes and the DC current is fed to the field winding of the
synchronous generator through slip rings.
(Refer Slide Time: 38:57)

Now here when we use the non control rectifiers then the output of the exciter is regulated by
controlling the field current of the AC exciter therefore, if you see here in this diagram then the
AC regulator adds to control the firing angle of the control rectifier and it regulates the output of
the AC exciter. The another arrangement which is ah possible is that we use stationary controlled
rectifier that is instead of using the stationary uncontrolled rectifiers as is shown here. We can
use the stationary controlled rectifiers other arrangement is exactly the same as in the previous
case.

Now once we use this stationary controlled rectifier then the output of the excitation is adjusted
or controlled by controlling the firing angle of the controlled rectifier here itself that is this AC
regulator will directly control the firing angle of the stationary controlled rectifier and this AC
exciter provides out AC output, AC output and the control output is obtained by rectifying the ah
this DC ah AC output to DC but in a controlled fashion.

The other arrangement is exactly similar to what we discussed in the earlier case. Now in these
two arrangements which we discussed for the AC exciters, AC exciters the armature of the AC
exciter is stationary and field system is rotating while the field of the synchronous generator is
getting it supply through slip rings. Therefore, in this AC exciter we have still the presence of
slip rings and the another ah alternative arrangement which has been used is where we do not
make use of slip rings and that is called the brushless excitation system.
(Refer Slide Time: 42:39)

In brushless excitation system we have AC exciter uncontrolled rectifier and the output of the
AC exciter is fed to the field winding. Now the armature of the alternator or the armature of the
AC exciter is made rotating right the rectifiers are also rotating the field system is rotating and
therefore, we can see here that armature of the AC exciter, the rectifiers and the phase field
system they are rotating and they are connected rigidly without having any slipping contact. The
excitation of the AC exciter, how do you provide the excitation for the AC exciter? The AC
exciter excitation is provided by using a pilot exciter, this pilot exciter has the a permanent
magnet field system right and the armature is stationary.

Now in this arrangement the rectifiers are not accessible to us because they are rotating and
therefore, we cannot have controlled rectifiers in the brushless excitation system the control of
the excitation system is achieved by controlling the field current of the AC exciter that is the AC
exciter gets its field current field current through a controlled rectifier that is the AC regulator
this is the AC regulator.

This AC regulator acts on the controlled rectifier which are provided here and we supply the
controlled field current in the AC exciter and in this arrangement. We will be in a position to
control the output of the exciter by controlling the field current of the AC exciter. However,
another problem is that the the field voltage and field current cannot be measured directly that is
since this field system is rotating rectifiers are rotating and therefore, there is no way directly to
measure the field current directly and therefore if you want to get the information about how
much field current is flowing this can be obtained indirectly by measuring the field current of the
field current of the pilot exciter in the not in the AC field field current of the AC exciter that is
the output of the pilot exciter.
The major advantage of this type of excitation system is that we do not have slip rings and once
we do not have slip rings right the problem of maintenance of the slip rings. The carbon brushes
flashovers all these things are eliminated the excitation systems whether we use a stationary
rectifier excitation system or brushless excitation system the dynamic performance of these two
systems have been found to be practically identical therefore from the point of view of
performance. There is no special choice whether we choose a stationary rectifier excitation
system or brushless excitation system both these arrangements provide the similar dynamic
performance. Now we briefly talk about the static excitation system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:24)

The static excitation system now this figure shows the schematic diagram of a static excitation
system. In a static excitation system, the excitation power is derived derived from the terminal of
the synchronous generator or from the auxiliary bus of the power plant. Now in this arrangement
the the we make use of this exciter transformer the input to the exciter transformer comes from
the terminal of the synchronous generator itself and output of this exciter transformer is rectified
using the controlled rectifier and this output is fed to the field winding of the main generator or
main synchronous generator through slip rings. Therefore, in this static excitation system, we do
require the slip rings the control is the output of the excitation system is controlled by controlling
the firing angle of the controlled rectifiers that is the AC regulator directly acts this is the AC
regulator. This AC regulator directly acts on controlled rectifiers and we get the regulated current
in the field circuit of the synchronous generator.

Now one major advantage of the static excitation system is that we do not have any rotating part
so far the excitation, excitation or the excitation system is concerned another thing is that the the
the response time of this static excitation system is very low that is they are very fast there is one
more arrangement of static excitation system.
(Refer Slide Time: 48:45)

Now here this is the main generator to get the required field current instead of making use of
only potential or power potential transformer to get the required field current. We make use of an
arrangement which is called compound source rectifier excitation system here here. The field
current in the main generator is made function of the terminal voltage of the synchronous
generator and the load current therefore, if you see here in this arrangement that we make use of
a transformer which is called saturable current transformer this saturable current transformer is
connected in the neutral circuit of the main alternator then we can obtain a quantity proportional
to the load current. We can obtain a quantity proportional to the terminal voltage these two
quantities are these terminal voltages and load current, they are appropriately combined and we
get an output which is fed to the fed to the power rectifier and the the output of the power
rectifier field gives the field current to the synchronous machine field winding.

Now the major advantage of this is that whenever suppose a fault which occurs at the terminal of
the synchronous generator. If we use a simple static excitation system using the exciter transform
only then when the 3 phase fault occurs or some sort of fault occurs at its synchronous machine
terminals right then the voltage available to this transformer becomes 0 or it dips then this will
affect the field current of the excitation system now in this arrangement. When the voltage at the
terminal synchronous generator dips but simultaneously current becomes high right.

So that, we will be in a position to maintain the field current even under the disturbance
conditions. With this I will conclude the that we have discussed today is that the various control
protection and limiting functions of the excitation system and different type of excitation
systems. We have also seen the limitations of DC excitation system, the merits of AC excitation
system and particularly the merits of brushless excitation system, the today in major power
plants; major power plants the excitation systems are either AC excitation systems or static
excitation systems. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M L Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 16
Modelling of Excitation Systems

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

While talking about the modeling we will study non reciprocal per unit system then we will talk
about the modeling of excitation system components because any excitation system has several
components therefore first we will discuss about modeling of the components of the excitation
system one by one. The components which we will be model, we will start with the separately
excited dc exciter, self-exciter, dc exciter, ac exciters and rectifiers as we know that in the ac
excitation system the output of the ac exciter is rectified and supplied to the field winding of
synchronous generator and therefore there is necessary to model the three phase rectifiers which
are commonly used.

The other components which require to be model are the amplifiers, excitation system stabilizing
circuit, wind up and non-wind up limits. As we will see that there exist certain limits that the
output of say AVR cannot actually certain limit like this therefore, we will have certain limits
which are imposed and they are two different categories of limits wind up and non-wind up
limits. Then to implement the under excitation limit and the over excitation limit you will have
gaiting functions and terminal voltage traducer. Over the years a variety of excitation system
models have been developed. We will confine our discussion to a few typical excitation system
models which have been documented by IEEE in the standards published by IEEE.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:31)

We will discuss the excitation models type DC1A exciter model, type AC1A exciter model, type
ST1A exciter model, type ST A exciter model. These are the 4 models which we will discuss
however, number of models are available in the IEEE standards. The over the years the IEEE has
developed the excitation system models for power system stability studies. The 4 important
references references which cover the excitation system models are the first report that is first
IEEE committee report.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:45)

This was published in the year 1968 and the IEEE transaction on power apparatus systems then
subsequently subsequently the the models were upgraded taking care of the new developments
which have taken place then the next IEEE committee report was published in the year 1981 and
when you look into the this IEEE committee report, you will see that they have 3 different
models for DC excitation systems, 4 different models for ac excitation systems and 3 different
models for static excitation systems. Therefore, in all they have discussed 10 different models
excitation systems. Now these different models were needed to cope up with the variety of
excitation systems manufactured by different manufacturers and existing in the power system
today.

Recently in 1996 another, you know a committee report came in where they have discussed
specifically the digital based excitation systems because today the excitation systems have micro
process based controls and with this digital controls right there was a necessity to model the
excitation systems and give standard excitation system models. Then one very comprehensive
standard which is IEEE standard 425.5 published in 1992, it discusses in detail the different
models which have been developed the material which we will be presenting here is drawn from
these 4 references.

Now here when we talk about the excitation system models, we have to develop the per unit
system for excitation systems. We have developed earlier the per unit system for synchronous
generator models and while developing the synchronous generator model in order to simplify the
developed is normally known as the reciprocal model right.

Now if we use this reciprocal model there are some problems particularly if we use the reciprocal
model then then the per unit values of the exciter output voltage becomes very low. The typical
value is which is mentioned is that it may be as low as .001 per unit, if we use the same same per
unit system and therefore the another per unit system is proposed for the modeling the excitation
systems and that is now called as non-reciprocal per unit system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:11)

(Refer Slide Time: 08:32)

In this non-reciprocal per unit system the the definition goes like this 1 per unit exciter output
voltage is required to produce rated synchronous machine armature terminal voltage on air gap
line as the definition goes that one per unit exciter output voltage is required to produce produce
the rated terminal voltages of the synchronous machine on the air gap line not on that saturation
curve but on the air gap line. Now here we define the one per unit exciter output current is the
corresponding current corresponding current which flows in the field winding of the synchronous
generator that is when you apply certain voltage at the terminal of the synchronous generator
which produces the the rated voltage at the terminal of the synchronous generator right.

Then at that time whatsoever is the current which flows in the field winding, we call that current
as 1 per unit I will just take the example suppose you have a synchronous generator whose
terminal voltage is say 11KV okay now to produce the 11 KV voltage on the air gap line if you
require say 600 volts to be applied to the synchronous generator field winding right then 600
volts will be considered as 1 per unit volts per unit voltage of the excitation system.

Similarly, suppose at that 600 volts applied the field current comes out to be say 200 amperes
right then this 200 ampere will be considered as 1 per unit field current or 1 per unit excitation
current excitation system current. Okay now with this definition, now there is a necessity to
establish the relationship between the reciprocal per unit system with the non-reciprocal per unit
system. We know that the excitation system is is interfaced with the synchronous generator both
at the field winding as well as at the synchronous machine terminals that is for controlling the
output of the excitation system, the input control signals are derived from the terminals of the
synchronous generator that is you change the terminal voltage you use actually the load
compensator and obtain a voltage VC, okay this is obtained from the terminally synchronous
generator.
Similarly you may sense the speed of the synchronous generator, okay or you sense the power
output of the synchronous generator all these things right real power, reactive power all these
quantities are fed to the AVR of the excitation system right. Therefore, so far the input to the
excitation system is concerned is obtained from terminal of synchronous generator while the
output of the excitation system is fed to the field winding of the synchronous generator therefore,
excitation system is interfaced interfaced at if with the field winding of the synchronous
generator and the terminal of the synchronous generator right and therefore we have to have the
the arrangements. So that these 2 different forms of per unit systems are properly interfaced.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:42)

Now in order to achieve this interfacing we first look at the basic open circuit equations that is
even the synchronous generator is open circuited right. We have the equations that ed, ed is equal
to 0 and eq equal to psi d which is equal to Lad into ifd. Now this equation these two equations are
the basic stator winding equations in terms of dq axis components okay.

Now we we know also that under open circuit condition this voltage or this quadrature axis
component is also equal to the terminal voltage of the synchronous generator. This was already
established, okay therefore now if I plot a characteristic relating eq or et as a function of ifd that is
the field current right then the characteristic will look like this. This is open circuit characteristic
of the synchronous generator. On this axis we have marked the field current in per unit i fd. Now
this ifd when I use this symbol this is actually the symbol used in the reciprocal system of per
units or per unit reciprocal system and we represent the per unit terminal voltage on the y axis.
Now this is the open circuit characteristic if you draw a transient to the characteristic passing
through origin, okay that is the initial portion then this is your air gap line right.

The slope of this air gap line slope of this air gap line is the mutual inductance unsaturated Ladu
that is the mutual inductance unsaturated that is the slope of this characteristic right. Therefore
now to produce on this axis I have put this ah current in per unit of i fd that is reciprocal system
and for producing 1 per unit voltage here, the current required will be current required will be
that is ifd required will be equal to that is to produce et equal to 1 that is seem same as eq right
therefore, ifd required will be 1 upon Lad and since we are considering here the air gap line we are
considering the unsaturated value of mutual inductance and therefore the the current required to
produce 1 per unit terminal voltage in reciprocal system of units right is one upon Ladu.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:19)

Now this current will be denoted as 1 per unit in the non-reciprocal system of units that is same
quantity. Okay will be said as 1 per unit okay therefore, using this information we can establish
relationship between the between the ah non-reciprocal per unit system and reciprocal per unit
system because we have seen actually that the ifd required to produce one per unit terminal
voltage is one upon Ladu right and since this should be equal to 1 per unit in the non-reciprocal
system and therefore the relationship which is established between established between the non-
reciprocal system of unit.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:02)

We call the current in non-reciprocal we will denote by ifd capital. Okay in the reciprocal system
we have been using this symbol ifd therefore, the ifd will be equal to Ladu ifd this you can check
yourself that the relationship between between the reciprocal per unit system of field of the field
current and non- reciprocal per unit system of the field current they are related by this quantity

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:42)

Okay, that is similarly when we talk about the field voltage okay the efd the field voltage efd is
equal to Rafd ifd okay and I replace this ifd by one upon Ladu. So that the efd efd if applied it
becomes Rfd upon Ladu in per unit right and this is denoted as 1 per unit, so far actually the non-
reciprocal per unit system is concerned and hence the relationships which we establish are like
this that a non-reciprocal per unit system, the field voltage efd is equal to Ladu divided by Rfd efd in
the reciprocal system of unit therefore, these two equations that is equation 16.5 and 16.6 relate
relate the field current and field voltage in reciprocal system of per unit reciprocal system of
units to non-reciprocal per unit systems.

Okay now here I have shown in the form of block diagram, exciter model non-reciprocal per unit
system right. The we have a exciter model now the quantities will be Efd and Ifd. Okay
synchronous machine model reciprocal per unit system the quantities at the terminals of the field
winding are efd and ifd , okay the relationship between these 2 quantities that is efd is equal to Rfd
upon Ladu Efd and ifd is equal to Ifd upon Ladu right therefore whenever we develop the complete
model of the system right considering the synchronous generator and the excitation system right
the excitation system first will be modelled considering the non-reciprocal per unit system and
then it will be interfaced with the synchronous machine reciprocal per unit system using these
relations right.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:57)

## (Refer Slide Time: 20:24)

Now now, we will devote our time for discussing the models of 3 basic component of the
excitation system that is separately excited dc exciter, self excited dc exciter, ac exciters and
rectifiers. Now as I have told you earlier that although the dc excitation systems right have have
been superseded by ac excitation systems or static excitation systems but still in the power
systems existing today there are number of dc excitation systems operating number one, second
point is that the when we develop the basic model for separately excited dc exciter the model for
ac exciters is also similar to that similar to that with some modifications. Okay therefore, we let

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:37)

Okay, and in order to develop the model for the separately excited dc exciter. You look at the dc
exciter this is the this is the armature of the dc exciter. Okay it is a dc exciter is a its field
winding okay, this is the field winding. We represent the field winding by a resistance Ref and
inductance Lef that is this field winding of the dc exciter right has resistance and inductance right.
Now the field winding is generally very highly inductive right and therefore, the inductance
plays very significant role in the modeling of excitation system.

Okay therefore we will start like this. Let us say that the voltage applied to the applied to the
terminal of the field winding is Eef and the current flowing is Ief okay. Now here the output
voltage of the exciter right we call this is as a Ex this is denoted by the symbol Ex okay. Now this
Ex is related to Iex okay and the relationship is a non-linear relationship. We all know actually
that I you plot the open circuit characteristic of a dc generator or separately excited dc generator
it comes out to be a non-linear characteristic saturation exist in the system. Further when this dc
exciter is loaded loaded right due to armature reaction the voltage at the excited terminals will
further drop right therefore, while modeling the dc exciter we may have to account for two
things, one is the loading effect another is the saturation effect and in fact while modeling the dc
exciter, we combine both the effects okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 24:00)

Now the basic equation for the field circuit is written as the Efd this will be slight a mistake is
there Efe. We will denote the symbol by Eef a mistake here. You make it Eef Eef is equal to Ref
into Ief plus d psi by dt where psi is the flux linkage which can be written as Lef into Ief this is the
basic circuit equation of the field winding of dc exciter.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:51)

The output voltage of the exciter is proportional to field flux linkage psi and Kx is the
proportionality constant that is output voltage at the terminal of the synchronous generator output
of the exciter dc exciter not synchronous generator is directly related to the flux linkage of the
field winding and is directly proportional okay.

Now this constant Kx depends upon the speed of the exciter it also depends upon the design of
the exciter and other parameters. Now here this is a most important point to understand about
modeling of dc exciter or separately excited dc exciter

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:46)

If you plot the open circuit characteristic relating the Ex to Ief right then this open circuit
characteristic is shown here. Okay and the when we draw the transient to this we get air gap line
right and the slope of this air gap line, if you find out the slope of this air gap line right then it is
because this is a steady state characteristic, this is a steady state characteristic what will be the
slope of this? Resistance resistance of the field winding okay and since the we are considering
the air gap line we will consider this resistance as Rg shown here. Now if suppose for a certain
output Exo right, if I try to find out what will be the field current required under the open circuit
condition then the field current will be equal to the field current required corresponding to the air
gap line plus some additional current to account for the saturation.

Now in order to account for the loading effect right what we do is that we plot another saturation
characteristic and that characteristic is shown here. This saturation characteristic is the constant
resistance load saturation curve. You have to understand very carefully what we mean by the
constant resistance load saturation curve. Now this can be explained like this you have your dc
generator armature across this you put a resistance, okay and this is the field winding call this
current as Ief.
Okay and run this machine as rated speed and now if you plot the characteristic relating the
terminal voltage Ex with respect to Ief. This characteristic will take care of two aspects saturation
as well as the ah armature reaction effect and this characteristic is called, this characteristic is
called constant resistance load saturation curve.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:39)

Okay now for a given value of Ex the field current which is required will be now written as the
field current corresponding to the air gap line plus this additional term delta Ief this delta Ief this is
now we can say that for any operating condition any operating condition the Ief will be equal to
Ex divided by Rg plus delta Ief delta Ief.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:03)

is function of is function of the voltage Ex which is produced and a non-linear function of Ex that
is if you, if I try to quantify what is the value of Ief required then we can easily see here actually
in this graph that this Ief is different for different values of Ex right. Therefore, we can say that
the Ief required is is equal to the voltage Ex into a non-linear function Se Ex and this Se Ex is
called the saturation function which is dependent on the voltage Ex.

In fact this has to be obtained graphically this value whenever you want you can say develop the
model for a given dc exciter this has to be obtained experimentally. Now what we do is we have
developed basic equation starting from the field circuit equation that is Eef is equal to Ref into Ief
plus plus d psi by dt, where where psi is the flux linkage.

Now what we do is that in this expression in this the first basic expression, in this equation that is
Eef equal to Ref Ief d psi by dt, you substitute the value of Ief substitute the value of psi okay and
we will get after making this substitution an equation of this form that is E ef is equal to Ref upon
Rg Ex plus Ref into Se Ex into Ex plus 1 by Kx dEx by dt that is when we have obtained this
equation, we have made use of the subsequent relations which were derived earlier.
(Refer Slide Time: 31:45)

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:24)

Now in this equation, we can see is here that the field current is eliminated there is no field
current term does not appear directly. Okay and there is no flux linkages also everything is
expressed in terms of the saturation function the field resistance of field winding and this
constant Kx. Okay now this equation is converted into per unit system of equations therefore,
what we need is the base voltage for this that is Ief, we require base voltage and the base voltage
is chosen like this that is Ex base is same as the Efd base that is the field voltage which we apply
right that base value is the base for Ex and Ief base is same as Efd base divided by Rg that is the
base value of the field current as we already seen that this voltage divided by the by the air by the
air gap by the slope of the air gap line that is resistance Rg and the resistance base is equal to Rg
itself. Okay now when you when you convert this equation into per unit system of equations that
is you divide that you divide this equation by Efd base the throughout and then you can write
down the equation in the form Eef bar bar is stands for per unit and this conversion is right. Now
it is actually the non-reciprocal per unit system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:57)

Okay now when writing this equation, okay some new terms are introduced here which are
defined as follows that is Se bar Ex bar is defined here as Se bar Ex bar is defined as delta Ief bar
divided by Ex bar is a straight forward you know definitions which you can derive and I will
suggest you to derive these things yourself okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:36)

Now here here again I am showing the constant resistance load saturation curve of the dc exciter
now on this axis now instead putting putting the field current in reciprocal per unit system I am
put this is field current in non-reciprocal per unit system right PU Ief and this is per unit Ex. Okay
therefore, now you can see in this equation that for any value of Ex right the field current
required will be so much right. Now I call this quantity as A and the field current required
corresponding to the air gap line that is the, if we neglect the saturation and loading effect field
current required is denoted by B okay then this saturation function which we have defined can be
written as simply A minus B divided by B.

Okay and by the basic definition of Kx the Kx can be expressed again in terms of the per unit
output voltage of the exciter and the per unit field current. Okay now here we have a term that is
Kx is equal to Rg divided by Lef Ex bar Ief bar. Okay therefore what we do is that we define
another ah term which we call as Lfu is equal to Lef Iefo Exo bar that is for a given operating
condition right you can denote this term as Lfu that is this Lef Ief divided by Ex, you can call this
term as Lfu.
(Refer Slide Time: 36:35)

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:32)

Now if you denote this term by Lfu then our equation will reduce in a standard form that is Eef bar
equal to Ke Ex bar Se Ex bar Ex plus Te d Ex bar upon dt that is you can see this equation here that
you have all per unit voltages, saturation function which we as I have told you that can be
computed from the constant load resistance ah saturation curve okay.

Now once we have come to this level we can write this expression in the form of a transfer
function model because when I say that I want to develop the excitation system model then we
can express this model this is now the excitation system model of a dc exciter. Okay now this
can be put in a compact form in the transfer function model that is what you do is that you take
the Laplace transform of all these quantities right and when you express this in the transfer
function model form it looks like this.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:30)

We have seen you just um look at this equation if you look at this equation what is to be done is
at one summing point you have the term Ke Ex to this Ke Ex, you add this term these are the two
algebraic terms, okay you add these two terms subtract from Ief that is Eef okay and when this
whole quantity is integrated you will get Ex right. Therefore this model come something like this
in the form here is Ex therefore you this is the gain KE therefore output from this block will be KE
into Ex output from this block will be a saturation quantity that is Vx which is Ex into Se Ex okay
these two are added and subtracted from Eef.

## (Refer Slide Time: 41:48)

Now whatsoever comes is multiplied by this transfer function you get the Ex therefore the
transfer function model of a separately excited dc exciter is given here these quantities all these
quantities are expressed KE of TE KE and the saturation function right they can be easily
computed from the relations which have been derived. For example Ke is equal to Ref by Rg TE is
equal to Lfu by Rg and SE Ex bar is equal to Se bar Ex bar Ref by Rg right. Therefore these
quantities are all known to us and these are obtained from the parameters of the dc exciter and
the constant resistance saturation curve.

Now this block diagram which I have just shown can be further simplified and put in the form of
a first order transfer function because here we have seen actually it is a first order transfer
function therefore, the whole thing can be simplified and you can make this model as a small
perturbation model is only small change in the field voltage applied to the exciter and small
change in the output voltage delta Ex right can be written in the form of K upon 1 plus s times T
because we are whenever we represent any system right we always try to develop a model with
input output quantities okay and the the transfer function models are always always linear
models non-linear models actually we do not have anything like transfer functions okay.

Now the model which I have developed here will be applicable for one operating condition for
once you take one particular operating condition and take small perturbations around that then a
small perturbation model is put in the form of a transfer function model right these quantities K
and ST are given by these equations.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:08)

Here, K is equal to 1 upon BEX SE EFDo plus KE, I will just explain this term Bx separately and T
is expressed as TE divided by BEX SE EFDo plus KE, where the SE Ex of the saturation curve you
know this is the non-linear saturation ah function this is modelled by this exponential function a
constant AEX e to the power BEX EFDo at any operating condition at any operating condition right
we can find out the value of SE E Exo either graphically or if you have modelled this saturation
function by this this exponential function where these terms will be known to you right then that
is why actually the the time the constant K and this T are expressed in terms of the the
parameters of saturation function and all other parameters like KE is there TE is there right. Now
next point is that we will develop the model for a self-excited dc exciter okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:42)

(Refer Slide Time: 44:47)

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:21)

Now the self-excited dc exciter will like this you have synchronous I am sorry, the armature of
the dc exciter, this is the field winding of the dc exciter. We will have some regulating rheostat in
series with this field winding right and the output of the AVR, output of the AVR will be
connected in series with the field circuit and put across the armature that is in case suppose if it is
not a regulated one right then we will connect this field winding directly across the armature but
here what we do is that in series with the field winding we connect the output of the regulator
right. So that here here we can write the Eef equal to VR plus ExVR plus Ex that is in case it was a
separately excited exciter Eef will be as same as VR but now Eef is going to VR plus Exn. Now with
this change this is the only change with this change one can develop the complete model of the
self-excited dc exciter the that is in the equation which we had derived earlier that is 16.22 we
substituted substituting equation 16.22 in equation 16.13 right that is wherever we had this Eef
we are putting VR plus Ex other things are same because that is at the only change actually in the
circuit.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:32)

Okay when this model is simplified simplified you will find actually that the same model which
we develop for separately excited dc exciter is applicable except the definition of KE now
becomes Ref divided by Rg minus one this is only difference other things are exactly same that is
this model see this model this was the model developed for a separately separately excited dc
exciter right therefore, the KE which was defined is now modified for a self-excited dc exciter
and the value of KE comes out to be Ref by Rg minus 1 and other definitions are same.

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:12)

Okay now with these definitions, okay we have completed the model for dc excitation system
that is self-excited as well as and what we see here is that it comes out to be a first order model
the model is a first order model. Okay now when we go for ac excitation system, ac excitation
system the in ac excitation system we have the main source of field power is ac generator, an
alternator. The output of this alternator is rectified with the help of 3 phase full wave bridge
rectifier now this 3 phase full wave bridge rectifier may be controlled or uncontrolled.

Okay now to in order to develop this model model ah we account for the demagnetizing effect or
the armature reaction effect separately in the case dc exciter. We have accounted for the armature
reaction and the saturation together while in the ac exciter the practice is to separately account
for armature reaction and and the characteristic of the ac exciter which is plotted under no load
condition there is open circuit characteristic plotted under no load condition and the open circuit
characteristic right because open circuit characteristic always under no load condition right. The
open circuit characteristic is used here and the saturation is defined making use of the open
circuit characteristic that is you plot open circuit characteristic on this axis I am putting the per
unit exciter field current and it is the per unit VE. Now this VE is is not the voltage which is
applied to the field winding of the synchronous generator but VE is the output of the exciter okay
and the saturation function which is required here in this model the saturation function is
obtained from the open circuit characteristic. Okay now to account for the armature reaction
effect we have one more block here where this the actual field current Ifd is multiplied with the
multiplying factor KD which is called demagnetizing factor and that is KD into Ifd is added at
this point therefore.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:50)

If we see the complete model the difference between the dc exciter and ac exciter is one is this
term that is we are putting additional term to account for the demagnetizing effect, second is that
this saturation function is obtained from OCC right and third thing is that the output here is the
terminal voltage of the exciter not the voltage applied to the field winding because this voltage
which is the output of the exciter is rectified and fed to the field winding therefore there is a
rectifier in between, this is all main difference between the dc exciter and ac exciter.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:56)

Now as I have told you that the this is saturation is obtained by this formula AB minus B. The
output of the rectifier is denoted by Efd that is a function Fex a multiplying factor Fex into VE, this
is very important this Fex is very complex function and as we will see actually that we have to
model the rectifier characteristic. The 3 phase rectifiers 3 phase rectifiers when they see the
system there will be the the input impedance is purely purely inductive in nature input
impedance is purely reactive in nature and this impedance has the effect of delaying the
commutation commutation and when the there is some delay in the commutation commutation
means the change of current from one valve to the another valve right and this affects the output
voltage now for modeling the 3phase rectifiers we always define 3 different modes, mode 1
mode 2, mode 3.These 3 modes are depending upon what is the load current, how much current
it is supplying right, it is very non-linear characteristic.

Therefore to obtain the characteristic of the rectifier or this is rectifier regulation model what is
done is the output of this ac exciter is multiplied with the multiplying factor which is obtained
through this loop that is you have VE multiplied some term you get Efd, this multiplying factor as
I have just now told you is Fe Fex, Fex is the multiplying factor. Now this Fex is obtained obtained
from Ief Ifd there is a field current flowing in this field winding of the synchronous generator and
the output voltage that is you obtained a non-linear obtain function IN equal to Kc Ifd by VE that is
uh using this terminal voltage which is available what is the field current which is supplying we
obtain a current IN and this Fex function is a non-linear function of IN that is Fex is equal to a
function of IN.
(Refer Slide Time: 53:28)

## (Refer Slide Time: 54:46)

Now here here in mode one mode one f IN is equal to 1.0 minus .577 IN where, IN is less than
.433, this is in the mode 1 whether operating in mode 2, f IN is equal to square root of .75 minus
IN square where IN is greater than .433 and less than .75 and we are operating in mode 3 this
function f IN is equal to 1.732 into 1 minus IN where, IN is free than greater than .75 and less than
one that is this non-linear function, okay is different for different modes and they are they can be
computed using these expressions.
(Refer Slide Time: 55:04)

## (Refer Slide Time: 55:12)

(Refer Slide Time: 55:43)

While IN is computed knowing knowing this Ifd and VE and this factor Kc which is the
commutation commutation reactance Kc is the, this Kc stands for a constant which depends
commutation reactance right. Now with this I conclude my presentation saying actually that we
have developed the non-reciprocal per unit system for excitation system and we have developed
the models of the dc excitations, dc exciter that is self-excited and separately excited and ac
exciter right. We will continue the discussion on modeling in our next lecture. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 17
Modeling of Excitation System (Contd.)

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

Last time we have discussed the modeling of DC exciters, AC exciters and today we will discuss
the modeling of some more important comp1nts of the excitation system and then we will
discuss a few typical excitation system models at the end. Now in any excitation system we have
a regulator AC regulator and the output signal of the regulator is amplified right and for that we
use amplifiers. The amplifiers may be electronic amplifiers may be magnetic amplifiers or
rotating amplifiers right. Now these amplifiers, we will just see how these amplifiers are model a
basic model of a amplifier whether it is rotating or whether it is electronic can be put in this form
that is a amplifier can be presented by the gain constant KA and a time constant TA that is the
transform function of the amplifier is KA divided by 1 plus s times TA.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:41)

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:10)

Now this amplifier will have the maximum and minimum limits that it respective what is the
input signal coming the output will be limited to the maximum value because this VRmax and
VRmin. For example, if you take the electronic amplifier okay there is always saturation and
therefore the maximum value which is available will be determined by the characteristic of
electronic amplifier.
Now these 2 time constants KA and these 2 constants, the gain constant KA and this time constant
TA play very significant roll in the stability of the excitation system and therefore these
parameters are required to be tuned. The next, the next important comp1nt of the excitation
system is the excitation system stabilizer, the excitation system stabilizer is a closed is a closed
loop system to stabilize the the performance of the exciter itself okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 04:02)

Therefore here, if I consider in general and exciter having its armature and field winding right
the output of the exciter we represent as Ex. Now the this 1 simplest arrangement for stabilization
which I have shown here is using a ah transformer that is you take a transformer and connect the
primary of the transformer across the output of the exciter and the output of this transformer it is
the secondary of this transformer is used to give a signal for stabilization.

Now here in this arrangement you can see here that this V error is the signal or error signal
coming from the regulator that is from the summing point. In any regulator, we will have a
summing point right and we get the error signal. Now to this error signal we separate this signal
which is the output of the this transformer, okay you consider this transformer and this signal
which you see here actually is Verr minus V2 right. This signal is amplified and fed to the field
winding of the exciter therefore here is a feedback loop.

Now this feedback loop is used for stabilizing the exciter this is called the exciter in system
stabilizer right. Now we will just see something more about how this exciter system stabilizer is
model that is we will develop a transformer function model of the exciter system stabilizer. Now
to develop the transformer function model what we require is that what the transfer function is
relating V1 to V2 that is V1 is the input signal and V2 is the output signal. We will relate this V1 to
V2, now this can be d1 by writing the basic circuit equations that is you can assume actually that
this is the primary of the transformer has resistance R1 self-inductance L1 and mutual inductance
M.

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:45)

Okay, then the primary circuit equation can be written as V1 equal R1 i1 plus sL1 i1 plus s times
M i2. Okay therefore here we are using this Laplace transform variable s, okay instead of d by dt
okay therefore the basic equation is V1 is equal to R1 i1 plus L1 times d i1 by dt plus M times d i2
by dt right therefore, this derivative term we have replaced by Laplace transform operator s. The
output voltage V2 can be written as R2 i2, L2 times d i2 by dt this is again written as s times L2 i2
plus s times M into i1. Okay they are the 2 basic equations which can be written for the next
stabilizer transformer.

Now here 1 important thing which we have to observe is that the current i2 which flows in the
input of amplifier is very low any electronic amplifier or what is your type of amplifier we look
for right their input impedances is very high and therefore the current i2 is practically equal to 0
right. Now when we make this assumption that i2 is 0, we substitute i2 equal to 0 in these 2
equations right then our equations will reduce to this form, V1 equal to R1 plus s L1 into i1 V2
equal to s M times i1 that is in these 2 equations I am substituting i2 equal to 0 right and therefore
the transfer function relating V2 to V1 that is V2 by V1, V2 by V1 can be written as s M divided by
R1 plus times L1 right now you divide both numerator and denominator by R1 right then you will
get the transfer function in the form sKf plus divided by 1 plus s times Tf right where this
constant Kf becomes M divided by R1 this is M divided by R1 and this time constant Tf will
become L1 divided by R1 and therefore, we have a transfer function relating the output voltage
this will be mistake I think there is a mistake here it is V2 by V1, V2 by V1 output to input
transfer function to input V2 by V1 is equal to s times Kf divided 1 plus s times Tf right.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:31)

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:57)

Now these 2 parameters again that is the gain constant Kf and this time constant Tf they are the
important parameters, these parameters are also required to be tuned. Okay further you can see
here actually that this is this represents derivative feedback, this represents a derivative feedback.

In fact in this arrangement, in this arrangement this transformer primary winding is designed to
have high resistance so that when there is no variation of this output voltage, there is no variation
of this output voltage right then there will be no output coming on the secondary of the
transformer right. Therefore since this is the this is the DC voltage here right therefore as as long
as there is fluctuation or variations are taking place in this output voltage there will be a
corresponding feedback signal coming otherwise, the moment actually the we have steady state
operation right then then there is some DC current flowing in this circuit and there will no output
from this stabilizing transformer.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:03)

Now this is 1 arrangement which is used for realizing the derivative feedback although there may
be alternative arrangements to achieve this derivative feedback. Now here, we will just briefly
talk about the limits in the literature documented by IEEE standards or the IEEE standards. We
define the 2 types of limits, 1 is called windup limits, another is called non windup limits. Now I
will just distinguish between what we mean by the windup limits and non- windup limits in
windup limits to illustrate this what we have taken is that we have consider an integrator a
transfer function of an integrator. Now in the windup limit this is the transfer function of the
integrator 1 by s, okay input signal is u output is v. Okay then we are putting actually the limiting
functions LX and LN and the resulting output is y that is the output form this complete limiter is y
while input is u right.

Now here in this arrangement when we look actually this transfer function model of this
integrator then the we can write down equation dv by dt equal to u that is this transfer function
basically represent this first order differential equation. Okay dv by dt equal to u right, now here
in this arrangement in case this v that is the signal v which is coming here that is output of the
integrator if v is greater than LN and less than LX that is it is in this range it is lying in the range
between maximum and minimum then y is equal to v, this y is same as v.

In case this v the signal that is output of the integrator is greater than equal LX then y is set equal
to LX. Okay that is this derivative this derivative of dv by dt equal to u this when it is solved okay
if you get actually the signal v if it exceeds this upper limit LX then the output will be set equal to
LX. This is very simple actually any system any system right the basic concept of the limiter is
that if the signal is exceeding then we set it to the upper or lower limit.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:35)

Similarly, if v is less than equal to LN we set these 2 the lower limit LN right. So that so that the
they the device which is used actually to ah give output v or basically the output y right right, We
will have this ah output confined to the upper and lower limit and when this output is less than
this and greater than this the v is y is equal to v this is very simple this is called actually windup
type limits. There are certain devices when they are used for limiting right then the integrator
function of those devices can be represented by this model.

The another limit or another type of limit is called non windup limit, a non windup limit the the
symbol which is used to represent a non- windup limit is we have this integrator transfer function
1 by s here. The input is u, output is y and instead of putting it outside this LX and LN that is we
had put earlier here. Now they are put along with the block the idea here is basically that this
output y, output y which is going to be produced produced will be confined between LX and LN
right and this out output will never be equal to the what we have given actually in the previous
equation that v, where the v was shown here right therefore there is a limit which is imposed by
the device itself right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:44)

Now the equations which describe the this type of limit is that if y is greater than LN or less than
LX then dy by dt is put to be equal to u that is in this function, if input signal that is the the you
have the output signal y which is within the limits then dy by dt is put to be equal to u right in
case this output is greater than LX then dy by dt becomes 0 and and y equal to LX.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:54)

Similarly if y is less than equal LN and dy by dt is less than 0, okay that is it is it is less as well as
this quantity is less than negative then dy by dt again set to 0 and y is set equal LN. This is the
basic difference between the 2 types of limits that is the windup and non windup type limits
therefore, when you lead the read this literature on excitation systems you will find that these 2
terms are frequently referred.

Now another next component of the excitation system model will be discussed now that is the
low voltage gate and high voltage gate that is HV gate and LV gate. Now we have seen actually in
our discussion on excitation systems, we have to incorporate the under excitation limit and over
excitation limit. Therefore, basically this is a gate where we get we put 2 inputs u and v right the
for for LV gate, LV gate the condition is that if v if v is less than equal to u right then y is equal to
u that is out of the 2, suppose u is less than v then output will be equal to u.

Similarly, if u is greater than v output will be equal to v that is ah a very simple ah gate where we
have 2 inputs 1 output the this gate will always ensure actually that output is equal to the smaller
of the 2 inputs and the next type of gate is called HV gate, HV gate where input signals are again
u and v output is y right. Now here if u is greater equal to v right, y equal to u it means the output
is equal to the larger of the 2 signals, if u is less than v, less than v then output is y is equal to v
because here v is greater v is bigger than u right. Therefore, these 2 gates are also required
actually to model the complete excitation systems because we have to we have to implement the
under excitation limit and over excitation limit and these limits are ah realized by using these H V
and LV gates.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:38)

## (Refer Slide Time: 20:42)

The next important component of excitation system is the terminal voltage transducer and load
compensator, terminal voltage transducer and load compensator. We have discussed is our
previous discussion the need for load compensator and the function performed by the load
compensator. Now the this block is used to compute a voltage VCI, VCI which is derived by by
adding a voltage drop Rc plus j time Xc into It to the terminal voltage Et right and therefore, so far
this block is concern input will be the terminal voltage a phasor quantity, It is the terminal current
of the machine and these 2 quantities are processed here in this block and we get a signal VCI
which is a magnitude of this this signal Et plus plus Rc plus j times Xc into It okay.

Now this signal VCI okay is when it is processed right there will be some time delay in the
processor and therefore this time delay is represented by this transfer function 1 they are by 1
plus s times TR. Now this time constant TR is generally very small in many cases of a many
studies or many simulation studies, this time constant can be even neglected but its value is
generally very small therefore we can say that the terminal voltage transducer and load
compensator is having 2 blocks, the first processing block where we get a signal which is
obtained by computing this expression and taking the magnitude of this expression and then it
passes through the first order transfer function which represent the time delay of the transducer
okay.

Now we have come to a stage where we will be in a position to discuss the complete model of
the excitation systems. Now for discussing this complete model, let us let us again look into the
ah models which were developed for DC exciter and AC exciters because I will be discussing
only 3 models, 1 is known as DC1A model IEEE DC1A model another is IEEE AC1A model
and third is IEEE ST1A model. In the IEEE, IEEE standard 1992 right it has large number of
models, now the the substitutes which are put here I will just mention why these different
substitutes are left that is DC1A that is initially when the first publication came they were called
as DC exciters or DC IEEE DC model or IEEE DC exciter model, IEEE AC exciter model, IEEE
ST or static excitation system model.

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:34)

Then in 1981the IEEE gave another report where to distinguish this first generation model from
the second generation model they put as subscript 1 they called DC1, AC1, AC2 like AC2 like
that therefore 10 different models were given then in 1992 when they further revised right these
models were added 1 more subscript that is DC1A that is A was added then somewhere in 1996
when another we can say report came where DCA was replaced by B. Therefore you will find
actually in the last or the recent report they have used the symbols say DC1B or AC1B, B stands
for that somewhere in 1990, we distinguish from the different models.

Now here since it is not possible to draw this model in totality on 1 sheet right therefore, what I
have d1 here to illustrate, we will take we will represent actually the various building blocks
separately and these blocks will be assembled. Okay now if you look actually the DC exciter
model then in this DC exciter model we can say that output is EFD or EX and input is the output
of the regulator that is VR that is Eef equal to VR therefore I will be representing this DC exciter
model with the help of a block okay, by saying that input is VR or output is EFD. Okay therefore
to draw all these things in the same sheet becomes very complicated and it is not possible to
show in a small sheet.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:32)

Now when you look at the complete model for the IEEE type DC1A excitation system that is the
IEEE type DC1A excitation system is shown here. This block represent the DC exciter model
which is now we have developed right which has saturation function which has 1 upon s time T
and also the constant K right all these are part of this model, output is EFD and input is VR. Then
we have 1 model is called amplifier model that is we require the amplifier right therefore I am
just showing the amplifier with non-windup limits that is here in this block diagram the amplifier
is transfer function is KA divided by 1 plus s times TA with those VRmax and VRmin limits then
input to this amplifier comes through an HV gate, HV gate and here here this HV gate will get a
signal from a transfer function this is normally called compensator that is that is for obtaining the
desired performance of the DC excitation system, we may add a compensator in the forward loop
okay.
Therefore this is basically a compensator, okay. The output of this compensator is compared with
the with the under excitation limit and we know actually that where this under excitation limit
okay the output will be consider this this is realized using actual gate that is output will be
corresponding to the higher of the 2 signals. So that we will realize actually that the the
excitation system will not go below a certain limit prescribed that is the under excitation limit.

Now here I have put the star here to show that this under excitation limit can be realized by
feeding the signal at the summing point also therefore there are 2 alternative ways of feeding this
under excitation limit that is this signal if it is not required to be fed if it is fed somewhere right
summing point. Okay then we can get rid of this HV gate now the first summing point which I
am shown here we have reference voltage the output Vc that is Vc is coming from terminal
voltage transducer and load compensator and from the reference we are subtracting this Vc that is
the output from the terminal voltage transducer and load compensator.

Okay then this Vs is the auxiliary signal which comes from power system stabilizer right
therefore in this summing point. We have these 3 signals shown then the next summing point.
We have put the derivative feedback is VF is the output of the excitation system stabilizer okay
and this VF is subtracted from the signal which is the V reference minus Vc plus Vs and the under
excision under excitation limit can be injected here itself right therefore, there are 2 alternative
ways of realizing the under excitation limit Now this this read feedback transfer function is what
we have derived earlier the s times K upon 1 plus s times TF okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:18)

Now this transfer function model represents the both both self-excited, exciter self-excited DC
exciter and separately excited DC exciter. The only difference is in the in the parameters of the
model particular the Ke right. Now here one interesting thing which is d1 here is that when we
have a self-excited DC exciter, we set the parameters in such a fashion so that we get the desired
value of this field voltage with VR equal to 0, under steady state condition, steady state condition
right the exciter ah field rheostat is set is such a fashion. So that the desired value of field voltage
is obtained with with output from the regulator equal to 0 that is VR is equal to 0 with VR equal
to 0. We should be in the position into get the required value of EFD.

The typical parameters of the DC1A exciter model are given below that is the parameters KA is
187 TA is .89, TE is 1.15, AEX equal .014, BEX is 1.15, KF 0.058, TF 0.62, TB .06, TC .173, TR
0.05 and VRmax 1.7 and VRmin 1. minus 1.7, the KE is computed so that initially VR equal to 0 and
load compensator is not used that is RC and XC will be set equal to 0 when they are not using the
load compensator RC and XC will be set equal to 0. Now if you see here actually then for this
excitation system model we have large number of time constants gain settings right and the
dynamic performance of this model is depends upon this time constants and when you design the
excitation system right then these parameters have to be properly optimized or tuned.

So that we get a required dynamic performance this is a quite an important exercise which is to
be done right at the design stage and when you install this excitation system the excitation system
parameters are required to be tuned to achieve the required dynamic performance, I have talked
about what we mean by the required dynamic performance of the excitation system, could you
just tell me what are the required dynamic performance suppose I look from the point of view of
say frequency response of the system what are the parameters which are set for right that is that
is let me just mention here that the 3 parameters which we call is the gain margin, phase margin,
bandwidth and overshoot right and the MP which was the overshoot that was to be 1.0 5 to 1. 15,
phase margin should be greater than equal 40 degrees, similarly the gain margin should be
greater than equal to 6 DB and it should have a high bandwidth, higher the bandwidth better will
be the time response right. The next model we will discuss is the model for AC exciter.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:35)

Now here, let us again look into the model of the AC exciter which we had developed earlier.
The AC exciter model is similar to the DC exciter model except it has additional features there in
this AC exciter model the demagnetizing effect of the load current is accounted by putting a
constant KD and the field current IFD right this is 1 point, second is here output of this exciter is
1VE VE which will be further processed through the rectifier or will be rectified and we fed to the
field winding of the synchronous machine right therefore, while modeling the complete AC
excitation system I have represented this portion in the form of a block diagram I will say this
portion when I just put from this portion this whole thing I {represin} ((00:36:54 min)) I am
representing in the form of a block diagram that is you can see here the input is VR 1 output is
VFE, I am showing this VFE separately in the model VE and input is IFD. Okay now this to about
the congestion on the same diagram, the another very important component of this AC excitation
system model is the rectifier regulation model.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:29)

In this rectifier regulation model again input is VE and field current IFD the output is EFD
therefore, again I will be showing this as input output model showing this VE as the input, IFD as
the input and EFD as the output. This we have already seen actually that to to account for this
rectifier voltage regulation the process is that we take the field voltage which is there which is
flowing in the field winding of the synchronous generator. We take the output voltage of the AC
exciter these 2 quantities are fed into this block to compute a current IN this IN equal to KC IFD by
VE.

## Now this constant KC, KC is function of commutating reactance, KC is the function of

commutating reactance. Okay then after computing this IN we fed this to a non-linear transfer
function that is FEX equal to f of IN and the output of this block that is FEX, FEX will be the out of
this block right it is multiplied with VE to get EFD that is ultimately we can say that the as the
the applied to the field wining of synchronous generator and the voltage which is produced at the
terminal of AC exciter they vary and this variation is determined by this multiplying factor FEX
that is FEX into VE equal to EFD. Okay therefore so far this model is concerned I have shown as
input as VE and IFD and output EFD.

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:55)

We had also seen that then when the rectifier operates in different modes, different modes the
function fn is defined as I function of IN that is this function is the function of IN is defined as
mode 1 operation, 1 minus 0.557 into IN if IN is less than equal to 0.433 that is this 3 phase
bridge type rectifier right is model model right. So that we identify 3 different modes of
operation mode 1 mode 2 mode 3 right and in mode 1 the IFD is such that or the field current
IFD is such that the IN which is computed quantity is less than equal to 0.433 right and this is the
mode 1 operation. Similarly in the mode 2 operation the this non-linear function is square root of
0.75 minus IN square where, IN is in the limit .433 and .75 okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 41:15)

In the mode 3 operation this this function f IN equal to 1.732 into 1 minus IN where IN is greater
than .75 greater than equal to .75 and less than equal to 1 right. Now I have given you the
expression for computing this quantity IN earlier okay. Now the as I told you that in AC
excitation systems we have different possible arrangements the model which I will be discussing
here that is AC1A model that is IEEE type AC1A model right.

This model represents the the brushless excitation system it represents the brushless excitation
system. Now in the brushless excitation system we have rotating AC exciter armature, rotating
non control rectifiers and the field system right. This is the rotating part and the the control is
excised here by controlling controlling the field current of the AC exciter you will just see here
actually that this is the AC exciter the field system is stationary okay and by having a control
current in the field winding of the AC exciter we control the output of the brushless excitation
system therefore the model which I am discussing here that is AC1A model right, it pertains to it
pertains to the brushless excitation system.
(Refer Slide Time: 42:06)

Similarly, there are other AC excitation system and the other models represent the other type of
excitation systems because this variety of excitation system models have been given to take care
of the different types of excitation systems right because from 1 excitation system to another
excitation systems variations are there is it clear.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:47)

Now this block diagram gives you the complete model for the IEEE type AC1A excitation
system, this is the IEEE type AC1A excitation system model. Now here you can start from the
output side. Now this block diagram represents the rectifier regulation model rectifier regulation
model. We have seen actually that rectifier regulation model input quantity was VE and field
current IFD that is you have to sense the field current of the synchronous generator and this field
current is fed to this and output is EFD. Okay therefore when you want to draw the complete
diagram if this block diagram can be replaced by the AC replaced by the rectifier regulation

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:07)

The components again let us see the comp1nts here were the computation of IN and this non
linear function right therefore basically you compute the value of IN there will be logic function
here. Okay and this will give you the output FEX and ultimately you get the output EFD right this
is the rectifier regulation model. Then the next block is the AC exciter model I have shown
actually that the output of the AC exciter model is VE which is the terminal voltage of the exciter
VE the input were IFD, IFD and the the output from the regulator that is the VR, VR is the therefore
here this summing block I have shown separately. Okay therefore in the summing block VR is
compared with VFE, VFE which is taken as output from AC exciter okay.

Okay, therefore the these 2 blocks can be represented by the detailed model to show the
complete excitation system, this AC excitation system, AC1A model of the excitation system.
Now the rest of these things we can start from the summing point V reference is always required
any excitation system model the V reference is with the positive polarity VC is with negative
polarity that is the output of the terminal voltage transducer and load compensator. We add the
stabilizing signal that is the auxiliary signal Vs the power systems stabilizer output signal Vs that
we will show separately when we talk about power systems stabilizers and the excitation system
stabilizer that is VF this will come as a negative signal therefore here I have shown in the same
summing block all the signals these are the reference voltage, the terminal voltage, the auxiliary
signal that is the power systems stabilizer signal or there may be some other auxiliary signals
also right and the excitation system stabilizer.

The excitation system stabilizer input here VFE, VFE while when you looked into the DC
excitation system right the input to the excitation system ah stabilizer was EFD that is the voltage
is applied to the field winding state here but here since this is a non-linear function when there is
nothing to be stabilized in this portion right because this relationship is a fixed relationship
between the VE and EFD we have a fixed relationship right and therefore input signal is taken
from the AC exciter that is VFE which we had shown earlier.

This is again a compensator which may or may not be required right this is again for the purpose
of proper stabilization of the whole thing then the amplifier model. We have HV gate for
realizing the under excitation limit UEL HV gate then the LV gate to realize the over excitation
limit. Okay and therefore this becomes the complete model of the field controlled rotating
rectifier excitation system right. Here as I have told you actually that the control is exercised by
controlling the field current of the exciter right. In case you have the stationary rectifier system
stationary rectifier system then control is transferred from field circuit to the rectifier.

You can use control rectifier with different models have different different excitation systems
will bee controlled in a different manner because in the in the case of a brushless excitation
system since the rectifiers are rotating they are not accessible therefore control cannot be put on
the rectifier therefore, they are non controlled rectifiers, the control is on the field circuit of the
exciter.

## (Refer Slide Time: 50:41)

The last model, we will discuss will be the static excitation system but before I talk about the
static excitation system the typical parameters of AC1A exciter model are given here KA 400, TA
0. 0 2, this in this particular case TB and TC are set to be 0 it means compensatory is not required.
KF is 0. 03, TF is 1.0, KE is 1, TE is .8, KC .2, what is this KC? A parameter which is function of
commutating reactance and it is required to take care of the rectifier regulation characteristic, KD
equal to 0.38 what it this KD, KD we have discussed number of time.

This is to take care of the armature reaction effect of the alternator that is AC exciter is an
alternator right therefore KD is 0.38 maximum minimum limits are 0. 7 .33 and 6.6 that is minus
6.6 6 that is minimum. VAmax the output of the output of the amplifier can be 15 or minus 15 and
the saturation function is modelled by AEX equal to .1 and BEX equal to .03 right again these
parameters are required to be tuned actually and these are the typical tuned parameters of a
particular system therefore this they are representative this should not be considered to be the
optimized parameter that just representative to give some idea about the typical parameters of the
excitation system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:27)

The last excitation system which we will talk about the static excitation system model, the static
excitation system model here I will discuss the excitation system model with exciter transformer
we have a controlled rectifier that is the excitation system power is derived through a exciter
transformer this is a 3 phase transformer right and the output of this is rectified using controlled
rectifier and fed to the field winding of the machine, of the synchronous machine through slip
rings right and therefore our regulator acts on controlled rectifier that is AC regulator which gets
inputs from current transformer po10tial transformer this will directly act on the control rectifier
this is the very simple excitation system model time is over actually. I will just complete here of
course I may have to complete afterwards some more portion time is little bit over actually right.
(Refer Slide Time: 53:34)

The the model looks like this the model ah looks like this it has all the functions similar the
summing point is same your V reference, VC under excitation limit stabilizing signal, the
excitation system stabilizer right. This signal is called VI this is the whole summation or VI it is
fed to HV gate this is fed to HV gate to realize the under excitation limit then there is a
compensator which is put here again. Okay then amplifier and the output signal which comes
here is VS.

Now another one which is shown here is that the stabilizing signal can be put at this point as or
add the summing point itself there are 2 alternative ways you can put the stabilizing signal here
right and the this is fed to under excitation limiter then we have over excitation limiter and we
get the output voltage from this. Now here this EFD max is function of terminal voltage that is Et
VRmax and the KC the constant depending upon the commutating reactance and IFD that is this
maximum voltage is function of terminal voltage because because the potential transformer takes
its input from the terminal voltage itself right and minimum is Et into VRmin. Okay it also has a
field current under limiter field current limiter also is provided here right. This field current
limiter it relays that you take this limiting value uh compared with the field current then you
have some gain setting and fed here.

Now this completes the presentation of the different type of excitation system models and I
suggest you to look into the IEEE standard which is published in 1992 right for further details
about the excitation system models. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture -18
Small Signal Stability of a Single Machine Infinite Bus System

Friends, today we start with the study of small signal stability. We shall devote our discussion
towards the small signal stability of a single machine infinite bus system that is for
understanding the concepts related to the small signal stability, we will consider a simple system
and that is a single machine connected to an infinite bus. Okay the small signal stability is the
ability of the system to maintain synchronism under small perturbations. The small perturbations
continuously occur in any power system due to changes in loads and generations.

Now for analyzing the small signal stability of any system, the system model can be linearized
around an operating point that is the disturbances are considered to be so small or incremental in
nature. So that we can develop a linear model of the system around the operating point, once we
develop the linear model of the system we can understand the behaviour of the system under
small perturbations, various parameters of the system which affect the stability of the system
further the moment we have a linear model we can apply the linear control system theory for
designing the controllers.

Now here when I talk about the controller particularly we are interested in designing the
excitation system control that is the voltage regulator and the power system stabilizers as we will
see that in any power system right, the actual system is some what complex it is not as simple as
a machine connected to infinite bus is always a multi machine system right. Now in any multi
machine system as you know that the system will have different modes of oscillations, the modes
of oscillations are classified as as local modes of oscillations, inter area modes of oscillations and
the control modes okay.

Now, primary requirement of the system is that this system should have for stability this will
have positive synchronizing torque coefficient and positive damping torque coefficient. The
stability of the system will be affected if any of these two torques or any of these two torque
coefficients become negative. Okay now to start with we will study first a simple model
considering constant flux linkages in the field winding that is we will first start with the constant
flux linkage model, next we will include the the field winding dynamics that is we will consider
next step the constant field voltage and must we assume these voltages applied to the field
winding as a constant okay we the model is developed so that we take care of the the dynamics
of the field winding that is changes in the field flux linkages.

This particular stage when we say that the applied voltage is fixed means it is a practically a
manual control after studying this model with constant field voltage, we will extend it to the
model which will include the automatic voltage regulator and we will study the affect of the
parameters of the excitation system and gain setting of the automatic voltage regulator on the
stability of the system. Then the next step will be we include auxiliary controllers that is the
power system stabilizer that is this the stage by step development will give us the complete
insight into the small signal stability problem.

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:52)

The system which we consider for small signal stability to start with is a machine infinite bus
system where a synchronous generator is connected to a large system which can be characterized
by a infinite bus, the equivalent circuit can be represented as generator the we represent the
terminal voltage of the generator, the line is represented by an equivalent impedance Z
equivalent equal to RE plus j times XE and connected to an infinite bus right.

Now here here even in a multi machine system, multi machine system right. Now if you if you
take out one generator and the connected line right then just will be system if you represent by a
infinite bus then it becomes a machine infinite bus system. Now as we continue our studies to
simplify our model and understanding the resistance of the line or the equivalent resistance R E
we may may be ignored.

Now when we consider a classical model that is we assume the field flux linkage is to be
constant. Okay now when we consider the classical model of the synchronous generator then the
classic the synchronous generator is represented by a constant voltage behind direct axis
transient reactance right. Now here we will represent the voltage behind transient reactance by
the symbol E prime and the voltage of the infinite bus as EB, okay and the phase angle, phase
angle between E prime and EB is denoted by delta right and that is the power angle of the system.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:21)

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:15)

Now for this machine infinite bus system we have derived earlier the the power angle
characteristic okay the power angle characteristic to derive we can start with the the terminal
current of the synchronous generator as the E prime minus EB. Now here we are representing the
ah voltage behind transient reactance if it is represented as the as E prime angle 0 that is you you
consider this as a reference voltage generally we do other way around we consider the infinite
bus voltage as reference and the internal voltage leads the reference voltage by some angle delta
okay but it does not matter very much.
We can write down the expression for current It this is the first step for solving this problem by
this what we know will be the the you know whenever we start solving the problem the terminal
voltage of the machine will be known to us right and therefore, once the terminal voltage is
known we can find out the internal voltage by this formula E prime equal to Eto plus j times Xd
prime into Ito, where here now we denote this total reactance Xd, XT as Xd prime plus XE earlier
the power angle characteristic which we derived was relating the terminal voltage with the
internal voltage but now here we will be deriving the power angle characteristic relating the
infinite bus voltage with respect to the internal voltage. Okay therefore the total reactance which
comes will be Xd prime plus XE where XE is the reactance of the transmission line okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:14)

Then the complex power behind Xd prime is given by S pi, S prime is equal to P plus j times Q
prime you can call it P prime. Okay this is E prime into It complex I am sorry It conjugate, It
conjugate that is the complex power is P prime plus j times Q prime and this is obtained by
multiplying this voltage E prime by conjugate of It, okay when you make the simplifications.

We can write down the expression for air gap torque. Now we all know actually that in case we
neglect losses right then the air gap torque is equal to the the power output impairing your
system that when you consider the per unit system then the power output at the terminal of the
machine is same as the air gap torque. Okay and this is our standard power angle characteristic,
now here at this stage I would like to mention that in case instead of having a non-salient pole
machine, if we have a salient pole machine right then the power angle characteristic will be
different from what is given here, it will have a another term which is known as the reluctance
torque. Okay and one can write down the expression for the power angle but this is the primary
requirement to start with. The next step is you will linearize you linearize the expression for air
gap torque around an operating point.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:04)

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:56)

Our initial operating condition is characterized by the angle delta equal to delta naught that when
we are operating and transferring certain amount of power right the initial value of delta is delta
equal to delta naught, okay. The linearized equation is written in the form delta Te is equal to
partial derivative of T with respect to delta into delta delta where this expression is very simple
there is only a Te is function of function of one variable only here. We are assuming this E prime
and EB constant, okay. The infinite bus voltage assumed to be constant the voltage behind
transient reactance is assumed to be constant the total line reactance is constant and therefore the
torque is function of delta only one variable and therefore when you obtain the small change in
the air gap torque delta T is equal to partial derivative of delta T divided delta delta into delta
delta.

Therefore, here basically this partial derivative becomes derivative term itself right there is no
other you can say parameter on which the Te depends okay but in case actually these are also
variables right then when I talk about this term it is the partial derivative with respect to delta not
delta when you take other terms also then you have to write the partial derivative of this quantity
with respect to not delta say when you take this partial derivatives there there so many variables
will be there.

You have to keep on taking all the variables then you will have delta delta delta E prime delta E
prime like this it is basically it is actually the Taylor series exponents time to expand the
equation around the operating condition right. Now we come to the basic equations of motion,
we have developed earlier the swing equation of the synchronous generator and the swing
equation is a second order non-linear differential equation. This equation can be represented by
two first order linear I am sorry 2 first order non linear differential equations it { it will continue
to be non linear.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:43)

These two equations are written here as p delta omega r equal to 1 upon 2H Tm minus Te minus
KD delta omega r and second equation is p delta equal to omega naught delta omega r, where
delta omega r is the deviation of the rotor speed with respect to synchronous speed right. The KD
is the damping torque coefficient to for the sake of completeness right, we include damping term
also well earlier when we discussed actually the KD was not explicitly included in the equation
but the complete equation is in this form.
Now when the equation is written in this form the speed deviation the delta omega r x is is
expressed in per unit delta omega r is expressed in per unit the mechanical torque, electrical
torque are also expressed in per unit. We know how to define the initial constant H the time in
this equation is the time instead of putting in per unit we always prefer to express time in second
is right and therefore, the second equation has p delta equal omega naught into delta omega.

Now these are the 2 basic equations around which the the we will be you can say developing the
small signal model using these equations, small signal model and studying the basic concepts of
small signal stability. Now you what we do is that this this these two equations that is 18.5 and
18.6, we will linearize around the operating condition okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:39)

Now to linearize this around the operating condition one assumption here which we are making
is that there is a mechanical power input remains constant that is Tm is constant right and Tm is
equal to the initial power output that is Teo. Okay and therefore when we talk about the small
perturbations our equation will become p delta omega r equal to 1 upon 2 H delta Tm minus Ks
delta delta minus KD delta omega r this delta Tm delta Tm is considered to be a change in
mechanical torque.

Okay but generally this change is included in the model included in the model to obtain the
dynamic performance by giving a small change in the mechanical torque right. Otherwise the
mechanical torque remains constant this delta T term has been replaced by Ks delta delta and
this term Ks is synchronizing torque coefficient right and what will the unit of this coefficient
unit per unit torque. Now in this equation actually be the delta delta is expressed in radians
electrical radians. Okay similarly, the unit for KD the torque in per unit per, sir in previous
equation T delta equals to omega r naught into delta omega r, so all this equation comes because
T delta equal to I think omega naught plus delta omega delta r. Now if you see the basic equation
it is like this, d delta by dt is equals to omega minus omega naught that omega naught is the
synchronous speed okay. Now what we do here is that this difference we do not by in fact
actually this speed actual speed is called omega r is the speed of the rotor. Okay this will do not
this difference is noted by delta omega r. Now what we do is that divide this by omega naught,
so that this quantity becomes in per unit and multiplied by omega naught.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:34)

So that I can represent d delta by dt as as delta omega r into omega naught while this delta omega
r is expressed in per unit. Okay while in this equation in this whole equation delta is expressed in
electrical radians because when you solve these problems, you have to be very clear about the
units. Okay see originally when you see the our swing equation right, it is of the form d omega
divided dt d omega r divided by dt 1 upon 2, I am sorry 2H divided by s 2H divided by omega r
omega r, okay equal to accelerating power okay.

Now here when I express this omega r in per unit this is this is omega naught not omega r this is
omega naught this is omega r right then this term is combined here. Okay so that I have this
coefficient equal to 2H only that is that is when you write the equation in this form, 2H d omega
r by dt equal to Pa. Okay here the this omega r is a per unit further omega r can be represented as
as omega naught plus delta omega r that the omega naught is in this particular case when it is per
unit omega naught will become 1 that is you can put there is a 1plus delta omega r therefore,
when you substitute this expression here I can write down the equation as 2 times H d by dt of
delta omega r equal to Pa, is it okay that is that is since we know actually the derivative of this 1
is 0 therefore d by dt of delta omega r is same as d omega r by dt and that is why when you look
at the swing equation which we have written here.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:58)

Okay original swing equation this is not a linearized equation we can write down this delta
omega r. Okay is it clear actually ah these 2 equations are very important actually because when
you solve a given problem right the it is very important to understand that how the quantities are
expressed what quantities are in per unit? what the unit of time? what is the unit of delta? what
is the unit of speed deviation? all these terms are very important. Okay now when you look at
this equation.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:07)

This is a equation in terms of small variations of speed angle and mechanical torque, okay and
therefore we can take the Laplace transform of this equation right. When you take the Laplace
transform it will become something like this s times delta omega r, s equal to 1 upon 2 H delta
Tm (s), okay minus Ks times delta delta s minus KD times delta omega r s that is in this equation
all these variables are the Laplace transform. Okay and therefore now what we can do is that we
can write down we can write down delta omega rs as 1 upon 2H times this whole expression
okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 27:38)

Now this equation is represented in the block diagram form here at this summasing at this
summation point we have delta Tm Ks times delta delta that is your delta Te that is delta delta is
here delta T and KD times delta omega r. Now when I represent this in the block diagram form
all these variables are the Laplace transform but for the sake of convenience, we may not write
ah delta delta as delta delta with s. Okay but we understand that in the in the block diagram or
the transfer function model all the variables which we represent they are the Laplace transform
of the original variables. Okay delta Tm also delta Tm (s) therefore this is the summation point
where we derive a quantity which is given in this bracket delta Tm minus Ks delta delta minus KD
delta omega.

Now this quantity when it is multiplied, now here it is 2 times Hs when you multiply this by this
block is one upon 2 times Hs right, we get delta omega r here okay. Now the next step here is to
linearize the the second equation. Our second equation was p delta equal to omega naught into
delta omega r but this delta delta is our our actually the delta can be written as delta o plus delta
delta and therefore p delta is same as p delta delta because delta o is constant that is if you take
the derivative of this term that is d delta by dt right then this comes out to be same as d delta
delta by dt.
(Refer Slide Time: 29:09)

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:53)

Okay now if you take the Laplace transform of this equation then it will be s times, s times delta
delta s equal to delta omega r s into omega naught therefore, I can now write down delta delta s
equal to omega naught by s into delta omega r s. Okay therefore the the speed deviation right is
related to the angle deviation by this transfer function omega naught by s. Okay and therefore in
this block diagram the this transfer function omega naught by s relates the angle deviation that is
delta delta to delta omega r. Okay and therefore this block diagram is extremely important to
understand the small signal stability of a power system because we will be developing the
complete model including including additional blocks to this basic block diagram right. Now the
next step to understand the whole thing is that we develop a characteristic equation characteristic
equation of this system right.

Now to develop the characteristic equation, we can make use of this block diagram and relate
this output delta delta this output delta delta is to be related to change in mechanical this is the
input right therefore, if you look at this block diagram input is changed in mechanical torque
output is delta delta therefore this is a single input, single output system. Okay they normally
they call it SISO single input single output system and you can simplify this model and obtain a
simple transfer function relating the delta delta to delta Tm that is first we write down what is
delta delta as omega naught by s 1 upon 2 time Hs into this whole quantity which is delta Tm
minus Ks delta delta minus KD delta omega, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:35)

Now in this equation what we do is that we replace this delta omega r, delta omega r by delta
delta upon omega naught into s right because this relationship is there in the block diagram. You
can see this block diagram relationship delta delta is equal to omega naught by s into delta
omega r right. So that when you look at this equation we have now delta Tm delta delta and other
constant terms.

Okay and therefore when you rearrange the whole thing, you can write the equation in this form
s square delta delta KD by 2H s delta delta plus KS by 2H omega naught delta delta equal to
omega naught by 2H delta Tm right. Now when you equate this expression to 0, we get the
characteristic equation for the system that this is this is the input input term right.
(Refer Slide Time: 33:41)

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:24)

Therefore to to obtain the characteristic equation we can use this expression therefore the
characteristic equation is in the form s square plus KD by 2 Hs plus Ks omega naught by 2H
equal to 0. Since the system which we have considered is a second order system therefore
characteristic equation is also a second order characteristic equation. Now you can see here the
the coefficients are depending upon the damping term KD the system inertia constant H the
synchronizing torque coefficient Ks. Now these are the system parameters further you can easily
see that Ks depends upon the operating condition. Okay it also depends upon the line reactance
whether the expression for Ks is for this single machine infinite bus system the expression for
synchronizing torque coefficient is E prime into EB divided by Xt into cos delta o right and
therefore we can easily see here actually that in this characteristic equation the the coefficients
are function of loading that is system operating condition and system parameters also the Xt
depends upon the line reactance.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:01)

Similarly, it depends upon direct access transient reactance right, now when this equation is
similar to our standard equation in this form s square plus to times zeta omega n into s plus
omega n square and you can identify identify that this coefficient 2 times zeta omega n, 2 times
zeta omega n is equal to KD by 2H. Similarly, this omega n square term that is this term is equal
to KD by 2H while this omega n square term is equal to Ks omega naught divided 2H.

Okay now when you when you obtain the roots of this characteristic equation right the the roots
can be written as s1, s2 the small s s2 equal to minus zeta omega n plus minus j times j times
omega n square root of 1 minus zeta square that is in this case the roots will depend upon
whether they are complex conjugate or real on the value of zeta, if zeta is if zeta is greater than 0
and less than 1 right. We will get these 2 roots as complex conjugate roots right.

Now a system whose zeta is greater than 0 and less than equal to one right we say that the system
is under damped under damped. A system whose zeta is equal to 1 is critically damped is
critically damped and a system whose zeta is greater than 1 is over damped right and and system
whose zeta is less than 0 is unstable it is in negative damping system is unstable right in any
system, we have to ensure that the damping is adequate.
(Refer Slide Time: 37:09)

So that the oscillations which are generated are damped, whenever we design the controller for
the system we have to achieve certain minimum damping for all the modes which are present in
the system right. Now here we can also give some more interpretation to the damping term zeta
that is if you plot these roots in the s plane then assuming that damping zeta is positive the roots
will appear in the s plane because here we, so the real part we call it sigma.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:49)

We call this as omega and this axis and any any root is written as sigma plus minus j omega
right. Now if the system is a stable system like having its complex conjugate or the roots lying in
the left half of the s plane then this term that is this can be this can be is written equal to how
much zeta omega n while this term will be equal to how much omega n square root of 1 minus
zeta square what will be this quantity omega n therefore, this omega n is the distance of the root
from the origin okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 42:15)

Now if you find out this if you look at this angle theta right then cosine theta is equal to zeta
right therefore whenever we perform this Eigen value analysis of the system. We we can draw in
the s plane a line which will represent certain value of zeta that is you can that is suppose this is
your s plane right and if I say that this line represents zeta equal to say .1, this line will represent
zeta equal to say something more than .1, .2 like this.

Now in case all the roots lie on this side of this line it means each mode or there is no mode
whose damping is less than .2 right therefore whenever we design the control for this for
improving the system stability particularly the AVR tuning or power system stabilizer tuning
right, we perform the root locus analysis okay and vary the parameters like gain setting and see
actually that you get the optimum performance but at the same time you ensure actually that no
root is having its damping less than the desired value that therefore this this is a very important
way to to ensure that we do not go to a stage where any do any of the roots is less than or any of
the roots is having its damping less than desired value okay.

Now for this system which we are considering here the omega n is the natural frequency of
oscillation it is given by this formula omega n is equal to square root of Ks omega naught by 2H
and damping ratio zeta is one upon 2 times KD divided by square root of Ks 2H into omega
naught. Okay these 2o terms you can derive and see that you get the value of omega n and zeta
like this. Now the next point which we will study is, see this the two differential equations which
we have derived the linearized differential equations one differential equation was written in this
form, okay the.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:17)

Similarly, we are written data written the second differential equation in the linearized form,
okay. Now you can arrange these two differential equations right and write the model in the
vector matrix form that is finalizing the stability of the system right the most convenient form of
representing the model is vector matrix form that is we write the model in the form of X dot
equal to Ax plus Bu right.

Now these two equations which we have derived can be arranged in this form that is d by dt of
delta omega r equal to minus KD by 2H delta omega r minus Ks by 2H delta delta plus1by 2H
delta Tm second equation is d by dt of delta delta equal to omega naught into delta omega r that is
all. Okay therefore, these two equations which we have derived can be written in the vector
matrix form and when we make use of the the say mat lab for analyzing the system performance
right then we can find out the Eigen value of the system matrix A right for studying the stability
characteristic of the system right.

Now you have to understand very clearly here that this matrix A is function of function of
operating condition and system parameters this I will be you know emphasizing again and again
here that whenever you write down the model in the form X dot equal to Ax plus Bu right then
the basic stability characteristics are determined from the system A matrix. Okay therefore live
let me summarize here that what we have done till now is we have developed the small signal
model for the machine infinite bus system and we have represented this model in the form that is
vector matrix form X dot equal to Ax plus Bu.

We can write down the A matrix we can write down the B matrix and the state variables in this
model are delta omega r and delta delta, these are the state variables while delta e delta Tm in this
case is a input, okay. Now I will just give one more important information that the importance of
this term 2H okay, now to understand this importance of this term 2H, let us look at our swing
equation again.

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:12)

Our swing equation is d by dt omega r equal to 1 upon 2H Ta okay, where omega r is expressed
in per unit, okay. Now now suppose you have a synchronous generator and which is at stand
state 0 speed okay and if you apply the rated torque rated torque then in how much time the
synchronous generator will attain its the rated speed right. Now to obtain the time in which this
synchronous generator will attain its rated speed can be obtained by integrating this equation that
is you integrate this equation assume Ta equal to 1 per unit okay, Ta equal to 1 per unit and just
tell me in uh quickly in how much time the synchronous generator will attain its rated speed.

Okay the synchronous generator will attain its rated speed starting from 0 towards rated value
when it is applied with a rated rated accelerating torque that is Ta is equal to 1 per unit and
therefore this time 2H is also denoted as the mechanical starting time of the synchronous
generator that is TM is equal to 2H therefore, if you see in the model we have a term 1upon 2H
therefore this 2H is similar to a time constant and is the mechanical starting time of the
synchronous generator in literature you will find actually that many times we represent this term
this TM by a symbol capital M that is you will find actually when you read the literature that this
block 1 upon 2 times Hs is also represented as one upon Ms.

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:42)

(Refer Slide Time: 49:57)

Now here you should not get confused with the term M, the angular momentum of the rotor right
the M here is actually the in the small del will be equal to 2H and which is the mechanical
starting time of the synchronous generator rotor when it is subjected to a rated torque. Similarly,
if the machine is running at constant speed a rated speed and if you apply a retarding torque
equal to the rated torque then its speed will come down to 0 in a time equal to 2H right.

Therefore, that also gives the information that how much time the machine will take to retard
from its lateral speed to 0speed therefore with this today I will conclude my presentation by
saying that we have developed a linear model of machine infinite bus system considering
considering constant field flux linkages. Okay we have also studied the ah the the the importance
of damping ratio zeta right and whenever we design the system right the zeta is going to be one
of our design parameters, okay. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 19
Small Signal Stability of a Single Machine Infinite Bus System (Contd.)

Today, we continue our study on small signal stability of a single machine infinite bus system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:17)

Now today we will include the effect of synchronous machine field circuit dynamics, in the small
perturbation model. Earlier the the transfer function model which we developed earlier in this
transfer function model. We assumed the constant field flux model, okay or the voltage behind
direct axis transient reactance were assumed to be constant that is the classical model now we go
one step further and include the dynamics of the synchronous synchronous machine field
circuits.

Okay now when we developed the synchronous machine model, okay at that time I emphasis
actually that if we neglect the amortisseurs then the synchronous generator can be represented by
a first order model that is the synchronous machine equations there was only one differential
equation. The differential equation was corresponding to the field flux linkages and the equation
when it is written written considering time in seconds is put as P psi fd equal to omega naught
into efd minus Rfd ifd.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:36)

Now this term omega naught comes because we are now considering the time in seconds rather
than in per unit. Okay when we developed this equation in per unit it was simply d by dt of psi fd
equal to efd minus Rfd ifd. Okay now here we will do once that transformation because this this
equation is written considering this efd and ifd in reciprocal per unit system. Okay we replace this
efd by this term using this equation Efd equal to Lad by Rfd efd that is where we derived the
synchronous machine model.

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:47)

We introduced this term efd and basically this introduction was to to link the non reciprocal per
unit system to reciprocal per unit system and here when I replace this efd by the field flux, field
voltage that is Efd is the field voltage or output of the exciter right. The equation becomes p psi fd
equal to omega naught Rfd divided by Ladu Efd minus omega naught Rfd ifd right. Therefore, this is
the additional equation that has to be considered while accounting for the field flux dynamics or
we can say the field circuit dynamics.

## (Refer Slide Time: 04:57)

The complete model considering the rotor dynamics and the field flux dynamics can be written
in this form that is the these two first two equations represent the dynamics of the synchronous
machine rotor, okay these two equations are well known to us. Now to this these two equations
when I add this third equation that is d by dt of psi fd equal to omega naught Rfd Ladu into Efd
minus omega naught Rfd ifd. Okay now these three equations equations right describe the the
complete behavior of the synchronous machine under dynamic conditions including the field flux
dynamics while while writing these equations we have made one assumption and that
assumption is that the the amortisseurs are ignored , another assumption which we have made is
that the transformer the transformer voltage terms are also neglected and the speed deviation that
is the omega r term which appears in the stator equations, stator voltage equations that omega r is
also assumed to be equal to 1 okay.

Now when we look at these equations, we will clearly see that the state variables are delta omega
r delta and psi fd that is these are the 3state variables. Okay but when you see on the right hand
side of these equations we have a term T that is the air gap torque right. Now this air gap torque
is neither a state variable nor it is a input to the system similarly, this ifd that is the field current is
not a state variable or nor it is a input to the system because when we write the equation this Tm
is the input to the system, okay Efd is the input to the system that is the mechanical torque applied
to the system and the field voltage applied.

Therefore these are the two input quantities and these are three state variables while this Te and
ifd these are not the state variables as well as they are not the input quantities and therefore there
is a necessity to to express these two quantities Te and ifd in terms of state variables. Okay the
moment we we succeed in expressing the air gap torque and the field current in terms of state
variables we can write down the complete model of the system because these equations are
concerned in these equations right. We have these quantities which are to be expressed in terms
of state variables.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:24)

Now to express this quantities in terms of state variables we we make use of the the synchronous
machine equations and we will also we make use of the network equations because here we are
considering a machine connected to infinite bus right and therefore the transmission line right,
we represent the network that we will be in a position to write down the network equation. We
will be in position to write down the synchronous machine equations and since this these two
components are connected right we will be in a position to correlate them. Okay that is we will
find actually the network constant equation okay.

Now these are the three basic equations which represent the d axis field flux linkage q axis field
flux linkage and the field winding flux linkage psi fd, okay psi fd is a state variable while this psi
d and psi q are not the state variable but we can see here that the psi d can be expressed in terms
of these inductances id id that is the direct axis component of the synchronous machine stator
current and ifd. Now these equations are known to you further actually this Lffd this is the this is
the self inductance of field winding this will be expressed as Lad plus Lfd, Lad is the mutual
inductance and in the reciprocal per unit system right this mutual inductances are same for direct
axis stator winding, the field winding. Okay these are the same we have made equations same
then we will make use of this equation that is the air gap torque is equal to psi d iq minus psi q id.
Okay therefore with this we will be in a position to simplify the model, now these steps are
clearly given in the text book which is prescribed for your course okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 10:41)

To start with what we did write that this psi d this the direct axis flux linkage can be expressed as
minus Ll id plus Lads into minus id plus ifd that is if we make use of this equation right then what
we do here is that this Lad Lad these two terms are combined and further further, we will make
use of this the saturated value of the mutual inductance instead of using the unsaturated value,
we will be using the saturated value and the saturated value and unsaturated value are related by
the saturation coefficient okay and therefore the equations now which I am writing here for psi d
and psi q this Lad is replaced by Lads that is we are using the saturated value. Okay therefore this
this term we can see this term that is Lads into minus id plus ifd this term represent the flux linkage
the inductance into current and this we will denote as psi ad psi ad.

Similarly for psi q, we will represent this as minus Ll into iq plus psi aq. Now here we are using
these terms which are normally called the intermediate variables which will ultimately be
eliminated. Okay similarly this equation that is the field flux linkage equation psi fd right. Now
for for this Lffd you substitute Lad plus Lfd. Okay and then these Lad terms will be combined the
terms which have the coefficient Lad.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:58)

You combine and we can write the equation for field flux linkage in this form psi ad plus Lfd ifd
right. Now when we write this field flux linkage in terms of psi ad which is which is also
appearing in our other two equation that is psi d equal to minus Ll id plus psi ad. Okay therefore
the first step here is that now I express this ifd that is the field current in terms of psi fd which is
my state variable psi ad and Lfd Lfd is a parameter of the machine is a machine parameter, okay
synchronous machine parameter it is a known quantity.

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:15)

Therefore, this is this is one step where we are now expressing the field current in terms of the
one of the state variables and psi ad and Lf that is this term is additional term which again we
have to eliminate. Now these steps you can perform yourself that is the psi ad was defined as
minus Lads id plus Lads ifd that is this term when we put in the expanded form right it was minus
Lads into id plus Lads into ifd that is it was written as Lads into minus id plus ifd. Okay this can be
simplified and now expressed in terms of id that is the direct axis current id is with this derivation
one can perform and obtain the expression for psi ad in terms of direct axis current id, direct axis
component of the synchronous machine current id and psi fd therefore, if you see this equation
that this psi ad has been expressed in terms of the terminal current a component of the terminal
current and the psi fd which is the state variable okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:38)

Similarly, we can express psi aq in terms of iq that is what we are doing here is that these two
terms which are the intermediate variables psi ad and psi aq have now been expressed in terms of
the state variable and the the direct axis and quadrature axis component of stator current okay.
Now these two steps are these steps are very important then we will be further making use of the
stator circuit equations now because the stator circuit is connected to the infinite bus through a
transmission line that is it is a machine infinite bus system right and we have the standard
equation that is the ed equal to minus psi q into Ra id, eq equal to psi d minus Ra iq these are the
stator circuit equations these are the algebraic equation, a stator circuit equations. Okay where
this psi d psi d and psi q can be written in terms of currents that is iq and there is a little mistake
here id okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:07)

Now in these equations we see here very interesting thing that psi q and and psi d are expressed
in terms of the our intermediate variables psi ad and psi aq and iq and id. Okay now what we do is
we write down the network equations, okay and then the once we write down the network
equation we will be in a position to write we will be a position to eliminate this ed and eq.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:47)

Okay now to do this thing you, we write down the equation for ed and eq which where earlier
written in this form that is this psi q and psi d terms will be replaced by these terms. Okay so that
ed and eq are written in terms of psi ad and psi and aq. Okay therefore the direct axis and
quadrature axis component of the stator voltage is now written in terms of the currents and these
intermediate variables. Okay Ra Ll these are the circuit or the synchronous machine constants.
Now let us see what are the what are the network constant equations. Okay now to understand
this network constant equations what we have to do is we we make use of our reference axis
right because in a machine infinite bus system right. The infinite bus voltage can be represented
as a reference and the rotor position can be described in terms of position of the q axis right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:33)

The position of the rotor with respect to the infinite bus voltage phasor can be expressed in terms
of q axis that is here if I represent this as my infinite bus voltage okay and this is the terminal
voltage of the machine synchronous machine right, if this is my q axis this is ed that is the d axis
that is this is your q axis. Okay this all known to you okay and this is your d axis okay. Then the
definition of this power angle delta is the angle by which q axis leads EB the delta is positive
when q axis leads the infinite bus voltage by an angle delta while the internal angle is the angle
by which by which q axis leads terminal voltage the delta i is the internal angle and delta is the
power angle, total power angle okay.

Now here you can write down the components of infinite bus voltage that is if you resolve this
infinite bus voltage EB into 2 components one along q axis another along d axis then the
component along q axis is EBq which is going to be EB cos delta, component along d axis will be
EBd equal to EB sin delta okay and when you express this terminal voltage and infinite bus
voltage as phasor we can write down terminal voltage as ed plus j times eq and infinite bus
voltage as EBd plus j times EBq, okay this is very straight forward nothing to be explain.
(Refer Slide Time: 21:12)

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:52)

Now let us write down the ah network constant equation this your synchronous machine,
terminal voltage is Et phaser, the line impedance is RE plus j times XE and here is our infinite bus
the phase the voltage here is EB phasor right and It the current here is written and the phaser
formula right. Therefore our network constant equation is is Et is equal to EB plus RE plus j times
XE into It this is the network constant equation a very simple equation which relates the terminal
voltage of the synchronous generator to the infinite bus voltage in terms of the line impedence
and current okay. Now what we will do here is that we will replace now Et by ed plus j times Eq
EB will be replaced by EBd plus j times Ebq, It will be replaced by Id plus j times Iq and then we
will, we will equate real part with the real part and imaginary part with the imaginary part to get
two two algebraic equations, okay in terms of the real variables.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:18)

Now this exercise has been done here. This is our network constant equation okay, I am just
introducing here you substitute in this equation ah replace this Et It and EB by the components
and you perform simple algebraic simplifications and we will get these two equations that is ed as
ed equal to EBd plus id into RE minus Iq into XE eq equal to EBq plus id into XE plus Iq into RE
okay this is very there is nothing very difficult, okay anybody can do it.

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:07)

Now once we have done this, we can we can now express this current Id and Iq, Id and Iq in terms
of our state variables that is you make use of see this this is one these are the two equations
where ed and eq are expressed in terms of these our intermediate variables id and iq. Okay now
this ed and eq will be replaced by ed and eq will be replaced by this ed and eq right you replace
these by the expressions given in the right hand side of these equations right.

Therefore, once you do this thing you will get equation right where you have only id and iq and
they will be written in terms of these terms these are intermediate variables psi aq psi ad and other
machine parameters and ultimately when you do all the simplifications algebraic simplifications,
you can write down the expressions for id, id in terms of the state variable this is our state
variable this is also a state variable and other synchronous machine constants that is all the all the
previous steps which we have made are basically to come to a stage where we can replace we
can express the obtain the expression for the id and iq in terms of these state variables okay.

Similarly, the expression for iq is given like this which you can derive yourself you have to sit
and derive these equations. The definitions of the terms which appear in those equations are also
expressed here. Okay and further when you write these terms in a per unit system, per unit
system the line inductance or synchronous machine inductances are equal to the synchronous
machine reactances and line reactance. Okay therefore we do not make any difference between
the inductance and reactance because in per unit system our omega o is 1 okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 27:09)

## (Refer Slide Time: 27:29)

Once we have obtained the expression for id and iq in terms of the state variables okay the model
is complete it is a it becomes out to be non-linear model if you look it very carefully carefully
then you will find actually that the psi ad and psi aq terms are expressed in terms of these
currents. Okay and this currents are now expressed in terms of state variables we have also seen
actually that the the air gap torque is expressed in terms of in terms of the flux linkages and
currents right therefore ultimately what happens is that we are in a position to express the the
torque term which comes actually in the equation for the synchronous machine that is the swing
equation in terms of the state variables, torque is expressed in terms of the state variables right.

Now these are the non-linear equations we are not done any linearization. Now this we can
obtain now the linear equations considering small perturbations the first step which is considered
for linearization is to obtain expression for incremental changes in id and iq to obtain the
expression for incremental changes in id and iq this id which is function of these state variables.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:14)

Okay you can obtain the expression for incremental changes in terms of the state variables that is
delta id can be written as m one times delta delta plus m 2 times delta psi fd, these m1 and m2 right
these are the quantities which depend upon the synchronous machine parameters, the line
parameters, the initial operating angle of the system that is delta o that is operating condition of
system that is that is this these two equations which are the incremental equations for currents
direct axis current and quadrature axis current are now written in terms of the state variables and
these coefficients are function of system operating condition and system parameters which
includes the synchronous machine parameters and the line parameters, okay.

Now here actually I have derived the expressions for m1, n1, m2, n2 and it can be clearly seen that
these constants are function of function of the machine parameters and initial operating condition
that is delta is delta naught here sin delta o where you find cos delta o term all these line
reactances the infinite bus voltage okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 31:11)

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:46)

Now to complete our ah hum model we also obtain now the incremental changes in these
intermediate state variable that is delta psi ad and delta psi aq in terms of our state variables for
example delta psi ad can be written in terms of the incremental changes in the state variables that
is delta psi fd and delta delta delta psi aq can be written in terms of again in terms of these state
variables and the coefficients of these terms are again function of the machine parameters,
system parameters and operating condition.
(Refer Slide Time: 32:57)

We had written the expression for ifd, if you just see this equation you see the equation here this
equation ifd was express as psi fd minus psi ad Lfd. Okay now since psi ad is expressed in terms of
the state variables I can now express incremental change in the field current in terms of the state
variables.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:16)

The expression comes out to be as delta ifd is equal to this coefficient into delta psi fd and this
term into delta delta that is the incremental change in field current is expressed in terms of the
state variables incremental changes in the intermediate variables that is psi ad and psi aq are
expressed in terms of the these variables because psi ad and psi aq have to be ultimately
eliminated. Now we come to our main equation that is the expression for for air gap torque.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:38)

We have to write down the incremental change in air gap torque that is delta Te, delta Te as we
have seen earlier delta Te is written as I am sorry not do this later it is confusing first we will
write down del Te not delta Te, Te is written as psi d iq minus psi q id. Okay now this psi d right if
you consider the leakage inductance then to obtain the expression for air gap torque this psi d has
to be replaced by psi ads iq minus psi aqs id we will be considering the saturated value of these flux
linkages right and difference between this and this term is the leakage flux which is not
contributing towards the air gap torque. Okay now we want to linearize this equation to linearize
this equation the simplest way will be you write down this Te as Teo plus delta Te express this
term as psi adso plus delta psi ads iq will be expressed as iqo plus delta iq minus this is also perturb
psi aqso plus delta psi aq right into id is expressed as ido id naught plus delta id.

Now under steady state condition Teo is equal to psi adso iqo minus psi aqo so into ido okay and we
will neglect the the terms terms which are the product of two incremental terms like when I
multiply this you know expressions or simplify I will come across the term incremental change
in the psi ed psi ad multiplied with incremental change in current this two incremental changes
when they are multiplied will give you very small quantity which can neglected. Now when you
do this exercise the ultimately you can write down delta Te equal to psi ado delta iq plus psi iqo
delta psi ad minus psi aqo delta id minus ido delta psi aq, here actually the we are considering the
saturated values s is not written just for the simplification okay.

Now we have the expressions for delta id and delta iq, we have also obtained the expression for
incremental changes in the air gap flux linkages psi ad and psi aq right. Therefore, when you
when you substitute these incremental quantities that is delta iq delta psi ad delta id delta psi aq
right and these are the initial values. Okay we will we can write down the expression for
incremental change in air gap torque as K1 time delta delta plus K2 times delta psi fd that is the
the all the derivations which we have done right from beginning right were basically aimed to
obtain an expression for change in air gap torque in terms of state variables and we get the
expression for incremental change in air gap torque this delta Te right equal to K1 time delta delta
plus K2 time delta psi fd.

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:02)

Okay this is very a important step that what we find here is that here that the the delta Te that is
change in air gap torque depends upon the change in rotor angle that is the power angle and
change in field flux linkages that is delta psi fd okay. The the model which I had derived earlier
where we assume assumed the field flux linkage is constant right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 42:00)

The the incremental change in torque that is air gap torque was simply equal to Ks into delta
delta while now here the incremental change depends upon the change in flux linkages in the
field winding, field circuit and delta delta. Okay therefore now instead of representing the
coefficient of delta delta as Ks, I am representing this as a K1. Okay this is now going to be the
difference in what we are writing. The expressions for these constants can now be written in the
desired form which can be computed from the knowledge of initial operating condition
synchronous machine parameters and line parameters.

Okay these expressions have been derived because they are only the algebraic simplifications
which you have to do. Okay just, now let us look again at our mathematical model. This was the
starting point for our further derivations. Okay now this equation right has been linearized in the
previous case we have linearized it where mechanic change in mechanical torque we have put as
a delta Tm change in electrical order is delta Te and this is our damping torque term right and
therefore this equation which is going to be a non-linear differential equation the moment you
linearize this this becomes a linear differential equation right.

Now we have now to linearize this equation that is the field circuit equation, we have not done
the linearization of the equation this can be done very easily because here we will consider the
change in field voltage as delta Efd. Okay and change in field current as delta ifd, okay but this
delta ifd see this is not a state variable is replaced by the incremental changes in terms of the
other state variables.

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:39)

Let us now examine the complete model of the system, these 3equations represents the complete
model of the system, first two equations represents the the dynamics of the synchronous machine
rotor or rotor dynamics. The third equation represents the the dynamics of the synchronous
machine field winding. This these two equations were linearized earlier and we obtain a simple
stats pay simple model in the transfer function form. This third equation is now linialize
linearized and when we linearize this equation we will have the incremental change in field flux
linkage, incremental change in field winding voltage and the incremental change in field current.
We have earlier obtained the expression for delta ifd in terms of state variables.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:49)

Now when we when we substitute the expression for delta ifd in this equation the the linearized
equation can be now added to the first two state space equations and the linear equations appear
in the form delta psi fd dot equal to a32 delta omega r a3 plus a33 delta I am sorry this has
correction here. The delta psi fd dot appears as a32 delta delta plus a33 delta psi fd plus b32 delta
Efd okay. This can be written in this form here as delta psi fd dot equal to a32 delta delta plus a33
delta psi fd plus b32 delta Efd. Now we we take the Laplace transform of this equation and obtain
the transfer function model to represent this equation in the transfer function form. Once we take
the Laplace transform the equation can be written in the in terms of the Laplace transform
variables that is delta psi fd is equal to K3 divided by 1 plus pT3 into delta Efd minus K4 delta
delta. Now p is equal to s, okay now we will incorporate the transfer function relating, we will
incorporate the the transfer function relating the change in field winding flux linkage is to change
in rotor angle and field winding voltage.

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:38)

Earlier, we have developed the transfer function model relating the variables variable
considering the first two equations in the of the system. Now to this model we will add the
equation relating the field winding variables, now while deriving this model we can do small
simplification that is this portion of the model that is this portion of the model can be simplified
by using the simple block diagram simplification and this portion can be represented by an
equivalent model of the form 1 upon 2 times Hs plus Kd where output of this will be delta omega
r and input to this will be delta Tm minus delta Te.

With this simplification, with this simplification incorporated the complete transfer function
model incorporating the field circuit dynamics is shown here this portion of the model is the one
which was developed earlier. Now since we have to incorporate the affect of field circuit
dynamics since, delta Te is equal to K1 delta delta plus K2 delta psi fd right therefore at this
summation point at this summation point, we to obtain the expression for delta Te we obtain a
quantity equal to K1 into delta delta and to this we add a quantity corresponding to K2 into delta
delta delta psi fd.
(Refer Slide Time: 47:28)

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:08)

Now this sum is realized by using the summation block okay therefore in this transfer function
delta Te is obtained by summing the 2 terms K1 delta delta and K2 delta psi fd. Okay then we
have the transfer function to relate delta psi fd to delta efd and delta delta. Now this is shown in
this portion of the block diagram where input to this transfer function K3 over 1 plus s times T3 is
delta Efd minus K4 delta delta right.
Now this k4 and K4, K3 and T3 are again constants and they depend upon the system operating
condition and parameters. Now therefore this is the model which accounts for the the
synchronous machine field winding dynamics. Now we will try to understand the affect of affect
of the including the synchronous machine field dynamics on damping and synchronizing torque
coefficients. To to examine this aspect let us write down, let us write down the delta Te that is the
change in change in air gap torque produced due to the change in field flux linkages only right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:00)

Therefore delta Te due to the change field flux linkages can be related to the change in delta delta
by this expression where delta Te divided by delta delta due to delta psi fd equal to minus K3, K2
K3, K4 divided by 1 plus s times T3, okay. Now here we can examine the affect of frequency of
oscillation of the rotor, in case the in case the frequency oscillation is 0 right then we can
substitute here in this equation or in this expression s equal to j omega equal to 0. Then delta Te
can be written as minus K2, K 3, K4 delta delta that is the change in air gap torque due to change
in delta psi fd is expressed in the form given by this expression okay that is delta Te is equal to
minus K2, K3, K4 delta delta.

Further, we know that the change in change in the air gap torque due to change in delta delta
which operates directly is written as delta Te equal to K1 delta delta right. Therefore therefore we
can say here the the delta Te is written as K1 minus K2, K3, K4 into delta delta. When we consider
the affect of change in field flux linkages also now for any practical system the constant K2, K3
and K4 are positive and we can see here that this term represents the net synchronizing torque
coefficient right and when the field flux linkages were assumed to be constant the synchronizing
torque coefficient was equal to K1 right but the movement we account for the the the change in
field flux linkages due to change in rotor angle delta right. The net synchronizing torque
coefficient decreases it becomes K1 minus K2, K3, K4 therefore for steady state stability limit the
condition is K1 equal to K2, K3, K4 okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 52:16)

Now let me conclude my presentation today here that we have developed the small pertition
small perturbation model of the machine infinemet infinite bus system including the synchronous
machine field winding dynamics. This model has four constants K1, K2, K3, K4 and we have also
seen that when we account for the the synchronous machine field dynamics then the
synchronizing torque coefficient under steady state operating condition decreases that is we can
say that the demagnetizing affect has a has an adverse affect on the synchronizing torque
coefficient. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 20
Small Signal Stability of a Single Machine Infinite Bus System (Contd.)

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends, today we will continue with the study of small signal stability. Last time we have
included the field flux dynamics in the small perturbation model which we developed. We have
also seen that due to change in change in field flux that is delta psi fd the electrical torque
produced delta Te the delta of Te that is the change in electrical torque or air gap torque that is if
you find out this transfer function relating the incremental change in air gap torque to
incremental change in angle then this transfer function comes out to be equal to minus K2, K3, K4
divided by 1 plus ST3. Now we have also seen last time that in case, we analyze the performance
under steady state conditions that is when S tends to 0 right then the incremental change in air
gap torque is given by this equation delta Te is equal to minus K2, K3, K4 delta delta, okay.

Now if you look carefully here in this transfer function block diagram which we had developed
last time that delta Te this is the net net deviation in the electrical torque is now some of the 2
components, 1 produced due to this constant K1 that is K1 delta delta and another produced due
to change in field flux linkages that is K2 delta psi fd. Okay now under steady state condition we
can see her actually that the total change in torque or air gap torque will be equal to K1 minus
minus K2, K3, K4 minus K2, K3, K4 into delta delta right. Now the net affect is that the the
synchronizing torque coefficient when we assume the field flux linkage is constant right is is
more than when you consider the change in field flux linkages right that is the change in field
flux linkages takes place basically due to the demagnetization affect.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:26)

(Refer Slide Time: 02:38)

## (Refer Slide Time: 04:09)

Okay and the steady state stability limit is reached when we have this condition satisfied that is
K1 is equal to K2, K3, K4 that is when we when this product K2, K3, K4 is equal to K1 right then
the then the net synchronizing torque coefficient becomes 0, okay and that is the steady state
stability limit. Now we shall examine the case when the rotor of the synchronous machine is
oscillating with some frequency that is we examine a case where rotor of the synchronous
generator is oscillating at some frequency at rotor oscillation frequency.
(Refer Slide Time: 04:54)

Now to analyze this we again take the same transfer function delta Te divided by delta delta
right. This is equal to minus K3, K2, K3, K4 or 1 plus S time T3 okay. Now we will not set S equal
to 0 okay you multiply this numerator and denominator by a term 1 minus ST3, okay this is to
rationalize you will get the expression for this transfer function as minus K2, K3, K4 into 1 minus
STs, T3 divided by 1 minus S square T3 square.

## (Refer Slide Time: 06:20)

Now this expression can be written in this form that is delta Te due to change in field flux
linkages only. Okay that is equal to minus K2, K3, K4 divided by 1 minus S square T3 square into
delta delta. Now when you multiply this this this the second term becomes plus again plus K2,
K3, K4, T3, K2, K4, K2, K3, K4,T3 divided by the same term that is 1 minus S square T square into
S delta delta into S delta delta okay.

Now in this expression we will set S equal to j omega that is you substitute S equal to j omega
where omega is the the frequency of rotor oscillations, omega is the frequency of rotor
oscillations and we also substitute here delta delta equal to omega naught by S delta omega r.
Okay where delta omega r is the deviation in rotor speed with respect to synchronous speed
therefore if you make these 2 substitutions in this equation right you can easily see that S delta
delta is equal to omega naught into delta omega r right and this term is when you put S equal to j
omega this comes to be real term right it means K2, K3, K4 are constants 1 minus S square T3
square will become 1 plus omega square T3 square. Okay S equal to j omega square of this is
equal to minus omega square and therefore it becomes plus, okay.

Now here when I am putting here S equal to j omega j omega here but 1 thing we can observe
very carefully here is that before I substitute the value of delta delta right, if you see in this
equation if I substitute S equal to j omega then this term this term can be characterized as
synchronizing torque component because this is because of this coefficient multiplied by delta
delta therefore this term is in phase with speed in change is in is in is in phase with change in
rotor angle okay, while when you see this term it will come out to be in quadrature with rotor
angle.

Okay and when we make this substitution in this equation the change in electrical torque or air
gap torque due to change in flux linkages only is written as Ks is a function of delta psi fd this I
am writing this Ks it is not a product it is not a multiplication that Ks is a synchronizing torque
coefficient due to delta psi fd only into delta delta plus Kd due to delta psi fd that is the damping
torque coefficient due to variation in field flux linkages only right multiplied by omega naught
into delta omega r.

Now whens when we can see very carefully here that this term represents the synchronizing
torque component because when I multiply this and take the complete term then the can take the
when I take the complete term it becomes the synchronizing torque component. When I take this
term completely it becomes damping torque component. Now if I take the coefficient of delta
delta then this portion becomes synchronizing torque coefficient and this portion of the
expression will become damping torque coefficient right.

Now to understand this thing more carefully or more clearly, we take an example where for a
particular operating condition the K1 is 0.7642, K2 is 0.8649, K3 is equal to 0.323, K4 is 1.4817
T3 is 2.365. Okay we take a specific rotor oscillation frequency the that is rotor oscillation
frequency is taken as 6.41 radius per second electrical radius per second. Now with this
parameters okay assumed with this constant assumed right, when we substitute in this expression
for delta T equal as a function of delta psi fd delta T produced by delta psi fd only, if you
substitute in this expression then the synchronizing torque coefficient due to variation in field
flux linkages comes out to be minus .00172 and damping torque coefficient comes out to be 1.53
right.

Now here we can we have to very carefully understand that these 2 terms which you have
computed here they are function of these K1 to K4 parameters or K1 to K4 constants T3 and the
rotor oscillation frequency okay therefore as the operating condition changes, you will find
actually that this K1 to K4 constants will vary T3 will also vary right, this rotor oscillation
frequency also varies and therefore the synchronizing and damping torque coefficients
contributed by demagnetizing affect will also vary but 1 conclusion which we draw is that when
the rotor is not in steady state condition or when the rotor is oscillating with some frequency
right it contributes to negative synchronizing torque coefficient and it contributes to positive
damping torque. Okay this is a very important conclusion which we should always keep in our
mind.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:52)

Now further further we want to see the what what is the total synchronizing torque coefficient
then this total will come out to be equal to K1 plus Ks produced or contributed by variation in
field flux linkage that is Ks is the net synchronizing torque coefficient, this will be equal to K1
plus the synchronizing torque coefficient contributed due to field flux variations or field flux
dynamics. Okay now particularly in this case the value of K1 is 07642 and the second component
is minus 0. 00172, okay and 1 can find out the uh resultant that will be 8 how much 6 okay1, 2,
3, 4, 5 okay. This is 88 goes it will be 4 here 4 here 267 that is 0.76248. In fact the decrease in
synchronizing torque coefficient is not very significant it is a very small decrease okay, this is
what the message is or which is the most the conclusion which we draw from this okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:35)

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:59)

Now in all these studies which we have reported till now, we have assumed assumed the you can
see this in this diagram in this diagram this is our transfer function model which we have
developed. This delta Efd was set equal to 0 the meaning of setting delta Efd equal to 0 is the
constant field flux constant field voltage condition that is the field voltage applied is constant del
delta Efd is 0 it means Efd is constant okay.
Now now we will include the effect of excitation system we will include the effect of excitation
system in our model. Now to include the effect of excitation system in our model. Let us start
with the terminal voltage condition because to the exciter or excitation system right at the
summing point. We give input signal that is corresponding to the terminal voltage of the
synchronous generator. Let us start from the terminal voltage the terminal voltage is written in
terms of d and q axis component as ed plus j times eq. Okay then we can write down Et square
equal to ed square plus eq square.

Now what we do is that we we give small perturbation to these variables that is Et ed and eq. Let
us assume that Et is perturbed and the perturbed value is or the or the increment is delta Et
similarly ed increment is delta ed and increment of eq is delta eq, when you make this perturbation
we can write the equation in this form.

## (Refer Slide Time: 16:51)

Eto is the is the steady state voltage okay and Eto plus delta Et is the terminal voltage okay
therefore the perturbation is around this voltage Eto therefore, Eto plus delta Et square equal to edo
plus delta ed square okay plus eqo plus delta eq square this is a very straight forward and simple
expression. Now what we do is that we expand this equation we just expand it and neglect the
second order terms in terms of perturbed values second order terms which are involving the
perturbed values that is we will ignore delta Et square similarly, delta ed square delta eq square
because they are small and the square will be negligible. If you make that assumption then we
can write down this this equation as Eto delta Et equal to edo delta ed plus eqo delta eq. Okay
because Eto square is equal to edo square plus eqo square right therefore this this terms will vanish
from the resulting equation okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:34)

So that now we can write down delta Et delta Et the change in terminal voltage as edo divided by
Eto delta ed plus eqo divided by Eto delta eq okay. Now at this stage our problem is that this delta
ed and delta eq these are not the state variables, these are not the state variables right and
therefore we have to eliminate these incremental terms from the expression for delta Et. Now to
to eliminate this we make use of our generator, stator circuit voltage equations ed equal to minus
Raid plus Lliq minus psi q, psi aq, eq was equal to eq is equal to minus Raiq minus Llid minus psi ad.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:17)

Now these 2 equations were derived earlier and these equations represent the stator circuit direct
and quadrature axis circuit equations. Okay therefore what we do in this equation is that we we
give small perturbations okay and since this coefficients are constant R a Ll these are constant
quantities, okay you just perturb them.

Now when you give this perturbation you can write down delta ed equal to minus Ra delta id plus
L1 delta iq minus delta psi aq, okay similarly delta eq is equal to minus Ra delta iq minus Ll delta id
plus delta psi ad that is we get the equation for delta ed and delta eq in terms of delta id, delta iq
delta psi aq and psi delta psi ad further further the expressions were derived or the equations were
derived for deviation in delta id, delta iq delta psi aq delta psi ad and they were all expressed in
terms of state variables. If you look into the equations derived earlier right then these 4 terms that
is the deviation in direct axis component of the current quadrature axis current then psi aq psi ad
they were all derived therefore, if we if I now substitute here in these expressions expressions for
these quantities in terms of state variables and then you substitute delta ed and delta eq in this
equation that is 18.61.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:05)

Now when you make these substitutions then ultimately we can write down the expression for
delta Et equal to constant K5 delta delta plus K6 delta psi fd. Now this this equation is the most
important equation that is this change in terminal voltage of the generator can be expressed as K5
delta delta plus K6 delta psi fd okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 22:43)

The expressions for K5 and K6 are derived and they are written in the form K5 is equal to edo
divided by Eto into minus Ra into m1 plus L1 n1 plus Laqs n1 plus eqo divided by Eto minus Ra n1
minus L1 m1 minus Lads prime m1 that is if you see here the expression for K5 right then then all
the all the terms in this expression are known they are function of the initial operating condition
and the circuit parameters or the system parameters.

## (Refer Slide Time: 23:49)

Similarly, the expression for K6 is written here and K6 is also function of operating condition and
system parameters therefore for any given operating condition 1 can compute the constant K5
and K6. Now after having completed completed the inclusion of inclusion of excitation system
model in the small perturbation model before I talk about how this model is completed, let us
first look here.

## (Refer Slide Time: 24:51)

If you see this this portion of the model this is the transfer function model this portion of the
model it was derived earlier where this was the delta Efd input signal, okay. This portion here the
state variable delta psi fd delta Te delta omega r delta delta this was already derived right. Now
we add this equation that is delta Et equal to K5 delta delta plus K6 delta psi fd right. Therefore
we add this summation point here in this block diagram where 1, 1 signal is coming as K5 delta
delta another is K6 delta psi fd right and what we get here is the delta Et delta Et the change in
terminal voltage of the generator.

Now we have also seen actually that the terminal voltage of the synchronous generator is sensed
by putting a transducer that is we call actually the voltage sensor or voltage transducer. Okay,
now we can represent this voltage sensor by a first order transfer function that is 1 over 1 plus S
times TR, this time constant TR is generally very small right small and in some studies, we will
ignore this time constant or in some studies this can be included there is obsoletely no problem
only thing is the order of the model will increase when you include actually this transfer function
okay.

Now you can see here that delta Et is the input to this transfer function which which is the
transfer function of voltage sensor or voltage transducer. We will denote the output of this block
by a another state variable you call it delta V. Okay this delta V is now now compared with delta
V reference with the small perturbation model okay, delta V reference that is this error delta V
reference minus delta V is fed to the exciter Gex s represents the transfer function of the exciter
and output of these is exciter is delta Efd okay therefore this transfer function model right is a
complete transfer function model which accounts for change in field flux linkages which
accounts for change in terminal voltage of the synchronous generator and which also includes the
exciter transfer function model. Okay therefore if you I look at this transfer function model the
we have 2 inputs here 1 is the change in mechanical torque delta Tm is a input signal then delta V
reference is another input signal I can change the reference voltage right, if I want to regulate the
terminal voltage okay.

Similarly, if I want to change the mechanical output you can change the position of the governor
to change the mechanical input to the system right now for this system you can develop a
complete state space model in the form x dot equal to Ax plus Bu and the state variables will be
delta delta delta omega r delta psi fd delta V and delta Efd. Now in case this transfer function of
this exciter is simplified is simplified and sometimes we represent the exciter by a first order
transfer function, sometimes we represent this exciter by a by a ah constant gain only right if this
is represented by a constant gain only then delta Efd will not be a state variable. Okay therefore I
will suggest all of you to develop yourself a state space model of this system okay with input
variables delta Tm and delta V reference and the state variables delta omega I mean delta delta
delta omega r delta psi fd.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:34)

Okay and delta V here delta Et is not a state variable okay and the the the transfer function model
which has been developed in the text book is assuming assuming that the exciter is is a stator
excitation system and its time constant is negligible, so that you can represent the exciter by a
gain KA only right. Therefore I suggest you to assume the exciter model as a a constant KA okay
and then you develop the complete transfer function model of the system in the form of x dot
equal to Ax plus Bu and write down the A and B matrices. Now here in the text book the that is
text book we are following right the model is developed assuming delta V reference equal to 0
delta V reference is assumed to be equal to 0 right that is there is no change in the reference
voltage right. Now in case this delta V reference is assumed to be 0 then there is only 1 input
variable right and the model is developed here in this form that is delta Efd is equal to KA into
minus delta V1, you just see it here this will come out to be straight away, this is delta we call it
delta V1 delta V1.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:22)

Okay this is KA, this is 0 therefore there is a minus sign attached here right and because of this
there is minus sign coming and therefore delta Efd is equal to minus delta V 1 into KA. Okay and
once you have this quantity delta Efd you can write down the equation for P delta psi fd because
we have to write down the equation for the derivative of or equation expressing the derivative of
delta psi fd right and this can now be written as you can easily see here, when you write this
expression, when you write this expression.

So delta psi fd can be written as K3 divided by 1 plus S times T3, okay what is the input to this
input to this is delta Efd minus K4 times delta delta. Okay and this delta Efd we have just now
seen is equal to minus KA minus KA times delta V1 right and when you make the simplifications
and eliminate all those terms all those terms where which are not the state variables. We can
right down the equation for delta psi fd dot or d by dt of delta psi fd in the form a 31 delta omega r
plus a32 delta delta plus a33 delta psi fd plus a34 delta V1, okay this is the equation which we can
write down and in this case when you have assumed actually the exciter or represented the
exciter by a constant KA or gain KA right the the model which you get will be 4th order model
and the state variables will be delta delta, delta omega r delta psi fd and delta V1 these are the
state variables and you can write down the model in the complete form.

Further you can study the Eigen value of the a matrix and analyze the stability of the system
because ah for any system the stability can be analyzed by analyzing the Eigen value of the
system matrix A right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:42)

Now I will just tell you the ah little historical development, this model which has a 6 constants it
is popularly known as K1 K6 model and it was originally developed in 1952 by Heffron-Phillips
that is it is called as or it is known as Heffron-Phillips model.
(Refer Slide Time: 36:04)

The that is K1 K6 model also called Heffron-Phillips model. These were developed the the this
this was reported in a research paper that is at that time it is to be AIEE, American Institution of
Electrical Engineers AIEE in 1950. Then subsequently in 1969 the detailed studies were carried
out by by the 2 authors popularly known as DeMello and Charles Concordia, C. Concordia and
the results of their studies were reported in a IEEE transaction on power power applicative
systems in the year 1969 and therefore many a times people refer to this model K1 K6 model as
DeMello Concordia model right but originally it was developed by Heffron-Phillips and still
actually it is known as the Heffron-Phillips model and this is the very very important model
which is used extensively for analyzing the small signal stability of a machine infinite bus
system because this model is basically for single machine infinite bus system.

Similar models have been developed for a multi machine system also. Now I will just skip our
some of the transparencies. Now we will analyze 1 very important aspect that is what is the
effect of AVR on synchronizing and damping torque components? we we have now included the
excitation system right therefore for once we have included the excitation system right we can
either refer to this as effect of excitation system control or we can refer that the effect of AVR
automatic voltage regulator.

Okay now we will study the effect of this AVR by analyzing analyzing the synchronizing and
damping torque components okay now to obtain the to obtain the synchronizing and damping
torque components which are produced when the when the rotor is under steady state condition
or when the rotor is oscillating with some frequency that is we will analyze again again under 2
conditions 1 is the system is under steady state operating condition, another is when the rotor is
oscillating with some frequency okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 38:39)

Now to analyze this again we come to the expression for delta psi fd right. Now the delta psi fd
can be written as K1 divided by 1 plus S times T3 into minus K4 delta delta because our
expression here was delta Efd minus K4 delta delta therefore minus K4 delta delta is written here
and and we are writing. Now here the expression for delta Efd that is minus Gex S or 1 plus S
times TR multiplied by delta et this is delta et the K5 delta delta plus K6 delta psi fd.

Okay that is if you again look at this expression then what we are trying to do is that now we are
trying to find out an expression for delta psi fd. Okay now this delta psi fd we can write first as
delta psi fd equal to this transfer function into delta Efd minus K4 delta delta then this delta Efd is
replaced by this transfer function Gex Gex into delta V1. Okay and then this delta V1 can be
replaced by this expression this transfer function into delta et okay.

Now with this things represented we have represented all the things here that is delta psi f d is
equal to 1 upon 1 plus S times T3 into minus K4 delta delta minus Gex S divided by 1 plus S times
TR because we are not assuming that Gex equal to K in the beginning but for for understanding
and for simplicity we will fa replace Gex by KA later on. We are also taking the time constant of
the voltage transducer. Okay therefore this is the complete expression which is now written in
terms of in terms of the state variables because delta delta is a state variable delta psi fd is the
state variable okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 42:54)

Now you you rearrange the terms, so that delta psi fd terms come on 1 side and other terms come
on the right hand side of the equation right now by rearranging the expression looks like this
delta psi fd equal to minus K3 into K41 plus S times TR into ah closed plus K5 Gex S divided by S
square T3 TR plus S times T3 plus TR plus 1 plus K3 K6 Gex S delta delta right whereas I have told
you, just now just now that we are transmitting all the terms right all the terms which are having
delta psi fd on left hand side and remaining term on the right hand side, right hand side terms will
have delta delta.

Okay and then we write down the expression for delta psi fd as this transfer function into delta
delta this is exactly similar to what we did actually when we assume the delta Efd equal to 0 right
but since now we are including the exciter or excitation system the expression for delta psi fd
becomes a slightly more complicated. Okay but here this delta psi fd which we are writing down
here right is is is now function of these constants.

You can see the all the the constants which are coming in this picture except K1 you have K3, K4,
K5, K6 right K2 does not come in picture so far actually this delta psi fd is concerned right the
function of these 4 parameters the function of the transfer function of the exciter is also the
function of this constants like TR and so on therefore I can say that delta Te due to delta psi fd is
equal to K2 delta psi fd.

Okay that is the electromagnetic torque produced or air gap change in air gap torque change in
air gap torque due to change in delta psi fd is equal to K2 into delta psi fd right because we have
seen the actually the total change in air gap torque is K1 delta delta plus K2 delta psi fd right
therefore the air gap torque or change in the air gap torque due to delta psi fd is equal to K2 delta
psi fd.
(Refer Slide Time: 45:58)

Okay now to illustrate what is the effect of AVR gain AVR gain we take this typical example
where the constants of the model are given as K1 equal to 1.591, K2 equal to 1.5, K3 equal to
.333, K4 equal to 1.8, T3 1.91, K5 is minus 0.12, K6 is 0.3 the time constant TR is taken as 0.02 a
small time constant the exciter is represented by a gain KA, okay inertia constant H of the system
is 3 and KD equal to 0 in fact these are the parameters of the complete system right although
when we are trying to analyze the synchronizing torque coefficient produced due to delta psi f d
or due to the AVR action right the H will not be required.

Now let here I am you know trying to emphasize that knowingly we are taking K5 equal to a
negative term for any system for any system as the system loading changes changes the K5 varies
from positive to negative that is if you per if you if you compute the value of K5 considering
okay.

Now we have taken deliberately K5 equal to minus .12 a negative value. Now with this
parameters which we have assumed first we will study the steady state synchronizing coefficient,
the steady state synchronizing coefficient that is for obtaining the steady state synchronizing
coefficient what should we do in this expression we substitute S equal 0, S equal to 0 when I
substitute x, S equal zero in this expression right. You will find actually that delta Te due to delta
psi fd is equal to 0.06 KA minus 0.9 divided by 1 plus 0.1 KA that is I have not substituted the
value of KA I have expressed this torque in terms of excite AVR gain. Okay KA that is delta Te
due to field flux ah changes or deviation in field flux linkage is written as 0.06 K A minus 0.9
divided by 1 plus 0.1 KA into delta delta okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 48:23)

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:37)

Now if I take KA equal to 0, K equal to 0 is a condition similar to constant field voltage that is
when you apply constant field voltage, okay it means we are not assuming the AVR action that is
KA equal to 0. If you take KA equal to 0 this quantity that is the synchronizing torque coefficient
due to delta psi fd is equal to minus 0.9. Okay that is what we had seen earlier that the for
constant field voltage condition right the effect of armature reaction or demagnetization is to
contribute negative synchronizing torque coefficient therefore you get a negative 1.
Now if you take KA equal 15 then this numerator will become 0 for KA equal to 15, you can
easily see that 15 into .06 equal to .9. Therefore if you take KA equal to 15 then the contribution
of delta psi fd to synchronizing torque coefficient becomes 0 now if I take KA equal to 200 which
is this case the synchronizing torque coefficient becomes positive that is 0. 529 because the the
movement the movement you put KA is equal 200 and compute this expression to this this term
is the synchronizing torque coefficient.

Okay therefore the now the total synchronizing torque coefficient is equal to Ks is equal to K1
plus Ks delta psi fd right because K1 is we have assumed the value of K1 equal to how much 1.
591 therefore, if I substitute actually K1 equal to 1. 591 and plus .529 you will get 2.12 right that
is when K5 is negative K5 is negative K is taken equal to 200 you find that the net synchronizing
torque coefficient increases it becomes 2.12 as compared to 1.59, okay. Now you and there is
under steady state condition it did not contribute anything to damping torque coefficient because
the in this expression right what we are getting is that the torque is directly proportional to delta
delta. Now you consider the the damping and synchronizing torque comp1nts ah rotor oscillation
frequency okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:41)

Now we again start with this expression right in this expression we substitute the values of all the
constants and we will substitute the value of substitute the value of S equal to S as j times 10, a
typical value is put here S equal to j times 10 perhaps this value is chosen to simplify the
calculations okay. Now if you make this substitutions delta Te due to delta psi fd again comes out
to be 11.1 minus j times 0.18 divided by 17.18 plus j time 19. 3 delta delta okay.

Therefore what you see here that this comes out to be a this coefficient of delta delta is the
complex number you rationalize this expression find out the separate the real and imaginary parts
then you can write this equation in the form 0.2804 delta delta minus 0. 3255 j delta delta. Okay
therefore, now you can easily see that this is the synchronizing torque coefficient right and this is
positive while the damping torque coefficient in this particular case is to be computed as yet
what is to be done here is that in this expression in the expression what you will do is we have
this relationship.

## (Refer Slide Time: 54:29)

We have the important relationship that is delta delta equal to omega naught divided by s delta
omega r. Okay therefore now here in this equation if I put S equal to j omega right then I will
have the term j times delta delta equal to omega naught, omega delta omega r right and this
expression that is I can write down delta Te due to delta psi f psi fd equal to 0.2804 delta delta
okay minus 0.3255 omega naught divided by omega delta omega r okay omega naught is in this
particular case 37 it is 60 hertz system and omega is taken to be equal to 10.

Okay therefore this coefficient the this coefficient is the coefficient of delta omega r right
therefore the this this is the total damping torque component and this term 0.3255 into omega
naught by omega becomes the damping torque coefficient right the damping torque coefficient is
computed here and it comes out to be equal to minus 12. 27.

Okay, the important conclusion which we draw from this discussion is discussion is that when K5
is negative right the if K is taken around 200 right. It contributes to negative synchronizing
torque coefficient, I am sorry it contributes to positive synchronizing torque coefficient and
negative damping torque. Okay with this let me conclude that we have developed the complete
transfer function model that is the Heffron-Phillips transfer function model for a single machine
infinite bus system and we have also analyzed the effect of AVR on on synchronizing and
damping torque coefficients. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 21
Small Signal Stability of a Single Machine Infinite Bus System-Power System Stabilizers
(PSS)

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends, today we will continue our study on small signal stability of a single machine infinite
bus system. In the previous lecture, we have studied the effect of automatic voltage regulator on
the damping and synchronizing torque coefficients. We have seen that in case the operating
condition is such that such that the constant K5 is negative and if we increase the AVR gain then
we find actually that the damping torque coefficient becomes negative while the synchronizing
torque coefficient is positive that means we have a very conflicting type of effect on the damping
and synchronizing torque coefficients, when the AVR is considered. Okay that is now we have
also computed through else simple example that if we increase the AVR gain right then the
damping torque coefficient becomes more and more negative.

Now to illustrate this thing further for a typical problem, we have computed the K1cases
constants over a wide range of operating condition and we will just examine how these constants
(Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:02)

In this figure in this figure we have plotted the variation of constant K1 as a function of real
power output P for 3 different values of reactive power output that is this graph shows this graph
shows the variation of K1 variation of K1 for Q equal to 0 that is the reactive power output of the
generator is 0 and we are varying the real power only okay.

We can see here actually that constant K1 increases up to some value of real power output and
then starts decreasing okay then for reactive power Q equal to 0.5. Okay, now here when I say Q
is positive means the we are supplying lagging lagging power factor load, okay therefore for Q
equal to .5 right the constant K1 is varying in this fashion again its variation is similar to what we
got for Q equal to 0 it increases it increases and it becomes maximum and then starts decreasing
you can see here actually that the value of K1 is less than is less for Q equal to .5 as compared to
what we got for Q equal to 0. Okay another graph which is shown here is that Q is equal to

Now we can see here that again K1 first increases and then starts decreasing, okay therefore the
trend is similar and 1 thing we observe that in this complete range where P is varied from .2 to 1
per unit right the K1 remains constant I am y K1remains positive not constant K1 remains positive
and it is its magnitude is affected by the reactive power which it supplies.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:52)

This graph shows the plot of constant K2 as function of P that is the real power output of the
generator for 3 different values of Q right. Now we find here actually that in all the 3 cases
where Q equal to 0, Q equal to 0.5 or Q equal to minus 0.5 right. The K2 is increasing over the
range which we have considered from 0.2 to 1 that is this computations have been done or the
graphs are plotted for varying real power output from very low value that is .2 per unit to 1 per
unit right and further we can see here again that as the reactive power output becomes negative
the value of K2 is more that is K2 is more for leading power factors load and it decreases when
the power factor is lagging right.
(Refer Slide Time: 07:10)

This constant K3 if you see that it is also affected by the reactive power output Q equal to 0 this
is the graph Q equal to minus .5 this is the graph and Q equal to 0.5 this is the graph but for a
given value of Q the variation in K3 as the value the value of P varies is very insignificant, okay
this practically it is a flat curve.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:52)

Now this graph shows the variation of constant K4 as function of real power output P for 3
different values of Q again that is Q equal to 0, Q equal to .5 and Q equal to minus .5 again you
can see here actually that the constant K4 varies as the real power output varies and is also a
heavily depended upon the value of reactive power output. But still we can see actually that this
constants K1 to K4 right over the completely over operating range which we have considered that
is ah real power output varying from very low value like point 2 per unit to 1 per unit and the
reactive power varying from .5 to minus .5 right the ah constant K1to K4 remain positive all
through.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:57)

Now here is the plot for constant K5 again as function of real power P for 3 different values of Q
now this line represents the reference axis that is K5 is 0 right. Now you can see here actually
that if I consider Q equal to 0 right in this particular case the the value of K5 is negative all
through from .2 to 1 per unit value of P that is the real power P is varying from .2 to 1 or Q equal
to 0, it is all through then when it is plotted for Q equal to .5 right it is seen that for P varying
from .2 to some value around .35 or so right the K5 is positive and then it becomes negative.

Similarly for Q equal to minus .5 K5 remains positive for about for P equal to .5 nearly and then
it becomes again negative therefore this K5 is the most important parameter right which affects
the small signal stability of the system and sometimes we {u} ((00:10:31 min)) we call this K5 as
the culprit. Now we can very clearly see actually in this plot that K5 is positive for light loading
condition right while it becomes negative for heavy loading conditions but even actually in this
particular case we find actually that the for a moderate loading also it is negative and once this
K5 is negative right it produces produces negative damping torque coefficient when the AVR
gain is increased, okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 11:24)

The last plot is for the constant K6 which shows actually the variation of constant K6 as function
of P for 3 different values of Q, Q equal to 0 Q equal to minus .5 and Q equal to .5 again we can
see here actually that yes the constant K6 is positive all through right and it decreases as the real
power output P increases for any value of Q that you can see that Q equal to .5 or Q equal to 0 or
Q equal to minus .5 it decreases but we can clearly see actually that the value of K6 remains
positive okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:29)

Now to understand more clearly the effect of K5 on damping and synchronizing torque
coefficients, the computations were carried out for synchronizing torque coefficient as a function
positive therefore this that is K5 equal to 0.0309 where the real power output is .4 per unit and
reactive power output is 0 that means it is a light loading condition K5 positive.

Now when we increase this AVR gain then synchronizing torque coefficient this is the
synchronizing torque coefficient it decreases right although it is positive all through it decreases,
its magnitude decreases.

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:35)

For the for the same operating condition the damping torque coefficient is plotted here and it is
seen actually that the damping torque coefficient increases with increase in K A and it becomes
maximum for come value of KA then it starts further decreasing. Now over this wide range of KA
that is um in this graph the KA is varied from 0 to 500 right.

Now over this complete range we can clearly see that that the KS is positive but it decreases
however the KD that is the damping torque coefficient it increases and then starts decreasing but
still it is positive all through over the complete operating range that is the K varying from 0 to
condition is that a real power output P is .9 per unit and the reactive power output is .3 per unit
for this operating condition and other system parameters okay, the K5 is computed it comes out
to be minus 0.1475.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:38)

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:53)

Now considering this K5 equal to minus 0.1475 okay and all other constants which where
computed for this operating condition right the the value of KS synchronizing torque coefficient
and damping torque coefficient are computed. The synchronizing torque coefficient you can see
here it increases with the increase in AVR gain KA right it you know the over a small range over
a small range practically it is constant but afterwards it increases and it is positive all through
okay. Now you is this graph shows the variation of damping torque coefficient KD okay, you can
easily see that when KA is 0 the value of KD is slightly positive.
We have seen actually in the previous discussion right if we do not include the AVR okay and
assume assume constant field voltage right and at that time the effect of demagnetization or
armature reaction is to give some positive damping torque. Therefore K equal to 0 a small
positive damping torque and as the value of K is increase the damping torque becomes 0 right
and then it remains negative it becomes it attains some maximum negative value and then it
decreases okay and we can see here actually that although it first it is it is positive initially K
equal to 0 then it it decreases in a fast rate, it becomes negative right and all the range 0 to 500
the KD is negative all through right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:23)

It means we have find here that that the when you include the AVR AVR then the damping
torque becomes negative. Okay now in any practical system automatic voltage regulatory is
required to regulate the terminal voltage. Okay because we cannot say that we will go for a
manual control and keep this field voltage constant if you do that you will find actually that they
negative damping torque is not produced but AVR is required and further to regulate the terminal
voltage within the certain certain tolerance right. You have to have certain steady state gain
larger the value of AVR gain right less will be the steady state error.

Okay and therefore AVR is required to regulate the terminal voltage it has to have large gain
because larger the gain of the AVR right its response is going to be fast and the excitation system
whose response is fast is capable of improving the transient stability limit of the system.
However, when the when we consider a small signal stability or a dynamic stability of the
system right we find that it will add negative damping torque coefficient or negative damping
torque.
Now when the system has negative damping torque whenever the oscillations are created in the
system these oscillations will grow. Okay and when the oscillations grow you will find actually
that on any power transmission line you will find actually that due to the rotor oscillations right
the the there will be oscillations in the power flow on transmission lines right and the protective
relays are provided to to detect these oscillations and protective relays will disconnect the system
or trip the transmission line whenever such oscillations are produced, before the system losses
synchronism right. But the problem basically is that can be allow the situation to happen answer
is obviously that yes, we have to find a solution to overcome this problem of negative damping
produced due to the AVR action and the answer is the incorporation of power system stabilizer
right.

Now first let us see what is the function of the power system stabilizer? Here I have written basic
function of power system stabilizer you have to very clearly understand the basic function then
we we will try to see how we achieve this objective. Power system stabilizers add damping to
electromechanical oscillations this is a fundament thing that we are we are talking of electro-
mechanical oscillations that is the oscillations of the synchronous machine rotors right.

## It is a electro-mechanical oscillations essentially essentially the power system stabilizer act

through the generators excitation system in such a way that a component of electrical torque
proportional to speed change is generated that is we can see here, the PSS act through the
generators excitation system that is when I discuss the different type of excitation system at the
AVR input I have repeatedly told that there is 1 signal coming from the power system stabilizer
okay and we that signal was denoted as VS a stabilizing signal right.

Therefore we can say here that this act through the generator excitation system and it acts in such
a way that a comp1nt of electrical torque proportional to speed change is generated. We know
that a torque which is produced in phase with the speed deviation right is the damping torque.
The damping torque is KD into delta omega R right therefore if we can produce a torque which is
in phase with speed deviation then it will be it then it acts as a or it acts to damp the oscillations.

Now we can further say that this this torque which is produced is the additional this is an
additional an addition to the damping torque because system has its own damping also there is
always some damping which is there inherent in the system therefore the PSS will provide a
damping torque which will be additional to the existing system damping. A power system
stabilizer is used to used to add a modulation signal to the generators AVR reference input that
is they they stabilizing signal which we which we obtained through the power system stabilizer
right that signal will be added at the at the summing point of the AVR or we can say actually that
it is added to the AVR reference input okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:09)

Now let us again come back to our K1 K6 model that is the Heffron-Phillips model now in this
model let us see how to incorporate the PSS. Now this is a summing point, this is a summing
point where the reference voltage is compared with the terminal voltage in the AVR we have this
this is the small signal or you can say the small perturbation model therefore all the quantities are
shown as deviations from the nominal values right delta V reference is the deviation from the
reference of voltage okay then this signal delta V1 is is corresponding to delta Et because this
transfer function was incorporated to take a account for voltage transducer. Okay therefore at the
summing point we want to add a signal this signal we will, we are representing as VS and this
will be added we are putting a plus sign here right.

Now this signal is derived from the speed deviation that is in this transformal transfer function
model this is the point where I can sense the speed deviation delta omega r. Okay therefore here I
put a transfer function we will denote this as Gpss that is the transfer function of the power system
stabilizer. Its input is derived from the speed deviation, okay the output of this transfer function
that is the will be the stabilizing signal and this stabilizing signal is added to the summing point
of the AVR. Okay that is you can see here actually in this block diagram what I have done is I
have taken taken input from this point which represents delta omega r. Okay it enters the transfer
function of the PSS and output of the transfer function of PSS is the stabilizing signal, this
stabilizing signal is put here at the summing point okay.

Now, now we have to see actually that in practice in practice how do we physically realize the
speed deviation signal because you can you can sense the speed by putting a speed transducer on
the shaft of the synchronous generator that is generally today the standard practice is to have a
toothed wheel mounted on the shaft to the synchronous generator and we put a magnetic pickup
right. Therefore, the number of pulses which are generated by the magnetic pickup are
proportional to the speed of the shaft right and ah we can very very precisely measure the actual
speed of the synchronous generator and this speed is compared with the reference speed and the
difference is the delta omega the speed deviation. Okay and now what we have to see is see is
that what should be the structure of this Gpss what should be the transfer function of the power
system stabilizer.

Now to understand this what we do is we look at we look at this transfer function model
carefully. Now if you see here actually that when this signal VS is injected here. Okay the let us
see that we want to obtain obtain air gap torque or variation air gap torque by varying this VS.
Okay suppose actually I am just putting signal stabilizing signal VS and I want to know how
much is the air gap torque produced due to this signal only that is I want to know how much is
the air gap torque produced by this stabilizing signal only.

Now you can easily say that this signal ah or the air gap torque produced can be easily obtained
through this loop can you see this this is the loop actually because here we are not going to
consider the deviation in angle right that we are looking only that if I am putting this signal how
much is the stabilizing produced therefore you have to see very careful here the the let us just
look actually how much is the delta psi fd produced due to VS. Okay then the the torque produced
due to the PSS will be equal to delta psi fd into K 2 that is this is the torque which is going to be
produced. Okay and therefore we can say that if we can write the expression for delta psi fd as a
function of VS right then we can make out actually that if I vary this VS how much is the
stabilizing torque produced, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:56)

Now you can see that if this VS is coming here right now to find out this delta psi fd due to this
stabilizing signal only we have to consider only this portion of the transfer function, okay. Now
delta psi fd can be written, Now if I just see it here we can write down looking at this expression
delta psi fd equal to equal to this transfer function that is you put K3 over 1 plus S times T3.
Okay, now input to this is coming through this Gexs and we will be assuming Gx as as K right
therefore this is coming through KA. Okay and now input to this is VS minus delta V1 VS minus
delta V1 there are assuming delta V reference to be 0, okay therefore we can put KA you can take
this K into into VS minus further to simplify this understanding, we will assume this Tr equal to 0
this time constant of the voltage sensor or voltage transducer is very small and you can make this
Tr to be 0. So that we can say that here it is VS minus minus K6 times K6 times delta psi fd. Okay
that is we get once simple expression this multiplied by VS then this delta psi fd, I can write now
here delta psi fd produced due to stabilizing signal only can be written as K3 divided by 1 plus S
times T3 multiplied by KA into VS minus K6 delta psi fd, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:22)

Now this expression this expression which I have written here is simplified and put in this form
delta psi fd equal to K3 KA, 1 plus S times T 3 in bracket minus K6 delta psi fd plus VS. Okay this
is a very important step once you very carefully derive and see that the delta psi fd produced due
to the stabilizing signal VS can be written in this form. Now here and if you simplify this and and
write the expression for delta psi fd divided by VS that the transfer function relating the change
in flux linkages due to stabilizing signal only the delta psi fd upon VS, K3 KA divided by 1 plus
K3 K6 KA plus s times T3. This is the simple transfer function you will get relating the change in
effect of stabilizing signal on the on the air gap torque produced due to stabilizing signal.

We take this example for a typical example which we consider earlier these where the constants
K1, K2, K3, K4, T3, K5 while taken as negative K6 is taken as 0.3, this TR is neglected although
when the previous case we have taken TR equal to 0.02 but for the purpose of simplification we
are ignoring or we are neglecting this TR making TR equal to 0 the effect of neglecting TR is the
or or I can say that the error error caused due to this assumption is practically insignificant .We
will assume this Gex the transfer function of the exciter as KA and its value we will take as 200 a
typical value equal to 200. Okay now with this parameters assumed if we make the compute this
ratio delta psi fd divided by VS it comes out to be equal to 66.66 divided by 21plus 1.91s, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:19)

Now you assume that the rotor oscillation frequency is 10 radians per second 10 electrical
radians per second, so that put as equal to j10 then this transfer function becomes 66.6 divided by
21 plus j times 19.1 it was 1.91 omega is 10 it becomes 19.1. Now we can write down the delta
TPSS that is the air gap torque produced due to the PSS action only is written as can be written
as delta Te due to PSS that is delta T PSS is delta T or air gap torque due to PSS which is going
to be equal to K2 times delta psi fd due to due to PSS okay. Now we have just now computed
actually this delta psi fd okay as the the transfer function delta psi fd by VS okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:36)

Therefore, now you substitute the expression for or the value for TK2 right we get the delta T due
to PSS as as 1.5 into 66.6 divided by 21 plus j times 19.1 into VS into VS. Now for this for this
complex you can say the function right we can find out its magnitude and phase angle. We can
find out the magnitude and phase angle that is what you have to do is you take the magnitude of
the numerator divided by magnitude of denominator and this ratio will give the magnitude then
find out the phase angle of the numerator in this case phase angle of the numerator is 0 because it
is a real number, find out the phase angle of the denominator. For example, in this case phase
angle of this denominator term is going to be say theta is the phase angle its transient inverse
19.1 divided by 21. Okay and therefore the net phase angle of this function will come out to be
negative right therefore delta TPSS is obtained as 3.522 the phase angle is minus 43.3 degrees into
VS okay.

Now suppose I want I want that this the torque produced due to PSS is a pure damping torque
pure damping torque. Okay in that sense that I must produce this VS that the stabilizing signal
stabilizing signal it should be such that it will it will compensate for this phase length. Okay and
therefore if I if I now assume the transfer function I am just putting very high very, you can say
a simple case that is if I assume GPSS equal to I am just putting GPSS equal to some constant I call
it KA, a K stabilizer KASTA stabilizer.

Okay and its phase angle I make it 43.3 degrees, okay then then delta P delta TPSS can be written
as 3.522 KA stabilizer I think we can put this STA as STAB stabilizer, sometimes we use the
word K stabilizer only that A can be deleted here into delta omega r because VS is equal to what
is VS, VS is equal to GPSS into delta omega r therefore, if I now the assume actually that there
GPSS is equal to a constant and having its phase angle equal to 43.3 right then the the air gap
torque produced due to PSS is 3.522 into K stabilizing delta omega okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 42:13)

Now if you if you we can write this same thing which I have written just now as delta TPSS is
equal to gain of PSS at omega equal to 10 into 3.522 into delta omega r this is what we have
written now we will write write down this damping torque coefficient due to PSS, KD due to PSS
will be equal to gain of PSS into 3.522 because this torque is purely a damping torque right and
we have compensated for the phase length which is produced by choosing the appropriate
transfer function of PSS.

So that we can say that damping torque produced due to PSS is equal to the gain of PSS what so
gain you put into 3.522 and the net damping torque which is going to be produced will be equal
to KD due to AVR action plus KD due to PSS. The net damping torque which is going to be
produced will be equal to KD due to AVR action plus KD due to PSS plus there will be some
inherent damping torque which may be present in the system because we have seen actually that
when I did not consider AVR, we did not PSS still there was some damping torque produced
positive damping torque due to demagnetization effect.

Okay now suppose I want actually that I want to simply nullify the effect of AVR action right
then the the KD PSS should be equal to the KD due to AVR action that is negative, for example in
the problem which we have taken problem which we had taken earlier we found that K D equal
was found to be minus 12.27 when we have considered only the the effect of effect of field flux
changes that is the demagnetization effect or armature reaction effect right. We found actually
that the damping torque contributed I am sorry not it was due to the AVR action with KA equal
200 the damping torque contributed is minus 12.27 right.
(Refer Slide Time: 43:52)

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:34)

Therefore now if I take the the PSS gain if I take PSS gain equal to 12.27 divided by 3.522 right
then this PSS is going to produce positive synchronizing torque coefficient which will just
nullify the negative damping torque produced due to the AVR action right but now if I take gain
if I take gain which is more than this that is if you set the PSS. So its gain is more than this ratio
that is 12.27 divided by 3.522 right then it is going to add to additional damping, it will provide
additional damping torque right and therefore we come to 1 very important conclusion that the
that the PSS PSS which we have to provide should be in a position to to compensate for this
phase length and if you have certain gain.

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:16)

So that it can provide additional damping okay because the the damping due to demagnetization
effect was very small although it was positive when we assume this manual control right there
was some positive damping but that was very small and therefore actually we want certain
damping which will quickly damp out the oscillation whenever there are produced right and
therefore there is a necessity to design the PSS properly.

Now another 1 point which you have to understand is that suppose I provide PSS which will not
fully compensate for this time ah for this phase length because here the phase angle is 43.3
lagging and if I make PSS to have phase length less than 43.3 that is the PSS compensates for an
angle which is less than this that is I can take instead of 43.3 degrees, let us take 30 degrees right.

Now this situation is known as the under compensation that is we are we are not fully
compensating the phase length which is there between the stabilizing signal and the air gap
torque. Okay now if you have this situation what will happen if you look at the let us look at the
let us look at a plain here. I denote this as a delta delta and delta omega r is along y axis okay if
suppose you fully compensate for the phase length by choosing the PSS parameters right then the
delta TPSS delta T due to PSS will be along this axis right and this is a pure damping torque,
okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 49:06)

Now suppose you instead of fully compensating if you do ah under compensation under
compensation right in that case this is your delta delta this is your delta omega r, delta TPSS will
lie somewhere here delta TPSS will be in this position. Okay you understand this point because
we have we have we have partially compensated for the system phase length. Now this is the
situation then this torque can be this delta TPSS can be resolved into 2 components 1 along delta
omega r another along delta delta right.

Now what we see is that this component this is the component of delta PSS along delta delta
what is this component know as synchronizing torque and this is this component is the damping
torque therefore, the moment you have a situation where you have under compensated right, we
get some additional synchronizing torque right and it is desirable because we know that the
whenever you design a system when you design a system we should have synchronizing as well
as the damping torque coefficient to be positive and here we add this line.

Now you take a third case where if you over compensate for this, suppose you over compensate
that is instead of having the phase angle of the GPSS exactly equal to the phase length of the
system. Then the delta TPSS is produced can be shown in this plain it will come in this second
quadrant that you can put delta TPSS and now you can see here actually that we resolved this into
2 components.

We get a component in phase with delta omega r which is the damping torque and we get another
component which is in phase with delta delta synchronous torque coefficient but now we get a
negative synchronizing torque coefficient right and therefore in practice in practice it is it is
necessary to design the PSS is in such a fashion. So that we do not over compensate okay under
compensation if it is there there is no harm the literature shows that 1 can go for under
compensation as much as 10 degrees to 30degrees under compensation of the order of 10 degrees
to 30 degrees.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:06)

Now what we have considered till now is a simple situation where the excitation system was
represented by a constant gain KA only right. Now this representation is applicable to static
excitation system right where the time constant of the exciter is very very low.

## (Refer Slide Time: 53:41)

However, when we consider other excitation systems right then we have to account for the actual
transfer function of the excitation system and further we can see 2 important points that the the
the phase length which is produced depends upon the operating condition because it is function
of the system constants and the constants are function of operating condition. Okay and it also
depends upon the type of excitation system which we have considered right.

Therefore from that point of view that point of view the transfer function which we have to
assume for the for the GPSS are I am sorry transfer function of the power system stabilizer, okay
will not be a very simple 1 a general form of the transfer function block diagram of a of delta
omega PSS is shown here. Without emphasizing I have told you that the input signal to the PSS
is the speed deviation.

Okay and since we want to produce a torque in phase with the speed deviation therefore this is
most ah suitable input signal to PSS and this signal is delta omega therefore in the literature this
type of power system stabilize or the power system stabilizer with speed deviational input signal
is known as delta omega PSS, this is delta omega right therefore it is we use this terminology.

Now here the general transfer function of PSS is shown here that is input to this is delta omega
output is the stabilizing signal therefore here first block is showing the stabilizer gain, stabilizer
gain. The second block shows ah what is called washout? this is a washout block and these 2
transfer functions represent the phase compensator, phase compensator we have seen the
function of these gain how much gain is to be provided because the the gain will determine the
amount amount of damping which is going to be produced.

We have also seen the role of this phase compensator because this phase compensator is to
provide the required phase compensation that is phase length of the system is to be compensated
by putting phase lead therefore compensator is to be provide the desired phase lead for a given
frequency. Okay now the function of this washout we will just understand why we require the
washout block?

Now we want actually this stabilizing signal to be present only when the rotor is oscillating or
there are oscillations in the system. Suppose there is a steady state deviation in the speed from
the rated speed to some other value, the steady state deviation right during the steady state
deviation we do not want any stabilizing signal to be produced because our basic function is to
provide damping to the rotor oscillations. Okay and therefore we provide here a transfer function
transfer function whose gain is going to be 0, when their frequency of oscillation is 0.

Therefore, in example in case see sTw or 1 plus s time Tw that if I put s equal to 0 then this
transfer function provide the 0 gain and when there is a steady state change in delta omega no
stabilizing signal is produced. Now suppose you provide stabilizing signal or allow the
stabilizing signal to be there, stabilizing signal to be there under steady state deviation then it is
going to unnecessarily affect our terminal voltage because this signal is entering at the summing
point of the AVR. We do not want actually the stabilizing signal to affect the terminal voltage
also okay the this transfer function should be a high pass filter. Okay now I will just sum up what
we have discussed today. We have studied the effect of variation of loading condition at different
constants and we have also studied the how the phase is to be incorporated to obtain the rewire
required positive damping. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 22
Small Signal Stability of a Single Machine Infinite Bus System-Power System
Stabilizers (PSS) (Contd)

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Okay gentleman, we start today on the the study of power system stabilizers.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:09)

Last time I have introduce the function of power system stabilizer and we have seen
actually that the power system stabilizer is provided to damp electromechanical modes of
oscillations. Okay and in order to provide the required damping to the electromechanical
mode of oscillations, we provide power system stabilizer.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:44)

The structure of the power system stabilizer is shown here. This power system stabilizer
is given the name delta omega power system stabilizer. The reason for giving this name
as delta power system stabilizer is that the input signal is derived from the from the
deviation of the rotor speed right. Now it has primarily 3 blocks, the first block we denote
as K stabilizer it is the gain block, the second block is denoted as s times Tw or 1plus s
times Tw this is called wash out block. The third block in this particular case we have
shown 2 transfer functions right this 2 put together will form the phase compensator
because the the power system stabilizer is to compensate for the phase lag between
between the between the exciter input to the air gap torque okay and to produce a torque
in phase with the speed deviation right.

This power system stabilizer is to be design, so that we compensate for the phase lag of
the system that the phase lag of the system is the phase lag of the exciter and the
synchronous generator. Now, I will now discuss ah in detail the role of different blocks of
the PSS. Let us first start with the wash out block this wash out block is provided to allow
to allow the high frequency signal of interest to pass and end not to allow the steady state
deviation to pass and end change the terminal voltage because if this block is not
provided then if there is a steady state change in the rotor speed then this steady state
change will be reflected in the terminal voltage change.

Now if you look here at the transfer function of this block under steady state condition, s
is 0, under steady state condition s is 0 therefore when I substitute s equal to 0 in this
transfer function right then the this the gain of this block becomes 0 right and therefore
any signal which comes in to the is power system stabilizer there will be no out put
coming from this block. However, when the frequency s, frequency of oscillate rotary
such that if this term 1 plus s the T omega right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:28)

Now this term will become or you can say that it becomes for s equal to j omega right.
The the transfer function of the wash out block can be return as j omega Tw divided by 1
plus j omega Tw for any frequency of oscillation of the rotor.

## Now if magni magnitude of this term is j omega Tw is very large as compared to 1 or I

can say if omega Tw is very large as compared to 1 right. In that case this transfer
function a gain equal to 1 because this 1 can be 1 is 1 plus j times omega Tw can be
written as j times omega Tw and therefore this transfer function will behave as if its gain
is equal to 1 right and therefore the the speed deviation signal right will be allowed to
pass right and therefore this wash out block is also known as also known as high pass
filter. Okay and generally the characteristic of this wash out block will depend upon of
the value of time constant Tw right. In the literature lot of studies have been done on the
choice of Tw.

We have also studied the effect of variation of Tw and we found actually that this Tw is
not very critical and 1 can choose the value of Tw in the range of 1 to 20 in the wide range
that is Tw equal to 1 second right up to 20 seconds they have been chosen. Now generally
generally the a time constant Tw Tw equal to 10 second is consider to be quite suitable.
Further actually some times what happens is that the system gets islanded because of
suppose some the major for in the system and view to resort islanding, in that case what
will across the frequency of this islanded system may go up or go down and at that time
at that time this frequency is the steady state deviation right at that time also we do not
want actually this phases phases to create to any problem in terms of variation of terminal
voltage right.
Therefore when you Tw equal to 10 or around that right then the desired characteristic of
the wash out block is okay the next transfer function block which we have to consider is
the phase compensatory. Now here I have shown 2 stage phase compensator that 2 stages
which you have shown here is normally call 2 stage phase compensator okay.

Now I will discuss, how to design 1 stage phase compensator and in case you require to
provide 2 stages then the second stage can also be design accordingly the basic function
of this phase compensator is to provide phase lead right and therefore we normally call
this as a phase lead controller or phase lead compensator. Now in order to provide the
phase lead this time constant T1 should be greater than T2 okay.

Now I will further discus, how the how the phase lead controller is designed and how this
can be physically realized using operational amplifiers because when you want to realize
this phase lead compensator right for implementation, okay then we have to see that how
this transfer function is physically realized using operational amplifiers although there are
other ways to realize this transfer function right but the the modern practice is to make
use of operational amplifiers.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:04)

such phase so that it provides the damping to the oscillations right which are which are
local modes of oscillations and interior modes of oscillation because we we have seen
earlier that local modes of oscillations have a frequency range of around .72 hertz, okay
while interior modes of oscillations have frequency of the order of point 1 to .8 hertz and
therefore if you look the total spectrum right the frequency range over which we want to
produce damping is varying from .1 to 2 hertz and the and the phase shift or phase lead
controller is to be designed.
So that we get the required phase compensation right but as we know as we have seen
actually that you can design this compensator to compensate exactly the phase lag of the
system at 1 particular frequency okay.

Now further we have to understand very carefully that the phase lag of the system is not
constant it depends upon the system operating condition and system parameters. Okay
and therefore as the system operating condition changes the phase lag characteristic of
the system also changes and therefore actually the design of the phase compensator, so
that it meets the requirement over the over the wide range of frequency is a real
challenge, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 12:38)

compensator can be written in this form. In general I am just putting a general any phase
lead compensator can be written as gain Kc in to 1 gain Kc multiplied with this transfer
function that is s plus z1 divided by s plus p1, this z1 is the 0 of this transfer function and
p1 is the pole of this transfer function and for this transfer function to provide the phase
lead p1 should be greater than z1, okay.

Now here to realize this phase lead controller or phase lead compensator, the simplest
arrangement for its implementation using operational amplifier see shown here that is in
this amplifier, in this portion of the operational amplifier circuit this is the feedback
impedance pass 1 and this is the input impedance right. Now in the feedback portion we
have taken a circuit comprising of resistance R2 in parallel with capacitor C2. Similarly,
in the input a circuit is comprising of a resistance R1 in parallel with C okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 13:42)

Now you all know actually that when use 1 operational amplifier right there is a phase
inversion. Okay therefore to correct for this phase inversion the make use 1 more stage of
operational amplifier. So that we correct this phase inversion because this will in this
particular case the gain is 1 or the the feedback resistance is taken same as the input
resistance.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:48)

So that the gain of this operational amplifier is 1 and the phase shift is 180 degree
therefore the phase shift created by this operational amplifier is corrected by second
operational amplifier. The transfer function relating the output voltage Eo to the input Ein
can be simply obtained by writing the writing the operational impedance of this R2 C2 in
parallel and R1 C1 in parallel.

Suppose, you have circuit in comprising of resistance a capacitance C1 and the resistance
R1 right the we I can call the operational impedance of this a Z1, this will be equal to
parallel combination of these 2 impedance that is R1 in parallel if 1 upon C1 s divided by
R1 plus 1 upon C1 right which can be simplified and put in the form R1 divided by 1 plus
R1 C1s, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 17:00)

Similarly, you can write down for the of feedback impedance that is I call this a feedback
as Z2 as the operational impedance of the feedback impedance that can be written as R2
divided 1 plus R2 C2 s and therefore we can write down the transfer function Eo divided
by Ein that is Eos divided by Eins as it is Zf divided by Z1 Zf is here. This quantity and Z1
we have already therefore when you divide it will come out be 1 plus R1 C1s, 1 plus R2 C2
s this multiplied by R2 by R1. Okay therefore you can see here actually the transfer
function is similar to what we are looking for but you are interested in having a transfer
function of the form 1 plus T1 s divided by 1 plus T2s.

Therefore, this the simple operational amplifier with the with the of feedback comprising
of a resistance in parallel with capacitance, similarly input also a resistance in parallel
with capacitance. We can get a simple transfer function which and by choosing the value
of this R1 C1, R2 C2 right. We will in a position to obtain the require phase characteristic
of the transfer function, okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:10)

Now here I have written this expression, we just now we derived you call this as a Gcs
that is the transfer function of the compensator Gc , c stand for compensator as Eos by Eins.
Now this can be put in the form the 1 which we have just now derived right it can be now
put in a different form right that is you can put this in a form C1 by C2 s plus 1 by R1 C1 s
plus 1 by R2 C2 and therefore we can say that this is this transfer function is of the form
gain Kc s plus Z1 s plus p1 where we can identify the Z1 as 1 by R1 C1 and p1 as 1 by R2
C2, okay.

Now in order to in order to reduce the number of independent parameters of the circuit,
we can choose C1 equal to C2 equal to C that is this these 2 capacitors can be chosen to be
equal, once you choose the C1 equal to C2 equal to C this transfer function can be written
here in this form it is put C1 equal to C, C2 was also equal to C and you divide this whole
expression by R1 and denoted by R2.

Okay then finally it is written in this form at R2 by R1,1 plus R1 Cs,1 R2 Cs which can be
R2 by R1 can be written as 1 by a where a is equal to R1 by R2 and T can be written sR2
into C, okay therefore now I get the transfer function of the compensator in the form 1 by
a multiplied by 1 plus a times Ts, 1 plus Ts right therefore what we have done is that we
have now 2 parameters to be computed 1 is the a, another is the time constant T and I as
have told actually that that T1 is greater than T2 and therefore a is greater than 1, a is
always greater than 1 to realize R2 realize a phase lead controller right.

Now the problem arises is that how to choose the values of these 2 parameters a and T.
Now this this quantity 1 upon a will be consider as part the stabilizer gain, you have this
is a multiplying factor a constant therefore this can be club with the stabilizer gain. Okay
now we will now a study how to design the this phase lead compensator to to achieve the
required phase compensation. Now if you look here in this transfer function is, excuse me
sir, yes.
No no here here this, if you look at this transfer function this portion of transfer function
right that this represents T1, this represents T2 and we want phase lead compensator and
for this phase lead compensator this a in to T should be greater than T, therefore a has to
be greater than 1as if you want to get the phase lag then a will be less than 1 because
sometimes we do required phase lag compensators in the design of controllers right at
that time a will be less than 1 and this a equal to R1 by R2 the values of R1 and R2 can be
so chosen, so that we get the required ratio.

## (Refer Slide Time: 25:02)

Now the simplest approach to design this compensator is that we identified 2 corner
frequencies of this transfer functions, this transfer function as 2 corner frequencies 1 is
omega equal to 1 upon aT quite omega 1 another corner frequency we can call it omega 2
equal to 1 upon T and the this particular transfer function will provide you the maximum
phase lead at a frequency which will be the geometric mean of these 2 corner frequency
right.

## Therefore here we consider this omega m as a geometric mean of the 2 corner

frequencies which is obtained as square root of 1 upon 80 in to 1 upon T that is these 2
corner frequencies we identify we find out the geometric mean. Okay and the geometric
mean of these 2 corner frequencies is equal to 1 divided by square root a in to T, the idea
here is that when you plot plot for this transfer function right the phase angle versus
frequency right then the maximum phase angle of this transfer function will occur at a
frequency equal to omega m and this frequency is the geometric mean of these 2 corner
frequencies, okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:32)

For this transfer function for this transfer function Gcs for s equal to G omega. Let us
write down what is the phase angle of this transfer function right to obtain the phase
angle of this transfer function what we do is that we write down Gc j omega equal to 1
upon a remains 1 plus j times a omega T that is for s equal to j omega 1 plus j omega
okay, what is the phase angle of this transfer function. Obviously, the phase angle is that
phase angle of the numerator minus the phase angle of the denominator and the phase
angle of the numerator is tan inverse a omega T and of the denominator is tan inverse
omega T and this is actually the phase angle of Gc j omega that is for this function for this
transfer function phase angle is given by this expression.
(Refer Slide Time: 28:22)

A very simple formula to compute the now my interest is my interest is to express the this
phase difference right phase difference in a simple form that is in terms of a and T. Okay
now what we do here is that we make use of this identity that is phase angle of this
function is let us say phi then 10 phi is equal to omega aT minus omega T divided by 1
plus omega aT in to omega T that is, we know that its suppose your this function transient
theta 1 minus theta 2 right this is equal to tan theta 1 minus tan theta 2 divided by 1 plus
tan theta 1, tan theta 2.

## (Refer Slide Time: 28:44)

Okay, now here tan theta 1 is equal to omega aT tan theta 2 is equal to omega a omega T
not a and the the phase phase angle of this transfer function is theta 1 minus theta 2, you
will call this quantity as phi. So that now I can write down tan phi equal to omega aT
minus omega T divided by 1 plus omega aT in to omega T, okay a very simple
expression of the phase angle of this transfer function.

Now we know that for omega equal to omega m equal to 1 upon square root of aT the
phase shift is maximum. Okay and therefore what we do here is that we write down the
expression for tan phi m in this form that is you substitute in this expression omega equal
to omega m, okay and when you substitute omega equal to omega m in this expression
and simplify you will find that you get an expression for tan phi m equal to a minus 1
divided by 2 times square root of a, this step you can just substitute and verify, okay.

Now this expression is further written in the form sin phi m equal to a minus or a plus 1
or a can be expressed as 1 plus sin phi m divided by 1 minus sin phi m then we have
obtained very simple expression for a in terms of the the required phase angle of the
transfer function or the phase compensator that is if I want actually that this phase
compensator should provide a phase shift equal to phi m right then what should the value
of a and the value of a is obtain by the simple formula a equal to 1 plus sin phi m divided
by 1 minus sin phi m.

This intermediate steps can be easily verified right then we have also now an expression
omega m equal to 1 divided by square root of at that is if I know that this is the frequency
at which I want to get the required phase shift there is omega m known to me I start with
this omega m the frequency at which I want to compensate for the phase lag of the
system.

Okay, therefore omega m is known to me, so that using this expression and using this
equation to I know both this things, I know what is the what is the phase shift of achieve
that is the how much should be the phase shift or phase lead this phase compensator is to
provide. I also know at what frequency these 2 provide okay. Therefore knowing these 2
information I have a very simple formula we are first I compute the expression for a
because phi m is known to me and then use this expression use the value of a to obtain
the expression or the value of T right. So that I can now I have now both the parameters a
and T both.

Now the question arises that what is the frequency at which I should design my power
system stabilizer this frequency is the rotor frequency, rotor oscillation frequency.
However this rotor oscillation frequency we have seen varies over wide range, over a
wide right and therefore this power system stabilizer should be design in such a fashion.

So that you design for 1 frequency but when the frequency varies from that value on or
increases or decreases it still it should be in the position to give you reasonable phase
compensation but I just now mens I told you very clearly that we would like to design
power system stabilizer in a such a fashion.
So that so that it is it may have some under compensation but it should not have over
compensation. The moment you have as a some degree of under compensation, we get
torque coefficient and is helpful right but we should we should not target to over
compensate because the moment you try to over compensate it will produce a negative
synchronizing torque coefficient.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:06)

Okay a many times the required phase shift cannot be obtained using 1 stage of the phase
lead compensator and in that case we go for 2 stages that is called 2 stage phase lead
compensator, many times 1 can have 2 identical blocks that is here I shown this phase
compensator right.

I have discussed how to design 1 stage phase lead compensator and we we can have 2
stages identical in that case suppose I want to compensate for say 85 degree let us say
right therefore, instead of designing 1 phase compensator to compensate for this total 85
degrees I can design the so that 1 is for 85 by 2 another is for 85 by 2 generally the thumb
rule is that 1 phase lead compensator block should be design to compensate around 50
degrees, the to understand the basic concepts of designing the phase lead compensator or
for that purpose any linear compensator, I will advise you to read this chapter 10 which is
design of control systems that is a title of the book is design of control systems written B.
C. Kuo.

I am just sorry, let me correct it title of this chapter 10 is design of control systems the
title of the book is automatic control systems the 7th edition by B. C. Kuo, B. C. Kuo is a
very standard text book on automatic control systems and I am sure that you will be in a
position to very clearly understand how this to be design. Now I will just quickly tell you
how to obtain the state space model of the complete system that is when you have
incorporated in a power system stabilizer right automatic voltage regulator in the system
therefore, we can develop a complete state space model of the single machine infinite bus
system including AVR and PSS.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:42)

We had developed earlier the state space model model considering considering the input
signal from the exciter as delta Efd that is this transfer function model actually if you just
look here. This transfer function model I am sorry, the from this transfer function model
that is if you see this is this portion actually that is we are not considering PSS we are not
considering the excitation system and AVR therefore the state variables which are
required to model the system in the state space form delta omega r, delta delta and delta
psi fd. With this 3 state variables right 1 can write down the state space model of the
system and input to this model or input to this state space model will be delta Tm and
delta Efd right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:57)

The the model is written in the form delta omega r dot delta delta dot delta psi fd dot at
this is my X dot and this is the A matrix A, this is the state vector this becomes the input
matrix B and this is your input vector Bu right therefore in this case the input is
comprising of delta Tm and delta efd.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:43)

Now you can obtain more detailed model including including the AVR and PSS. Now to
develop this model I will just tell you few salient steps, the additional portion of the
transfer function to be incorporated in the model is shown here is the additional portion
because we already developed actually the transfer function model of the third order
system. Now the exciter is represented by a gain K only you can represent the exciter
depending upon the what type of exciter you are using okay.

We know the detail models of the different type of excitation system therefore here for
the purpose of simplicity we are representing this by a constant Ka only and this
representing static excitation system IEEE sT1 a model. Okay this is the change in the
terminal voltage delta Et this is the transfer function of voltage transducer terminal
voltage transducer that is we get a delta V1 this is the transfer function model of the PSS,
this portion you can just see here I have shown in this model a single stage phase lead
compensator right. If if we necessary 1 can put 1 more stage 2 stage phase lead
compensator right and accordingly you can modify your study space model and the
question is that how do we develop the differential equations, linear differential equations
for this system.

So that they can be augmented with the existing or the existing system model is
augmented by adding these equations additional equations. Now the state variables which
we will have to define new state variables 1 is because earlier these are the only in put
signal here right use state variables which your define will be delta v1 which is the output
of this transfer functional block, Vs the output of power system stabilizer then here then
we call this another state variable you call this is a delta V2.

Okay and here there is no state variable required because this is only gain therefore at this
point it is the signal is K stab into delta omega, okay therefore so far this this block is
concern in this block the input is this quantity output is delta V2. So far this second block
or phase compensator is concern input is delta V2 output is Vs, this block 1 is concerned
input is delta Et output is delta V1. Therefore, these 3 state variables are required to to
develop the complete model of the machine infinite bus system including PSS and AVR
right.

Now the equations can be written very easily let us us write the equation for first a block
that is here transfer function is 1 over 1 plus s times TR output of this is delta V1 input of
this is delta Et, okay. Now this model which we are talking about is small perturbation
model and in small perturbation model all these state variables initially are 0. There is the
perturbed values like see delta V1 delta Et right a tan equal to 0, R0 and therefore we can
replace s by p okay and you can write down the equation in this form delta V 1 equal to 1
1 plus S times Tr into delta Et or you can write down here now, 1 plus S times TR into
delta V1 equal to delta Et a very simple right.
(Refer Slide Time: 43:18)

Now here if a replace S by d by dt S is replace by d by dt, then you will and divided by
TR all through you can write the equation in the form that delta V1 dot will be equal to 1
upon TR delta Et minus 1 upon TR delta V1. Okay, now to make this equation complete
equation because delta Et is not a state variable delta Et is not a state variable but delta Et
can be expressed in terms of the state variables.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:36)

Therefore delta V1 dot is written as 1 upon TR delta E t is equal to K5 delta delta plus K6
delta psi fd, okay minus 1 upon TR delta V1 okay therefore now I have written 1
additional equation which is a differential equation it is expressed in terms of the these 3
state variables delta delta delta psi fd and delta V1 okay. Similar approach is to be used for
deriving additional state variable equations right I will just illustrate for delta V2 also.

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:33)

Now to understand how to develop the equation corresponding to this wash out block, we
can write down delta V2 equal to STw or 1 plus S times TW input is KSTAB into delta
omega r delta omega r is a state variable. Now you perform the similar operation you will
find that S times delta V2 equal to KSTAB S delta omega r minus 1 upon Tw delta omega
delta V2. Okay that is you cross multiply and then collect the terms that you put S delta
V2 on left hand side and all other terms on right.

Now in this equation you find here S delta omega r, S is d by dt. So that this is basically
your delta omega r dot term delta omega r dot term because whenever you write
deferential equation on right hand side we will have only the the expression which is the
linear function of state variables right therefore what we do is that this delta omega r dot
is replaced by by is replaced by this equation, we have the equation here delta omega r
dot is equal to a11 delta omega r plus a 12 delta delta plus a13 delta psi fd plus b11 delta Tm
we have it right.

So that when you now substitute the expression for d by dt of delta omega R in this
expression, you will get a equation for delta V2 dot and this delta V2 dot is now written in
terms of all the state variables like delta Omega r delta delta delta psi fd delta V2 and delta
Tm because when you write this right this differential equation it will be function of state
variables plus input variables.

Now here input is delta Tm right you follow the similar approach for writing the transfer
function of phase lead compensator that is in the phase lead compensator the input is
delta V2, output is Vs the transfer function is 1 plus S time T1, 1 plus time T2 right now Vs
is a one of the state variables. So that we can write down the equation in this form you
have to simplify the expressions fallowing the same approach, ultimately our requirement
is that the left right hand side of the expression should be function of all state variables
and input way the last equation is for this block a summation block here.

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:23)

(Refer Slide Time: 50:10)

Now what we do is that delta Efd is written in terms of K that is delta Efd is equal to K
into delta V reference plus Vs minus delta V1. Okay, now this delta Efd appeared in our
earlier equation for delta psi fd that is if you see this equation for delta psi fd this delta psi
fd is a substitute actually the express what delta efd because when delta psi fd was written
delta psi fd dot equal to right function of delta delta delta omega R delta psi fd plus
function of delta efd therefore this efd is now not state variable is to be eliminated.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:24)

Okay, when all these things are done there is you can eliminate this delta efd and you will
get the expression in the form delta psi fd dot equal to a2, a32 delta delta a33 delta psi fd a3
for delta V1a36 Vs ab32 Ka delta V reference that is what we have done here is that we
have written 3 additional equations, okay and modified the the third equation the reverse
corresponding to delta psi fd dot.

## (Refer Slide Time: 52:02)

Okay and the the total model of the system can be written in this form it comes out to be
a 6th order model there is there are 6 difference state variables delta omega r delta delta
delta psi fd delta V1 delta V2 Vs. Okay and we can write down this model in the form
again X dot equal to AX plus Bu, now this u is delta Tm and delta V reference that is
input is now the mechanical talk that is the the incremental change in mechanical dot
delta Tm and the change in reference voltage, delta V reference and delta efd has now
been eliminated from the model.

Now in this model once the model is developed we know actually that all these
parameters that is coefficient the the elements of this a matrix, they all function of
loading condition and system parameters right, one can find out the Eigen values of this a
metrics to understand the stability of the system. Okay, now I will just quickly tell you 1
or 2 more points before I close the discussion.

The basic limitations of delta omega PSS basic limitation the the the limitations are 1 is
that this delta omega PSS can excite the torsional modes, can has the has the potential of
exciting the torsional modes. In case you have large gain of the PSS, if the PSS gain is
kept large then it can excite the torsional modes. Many times to overcome the problem of
excitation of torsional modes, we provide filter in the PSS path the moment you provide
filter right then this is again restricts the PSS gain that is we cannot have the gain as much
as we want because if you if you want to can say have the desired dumping right.
(Refer Slide Time: 53:38)

Then the gain setting of the PSS will give the required dumping ratio right but if you try
to design the PSS so that you achieve the required dumping for electromechanical mode
right then there are other problems the other problems are the possibility of excitation of
torsional modes and the limitation on the PSS gain. Okay, let me some of here that we
have discussed today the details of the power system stabilizer to be applied we have
analyzed the analyze the system with PSS. Okay and we have also seen how this PSS can
be realize using operational amplifiers and at the end we have derived the complete state
space model of the machine infinite bus system including AVR and PSS.

I will suggest that all of you should derive this model yourself right and that you can
study the behavior of the system with PSS, you can make use of the mat lab software
package to find out the Eigen values of the system matrix and to simulate the dynamic
performance your system by giving some perturbations may be perturbations may be in
terms of perturbation in mechanical torque you can just make delta Tm equal to some .01
or change in the reference voltage and see the behavior of the system. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 23
Dynamic Modelling of Steam Turbines and Governors

Friends, today we will discuss dynamic models of steam turbines and governors.

## (Refer Slide Time: 01:05)

So far we have developed the model for synchronous generator and the associated excitation
systems while studying the stability, we have made one assumption that mechanical input power
remains constant right. Now while developing actually the model for transient stability analysis
right we our swing equation our swing equation is written in the form 2H divided by omega s, d 2
delta by dt2 equal to Pm minus Pe.

Now till now we have assumed that this mechanical power input is constant. Okay and the this is
very valid assumption however whenever you want to do study involving a severe upsets in the
power system and we want to know the long term midterm and voltage stability analysis of the
system then the the turbine and associated governor models also required to be included and
today, we will devote our studies to develop the models of steam turbines and associated
governors before we developed this let us look at this block diagram.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:45)

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:06)

This block diagram shows the complete power system net power system. Now you can identify
here the different blocks suppose you start with actually the power system network. This is the
block which shows the power system networks which has which we represent the generators
transmission line network and loads, okay. Now from this network we get output as electrical
power and for the control of this power system as a whole we have different controls okay.
Now one control is actually the generation control and for controlling generation what is done is
that we change the interchange power on various tie lines and find out the net interchange which
has the system frequency this is processed in a controller which is called automatic generation
control and the output signal which comes to the automatic generation control right. We will
change the position of the speed changer. Okay, then when you look the major blocks you have
the speed governor, speed controller mechanism and governor control valves and gates.

Now here we are writing valves and gates, the valves basically pertain to steam turbines and
gates pertain to hydro turbines and the output or the position of the gates right control the input
to the turbine and therefore this was the turbine here. Now we are while for for presenting the
system dynamic model what we do is that we represent the turbine separately and then the output
from the turbine will be represented as a mechanical power output and this mechanical power
output will be used to write the swing equation that is we wild this, we will separate the turbine
generator inertia and write the swing equation so that input to this block which we basically used
to write the swing equation. We call it actually the turbine generator inertia input is electrical
power and mechanical power the different of this is the accelerating power and the output from
this block will give you the angle change in angular position and change in the speed.

Now the speed deviation signal is processed through a speed governor therefore the speed
governor is a most important component in the control mechanism. It has two inputs, one coming
through the coming from the terminal of the synchronous generator and that is the speed signal
another is the a control signal coming through the AGC, we call actually the speed changer
position, okay. Now these two signals when they enter through this governor governor will
process it and we have a speed control mechanism and then ultimately the valves okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:31)

Now this is the complete schematic diagram which represents the location of steam turbine the
governors with respect to the total system. Now our study will be confined to representing the
steam turbine and the speed governing system okay. The reference material for steam turbine
models and hydro turbine and associated governors is available in this IEEE committee report
because when we discuss the excitation system models I have referred to a number of papers of
published in IEEE transaction and IEEE ah standards. Okay similar to similar to the excitation
system models the IEEE task force on power system dynamics has developed the models for
steam turbines, governors and hydro turbines in associated governors.

This is published in the year 1973 and while developing these models, since this subject involves
the mechanical system right along with the electrical system right and therefore this is written by
by with the association of IEEE working group and American society of mechanical engineers
right. Therefore, these two groups have contributed in developing the models which are
published in IEEE transaction in the year 1973 this is the standard paper I advise all of you to
take a copy and read it. Okay while developing these models there some assumptions which have
been made because when we see the system as a whole right we have contingency controls for
example fast valving right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:42)

Now these type of controls have not been shown here in the models we will ah develop these
models actually and discuss these models from beginning. Now to develop the model what we
need is basically the relationship between the input and output. Now since here we will be
dealing while developing the steam turbine model right where we know that the steam is
generated in the boiler and then it flows through the various stages of steam turbine and then
ultimately it is exhausted to the condenser. Okay now in order to develop the model let us start
with a simple steam vessel, let us say that there is a steam vessel and volume V is the volume of
this vessel. In this vessel the steam is entering and let us say that Q in is the steam in kilograms
which is entering per second and Q out is the steam in kilograms leaving this channel.

We will develop actually a transfer function model relating the Qout to Qin and this basic model
will be used to represent various stages of the steam turbine. Our basic objective is to develop a
transfer function model relating the the Qout that is the the steam coming out to the steam coming
in to the vessel.

## (Refer Slide Time: 11:15)

Here we can we make use of a basic equation which is called continuity equation, the continuity
equation is written in the form d by dt of W, W is the weight of the steam W is the total weight
of the steam which is inside the vessel. Okay this rate of change the dW by dt is equal to V times
d rho by dt. The rho here is the the density of the steam, okay we can say that it is the weight in
kilograms per metre cube. Okay and V is the volume therefore V into rho is equal to total weight
V into rho that is the total weight of the steam therefore rate of change of total weight of the
steam content is equal to this difference Qin minus Qout a very simple mechanism that there is a
vessel where steam is entering at a certain rate steam is leaving at certain rate right and this
difference will represent the rate of change of way to the steam inside the vessel.

Now basic meaning of the terms here are W is the weight of the steam in the vessel in kilograms
which is equal to V into rho, V is the volume of the vessel in metre cube, rho is the density of
steam in kilogram per metre cube and Q is the steam mass flow rate, Q represent the steam mass
flow rate kilograms per second, T represent time in seconds a very simple equation. Now here
we will relate the the rate at which the steam is leaving the vessel to pressure right.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:42)

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:28)

Now let us say that Qo is the steam leaving the vessel per second when pressure is Po right
therefore at any other pressure the Q out will be equal to Qo divided Po into P where, P is the
pressure which is different from the nominal pressure, okay P is the pressure of the steam in the
vessel Po is the rated pressure and Qo is the rated flow of the vessel it means at a particular
pressure the steam flow is Qo and at any other pressure the rate of steam flow or steam flow is
proportional to the pressure.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:29)

## (Refer Slide Time: 14:42)

Now to develop the equation we need actually the expression for deer d rho by dt okay, Now to
obtain the expression for d rho by dt. We can write like this d rho by dt can be written as dP by dt
that is the derivative of pressure with respect to time or the rate of change pressure with respect
to time into d rho by dP that this chain rule type of relation we have written that d rho by dt is
equal to dP by dt into d rho by dP or you can put other way around d rho by dP into dP by dt that
will be much better if you write down d rho by dt as d rho dP into dP by dt. Then, we substitute
this expression in our continuity equation we get Qin minus Qout equal to volume into d rho by dP
into dP by dt.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:45)

Okay, now here dP by dt can be replaced dP by dt can be replaced from this expression that is
you can write down you can just take derivative of this equation. So we write down the dP by dt
is equal to Po by Qo into dQ by dQout by dt. Okay use this expression so that I can write now Q in
minus Q out equal to V into d rho by dP Po by Qo into dQout by dt. Okay here in this equation in
this equation we will represent this total term V d rho by dP into P o by Qo by a term a constant
called Tv dQout by dt.

Now here this term d rho by dP is a known quantity that is how the the density varies with the
pressure this is the rate of change of steam density with pressure this can be this is a known
quantity therefore all these terms are known Po is known Qo is known therefore this coefficient
will be represented by a constant Tv at at right and ultimately you will see that this becomes the
time constant of the vessel. Okay therefore, now I have a simple equation a first order differential
equation this Qin minus Qout equal to Tv into dQ out by dt you take the Laplace transform of this
equation. Okay and then you can express the the Qout in terms of Qin right and you can write
down the transfer function in this form Qout by Qin equal to 1over 1 plus s times Tv.

A simple first order transfer function which we have obtained here for this vessel, okay. Now
this this is the these are the Laplace transform variables output input and this Tv is the time
constant of the vessel. Okay now you understand actually the what are the parameters which
determine this time constant Tv of the vessel okay because if you see it here again T, Tv depends
upon the volume of the vessel these are the vessel right mode will be the time constant it will
also depend upon these parameters what is the, what is the ah Qo for a given value of Po and this
quantity that is the property of the steam okay therefore with with knowing these quantities or
these parameters this Tv can be computed. Now let us come to the actual turbine representation
or steam turbine representation. So far the steam turbines are concerned we have different
configurations it all depends upon the rating of the machine right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:18)

Now this block diagram represents the simple tandem compound single reheat steam turbine.
Now here the basic blocks in this tandem compound single reheat steam turbine are that we will
have control valves and steam chest that is that is the control valves right and the position of the
control valve is adjusted by the governor, okay. The governor controls or speed control
mechanism right they will be adjusting the position of the valves, okay. Therefore first block
diagram which I can show here is h control valves and steam chest these valves are enclosed in
an enclosure right which also houses some substantial amount of steam right therefore we call
this is a steam chest.

The steam from this through this control valve enters the high pressure section of the turbine.
After developing some power in the high pressure section the steam temperature and pressure
reduces it gets expanded right therefore it is send to re heater after re heating the steam in the
superheated condition again and then it enters the next stage of the turbine is called intermediate
pressure turbine section, IP. The steam leaving from the intermediate pressure section enters the
low pressure sections through cross over pipings okay and then it is exhausted to the condenser.

Now in this schematic diagram we have not shown certain valves which are provided in the
system. For example I have not shown the interceptor valve there is a interceptor valve provided
actually here in the reheater circuit that is the steam leaving the high pressure section there will
be an interceptor valve we call IV. Similarly similarly we have here a control valve which we
will be showing but along with the control valve there will be stop valves also therefore there
will be always two valves stop valve which will be used to completely stop the flow of steam
similarly along with the interceptor valve also we have a stop valve right.

Now in this models which we will be developing we will not be representing this stop valves.
Similarly, I am not showing here the interceptor valve but they can also be represented okay
further depending upon the size of the machine we may have a single stage reheating or two
stage reheating. In case it is a two stage reheating we we will have one more section then the first
section is normally called VHP which is a very high pressure turbine section, next will be called
high pressure then intermediate pressure and so on that is the steam which leaves the very high
pressure section and after working and when it leaves the very high pressure section will enter
the reheater again it comes out enter the high pressure when it leaves again and enters into the re
heater and so on.

Therefore it is called two stage sometimes we have other configurations which are called
compound configuration there here you will find that all these sections are mounted on the same
shaft that is high pressure interference, intermediate pressure low pressure and then generator but
in the compound type of steam turbines they have two shafts right and but both this you know
turbine sections are controlled simultaneously right they are not independent if they are
independent then they become actually independent steam turbine sections okay.

Now our interest is to develop the transfer function model relating the power output from the
turbine and the turbine output is denoted as mechanical torque or mechanical power okay and
valve position that is what is the position of the valve right therefore, we will relate the relate the
mechanical torque to the valve position that is suppose a time T equal to 0 if I change the
position of valve right then how the output at the shaft will vary right.
Now you can easily see here now that we have control valve and steam chest therefore this is a
steam vessel you can call it, high pressure section is also a steam vessel because here we have
two types of blades stationary and moving right and the steam expands in the nozzles which are
formed in the each section right therefore this also behaves like a vessel this also behaves like a
vessel this also behaves like a vessel therefore the we can represent represent each of these by a
time constant and the time constant will depend upon what is the volume of this what is the
pressure and other parameters, okay. Further, suppose actually the total power is generated, the
total say mechanical torque developed is say Pm.

Now this total mechanical torque is developed in these 3 sections okay a part of it is produced
here in high pressure section half part in intermediate pressure section, part in the low pressure
section right and generally generally you will find that around 70 percent to the power is
produced due to the intermediate pressure and low pressure section and about 30 percent is
produced in the high pressure section therefore we have to account while modeling the section of
the power which is produced in each of the sections okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:04)

This is the simplest transfer function model of a single reheat tandem compound steam turbine.
The configuration of that particular tandem compound single reheat steam turbine we have just
now seen, the first block diagram this one this represents the steam chest and control valve the
time constant associated with this is TCH, CH is stand for the chest, okay. A certain amount of
power is produced that is PGV is stand for position of the governor valve PGV, P stands for
position PGV define the position of the governor valve even this governor valve position is
calibrated in terms of power right then whatsoever power is produced here in the, now this TCH
will also include the time constant associated with the high pressure section, high pressure
section right.
Therefore this block diagram represents the the vessel that is the chest along with the high
pressure therefore the total is represented by time constant TCH, then when the steam enters
through the reheater okay now the reheater pipings you can say the pipings are there and it has
capacity to store a large amount of steam right and therefore associated with the heater is the
time constant called TRH right. Therefore we represent this reheater separately as one upon one
plus S times TRH and at the end the steam which leaves the intermediate pressure because this
reheater along with the intermediate pressure is also that any time constant associated with the
intermediate pressure is included in the re heater then at the end we have cross over pipings and
the lower pressure section therefore we represent by one more time constant called TCO, CO
stand for the cross over pipings right.

Now at this point some power is generated in the high pressure section if I call this power as PHP.
Okay the power which is produced here in the intermediate pressure section I will call it as PIP
and power which is produced here in the low pressure section we will denote by PLP. Okay now
the total power which is going to be produced will be PHP into FHP plus PIP into FIP to PLP into FLP
and the total is Pm. Okay this is what is the therefore now we have a complete transfer function
relating the mechanical power Pm which is developed by the steam turbine and the governor
valve position.

In case you have another configuration instead of having single reheat if you have a 2 stages
reheat system right then we may have to add one more section right therefore depending upon
actually the what is the actual configuration one can develop a transfer function relating the
governor valve position to the mechanical power input and for each of these sections we can
write down the differential equations because when we write the model right the model is to be
written by writing a set of differential equations. For example in this particular case there are
three time constants and therefore three differential equations will be required to describe the
steam turbine.

Now the state variables state variables in this case will be PHP, PIP and PLP these are the 3 state
variables okay and in this particular arrangement if you want to study the small signal stability
then there will be the incremental changes like the delta PHP will be the state variable, delta PIP
will be state variable but when I am writing the complete non-linear model then these quantities
as it is will become the state variables and therefore we will require the initial values to solve the
problem. Therefore whenever I want to solve the stability problem I should know what is the
initial value of this PHP? initial value of PIP and initial value of PLP they are my state variable any
doubt.

Now the the terms associated were explained I will just reiterate PGV is the output power from
the control valve or we can even represent the output position of the control valve but that is also
expressed in terms of power calibrated in terms of power okay TCH is the steam chest time
constant TRH is the re heater time constant TCO is the steam storage or cross-over time constant.

Now here I wanted to just mention that out of all these time constants the TRH the re heater time
constant is the largest its value is around 10 seconds, 5 to 10seconds while this TCH and TCO the
time constants are of the order of .2, .3 like that fraction of a second a small right and once when
you see that the time constant TRH a large time constant right then whenever you are trying to
study the midterm or long term dynamics right then this model will have its effect on the
stability.

## (Refer Slide Time: 32:49)

Now, similarly this FIP stands for IP turbine power fraction FLP is the LP turbine power fraction
Pm is the equivalent generator input mechanical power, this is the mechanical power input which
we have been talking about. Now the 3 differential equations which you can write can be written
in the simple form, 3 differential equations are because there were 3 single order a first order
transfer functions for each transfer functions you can write down one differential equation d by
dt of PHP as PGV minus PHP divided by TCH similarly, d by dt of PIP equal to PHP minus PIP divided
by TRH, d by dt of PLP equal to PIP minus PLP divided by TCO and the mechanical power Pm is
equal to PHP, FHP plus PIP, FIP plus PLP, FLP okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:24)

Now these 3 differential equations right we will will form the the model for the steam turbine
and if you go for slightly you can say more detail not more detail but for different configuration
you can write down the number of equations required to describe that particular configuration.

Now let us see what is the sum of these 3terms, now these 3 fractions that is the fraction of
power which is generated in the HP section plus fraction of power which is generated in the IP
section fashion ((00:34:47 min)) of power which is generated in the LP section, this sum should
be equal to 1 okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:08)

Now we will discuss the speed governor for steam turbine or we can say that speed turbine
control, steam turbine control. Now before I go into details I wanted to specify here mention here
that over the years there has been lot of development in the governing mechanism and the
associated controls ah originally the mechanical hydraulic controllers are used they are still
actually in operation but these days they have what we call electro hydraulic controllers or
electro hydraulic governors but remember that in all these the hydraulic servomotor plays very
significant role.

Now when we look into the control for the steam turbine the main function of this control is to
open and close the steam turbine valves this is the end objective that we want to adjust the steam
turbine valve position so that the required amount of steam flows this is what and these valves
have to open against the pressure of the steam and they are are their inertia and their weight is
very substantial NTPC engineers know actually that their weight may be in terms of few tons,
am I right and therefore to make this valves to move, you require huge amount of torque or
pressure right and therefore this pressure amplification is done in hydraulic servomotors,
required amount of pressure amplification is done in hydraulic servomotors therefore here the
basic components of speed control mechanism can be look like this.
We have a speed governor first block is the speed governor, input to the speed governor is the
speed actual speed of the machine then the output of this governor will be the speed governor
position. Okay depending upon the actually the speed there is some position of the governor this
enters into the first block here. We call speed relay right I will discuss these three these
components separately but there is a speed relay to this speed relay we have two inputs coming
one is the one is the governor speed changer position, another is the speed governor position
because as I have told in beginning in the first block diagram which had shown you therefore
there were two inputs coming, one coming through AGC which is the speed changer position
where you sometimes you can use that instead of speed changer position actually the the power
output position your reference what the set point you can call it.

Okay and this set point can be adjusted by the AGC automatically otherwise it is done manually
and another signal coming is through the governor these two signals enter the speed relay, speed
relay is comprising of a pilot valve and a servomotor then there is one more servomotor
hydraulic servomotor to amplify this power and then we have the governor control valves and
output will be the valve position therefore you can easily see here that input to this control
mechanism.

We have two signals one is a speed another is the speed changer position and the output is the
valve position because when talked about the steam turbine models right the input to the model is
the valve position right and now in this particular case the input will be speed and the set point
these are the two inputs.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:27)

The governor which senses the speed right. This is the mechanical speed governor a flyball type
of mechanism and although there is a lot of developments which have taken place in sensing the
speed still flytype, flyball type speed governors are in operation these NTPC people is it
operating in your system now or replaced therefore now the we use what is call actually the
electric sensor, the speed sensors we call it for the speed sensing instead of using this mechanical
flyball type of arrangement we use actually the electric speed sensors basic simple actually you
can use a permanent magnet generator PMG and the speed can be sensed by knowing the voltage
output of that okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 40:42)

Now here irrespective what type of you can say the speed sensing you use right, we have a signal
which is proportional to the speed okay. Now this diagram shows a simple speed relay pilot
valve. Now when I talk electro hydraulic governor right the mechanical hydraulic governor or
controller the M is replaced by E therefore basically the speed sensing mechanism is replaced but
so far processing is concerned still we have this speed relay and servomotor, hydraulic
servomotor right because the amount of power which is required is enormous the amplification is
very high level, okay. Now in this arrangement I will just show you here actually this
arrangement if you see this this rod which is coming here that represents the position of the
speed governor.

Now when this rod actually will is attached to a lever like this and this lever is attached to a pilot
valve and a spring loaded servomotor. Now here actually you will see a very interesting thing
that always whether I talk of a hydraulic servomotor or a pilot valve right there will be linkage
between the the valve piston and like the servomotor piston this linkage is basically to provide
what is called negative feedback it is a negative feedback always. Now the arrangement is very
simple here the high pressure oil is here you maintain right.
When the pilot valve suppose suppose actually the the pilot valve is made to move down okay
then this high pressure oil will move into the servomotor and push the piston up the the the
moment of this piston when it is moving up it is actually restricted by or controlled by the spring
pressure, okay. Now you can easily see that when this is trying to move this will also come down
while at the same time when this oil enters and tries to push it up through this same mechanism
this pilot valve is also pushed up therefore this acts as a negative feedback.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:15)

Now of course here in this diagram it is shown actually that as if this servomotor is controlling
the steam valve but in case we need one more stage of amplification then this rod or this piston is
going to control the hydraulic servomotor. In this hydraulic servomotor again the similar
arrangement is there you have this pilot valves high pressure oil comes here right and the this
linkage shows actually the connection to speed relay right and you can easily see actually that
when this lever moves up right the this pilot valve moves goes up it opens this and the oil will
can come down when it opens what happens is the oil will come down from this side and it enter
from the top right, in the sense that is moving down that is actually when you move it down the
oil will come from the from the the end, oil will leave from these two sides but enter through
high pressure section only and it will move from the top push it down and oil will come out like
this. Therefore through this mechanism the hydraulic servomotor actually you will be because of
the high pressure oil which is maintained right therefore this power amplification takes place.

Okay and the amount of amplification will depend upon what is the what is the cross section area
of the hydraulic servomotor or piston right and what is the pressure which is maintained in the
high pressure oil right these are the parameters which will determine. Now when we try to
develop the model for these devices you have to look into two aspects one is that the moment of
this piston piston for a certain particular opening will depend upon the flow of oil at a certain
pressure therefore this moment can be considered to be function of time as the time passes it
increases therefore basically this can be represented by an integrator.

It will represent because when the oil is flowing at certain rate the piston will keep on moving
right the position will keep on changing. Further further since in these all the devices there is
always a negative feedback. So that output whatsoever is the output position here is fed back
directly as a negative feedback, okay another thing which you have to see is the that there are
two limits which we will be talking about one is called actually the rate limit that is the rate at
which this valve is going to move up and down, another is the position limit, upper and lower
position limits that is when the this can go to the top it will come down to the bottom there are
two limits okay therefore there are two limits which will be shown one is called actually rate
limit another is called the position limit. While when you talk about actually the speed relay
these limits are normally not required to be shown.

## (Refer Slide Time: 46:40)

Now this block diagram represents the transfer function model of simple steam for a transfer
function model of steam turbine governor. Now we can just start like this this is the speed
governor, input to this is the speed okay therefore output of this will be a K times speed. They
are basically it is a it is a speed sensor speed deviation is going to be sensed here. Now this is
going to compared with the reference the error comes here.

Now this block diagram which I have shown here this block diagram it represents actually the
transfer function of the speed relay, it is something like this. Speed relay we represent time
constant of this as TRS, TSR not RS, TSR I can put it we will call it TSR speed relay an integrator
this is basically integrator. The position is fed back there is a negative feedback loop here okay
and this is the plus this is minus. Now this can be replaced by an equivalent transfer function one
over 1 plus s times TSR that is this transfer function which has actually which represents the
integrator and a negative feedback is represented by a first order transfer function of this form
right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 47:28)

Similarly, here actually is the transfer function of the servomotor, while in the servomotor we try
to represent the rate limit and the position limits and therefore these two this is this is the time
constant one upon TSM servomotor time constant, one upon TSM at this point we can sense what
is called the rate and after integrating we can sense the position right therefore these two are
provided. Then the here you will find actually the there is a the control valve moment and
actually the servomotor moment there is a non-linear relationship and therefore this is the valve
characteristic.

Now in order to linearize this we actually a which will have a characteristic opposite to this. So
that when we put together it will be linear characteristic now this is the complete transfer
function model of a steam turbine governor. Now here I have not shown actually in this diagram
but the speed relay output can be used to control other valves also because you may have for
example interceptor valve, interceptor valve can also be controlled through this speed relay that
is why it is shown other valves okay.

Now using because for stability studies, for stability studies we can model this non-linearity this
non-linearity can be modelled and we can write down the transfer function or the differential
equation relating the output of speed relay to the input. Similarly we can relate the output of the
servomotor to the input and these relations are available therefore we can write the complete
mathematical model of the and you can see really that this CV which I have shown here control
valve position is basically the PGV, PGV the governor valve position or control valve position they
are same.

Okay now with this ah let me summarize our presentation today. We have discussed today the
the transfer function model of steam turbine and steam governor a steam turbine governor. We
have also developed the differential equations which can be used to represent the steam turbine
and the differential equations to represent the the steam turbine governor okay. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 24
Dynamic Modeling of Hydro Turbines and Governors

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends, today we will study the dynamics modeling of hydro turbines and hydro
governors. We have studied the dynamics models for steam turbines and a turbo
governors, the characteristic of the hydraulic turbine are different from that of a steam
turbine and therefore different dynamic models are required for hydro turbines the the
physical arrangement for a hydro power plant is shown in this diagram.

This is the hydro turbine, this is the water storage tank, we will call it fore bay and this is
the penstock through which the water flows from storage tank to the hydro turbine. The
transient characteristic of the hydro turbine is determined by the dynamics of water flow
in the penstock and we shall determine the transfer function of the hydro turbine. Now
when we consider small perturbations about a steady state operating condition then we
can relate the various parameters by linear equations.

Now this equation that is q equal to a11 h plus a12 n plus a13 g and another equation m
equal to a21 h plus a22 n plus a23 g. Now this these two are the algebraic equations in this
equation q stands for per unit deviation in flow, h stands for per unit deviation in head, n
is per unit deviation in speed, g is the per unit deviation in gate position, m is the per unit
deviation in torque.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:13)

## (Refer Slide Time: 02:00)

There we can say here therefore small perturbations we can relate the per unit deviation
in flow to per unit deviation in head, per unit deviation in the speed, per unit deviation in
gate position. Similarly the per unit deviation in torque is related to per unit deviation in
head, per unit deviation in n that is the speed and per unit deviation in gate position. The
now these are the two algebraic equations which relate the small change in the water flow
water flow following following change in head speed and gate position.
(Refer Slide Time: 03:05)

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:24)

Similarly this is the change in torque produced following the small changes in head speed
and gate. Now using these equations and using the dynamics of the water flow in the
penstock a transfer function model for the hydro turbine is obtained. The transfer function
relating the mechanical power output of the hydro turbine to the gate position or position
of the gates that is PGV is the position of the gates is related by these constants which
were shown in those algebraic equations and an important term Tw.
(Refer Slide Time: 05:01)

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:40)

Now this Tw is the water time constant or water starting time constant of the hydro
one one a 11, a 13, a21, a22, a23. These can be interpreted as the partial derivatives of q with
respective to head partial derivative of q with respect to speed deviation and so on now
for ideal turbine which is normally considered to be a loss less turbine, the n for rated
speed ideal turbine at rated speed these coefficients are having their values equal to a11 is
.5, a12 is 0, a13 is 1, a21 is 1.5, a22 is minus 1 and a23 is 1. Therefore, if we make use of
these values and obtain a transfer function relating the mechanical power developed to
the valve position.
Now this transfer function comes out to be a very simple transfer function of the form
one minus STw divided 1 plus 0.5 STw. Now let us understand what are the factors on
which this water starting time or time constant Tw depends upon.

## (Refer Slide Time: 07:14)

Now this time constant Tw is associated with in write Tw is associated with the
acceleration time for water in the penstock between turbine inlet and forebay but
basically represent the acceleration time. Now the equation for this time constant Tw is L
into V divided by HT into g, now here here L is the length of the penstock in feet, V is the
velocity of the water in feet per second, HT is the head in feet and g, g here is the
acceleration due to gravity, g here is the acceleration due to gravity its value is feet per
second square its units are like that that is if you put actually value of g it comes out to be
32.2 feet per second square 32.2.

Okay now what we do is that there exist a relationship between the power developed and
the various parameters of the system therefore in this equation the velocity will be
replaced by power and other terms that is the power generated is given by this equation V
into HT into A into e divided by 11.8, here P is the power in kilowatts, V is the velocity in
feet per second velocity of the water in the penstock, HT is the head, A is the cross
sectional area of the penstock in feet square or square feet and e is the combined
efficiency of the generator and turbine is the total efficiency divided by one therefore
what we do the from this equation we express the value of V in terms of power, head, A
and e and then substitute this value of the expression of V in this equation 24.2.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:48)

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:50)

When we make this substitution we get the expression for water starting time constant T w
equal to 0.366 PL divided by HT square A into e. Here the value of g has been substituted
as 32.2. Now this time constant Tw is a very important parameter. So for the model of the
hydro turbine is concerned the hydro turbine the transfer function has some special
characteristic and we will discuss the special characteristic of this hydro turbine transfer
function.
(Refer Slide Time: 10:37)

The transfer function of the hydro turbine which we have just now derived is 1 plus TwS
1 plus 0.5 TwS this is minus here, correct thank you, this is minus 1 minus TwS 1plus 0.5
Tw okay is this, okay is minus. Now we can write down here mechanical power output Pm
and the gate position PGV.

Now this transfer function has one special characteristic that is the if I look at the poles in
0s of this transfer function then it has 10 in the right half of the S plane and a transfer
functions or the systems the systems which have at least 10 or one pole in the right half of
the S plane are known as the non minimum phase transfer functions or non-minimum
phase systems.

We shall analyze the special characteristic of this turbine hydro turbine by considering
unit step input to this turbine that is we change the valve position suddenly and once we
give a any step input to this hydro turbine transfer function right then we can write down
the expression for mechanical power developed.

Now here instead of considering a PGV, we will prefer to consider this deviations
deviations in the gate position okay and deviation in the mechanical power developed
therefore when I consider the deviations I can write down the model in this form that is
delta PGV is the input and output is delta P, okay.

Now when we consider the unit step change in the position of valve or gate of this hydro
turbine then delta PmS can be written as 1 by S 1minus TwS over 1 plus 0.5 TwS. Okay
because we have considered the unit step change in gate position. So that the transfer
function ah not the transfer function where the Laplace transform of unit step input is 1
by S.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:09)

We shall write down this function in this form 1 by S take this Tw out, so that we can
write here 1by Tw minus S divided by take the 0.5 Tw. So it write down 2 by Tw, okay
plus S that is we are writing in the in the form S plus A or here actually is the S minus A
this is the numerator directly it with not going to come actually in our expression for the
response. This can be written as 2 by S 1 upon Tw minus S divided by 2 by Tw plus S.

Okay, we obtain the time response by taking the inverse transform of this transfer
function that is we can obtain delta Pm(t) by taking the inverse transform that is Laplace
inverse of this whole function which I can write down here as 2 by 2 by S1 by Tw minus S
divided by 2 by Tw plus S, okay. Now we obtain the partial fraction of this and the partial
fractions will come out to be like this and this will come out to be equal to Laplace
transform of Laplace inverse of 1 by S minus 3over 2 by Tw plus S that is if you simplify
this expression you will get this expression you can just check it.

Okay therefore now we can say that delta Pm(t) is equal to 1 minus 3 to the power minus
2 by Tw into T this is the this is the response of the hydro turbine to step unit step change
in valve position, okay. Now if I put t equal to 0 that is at time equal to 0 that is delta
Pm(o) is how much is equal to minus 2 and if I put now t equal to infinity in this equation
I will get delta Pm infinity equal to 1. Now we can you can appreciate actually or the
difference in the normal response which we get for the transfer function for a system
suppose there is a system and we give a some input we except that the output should start
following the input.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:36)

Now here you find that when at time t equal to 0 when I give a step change in valve
position then immediately the change in mechanical power is minus 2. We have given a
unit step input but the output is negative and this is as high as minus 2 and under steady
state condition the output is same as input right. Now this is the main difference or many
special characteristic of the hydro turbine.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:08)

Now if I plot the response that is time t delta Pm, we start at minus 2 and t equal to 0 its
value is minus 2 and it settles to value equal to 1and it is very exponentially, so that
response is of this valve the time constant is time constant is Tw by 2 right that is if you if
you draw a transient to this response curve at t equal to 0 then the curve will be the this
transient will be like this and this time can be identified as Tw by 2, the meaning is that if
the if the change in mechanical power changes at the initial rate then it will reach its
steady state value in time equal to Tw by 2 right, otherwise it is very exponentially.

Now to understand what is the implication of this special characteristic of the hydraulic
turbine on the type of governor which will be required. Now let us first consider that we
use a simple governor no special features, a simple governor and let us see the what will
be the requirement for stable operation for this system.

## (Refer Slide Time: 21:32)

To understand this the a special requirement let us start with the simple governor we can
represent the governor by a simple transfer function 1by R the transfer function of the
hydro turbine or hydraulic turbine is 1minus TwS, 1plus 0.5, TwS, output of this hydro
turbine will act on the inertia of the turbine generator system is 1 upon 2 HS, I am
neglecting the damping term this becomes my speed deviation delta omega R and here is
a negative feedback. Okay this is negative this is change in reference this this term is
delta omega reference I give as and is a plus.

Now to analyze the stability of this system what we will do is we will consider, we will
consider the H equal to so let us say H equal to 5, okay. Let us take Tw equal to what was
the taking 22. Okay now with this parameters we shall find out that what are the
requirements on speed regulation parameter? Our basic requirement is it is a closed loop
system and this system should have high degree of stability it should have a required
stability margin.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:59)

To analyze this requirement we write down the characteristic equation of this system, the
characteristic equation can be written as 1 plus 1by R, 1 minus TwS over 1 plus 0.5TwS
into 1 upon 2 HS. Now here here this this is the forward loop transfer function 1 by R, 1
by R into this transfer function into this this is the forward loop transfer function and the
the feedback is unity feedback and the of the characteristic equation is 1 plus gH which is
the standard formula and it comes out to be equal to that is 1 plus 1 by R.

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:44)

Now will let us substitute the value of Tw equal to 2 and H equal to 10 and let us see 1
plus 1 by R,1 minus 2S, 1 plus S, 1by 10s okay. We can write this as 10 SR plus is it
okay or we can write this is in the form now 10 R S square plus 10 R minus 2 into S plus
1 equal to 0. Therefore this is a second order characteristic equation and for this second
order characteristic equation to have its roots to lie in the left half of the S plane. Our
requirement is that these coefficients should be positive therefore from this consideration
that these coefficients to be positive one requirement is now the 10 R should be greater
than 0 or we can say R should be greater than 0 the second requirement here is the 10 R
minus 2 should be greater than 0 this puts the requirement that R should be greater than
.2, it means from the consideration of stability the minimum value of R which we can
choose for this governor is 20 percent.

Generally the the speed drop which we choose out or which is the governor parameter or
2 parameter of the governor is taken around 5 percent. Now if I take the R equal to 5
percent then this system is going become unstable, okay. Now suppose I want actually
the response to be critically damped then for critically damped response our requirement
is 10 R minus 2 whole square minus 10, 4, 40 R equal to 0 okay that is b square minus 4
ac should be equal to 0 and if you solve this equation the value of R which is required
comes out to be .736 and another value of R is 0.05, what is the value 536 okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:27)

It means we get 2 roots of this equation one root says that the value of R or if I call it R1
we call this as R2 one root says that it should be R should be .736, the meaning of .736
means it is a 73.6 percent right and when I say R2 equal to .0536 it is 5.36 percent but if
you assume R2 equal to .0536 then it does not made this requirement let R is greater than
0.2 and if you take this value of R equal to .0536 this will come out or this will result into
a damping is so equal to minus 1 that is negative damping and with R1 equal to .736 the it
will have a critically damped response where will be equal to 1 right but this is too high
and therefore in order to overcome this problem the the hydro governors which are
provided have to have different characteristics.
Now we will discuss the characteristic of the hydro governor which is required for hydro
turbines. Now this is the block diagram of a hydro governor that is the governor for hydro
hydraulic turbine. The the building blocks of this governor or a speed control mechanism
or the hydro governor is similar to that we use in a steam turbine, the only difference
which we will see here is that this block dashpot okay.

Now let us just discuss what are the main blocks, the first block we can see here is the
speed governor, the speed governor sensor the speed and it gives you a position which is
which is proportional to the speed deviation or speed right there is the speed governor
position. This first block pilot valve and servomotor, the input signal to this pilot valve
and servomotor are the speed governor, speed changer position which is the signal which
comes from AGC of the system and another is the position of the governor speed
governor position. These two are the input signal to the pilot valve and servomotor, the
output of this pilot valve and servomotor goes to another servomotor hydraulic
servomotor which is named as distributor valves and gate servo motor.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:28)

Now these 2 servo motors are required to amplify the power which is required to move
the gates and the output of this hydraulic servomotor control the governor control valves
or gates of the hydro hydraulic turbine and therefore output is the gate position, okay.
Now this dashpot is to provide feedback signal and this feedback is a derivative feedback
this dashpot is to realize if derivative feedback and you can see actually that there are 2
input signals coming one is directly coming from the position of the servomotor another
is coming through dashpot right. Now these 2 these two feedback signals are required to
obtain the required characteristic for the hydro governor.

Now this shows or this block diagram shows the transfer function of various building
blocks of the hydro turbine governor or hydraulic turbine governor we start like this, this
is the this is the transfer function of the pilot valve and servomotor this is the time
constant of the distributor valve and servomotor TG stand for time constant of the
distributor valve and servomotor. Here we show the rate limits then this transfer function
one by S to represent the integration function and the another limits which we have is the
position limit right, therefore these two limits are shown in this transfer function diagram
and whenever we are studying the small perturbation dynamics or whenever the system is
subjected to small perturbation then these these limits particularly may not be touched
particularly the the position limit may not touch but the rate limits may have to
incorporated. Again, you can see here there exist a non-linear function to relate the gate
position to the hydraulic servomotor position that is when the hydraulic servomotor
piston moves right it moves the gates and the movement of gates and the movement of
the servomotor they are again related by a non-linear function. Therefore this show the
nonlinear function the transfer function of the dashpot is delta STR over 1plus STR.

Now this transfer function you can see here that it is the derivative feedback, this is a
derivative feedback because we have a a term S in the numerator that is STR or 1 plus
STR this becomes the derivative feedback then this term delta delta is called transient
drop delta is called transient drop then the another feedback which was shown in the
block diagram is through this sigma.

## (Refer Slide Time: 37:20)

Now this sigma is same as R which we use actually in the models for the hydro for the
governors. Now this sigma is known as the permanent drop, permanent drop the meaning
here is that when the system is in dynamic condition right there will be output from the
dashpot and the movement the system attain the steady state condition right there will be
no output signal from the this transfer function and therefore the the net drop will be
determined by the permanent drop sigma only, okay. The typical, the typical parameters
of this hydro governor are this TR is 5 seconds its it ranges in the range of 2.5 to 25 a
wide range TG, TG is the time constant of the distributor distribution and valve and
servomotor this time constant is small and its value is 0.2 second and its range is .2 to .4.
The TP which is the time constant of the pilot valve and servomotor this time constant is
very small of the order of .04 second and it is in the range of .03 to .05 second. The delta
the temporary drop its value is .3 and its range is .2 to 1, the sigma or R its range is its
value is .05 and it varies from .03 to .06 percent. Normally it is 2 percent or one in drop is
considered and some places it may be lower than this or slightly higher than this but its
the range is very narrow or is .03 to .06.

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:57)

Further further this time constant TR,TR is depends upon the water starting time constant
right, therefore the typical value is the TR should be equal to 5 times Tw this is the thumb
rule okay and suppose if Tw is 1then TR is 5, suppose Tw is 2 TR becomes 10 and so on
similarly this temporary drop is 2.5 Tw divided by 2H. Therefore you can say that the
temporary drop requirement depends upon the inertia constant of the turbine generator
system and the water starting time right because as we discussed actually that this special
feature that we have to provide a temporary drop compensation right particularly to take
care of special characteristic of the hydraulic turbine and there is a relationship which
relates a temporary drop to water starting time constant Tw and inertial constant H.

Now the question arises the how do we optimize the parameters of this hydro governor,
one way is that okay you take this thumb rules that is you set the value of delta as given
here in the range of .3 around .3, .221 or use this formula delta is 2.5 Tw divided by 2H.
For example in this case when I put Tw equal to 1 and H is taken as 5 how much it comes
out to be .25, 2.3 is one which we are talking about but however in any particular system
particular system the procedure is that you you model the complete system take the hydro
turbine, take the its associated governor right and you obtain the dynamic response of this
system and we can use, we can use different techniques to set the parameters of these
governors right.
(Refer Slide Time: 41:47)

Generally the governor parameters are set under no load conditions the the general model
for a speed governing system is developed and this is shown in a compact transfer
function like this where input is delta omega the speed deviation signal in the transfer
function is in the form K into 1plus S T2 divided by 1 plus S times T1 or 1 plus S times
T3. The output of this transfer function represents the change in power delta P, now this is
added to the reference setting that is Po which is the reference setting and this output
which is the sum of Po and delta P right is the gate valve or gate valve position okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:01)

Now here as you know actually that this Po is the position of the speed changer, in the
T2, T3 right. These time constants are can be obtained from the typical values which are
given here for this TP, TR delta sigma and TG so on that is these time constants T1, T2, T1
and T1, T2 and T3 right are related to the parameters of this governor and this is put in the
simplified form for the purpose of simulation studies, okay.

Now another important point which we have to see here is that the there are different
manufacturers of hydraulic governors, in they are hydraulic governors have been
manufactured by the general electric company by a wasting house and so on right and
therefore this manufacturers give the parameters of the model of the governors and
developed by them right therefore the standard references are available where the
parameters of different manufactures are given, if you look into the reference material
which I have given to you last time that is the committee report right then in this report
the parameters of different types of hydro governors are are given.

Now these parameters are generally the generally the typical values however however for
a any utility for any utility has to set its own parameters by performing certain studies.
Now as we have studied actually that the excitation system and automatic voltage
regulator parameters need to be set, similarly the parameters of the governors need be set.
We are so far actually the turbine parameters are concerned they are constant only
flexibility which we have is actually in setting the parameters of the hydro, hydro
governors for hydro turbine and uh other governor for the steam turbine.

Now this constant K which I have shown here this K is the gain of the governor this gain
is basically if the reciprocal of the permanent drop that is R if R is taken as 5 percent the
gain will become 20 right and the standard techniques which are used for for setting the
parameters are by either by time domain simulation or by frequency response analysis
okay. Let me the sum up that we have studied the dynamic model for the hydro turbine.

We have also seen the special characteristic of the hydro turbine transfer function and to
meet the requirement of the hydro turbine, the hydro governor is required to have a
special feature and that feature is to have a temporary drop concept. Now when this hydro
governor with the temporary drop is provided and is the parameters are properly set it
will give the desired dynamic response for the system. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 25

Friends, so far we have studied the modelling of synchronous generator and steam turbines,
steam turbine governors, hydro turbines and hydro turbine governors. We have also studied the
modeling of excitation systems. Now this completes the modelling on the on the generator side
right. We have also assumed actually that for power system stability studies the transmission line
network is modelled under steady state conditions.

Now we have to model 1 very important component that is the loads in the system. The
modelling of loads has has important influence on the stability of the system. Further the
modelling of load is the most complicated process, the reason being that whenever we whenever
we try to model the load in the power system stability studies right we identified some load buses
and at that load bus we have variety of loads which are supplied. The load supplied at the

## (Refer Slide Time: 03:57)

Now in our classical stability studies, we represent load at a bus by constant impedance load.
However, the studies have shown actually that this representation may give some erroneous
results and therefore there has been, there has been over the years efforts being put to develop
develop the models of the system. Now the problems is because the the loads are of different
variety and this composition of load at a particular bus is also not fixed it varies from time to
time is a function of time it is also is a function of season, weather conditions and so on and
therefore whenever we develop the load models we do lot of simplifications right. Now today in
our study we will look into the modelling aspect of the loads for power system stability studies.

Now traditionally traditionally for the purpose of modelling or for the purpose of representing
loads in stability studies, the load models are classified into 2 categories, 1 is called static load
models another is dynamic load models. The the dynamic load models are normally required or
essentially required for long term stability study, voltage stability and and when you want to
study the inter area oscillations right. Now today we will briefly discuss how the loads are

controlled loads when I say thermostatically controlled loads for example most of the heating
loads are thermostatically controlled loads right, the temperature is controlled and the thermostat
is on and off. Similarly, there are number of examples like refrigerators, coolers right and so on.
Then we have another a very big component in our load that is the discharge lighting loads
where you have the fluorescent tubes, we have the sodier vapour, sodium vapour lamps and
mercury vapour lamps.

Now these are all under the category of a discharge lighting loads. The third most important
60 to 60 percent load, 60 to 70 percent load is due to motors and the the modelling of these
motors is a very important and lot of attention has been given to modelling these large size
induction of motors for stability studies right because in power plants or actually in some big
industries we have large size induction motors and their characteristic affect the system stability
as a whole right.

Now first we will address the modelling of static loads when I talk about the modelling of static
loads right then we represent the load load at any time a function of voltage magnitude and
frequency right. Now here the load will be expressed in terms in terms of voltage and frequency
ah using algebraic expressions because its not a dynamic load right therefore the equations which
are used to represent static loads will be algebraic equations okay and since the loads are
function of the magnitude of the system voltage and system frequency we will represent these
loads as using algebraic expressions use in terms of voltage magnitude and system frequency.

Now for representing these load models we will consider, we consider the real power and the
active power components of the load separately because the behaviour of the reactive power
consumed by a load and the real power consumed by the load following variation in voltage and
frequency they are somewhat different. Now let us see what different load models have been
used in the literature. A simplest load model considering the voltage variation is shown in this
form that is the P is the real power consumed by a load at any voltage V equal to Po into V bar to
the power a a is an index a is some index right.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:34)

Therefore we can say where this V bar is defined as V divided by Vo, where Vo is the nominal
voltage at which the power consumed is Po right and therefore this V bar is a fraction of the
actual voltage and the nominal voltage or we can say that this V bar is a per unit voltage
expressed in terms of Vo okay. Therefore P can be expressed as the the nominal value of the real
power consumed Po multiplied by this V bar to the power a, then similarly the reactive power Q
is represented as Qo into V to the power b, V bar to the power b, a and b are the 2 different
indices.

Now here suppose if I take a and b equal to 0 both let us say that these coefficients are 0 what
does it mean P equal to Po it means the load is independent of voltage right. Now suppose I take
a equal to 1 and b equal to 1 if I take these coefficients a equal to 1, b equal to 1 what does it
represent yes therefore here here the meaning is that the load load draws constant current,
constant current right and therefore the power is proportional to the voltage, power P and Q
which are consumed they are proportional to the a voltage.

Now if I take these indexes a and b, indices a and b equal to 2 that shows that the the power
consumed is proportional to V square and that is the characteristic of a constant impedance load.
For example in our transient stability studies classical transient stability studies which we
discussed we were representing the loads by constant impedance at that time the the index
becomes 2. Therefore, we have by putting the different values of a and the b we can have

Now in practice the load behave different loads behave in a different way, different devices. I
just take the example of say incadance incandescent lamp okay. Now this lamp does not
consume reactive power right and the the power consumed by this will be proportion to V
square, V square although it is not very linear for it is for a so small variation it is proportional to
V square and therefore this load will behave like a constant impedance load. While there are
other loads they have different characteristics and in any at any bus, at any bus we have different
devices and therefore we we may divide this load into 3 different categories like say constant

## (Refer Slide Time: 13:57)

Now if we in case we want to represent a composite load, composite load then these coefficients
a and b will be different for example for a composite load this this index a varies from .5 to 1.8
similarly b has a wide variation that is 1.5 to 6 for composite loads. Again it depends upon what
is the composition. Now here this the loads right which we represent by static loads they
generally have very high response in the sense that when the voltage and frequency changes right
the power consume also changes practically, instantaneously, there is no time delay right and
therefore at any instant of time they can be represented as static loads and the variation can be
represented using algebraic equations. Any composite load, any composite load can now be
represented as in terms of 3 components we normally call this as ZIP representation Z means
constant impedance I stands for constant {pa} ((00:14:08 min)) current and P for constant power.

Therefore we can have a load representation by this equation P equal to P0 multiplied by p1into V
square, V bar square plus p into V bar plus p3 now this p1, p2 and p3 these are the fractions of the
load which represent the constant impedance constant current and constant power fractions okay.
Suppose I take p1 equal to .5, p2 equal to say .3 and p3 equal to .2 that means the 20 percent load

Similarly reactive power that is reactive power Q is represented as Q0 into V1 q1 into V bar
square plus q2 into V bar plus q plus q3 because it is multiplied by q0 okay. The basic problem
comes is actually is difficult to know this these fractions p1, p2 and p3.

## (Refer Slide Time: 15:30)

The next important aspect of static load modelling is the frequency dependency of loads, this is a
very important component very important aspect of load modelling that is the loads depend on
the system frequency. In most of the cases the real power consumed by the load increases when
frequency increases and real power consumed by the load decreases when frequency decreases
and in our Indian Power System where we do not have enough generation, enough generation
right the load depending upon frequency right that is the these loads decide actually the system
frequency that is generations are particularly constant when you put additional load frequency
drops right and therefore at a lower frequency lower frequency we are in a position to meet the
additional loads which comes, although the total power which is fed is same right but the

Suppose your system is operating at a certain frequency and let us put that I switch on some
additional load is met by met by 1 component is the release of the existing load plus the increase
in the generation, while in dynamic condition we have all the 3 points that release released by the
existing load, increase in generation and change in kinetic energy.

But the moment you attain the steady state condition right this change in kinetic energy
component become 0 because you attain the constant speed again right this is the way the system
you known operates right when you are trying to match the generation with the load. Okay
because whenever additional load comes the first thing which happens is the the frequency
drops. Okay and initially this additional load is met by kinetic energy mainly change in kinetic
energy then the regulators volt the the governors will come into action will increase the
generation and when the frequency drops the existing load will start consuming less power they
release some power right.

Therefore these are the 3 components and therefore here we are trying to address these thing that
if the frequency changes how the real power and reactive power consume vary. Now this
equation is shown here shows the variation of real power consumed by the load with the
variation of magnitude of voltage as well as frequency that is, if I consider this general equation
to represent the real power variation with magnitude of voltage and I multiply this expression by
this term 1 plus Kpf into delta f right.

Now this term Kpf is the this coefficient is an important it is the characteristic of the system okay.
Similarly the reactive power consumed can be represented as Qo V bar to the power b into 1 plus
Kqf into delta f. Okay in a sense that both P and Q are now represented as function of system
voltage magnitude and frequency deviation okay.

Now you you suppose if we represent the load, load by this expression that is ah ZIP
representation okay. So you can represent P equal to P0 into p1 V bar square plus p2 V bar plus p3
then this whole thing is multiplied by this fraction this factor that is 1 plus Kpf into delta f. Okay
similarly Q can be represented as Q0 into q1 V bar square plus q into V bar plus q3 into this
therefore this becomes a very general representation of a load which now accounts for change in
magnitude of the voltage and also change in frequency that is frequency deviation.

Now here 1 has to understand what are the values of this coefficient Kpf and Kp Kqf. Now so far
the real power consumed is concerned right as the frequency increases the real power consumed
increases and therefore this Kpf will always be positive, Kpf is always positive and this delta f,
delta f is expressed as delta f is defined as the actual frequency of the system minus the nominal
frequency f minus f0the delta f is positive when the actual system frequency is more than the
nominal frequency right and therefore this coefficient Kpf is is always positive but it varies, it is
consumed does not depend upon frequency, lighting load flow particularly this is a you know the
these powers particularly the fluorescent tubes are you know all sodium vapour lamp or mercury
vapour they do depend upon frequency but particularly incandescent lamps.

Suppose I have actually a a room heater a rod type room heater then it will not depend upon
frequency so far magnitude of voltage is same right but since the loads are composite loads and
therefore this is a very important coefficient to be known and is difficult again the estimating this
coefficient is a very difficult task actually for power system those who are taking the course on
power system control and instrumentation we use the term load frequency constant d a parameter
load frequency constant d this d is same as this term Kpf which I call it.

Now what about Kqf that is this is also a positive all through or whether it is always negative or
what should be the value of this Kp. The the response of the audience here is that may be positive
or negative but answer is not correct, is always negative, always negative. We can easily
understand why why it is negative?

## (Refer Slide Time: 23:47)

The typical values of Kpf is from 0 to 3 and Kqf is in the range of minus 2 to 0 minus 2 to 0.
These are the typical values of these coefficients this is a wide range depends upon the type of
(Refer Slide Time: 24:33)

In the literature there is 1 more way of representing this representing the static loads right that is
the static load model can be represented as P equal to P0 multiplied by PZIP plus PEX1 plus PEX2
where PZIP is represented by this expression p1 V bar square plus p2 V bar plus p3 that what we
have already seen then PEX1 that is exponential component is represented as p4 V bar to the
power a1 multiplied by this term 1 plus Kpf1 delta f PEX2 as p5 V bar a2 into 1 plus Kpf 2 delta f.

In fact the you know the load models which have been used actually and used in analyzing the
stability of the system right the the results which are obtained and the actual actual thing which
happens in the ground right. Suppose actually for a given operating condition right my stability
study shows that I have this much stability margin while in practice you will not achieve that
much and that has been the concern actually for the power system engineers because generally
generally we do most of this studies of light using the system models.

Okay and the when you try to we can see what happens on the field in the field right for the
similar operating conditions right sometimes it is seen actually that the the results obtained by
offline studies and what happens on the ground there is a lot of variation and that is why actually
the all through the efforts are being made to have more detailed model of the system because
when I talk about the stability studies stability studies then the the crux of the whole problem is
the detailed model of the system right.

As you have seen actually that we have to model all the sub systems in detail synchronous
generator excitation system, governing system, turbine system and even we are not g1 to the
boiler model system, boiler models are also required, transmission line models are required, load
models are required right and in case there is a big approximation or error in this modelling the
results are going to be different or erroneous and that is why lot of efforts are being made to
develop um better and better model and to estimate this the these parameters by doing some
experiments in the field right this is because suppose I take this model then it has how many
coefficients will be estimated I require this coefficient Kpf1 and Kpf2 in this I have 2 different
coefficient which determine the frequency dependency of loads right. Similarly this p1, p2, p3, p4,
p5 right and these are to be estimated actually for a particular load bus and this is a quite a load

## (Refer Slide Time: 27:57)

Now we will discuss the dynamic load models, this is all about the static load models and
justification of static load models is that whenever the magnitude of frequency and voltage
changes right the the new value of power consumed changes quickly in a sense the response time
is practically load and therefore we can represent these loads by static models. But there are so
many loads actually which need to be modelled in a dynamic way and particularly this dynamic
modellings or load modelling is needed when we are going ah interior oscillation studies that is
you want study the gear of the system when it is subjected to inter area oscillations is a long term
phenomena.

Similarly we are studying the long term or midterm stability or voltage stability of the system
right during that period the load models or dynamic load models are also required now here the
these aspects should be considered will be the discharge lamps. I have talked about the
discharged lamp, the fluorescent lamps, the sodium vapour lamps and the no incandescent lamp
is not a discharged lamp, mercury arc or mercury vapour lamps.

Okay in these lamps there is a very important actually that the moment the voltage is around .7 to
a .8 per unit this these lamps extinguish and when the voltage recovers within 1 or 2 seconds
they are restored back. Understand this is a very interesting thing that in a power system when
you are doing the stability studies under disturbance condition the voltage at various buses vary
and in case the voltage at a particular point at a particular bus becomes less than about 70 to 80
percent then these discharged lamps extinguish and when the voltage is restored back right then
they they are restored back after 1 or 2 seconds because when I switch on a fluorescent lamp it
takes 1 or 2 seconds to we will put on right. This is 1 of the important characteristic to be model,
then there are many devices which have the over current and thermal relays these are also
required to be modelled. Then the thermostatic control of loads particularly these thermostatic
control loads are they are mostly heating and cooling loads air air heating, air cooling,
refrigerators and some other devices which we can then another very interesting thing which we
have to understand is that in a distribution system we have under load tap changing systems
ULTC sin distribution systems we have some voltage regulators which regulates the system
voltage ULTCs are also for regulating the voltage and then we also have I think distribution
system the switch capacitors, voltage control capacitors right.

Now whenever actually the system voltage, system voltage dips or become slow then this
ULTCs will try to operate and regulate the voltage. You know that is suppose actually at a
particular time the voltage has dipped right then the unload tap changers or under load tap
changers right they will operate to increase the voltage but the response time is quite high, the
the voltage is slow after about 1 minute they start operating and their operation is completed in
about 1 or 2 minutes time, they are slow devices. Then there are many voltage control capacitors
right if the voltage is high the capacitors will be switched off and when the voltage is low
capacitors are switched on right and further the reactive power which is consumed by these
capacitors also depends upon the system voltage and therefore these are all ah the the aspects
which have to be considered while doing the modelling.

## (Refer Slide Time: 33:30)

In fact actually the 1 stability program which has been developed by the EPRI, Electric Power
Research Institute USA right they have modelled the thermostatically controlled loads and also
the induction motor load in their system they call it the program is called load seal. There are
many you know a companies they have purchase those programs although question is that
whether we are fully utilizing those software packages for operating our system that is a different
issue but detail detailed stability programs accounting for the load models are available globally.

Now here I would like to discuss actually the thermostatically controlled loads. Let us take the
example where where actually the load is to heat a particular space, space heating right and the
differential equation which governs the heating process or temperature control is written by this
equation that is K times d tau H by dt equal to PH by PL. This is very important equation because
once I say it is a a dynamic model then these derivative terms will come, we will have to have
differential equations to represent certain devices that is a constant coefficient K d by dt of tau H
PH minus PL.

Here this tau H is the temperature of the heated area, tau H temperature is the temperature of the
heated area which we want to regulate, we want to control, how do we control is by by
increasing or decreasing the heat generated by the heating device. Now here on this right hand
side we have the 2 terms PH and PL the PH stands for the power from the heater, this PH can be
represented as a function of constant KH, G is the conductance of the system and V square.

Now since actually we are trying to study the stability affect of these devices on stability because
the power consumed here is function of voltage V square right therefore the the power from the
heater is shown as a constant into conductance into V square. Then PL stand for the heat loss by
escape of escape to ambient area atmosphere, this is the heat dissipation which can be by which
can be represented by a constant K into tau H minus tau A the tau A is the temperature of the
ambient area or we can say ambient temperature where G is the load coefficient okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:45)

Now this equation, this equation has been put in a form where I can realize the transfer function
relating the actual temperature of the system and actual conductance of the system. Now to do
this thing what we do that in this equation we substitute for PH and PL these quantities. Now
when you make this substitution this K times tau H by dt for PH I am putting K H GV square and
for PL we are putting KA into tau H minus tau A.

Okay then you simplify this equation and arrange the terms we will get the term this d tau H by
dt equal to K1 by T1 GV square plus 1 by T1 tau A minus 1 upon T1 tau H, where these quantities
are defined like this T1 equal to K by KA and K1 is defined as KH by KA by just these definitions
okay. Now this thing this equation I have now if you take the Laplace transform of this equation
we can put in the form of a transfer function I will just show you how it is put in the form of a
transfer function.

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:01)

In any system, any system we want to regulate the temperature right then we start with the
reference temperature let us call it tau reference and we want to know what is the actual
temperature at any time T of the space okay. Now this this equation that is see this equation, this
differential equation relates relates actually the time at a any time T with other parameters of the
system this is simple differential equation, now this can be put in this form.

Now if you see here actually this differential equation then we can represent the this differential
equation by this form that is G is the system conductance, you multiply this G by V square GV
square multiplied by K1 okay to this you add this ambient temperature tau A okay. Then when it
passes through this transfer function 1 upon 1 plus S and T 1 you will get a term tau H. Now in
practice what is d1 is that this error this is the error signal we call it tau error right this will be put
into a controller to regulate the conductance of the system. Generally, we use a PI controller if
you use a PI controller you can have a proportional gain setting KP here and we put integral
control I am just putting on this side is, it can be it is KI divided by some time constant Tc S and
here we have to put the upper maximum limit GMAX. You can add these 2 outputs again there
will be a a maximum limit which has to be put GMAX and this conductance is the 1 which bring
back.

Now this becomes a simple closed loop control system which we can show here to regulate the
temperature of a space which is to be heated. Now here tau H is the state variable state variable
this is only simple and this is the PI control which I have shown. Now depending upon this error
it is going to increase the or decrease the conductance right the more the conductance right. The
more is the heat which is going to be generated right but since we have using this integral also so
that the we want actually that the maximum conductance should be limiting therefore maximum
limit either it may be touched by integral integrator or by the sum because here it is plus okay,
therefore this is 1 way of we can representing a thermostatically controlled loads.

## (Refer Slide Time: 43:10)

Now under steady state conditions under steady state conditions the tau reference equal to tau H
right. Now if you make this substitution in this equation in this differential equation put the
derivative term to be 0 and I make derivative term equal to 0 right then we can write down the
tau reference equal to K1 times V0square Go plus tau A that is the reference temperature setting
which is required to attain the required value of tau H, where the constant K1 is equal to tau
reference minus tau A divided by Vo square Go okay.

Now with this I will just give briefly introduced actually that how a dynamically controlled or
thermostatically control load can be represented. These differential equations are to be written
along with the system differential equations.
(Refer Slide Time: 43:59)

So far actually the discharge lamps are concerned their characteristic can also be shown as
function of voltage but these characteristics are quite non-linear in nature. I will shown in this
axis P and Q consumed by the discharged lamps and on this x axis you put voltage V okay. Now
let us first see the power P consumed by a discharged lamp. At a certain voltage up to certain
voltage say V1, V1 the discharged lamp should be off right therefore no power is consumed by
discharged lamp etcetera when the voltage becomes V1 the suddenly these devices are switched
on and when the voltage increases beyond this the power consumed that is at a when the voltage
is V1 the power consumed suddenly jumps from 0 value to this value then as the voltage further
increases the power consumed may vary linearly and by another segment.

In fact actually you can do ah this non-linear characteristic and represented by a piecewise
linearized model that is you can put at this voltage V1 from V1 to V2 it can be represented as
some KP1 into V and here it can be represented as KP2 into okay while this so far the reactive
power is consumed. The reactive power variation is a very non-linear in nature for reactive
power variation for these devices can be shown this is type of curve we can call this as a Q
which is equal to Q0 the value at this particular point multiplied by V to the power some
coefficient K a very non-linear type of variation right and therefore since the system voltage is
varying and we want to model these devices this type of model is to be shown that in case the
voltage is less than V1 they are off when it is more than V1 to V2, P and Q have to be shown like
this that is the model you have to have that facility where you represent the loads are present as a
function of voltage. Okay the next important component for modelling is the induction motor

Now induction motor load or modelling of induction motor has has attracted the attention of
many researches and many practicing engineers in the past because over 70 percent of the system
load is induction motor load. Now for developing this dynamic model for the induction motor the
approach is similar to what we do for a synchronous motor and we represent the model using DQ
transformation, DQ transformation I would not go into details about all these transformations but
here we have 1 simple advantage actually for so far this induction motor is concerned, the rotor
of the induction motor is a cylindrical 1 right and therefore the the a variation in mutual
inductances and self-inductances right are different as compared to that of a synchronous motor.

## (Refer Slide Time: 49:06)

Let us just see so far the stator windings are concerned they will they will not see any difference
in the in the reluctance of the magnetic circuit as the position of the rotor changes rotor is
cylindrical therefore depend whichever is the position of the rotor right. The stator windings will
not see any difference in the reluctance and therefore the self-inductance of the stator winding,
mutual inductance between the stator windings are not function of angle this is the advantage,
second point is that the mutual inductance between the stator and rotor windings vary vary
because because the axis of the rotor and stator windings are having different orientations.

When the axis of the rotor and stator windings are aligned they will have maximum mutual
inductance when they are in quadrature it will be 0 mutual inductance that is the only variation
and here the stator voltages are written in terms of the D and Q axis components just as we do in
the case of synchronous machine but here we also require the transformation for rotor quantities
this is the main another difference.

Further for studies the transformer voltages in the stator circuit will be neglected, the stator
circuit for example for stability studies in the synchronous machine we have ignored the
transformer voltages in the stator voltage equation. Similarly, here also we ignore it however
actually the the transformer voltage in the rotor circuit will not be ignored while this so so far
rotor circuit is concerned the rotor is at closed circuit therefore D and Q axis voltages in the rotor
circuit are 0 that is Vdr and Vqr were set equal to okay, these are the simple equations which can
be easily derived and they are available in the standard literature.

## (Refer Slide Time: 50:24)

The stator of the synchronous generator can be simply represented by a model of this form. This
is simple model which 1 can arrive at for the stator equation because the stator equations we are
not considered the transform voltages right therefore this is a algebraic equation.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:17)

We can represent this voltage Vs bar as Rs plus j times X bar into Is plus V prime this is an
important voltage component okay when you represent these voltages in terms of D and Q axis
components we can write down Vs equal to Vds plus J times Vdqs V prime equal to Vd prime plus
j times Vq prime.

## (Refer Slide Time: 51:38)

Then here the 2 components of this voltage V prime V prime at these 2 components Vd prime
and Vq prime right these these voltages are obtained from these 2 differential equations that is p
vd prime is given this equation and vp vq prime is given by this equation that is they are the 2
differential equations in fact basically these these equations represent the rotor dynamics, rotor
dynamics as I have told you that we do not neglect the rotor dynamics here if you neglect {lo}
rotor dynamics then this model also becomes a static model okay.

Now here there is a term very important term To prime this is the transient open circuit time
constant, transient open circuit time constant and this time constant this To prime characterizes
the decay of the rotor transients when the rotor is open circuited, I am sorry there is mistake here
this when the stator is open circuited when the stator is open circuited. The differential equation
for the induction motor just like actually the we have a swing equation for synchronous jetter.

Similarly, we have a swing equation for induction motor is d by dt of p omega r bar equal to 1
upon 2H Te minus Tm. Now here here electrical power right is the input and mechanical power is
the output therefore Te minus Tm is the accelerating torque right therefore this is the swing
equation for the induction motor and this electrical torque is obtained by this equation Te equal to
vd prime ids plus vq prime iqs. Further the load torque load torque to this Tm is the load torque this
Tm is the load torque right this load torque also depends upon the speed and therefore the
equation which is used to represent the load torque Tm is To omega r to the power m omega r bar
here omega r bar means it is actually the speed of the rotor expressed in terms of or we can say
synchronous speed of the machine. Okay that is you can say it is a per unit speed omega r bar is a
per unit speed another can express in for torque may be Tm equal to To into A times omega r
square plus B times omega r plus C.

## (Refer Slide Time: 53:55)

Now let me conclude the todays presentation, today we have discussed the static and dynamic
models for the loads which are required to be modelled in the stability studies of the power
system we have modelled the various types of loads and the loads which we consider are actually
determined the dynamic model for the induction model. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 26
Numerical Integration Methods for Solving a Set of Ordinary Non-linear
Differential Equations

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends, today we will study the numerical integration methods for solving a set of
ordinary non-linear differential equations.

We have developed the mathematical model of the system for analyzing the stability we
have developed the mathematical model for synchronous generator, excitation systems
turbines and governors and also loads, okay. Now when we want to analyze the transient
stability of the system we need to solve a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations
along with a set of non-linear algebraic equations and we can say that we have to solve
the differential algebraic equations for solving the algebraic equations we have standard
techniques available like say technique Newton-Raphson technique and so on.

Now for solving this non-linear ordinary differential equations we have to resort to
numerical techniques because there is no analytical solution available for non-linear
differential equations. Now the numerical techniques will provide you approximate
solution, I am emphasizing this word approximate solution. Here, when I say that we
apply numerical technique for solving this problem what we do is that the time duration
for which we want to get the solution is divided into small time segments.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

We can call this time segments say staring from initial time t equal to t0 to t1, t2, t3, t4 and
say tn and these segments may be equidistant or of the equal length or may be unequal
length that is the time step from initial value to to t1 and from t1 to t2, these 2 time steps or
ah so on may be equal or unequal. Now today we will study these numerical techniques
and broadly these numerical techniques are divided into 2 categories known as the
explicit integration methods for solving a set of ordinary differential equations, we use
the what explicit integration methods and another technique is known as the implicit
integration methods.

## (Refer Slide Time: 05:32)

We will be in a position to understand what is the difference between the implicit and
explicit integration methods and their merits and demerits? Right, as we will discuss the
different techniques. We will under the explicit integration methods we will discuss
briefly the Euler method, modified Euler method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.
Although number of other techniques are available in the literature right but however we
will confine our discussion to these 3 techniques which come under the category of
explicit integration methods. We shall discuss 1 simplest technique under the heading of
implicit integration method that is called trapezoidal rule that is trapezoidal rule of
integration, okay.

## Now to understand the solution of ordinary non-linear differential equation equation. We

equation of the form dx by dt equal to f of xt where, x is a vector x is a vector it will have
its dimension depending upon the size of the problem which we have to solve. For
example, in the classical stability analysis the x will comprise of the angles that is the
rotor angles deltas and rotor speeds like say delta 1, delta 2, delta n, if it is a n machine
system and the speeds like say omega 1, omega 2 up to omega n this will be the state
variables.

Then we will come across a set of differential equations which are put in the compact
form as dx by dt equal to f of xt. For solving these equations, we know the initial
condition that is as time t equal to 0, time t equal to 0, x is equal to x0 that is the initial
conditions are known to us and in knowing the initial condition we have to find out find
out how the x varies as a function of time that is what is the meaning of solving this
differential equation that is we want to get the solution for x as function of time.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:10)

The Euler method is the simplest of all the methods and let us consider considers scalar
system that is we have only 1 unknown to be solved to understand the Euler technique we
will start first with the scalar differential equation that is dx by dt equal to f of xt where x
is a scalar right. Now to solve this what we know initially is that x equal to x0 at t equal to
t0 this is the initial condition which is given to us for example, when you solve our swing
equation right at time t equal to 0 we know what is the value of delta that is delta equal to
delta 0 at t equal to t0 right, this is the initial condition.

Now to understand how we obtain the solution of this let us assume that the solution for x
as a function of time is known to us I will say that this is the exact solution of this that is
x varies as a function of time by this very non-linear way. This is the initial point this is
the this point is t equal to 0 and corresponding to this the x is equal to x0 this is the initial
operating condition, okay what we do is we we find the derivative of this function that is
this function that is obtain the derivative at x equal to x0 it means after basically finding
out slope of this curve at x equal to x0 and let us say that this line represents the slope at x
equal to x0 right.

Now let us take a small time step and call this time instant as t1 where, this time step can
be denoted by delta t that is t1 minus to equal to delta t okay. Now if this you take a small
value of this step right then value of x at t equal to t1 can be represented by this equation
that is first we will find out first we find out what is the changed delta x that is this
quantity delta x that is at t equal to t1 right we find out the value of x that is x is equal to x
naught plus delta x, this delta x in the change change when you increase the time by a
small step delta t right.
(Refer Slide Time: 11:42)

So that now we can write the solution in the form that is x1 equal to x0 the initial value
plus dx by dt at x equal to x0 into delta t right. This is this is what is the approach we
make use of in the Euler method that is you find out the slope of the curve at t equal to t0
that is x equal to x0 right and then find out find out actually the delta x that increment in x
when t is changed by time step delta t.

## Now this increment is determined by this expression that is dx by dt at x equal to x0 into

delta t. Now here here here this Euler method can be considered to be considered to be
the first order method that is suppose you expand this function if you expand this
function around initial value x0 using Taylor series expansion then the Taylor series
expansion will give you x1 equal to x0 plus delta t into x0 dot plus delta t square by
factorial 2 x0 double dot and so on that is if we take any function and expand at the initial
operation condition using Taylor series expansion then x1 that is the new value at time t
equal to t1 can be obtained as by this series that is here effectively we are truncating this
Taylor series by by considering only the first order derivative okay these higher order
terms we are neglecting and therefore obviously obviously the the the accuracy of
solution will depend upon delta t, if I take delta t very small very small then naturally the
x1 will come out to be very close to the actual value right.

Now here when we use this Eulers method ,we assume we assume that the slope of this
curve is same all through the interval while if you see the actual solution right then during
this interval the slope is different at different points right and therefore therefore there is
some error that will be incurred actually when you solve using the Eulers method. For
example, if you get this point that is x equal to x1 I will call it as x1 corresponding to t1
now if you find want to find out the next step next step that is you want to find x2 using
x1 right.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:58)

## Now what is going to be our approach x2 will be obtained as x1 plus dx by dt evaluated at

x equal to x1 into delta t okay. The next step will be that you obtain x2 as x1 that is value
at t equal to t1 that is they have becomes the initial value find the derivative at x equal to
x1 okay and multiplied by the time step delta t okay. Now graphically when you see here
let us say that the new slope comes out to be like this right then the the new value of x
that is at x at t2 will be obtained by this point, let us say this point this is your t2 and this is
your x2, this is the point which we get.

Similarly, if you keep on going you will find actually that the the solution which are
getting by this technique is is deviating from the actual solution and this solution is going
to be very close to the actual solution if you take delta t very very small, this is a very
important requirement. Now here this method is called explicit method because the new
value of x at anytime is obtained in using the previous value of x that is that is the when
you are solving this problem, solving this problem right we find out the derivative this
derivative is explicitly computed using the known value of x okay and that is why it is
called explicit integration method here in this method there is a problem that in case you
take delta t large right the error which is created will propagate and the solution may
blow off right and we call this as numerical instability right.

## Therefore therefore numerical instability is a problem problem when we use explicit

techniques for solving non-linear differential equations therefore in general you can write
in algorithms using this Euler method as xn plus 1 is equal to xn plus dx by dt, x evaluated
at xn that is you evaluate this derivative at x equal to xn and this is to be multiplied by time
step delta t therefore this is the algorithm a simple algorithm for evaluating the the or for
obtaining the solution of first order differential equation.

Now in case we have instead of scalar equation we have a set of differential equations
right then the same procedure is adopted because these these equations are coupled these
equations are coupled right and therefore when I write the solution this x will be replaced
by vector that is you will write x, I can write down here.

## (Refer Slide Time: 19:13)

The algorithm will now becomes xn plus 1 equal to xn plus dx by dt evaluated at x equal
to xn into delta t this is the algorithm when you solve a set of differential equations. Now
when I say dx by dt, x is a vector what is the what is the meaning of this now suppose I
say here x is equal to x1 x2 let us say I will use the word say xp, we do not want to mix up
with this xn okay let us say they are p components that dx by dt the meaning will be here
dx by dt this is transpose here. Okay x is a column vector dx by dt can be written as dx1
by dt, dx2 by dt dxp by dt whole transpose it means when I say the derivative of this x
means I am taking the derivative of each of the variable dx1 by dt, dx2 by dt, dxp this is the
way this is to be obtained because when you write down the set of differential equations
right, first order differential equations on left hand side we have the derivative terms delta
1 dot delta 2 dot delta omega 1 dot delta omega 2 dot like that.

Okay for our stability analysis right therefore they are all derivative terms this I
individually evaluated and put in the top now when I say the dx1 by dt is function of all
the state variables and initial condition right. Now in order to overcome the the the
problem of numerical instability this Euler method has been modified modified to reduce
the error which will accumulate and propagate right.

So that we can use a reasonably large value of delta t the time step because if you use
very very small delta t then to get the solution the number of steps will become very large
and it will take more time for getting the solution because at each step you have to do the
similar type of calculations.
(Refer Slide Time: 22:24)

In the modified Euler method the approach goes like this the first step is exactly the same
as we use in the Euler method that is we find out the value of x1 we call this is a predicted
value x1p that is the predictor step. The first step this step is called predictor step that is
x1p is called to x naught plus dx by dt evaluated at x equal to x0 into delta t that is you
evaluate x1p you call this as the predicted value initial value x0 plus derivative at x equal
to x0 into delta t.

## (Refer Slide Time: 23:44)

Okay now, using this predicted value this predicted value x1 is the value at t equal to t1 is
it okay t1 therefore using this predicted value we will find out the derivative of this
function at t equal to t1 okay and using these 2 derivatives on predicted value. We will
find out the corrected value of x1 okay therefore the approach the algorithm will go like
this that x1c is called corrector step x1c is equal to x0 plus 1 by 2 dx by dt at x equal to x0
that is what we have already d1 find the derivative at x equal to x0 then you find out the
derivative of this function right dx by dt at x equal to x1p okay and then take the average
of these 2 derivatives where this is the slope of the solution or to the function at t equal to
t naught or x equal to x0 okay this is the slope at x equal to x1 predicted or we can call it
this is the slope at t equal to t1 okay.

We take the average of these 2 slopes and obtain the a value of x1 and this is going to be
naturally more accurate as compared to the 1 which you obtained by considering only this
term because now we are considering the average of the 2 slopes right. Now here 1 need
not to stop here you can use this corrected value that is x1c right consider this as a
predicted value and further you can find out the more accurate value of x1 that is what
can be d1 is that you can call this as x1 I will call this x1c2, I will just now suppose I use
actually 1 second more the second step then I will call this as this equal to x0 plus 1 by 2.
This initial derivative will remain same that is dx by dt at x equal to x0 plus we will
calculate this dx by dt at x equal to x1c, c1 I will call this as c1 in that case if I go for 1
more step I will call there this is c1 use this x equal to x1c okay and then multiply by delta
t.

Now in case actually these 2 values are very close you can stop here suppose when you
find out the corrected value in the first step then you will find out the corrected value in
second step also if suppose these 2 corrected values come out to be very close or 2
conjugative corrected values come out to be very close you can stop here. Now generally
generally this second step may not be required you can use a small time step and so that
you can stop at the first correction step itself right but if you want to you can say go for
further, you know further you can same a sophisticated value or accurate value you can
use this steps you know instead of terminating at first corrected value you can go for
second, third so and so and since this is can this has to be programmed therefore is
nothing very big actually so far uh computations are concerned.

We can always develop a program we will do it because this type of modified Euler
method is used very commonly because this is very simple a very simple and more
accurate also and the the we can use a slightly larger time step and the problem of
numerical instability also is less probability. Okay the next step which is or the next
method which is commonly used for solving set of non-linear differential equations is
known as the Runge-Kutta method Runge-Kutta method.
(Refer Slide Time: 28:11)

Here I will discuss only the 4th order Runge-Kutta method this is more popularly used
because in the literature the second order Runge-Kutta method, 4th order Runge-Kutta
method these are discussed right .Now here as we have seen actually that the Euler
method is a first order method where we are looking in terms of the Taylor series
expansion as if we are we are terminating at first derivative term. Here this 4th order
Runge-Kutta method is as if you are using up to the 4th derivative terms actually you will
not be evaluating the 4th derivative term 4 derivative terms but it it mimix the Taylor
series expansion as if you have taken the the terms up to the 4th derivative.

## (Refer Slide Time: 30:03)

Now the algorithm for evaluating the uh value of x at n plus 1th step is xn that is the value
of the variable at previous step xn plus 1 by 6 times this term that is x1 k1 plus 2 times k2
plus 2 times k 3 plus k4 I will explain this k terms that is here what is d1 is you obtain the
value of xn plus 1 in terms of the previous value plus this term so this is basically delta x
okay now these terms k1 2 times k2, 2 times k3 and k4 are defined as follows here k1, k1,
k1 is the f of xn tn into delta t that is that is you evaluate this derivative term that is f of xn
tn at t equal to t.

Suppose that we are starting at t equal to t0 then this will become f of x0 t0 if it is going
next step it is becoming f of x1 t1 and so on therefore this is by this is a way and this is
then multiplied by delta t. Okay then we calculate k2 k2 as f of xn plus k1 by 2 xn plus k1
by 2 and this means actually that the value of this term xn plus k1 by 2 is at tn plus delta t
by 2 that is you know in all all the differential equations we come across right the time is
is not explicitly available in the equation that is the time is implicit function right.

Suppose if I solve this the swing equation right in my swing equation on the right hand
side when I evaluated this function it is function of delta and so on the time is not
explicitly visible but it is implicit because delta is corresponding to certain time right
therefore here when I say that this is the value of x right it means it is the at the beginning
of the interval xn plus this quantity can be considered to be at the mid of the interval.

So that I can say interpret this total term as at the mid of the and the time corresponding
to this will be tn plus delta t by 2, okay this again you multiplied this by delta t. So that
this becomes a increment in x, k3 we make use of this k2 and obtain this term derivate that
is f of obtain this function xn same xn remains same plus k2 by 2 tn plus delta t by 2. It
means again the this this increment is computed in the last 1 we obtain the function at xn
plus k3 full not half full that is tn plus delta t okay then what is d1 is to obtain the
increment delta x we we use this 4 terms and we the waiting given to this k1 is 1, k2 we
multiplied by 2, k3 multiplied by 2 and k4 by 1 and then this is added and divided by 6.

So that it becomes a weighted average right, this is the formula you can see here xn plus 1
is equal to xn plus 1 by 6, k1 plus 2 times k3 plus 2 times k, I am sorry 2 times k2 plus 2
times k3 plus k4 by 6 it is basically these are all small small increments in delta x and the
the increment in a small step delta t is obtained by taking the weighted sum and dividing
by 6 that is the weighted average you can call it and here as you can easily see here
actually that we have not computed computed the second order derivative or third order
derivative or 4th order derivative but this process process gives you the solution, similar
to what you will you get if you include up to the 4th order derivatives in the Taylor series
expression now I shall illustrate the application of this techniques by taking an example
after discussing these techniques.
(Refer Slide Time: 34:29)

When you physically interpret this 4 constants then k1 can be considered to be slope at
the beginning of the time uh step that is the slope at the beginning of the time step into
delta t then k2 can be interpreted as first approximation to slope at the mid step is a first
approximation, first approximation to this to slope at the mid step into delta t therefore
we are multiplying slope by delta slope with delta t.

## So that this becomes a increment in x okay k3 will be interpreted as second

approximation to slope at the mid step into delta t and finally k4 the slope at the end of
the time step delta t right and then increment delta x is equal to 1 by 6 of k1 plus 2 times
k2 plus 2 time k3 plus k4.This is what is the 4th order Runge-Kutta method and simpler
form of this is called second order Runge-Kutta method right where where actually they
use less number of terms. Now I will just discuss something about the numerical stability
of explicit integration methods.

## (Refer Slide Time: 36:18)

When we discuss this numerical instability the meaning is the meaning is that the the
errors propagate and accumulate and solution will blow off and the although the actual
solution is possible to get the correct solution but by this numerical technique we are
getting a solution which is which is incorrect and that is what is normally called actually
the numerical instability.

Now numerical instability can be avoided by choosing the appropriate value of time step.
Now in any system when you solve any system when you solve right the system has
number of time constants number of time constant. For example, when you consider our
uh stability problem then you will have the time constants which will be very short of the
order of you can say fraction of second right to few seconds.

Suppose actually I take the the excitation system right then if I take the if I consider the
time constants associated with the with the sensing and transducer circuit the voltage
sensing and transducer circuit it is of the order of 0.02 second is very small, if I take the
open circuit time constant of the field circuit it is of the order of 5 seconds, 10 seconds
and so on.

Similarly, if you take actually the times constant the mechanical starting time constant
that is tm one of that is 2H okay that is also a very large because H is of the order of 5 6.
So that tm becomes around 10 and therefore the we define what is called a term steepness
of the system which relates the ratio of largest time constant to the smallest time constant.
Suppose largest time constant is 10 second and smallest time constant is say .02 seconds
then this ratio determines represents a steepness of the system right. The steepness is
defined in terms of another term which is called actually the largest value of the largest
Eigen value of the linear system to the smallest Eigen value that is you take a system find
out the Eigen value and find out the magnitudes largest Eigen value divided by the
smallest Eigen value this will give you the measure of steepness of the system and for the
system to be for the the that a solution to be numerically ah stable right the the time step
should be related to the smallest time constant right and here we discuss one more
important technique where the numerical stability is not a problem, okay and that
technique is known as the implicit integration method.

## (Refer Slide Time: 39:44)

We will first understand conceptually what do you mean by implicit integration method it
is a very simple approach. Again we start with the differential equation dx by dt equal to f
of xt x equal to x0 and t equal to let us say that this is a scalar equation to start with let us
consider a scalar equation now I want to solve this equation how do I solve this equation
let us say I want to solve this equation the 1 simplest approach would be you integrate
both sides.

## Suppose I want to get the solution of this equation dx by dt which is a function of xt

you integrate this equation respect to time and I want to integrate this over a time step say
t0 to t1 dx by dt. This can be written written as integral of f of xt dt to to t1. Now what is
the suppose you integrate and obtain actually this value what is the value of this delta x or
if I call this as x1 minus x0 that is I am integrating dx by dt with respect to t, so that it
becomes a integration of dx only.
(Refer Slide Time: 40:30)

So that you can say that at t equal to t0 its value is x0 t equal to t1 its value is x1 what is the
integral of this function what is the value of this integral therefore, we can say that this is
this is area under this curve from t0 t1 okay. Now now I can because this area I cannot it
find I cannot find it out because I not I do not know how this this function is varying and
it is a non-linear function I do not know therefore what we can do is that suppose I take
this situation.

## If I plot the function f of xt as if function of time as I plot this function f of xt is a function

of time and let us assume that this is the this is the actual solution okay. Now as you very
clearly told actually that if I am trying to evaluate this integral then it is the area under
this curve from t naught to t1 okay. Now this area under this curve can be approximated
by the area of this trapezoid only error which will cause is small error that is you can
approximate the area under this curve from t0 to t1 the small time step delta t as as f of x0
t0 plus f of x1 t1 multiplied by delta t by 2 is it not this is very important step actually
people sometimes actually fail to appreciate this step which is a very simple step this is
the most important step again you can see here actually that area actual area under this
curve and the area which is approximated using the area obtained by trapezoid right there
is a slight difference and this difference will can be reduced, if I take delta t as small as
possible you reduce this delta t this difference will also vanish okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:24)

Therefore, I can say now the x1 can be written as from that equation as because here x1
minus x0 let put x0 on this side you will get x1 equal to x0 plus delta t by 2f of x0 t0 plus f
of x1 t1 therefore this is the this is the value of x1 obtained obtained and next at time t
equal to t1 but the problem here is that this x1 is expressed in terms x1 itself. Here, we see
you see this step in this step what is happened is that x1 I have expressed in terms of x1
itself but this equation is now an algebraic equation this is an this is a non-linear algebraic
equation.

Okay and therefore this non-linear algebraic equation can be solved to obtain the value of
x1 using standard equation techniques standard techniques like Newton-Raphson
techniques which are used for solving the non-linear algebraic equations because this is a
the the algorithm can be written as xn will be equal xn plus 1 let us say xn plus 1 will be
equal to xn plus delta t by 2 f of xn tn plus f of xn plus 1, t of n plus 1. This is the algorithm
but you I think you appreciate that you have to solve this algebraic equation, non-linear
algerice algebraic equation using again numerical technique.
(Refer Slide Time: 47:55)

This is what actually I have just written here. Now to illustrate actually this trapezoidal
rule of integration, let me take the transient stability problem of a machine connected to
infinite bus we will take a classical problem.

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:27)

The differential equations which we have to solve can be written as d delta omega dt
equal to 1 over 2H Pm minus Pmax sin theta, second differential equation is d delta by dt
equal to delta omega into omega naught. These are the 2 first order ordinary non-linear
differential equation.
Now these 2 equations are coupled equations that is you will find actually that in this
equation delta term comes right. While in this equation omega term comes delta omega
terms come therefore in general you will find that if you take any problem for a stability
analysis you will get a set of ordinary differential equations ordinary non-linear
differential equations but they are all coupled nonlinear differential equations okay. Now
let us say that how we apply the trapezoidal rule of integration and what equations you
will get okay

Let us assume actually we know that at t equal to tn let at t equal to tn delta equal to delta
n and delta omega equal to delta omega n okay that is at time t equal to tn we know the
value of delta delta n and omega as omega n okay. We write down now the 2 first order 2
non-linear algebraic equations by applying the trapezoidal rule of integration that is I
consider the first equation first equation I am to obtain this term delta omega n plus 1 this
will be equal to delta omega n plus delta t by 2 here I have to write down here f of xn tn f
of xn tn.

## (Refer Slide Time: 50:54)

Now in this expression in this expression I will write down here 1 by 2H I am not
substituting the values 1 by 2H Pm minus Pmax sin delta delta n correct. You can close this
bracket here plus 1, 1 by 2H Pm remains same Pmax sin delta n plus 1, you close the
bracket here and this is the equation to obtain the value of delta omega n plus 1 in terms
of delta omega n and in terms of delta n plus 1 because now delta n plus 1 is coming here.

The second equation we write down here will be delta n plus 1 equal to delta n plus delta
t by 2 multiplied by f of xn tn. Now in this case it is delta omega n into omega naught plus
delta omega n plus 1 into omega naught. Okay now these are the 2 non-linear couple
algebraic equations, okay and initial values of these quantities are known delta omega n
and delta n initial values are known. Okay and you use the simple simplest technique like
technique to obtain the value of delta omega n plus 1 and delta n plus 1 at t equal to n
plus 1 the numerical stability of these techniques can be illustrated considering a set of
linear differential equations.

## (Refer Slide Time: 55:26)

Let us examine these equations written by this in the matrix form X dot equal to AX. The
value of X is known say Xn is known at time t equal to tn we want to obtain the Xn plus 1
at time tn plus1. Now this represents the set of linear differential equations and applying
the uh Eulers method we can write down Xn plus 1 equal to Ax evaluated at t equal to tn
plus Xn. Now we can write down this equation in the form Xn plus 1 equal to I plus A
delta t into Xn which can be written as which can be written as F function F into Xn.
Now this represents this represents the discrete form of this differential equation X dot
equal to AX, now for the system to be stable the Eigen values of this matrix A matrix F
not A, matrix F which is equal to AI plus A delta t must be must lie in a in a unit circle
that is the Eigen values, all the Eigen values that is lambda j for j from 1 to n must lie in a
unit circle that is magnitude lambda j must be less than 1.

Now here we can see that the the matrix F is function of the time step delta t as the time
step delta t increases the the Eigen values of this matrix F may lie outside the unit circle
and the and the system response becomes unstable. Now here a small correction when we
write down xn plus 1 equal to Ax t equal to tn this should be multiplied with delta t. Now
with this I conclude my todays presentation by saying that we have discussed the various
numerical techniques which are suitable for solving a set of ordinary non-linear
differential equations. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 27
Simulation of Power System Dynamic Response

## (Refer Slide Time: 00:55)

Friends, so far we have studied the modeling of various sub-systems of the power system.
The sub-systems are synchronous generator, excitation system, turbine governors,
transmission network, loads. These are the different sub-systems and we have studied
how to develop or how to form the dynamic model of these systems and also the
algebraic models.

Now the basic problem is that system is a complete integrated system and therefore we
have to we have to integrate the models of individual sub-systems into a total system
model and then the equations have to be solved right. The techniques which are used for
solving the set of non-linear or any differential equations we have studied say we can use
explicit methods of integration maybe Eulers method, modified Eulers method, Runge-
Kutta method or some few more versions of this explicit techniques or we can use
implicit method of integration.

Now the first step of integrating the sub-system models into a complete system model is
that we have to start looking at the synchronous generator equations. Now if you see the
equations which you have derived for the synchronous generator, these are derived in
terms of dq axis components and and the dq axis locations will be different for for
different machines.
When the system is in dynamic condition right or even under steady state condition the
location of dq axis will be different for different machine depending upon the loading
condition or under dynamic conditions their positions will vary. Now when we solve the
load full equations that is the network equations right we take slate bus as our reference
bus and the voltage of all the buses are obtained with respect to the reference bus right
therefore considering this reference bus as our reference axis.

Now what is to be d1 is that we have to transform transform the the voltages and currents
which were earlier written in terms of dq axis components with respect to the reference
axis and that is what is the first step which is to be done that is called the axis
transformation this is axis transformation is to be done for both voltage and currents
right. Now to understand how this axis transformation is carried out, let us look at this
phasor diagram.

## (Refer Slide Time: 04:23)

Now in this diagram I have simply shown that let us say this is my d axis and
corresponding q axis is ahead of d axis by 90 degrees. This is our convention which we
have been following that is the q axis is 90 degrees ahead of d axis, if you read some ah
other books or in some books actually they prefer they do take q axis legging the d axis
but our convention is that we have to all through follow that q axis lead the d axis okay.

Now if suppose the terminal voltage of the generator is Et, Et is the terminal voltage of
the generator then the d axis component is the component of Et along d axis that is Ed.
Similarly, the q axis component of Et is eq okay, now now if if the reference axis are
shown like this that is R is the reference axis this is the R reference and in quadrature
with this is the imaginary part of the reference axis, this is reference axis and quadrature
component of this right we call R and I, R and I that is the real and imaginary parts, real
axis, imaginary axis okay is a very standard thing.
Now if you if you take this voltage Et and find out its component along R and I axis then
these components can be shown as ER EI that is Et is same for this its components are ER
and EI, ER is the real part of Et along with the R axis and EI is the imaginary part of Et
along this axis. Okay and now if I represent this Et, Et as ed plus j times eq Et is ed plus j
times eq.

Okay then if I now use this my reference axis as ER plus j times EI right then this ER plus
j times EI can be obtained by by rotating the dq axis components or actually this dq axis
by an angle which is equal to the angle between q and I or angle between d and R that is
you just rotate this phasor through an angle and this angle can be written in this diagram
you can just physically it can be written as delta minus phi by 2 and the angle will be
always measured with respect to the real axis that is our reference axis and the q axis of
the synchronous machine, this is the measure of our rotor angle okay.

Therefore, the rotational rotation is to be given by how much amount that is delta minus
phi by 2. Okay and it is to be given in anticlockwise direction with reference to this
diagram and therefore what I have done is that ER plus j times EI can be written as ed plus
j times eq multiplied by e to the power minus delta minus phi by 2 right. Therefore, this is
actually if you multiply this by this term e to the power minus delta minus phi by 2 here
there is a term missing j it should be e to the power minus j times okay you put it j here e
to the power minus j times delta minus phi by 2 okay therefore this can be written as ed
plus j times eq e to the power j times phi by 2 minus delta phi by 2 minus delta.

## (Refer Slide Time: 08:42)

Now you write write this term this this term e to the power minus minus disappear is now
only j, I think you can write down here e to the power j is now phi by 2 minus delta okay
this is going to be equal to cosine of phi by 2 minus delta plus j times sin of phi by 2
minus delta okay and if now perform this algebraic operation you will get ER as ed sin
delta plus eq cos delta and EI as eq sin delta minus ed cos delta that is what you are what
we are doing basically is that we are simply performing this algebraic operation.

## (Refer Slide Time: 09:40)

You separate the real and original parts you will get this curve okay ah which can be
written as ER EI equal to this matrix sin delta cos delta minus cos delta sin delta ed eq
when we know ed eq you can transform ed eq into ER EI okay therefore this is the very
important step which is required to be followed when you integrate the all the equations
with the network equations.

## (Refer Slide Time: 10:41)

Now here I have tried to show the various sub-systems which are required to be
integrated to form the complete system model. Now we start like this take the we are
considering 1 synchronous machine right. Similarly for other machines also 1 has to look
for we have stator equations and axis transformation this shows here this block diagram
shows that we have stator equations these equations are algebraic because we have
neglected the transformation voltage in the stator equations right therefore these are the
algebraic equations and we are performing the axis transformation you will get this terms
ER, EI right.

Similarly, this axis transformation has to be performed on currents also that is IR and II
that is this is the real part of the current this is the imaginary part of the current okay
this these these are the input to the network that is the transmission network equations
including static loads right that is you write down the equations of the transmission
network shall basically the load flow equations including the equations for the static

Suppose the static loads are represented as constant impedance load and they will can be
included accordingly if we are representing as ZIP or any form that load has to be
included, load model has to be included. Then we have the generator rotor circuit
equations, generator rotor circuit equations. Suppose if I consider consider a situation
where we do not have amortisseurs or neglect the amortisseurs then we have 1
differential equation corresponding to the field winding okay.

## If we consider the amortisseurs then we have additional differential equations

corresponding to the number of amortisseurs on d and q axis considered okay. Therefore
these are the differential equations then we have swing equation for each machine swing
equation for each machine is a second order non-linear differential equation therefore
corresponding to the swing equation we have 2 differential equation okay. Then we have
excitation system which is connected to the rotor wire circuit or field circuit of the
generator therefore excitation system equations will come.

Similarly, the prime mover and governor if we include the prime mover and governor in
our model the prime mover governor equations will also come and therefore, if I see here
in this enclosed lines okay then the generator rotor circuit equations, swing equation
excitation system equation, the prime over and governor equations all these equations are
are differential equations and these equations are written written in terms of d-q axis
terms that is when we write the equations for synchronous generator rotor windings okay
right therefore all these equations are in terms of d-q therefore here there is no need of
any transformation.

Now if you see here in addition to this we have to represent the motor loads that is to the
transmission network we have some motor loads which are required to be represented by
their dynamic model then this equations will also come. In case your network has HVDC
link suppose in some power system networks we have few HVDC links right and when
we are developing the complete model of the system, the high voltage DC link right is is
also to be represented by a set of algebraic and differential equations therefore the
mathematical model of HVDC link has to be evaluated.

Similarly, if you have FACTS devices in the system flexible AC transmission system that
is if the FACTS devices are incorporated maybe like say ah STATCOM or TCSC or SVC
right or actually the unified power flow controller then these FACTS devices are also
required to be model and incorporated in the model.

Now this the these models we have not discussed right but adequate the these devices
have to be adequately modeled and required to be incorporated therefore you can see here
actually that so far the common reference frame is concerned this is included in this
purple line if you can just see here that the stator equations and axis transformation they
are with respect to R-I axis right reference axis similarly, the all transmission line
equations are with respect to the common reference frame R-I okay.

Now the equations corresponding to this common R-I reference frame they are all
algebraic equations while the equations which are in corresponding to the generator rotor
circuit swing equation excitation system prime mover they are all differential equations
okay and therefore the necessity is to solve solve the a set of set of differential algebraic
equations for solving the stability problem okay.

Now there are various production grade transient stability programs are available which
have been developed by various you can say research organizations like say EPRI is 1
which has developed a large number of programs similarly, PTI is another organization
which has developed this programs and available, okay but they include all this aspects.
Now we will study study how how we solve the complete set of equations right. Now
when we solve the complete set of equations therefore first we have to see the individual
ah sub-system equations okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 18:11)

Now we can write down the individual sub-system differential equations in this form
general form Xd dot is equal to fd is a function of Xd Vd I will explain these terms the set
of differential equations these are all this a vector the Xd dot is equal to a function of Xd
Vd. The algebraic equations will be written as Id equal to function this gd is another
function non-linear function which is function of Xd and Vd again.

## Now here Xd now I am considering d the subscript d is used to say that it is

corresponding to a device okay therefore suppose I am writing the differential equation
for a 1 synchronous generator okay for 1 synchronous generator I can write down a set of
differential equations right therefore Xd stands for the state vector of that sub-system, 1
generator which may which may include my all excitation turbine ,swing equation rotor
equations and so on right therefore Xd is a state vector of the sub-system right.

Now Vd, Vd stands for stand for the terminal voltage to which the machine is connected
to which terminal voltage of the machine and this Vd is expressed expressed with respect
to the common reference plane right. The Id Id is the current which is injected to the bus
and expressed in common reference plane right therefore {wic} ((00:20:07 min)) these
are the 2, 2 equations this Xd dot is a represents a set of differential equations and Id equal
to gd Xd Vd represents the set of algebraic non-linear equation or non-linear algebraic
equations right. These are basically that represent our load flow equations this represents
our a set of differential equations okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 20:43)

Therefore definition of these terms are Xd is a state vector of individual device Xd is the
state vector of individual device Id is R and I components of current injection from the
device into the network Id is R and I components of current injection from the device into
the network okay, Vd is R and I components of bus voltages and therefore, if I write
down then Id this, this is a current will be written as we can write down this as IdR, IdI that
is the real and imaginary component this forms a this is a small is a vector of 2 is a2
dimensional vector with real part and imaginary part.

## (Refer Slide Time: 22:41)

Similarly, Vd is VdR and VdI okay now all these differential equations we can assemble
together that is you start with say Xd1, Xd2, Xd3 up to say Xd depending upon all these
dynamic devices all the devices which are representing by a set of differential equations,
you just put together, so that then you can write down this equation in the form X dot
equal to f of xV.
Now this x here is is the total state vector the which represents the state vectors for
individual devices put together right that is Xd1, Xd2, Xd3 they are all put together to form
the complete state vector V, V is a bus voltage vector bus voltage vector right that is if
you have n bus system right then these voltages are V1, V2, Vn and V1 will have 2
components real and imaginary like that set of algebraic equations.

Now we all know actually that the current which is injected at any particular bus current
injection at a particular bus is function of all the state variables and the network voltages
right that is you take any 1 particular bus it will depend upon the state vector of the
system and the voltage vector of the buses that is the bus voltage vector therefore we can
write down this I as x of V it means we take Id1, Id2 up to the last bus and then we form a
vector which is called as I okay, bus current vector and this can be this is a function of the
state variables and voltages and the bus injections can be written in the form of Y Y bus
matrix YN, I am putting this N here this is Y this is the this is the matrix of the network
admittance matrix of the network that is YN into V, YN into V equal to bus current vector
okay and now we are writing this specifically to emphasize that this bus current vector is
function of the state state vector and the bus voltage vector this is what is the meaning of
this terminology. Is it clear?

## (Refer Slide Time: 26:01)

Therefore the movement we have written the model in this form that is X dot is equal to f
of x, V and I of x V equal to YN V right, this is the complete model representing the
differential algebraic equations okay. Now what is known when we start solving this
problem what is known to us is that at time t equal to 0, t t equal to 0 we know that state
vector x is so much similarly the voltage vector is so much that is we know at time t
equal to 0 the initial conditions so that xo and Vo are known to us. We start solving the
problem and that definition that x is the state vector of the system, V is the bus voltage
vector, I is the current injection vector they are all standard definitions.
(Refer Slide Time: 26:34)

Now for solving this differential algebraic equations, we will discuss 2 techniques, 1 is
called partitioned solution with explicit integration, partitioned solution with explicit
integration another is a simultaneously with implicit integration that is when
I say that we use explicit integration method to solve the differential equations right. The
meaning here is that you apply any of the explicit integration technique okay and solve
this differential equations solve this algebraic equations and you do it iteratively that is
you solve this differential equation, you solve the algebraic equation then you can keep
on repeating actually this process till you get the final solution.

Now here suppose the system is operating in the steady state, okay this is a steady state
condition and if say at a particular bus a fault occurs right then at t equal to 0, t equal to 0
that is at the just at the inception of fault, whether this state vector x will change
instantaneously or not just tell me that is at t equal to 0, a fault occurs that is we say that
the at the inception of fault at the instant of occurrence of fault m will the will the state
state vector or the state variables vary instantaneously, the answer is no.

You are correct that so far the state variables are concerned they cannot change
instantaneously now let us look at the network variables can this the bus voltages change
instantaneously therefore whenever whenever actually the fault occurs right, we know
before the occurrence of fault the pre-disturbance condition is xoVo and the movement the
fault occurs right at that particular instant of time the network variables that is the
network voltages will suddenly change from 1 value to the other value while the state
variables will remain at the same value that is I can say xo at x at t equal to 0 minus will
be same as x at t equal to 0 plus right because normally we represent this type of thing
that is the state vector at x at t equal to 0 minus equal to x equal to t equal to 0 plus
this 0 minus stands for just before the occurrence of fault and 0 plus represent the just
after the occurrence of fault, in fact there is a no difference between these 2 time stands
right and these 2 will remain equal so far the solution is concerned and therefore
whenever you start solving this equation the first step will be that the at the movement the
fault has occurred.

## (Refer Slide Time: 29:31)

You solve this equation and find out find out at next time stand what are the voltages x
will remain same here also when you solve this equation right the x is not going to
change therefore considering the x what is known to you, you find out the next time step
what will be the voltages using this time step we can now solve this equation to find out
the next value for the state vector x at t equal to t1 that is delta t let us say.

## (Refer Slide Time: 31:27)

Now depending upon what technique we use, now suppose we use actually the I am just
putting the 4th order of Runge-Kutta technique okay. Now in the 4th order Runge-Kutta
technique we calculate this 4 coefficients k1, k2, k3, k4 these constants and then we find
we find the weighted average to find the change in change in state this is what is the
approach therefore when you apply the 4th order Runge-Kutta technique then in first
instance you you you start with this find out the voltages voltages at time, your t equal t1
equal to say delta t when we start from initial condition using this information you solve
this equation and obtain k1 right. Then using this values of k1 which will which has the
new value of x and V using this new value of x and V you can find out k2 right. Then
using this new with this value of k2 and so 1 you can again solve these equations.

Therefore you may have to solve in each step right the the algebraic equations a number
of times therefore depending upon what technique we use actually these equations have
to be solved so that we get more accurate results this is what is the further when we use
the word partition the meaning here is that whenever you solve these equations this
quantity is known to you because x dot will be evaluated in terms of known quantities,
explicit method meaning meaning is that the the function f of xV right that is the basically
represent the derivatives will be evaluated in terms of the quantities at the previous step
that is if I want to know the value of x at t equal to tn plus 1 then x, the xn plus 1 is
obtained in terms of xn right that is this is what is the concept of xn and therefore basically
these equations are all decoupled equations. I can write down actually x1 dot can be
computed because everything is known on the right hand side.

## (Refer Slide Time: 34:45)

Therefore one way of is that you decouple all the equations solve one by one right and
another way is that you you partition these equations ah device wise that is you have the
generator 1, generator 2, generator 3 and solve the equations device wise that is why they
use the word partitioning. Now the the drawback of this explicit integration method is the
possibility of numerical instability if you take a time step which is large enough then we
cannot rule out the possibility of numerical integration and to avoid avoid this numerical
instability we have to use a small time step for solution okay and therefore 1 can use
another technique that is we use simultaneous solution with implicit integration.

Now we know that when we use implicit integration, implicit implicit integration method
for solving these equations right then then the numerically this is a stable technique.
Although, the error will depend upon or accuracy will depend upon the length or or the
length of the time step but numerically it is going to be a stable right that is what we have
already established, let us see how we the simultaneous.

## (Refer Slide Time: 35:42)

Now in simultaneous the first step will be you apply the trapezoidal rule of integration
apply trapezoidal rule of integration to the set of differential equation that is to this
equation x dot equal to f of XV I apply the trapezoidal rule of integration and let us write
down actually if I apply the trapezoidal rule of integration what will be this.

I can write down xn plus 1 minus xn this will be equal to delta t by 2 f of x n there is
function of V also x of xn Vn plus f of xn plus 1 minus not minus plus ,I am sorry not
minus plus x of n plus 1, V of n plus this is what the solution that is if you take this
equation x of n the x dot when equal to f of XV right then when I apply the trapezoidal
rule of integration then in the time step t equal to tn 2, t equal to tn plus 1 right this is what
is the my formula therefore now I can write down xn plus 1 equal to x n plus this quantity
right.

This is what we have written here as xn plus 1 equal to xn plus delta by delta t by 2 f of xn
Vn plus f of xn plus 1 Vn plus 1 right this is the this is the step or this is the equation
obtained by applying the trapezoidal rule of integration, people have to be very clearly
understand how to apply it. Now here in this on this right hand side right the these are all
non-linear function of xn and Vn okay.

## (Refer Slide Time: 38:27)

We can write down our algebraic equation our algebraic equation we can write down I, I
as a function of xn plus 1, Vn plus 1 equal to YN V of n plus 1 that is what we are doing is
that corresponding to time tn plus 1 we are writing that current is function of xn plus 1, Vn
plus 1 and voltage is Vn plus 1 right therefore our equation I equal to Y and V are simply
substituting the values computed at time t equal to n plus tn plus 1 okay.
Therefore these we have this is 1 set of equations okay which are written from the
algebraic equation and this is another set of equations the algebraic equation obtained
from the differential equation right. Now what we can do here is in this expression, in this
expression suppose suppose actually the I have obtained a solution let us say I have
obtained a solution if I substitute here x equal to n plus 1 and V equal to Vn and V equal
to Vn plus 1 similarly x equal to xn and x equal to xn plus 1 that is you substitute right it
means this quantity should be equal to this 1 this will satisfy right but in case actually in
case our guess for the next step is not correct. You will find actually that this will not be
equal to this 1 right.

Therefore if I now write now if I now write down that xn plus 1 minus xn minus this term
and denote this by a function okay therefore when I get the solution that function should
be equal to 0 therefore here we are defining a function F of xn plus 1 Vn plus 1 as xn plus
1 minus xn minus delta t by 2, f of xn plus Vn plus f of xn Vn that is this whole term whole
term I defined by a function right.

Therefore we can say that in this function when you write down which is on the right
hand side if you see right xn is known to you, Vn is known to you right therefore the
unknowns are only xn plus 1 and Vn plus 1 similarly, if you see this equation if I take this
{qua} ((00:41:21 min)) this this term minus this term and if this difference I defined by
another function right when I obtain the solution that function should also become 0
right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 41:40)

Therefore the the another function which you define is written here as G of x n plus 1 Vn
plus 1 as YN Vn minus 1 not Vn plus 1 minus minus I of xn plus 1 Vn plus 1 right therefore
you define these 2 functions, 1 function is obtained from the form the algebraic equations
obtained from by applying the trapezoidal rule of integration, another function obtained
from the network equation okay and at solution when I get the solution this function F, x
of n plus 1, V of n plus 1 right should become 0 G, x of n plus 1, V of n plus 1 should be
0 means these 2 functions should ultimately become 0 when I get the complete solution is
it clear these steps.

Now if you have understood this step then next step you can tell how to how to solve
these algebraic nonlinear algebraic equations just tell me how will you solve these non-
linear algebraic equations. We can apply any technique any technique, iterative technique
which is used for solving a set of non-linear algebraic equation. You can apply you can
apply Newton-Raphson technique or any other technique actually which is applicable
okay therefore we will just write down few equations to solve this a set of nonlinear
algebraic equation using Newton-Raphson techniques if you apply Newton-Raphson
technique, now here when you apply the Newton-Raphson technique our variables which
we want to compute will be x of n plus okay.

Now when you are applying the Newton-Raphson technique this is the iterative technique
and we will represent the {intera} ((00:43:59 min)) iteration count by a ah by a by a
number say k iteration count is denoted by k okay and these iteration counts actually
what we do is that that we start with k th iteration find out the value at k plus 1 th
iteration then using k plus 1 th iteration value go for k plus twelfth iteration and so on
right. Generally if you apply Newton-Raphson technique you will get the solution in 2, 3
iterations right.

## (Refer Slide Time: 44:35)

So therefore when you apply this what we really do is we write down, we write down this
xn plus 1 at k plus 1 th iteration. Our value we want to find out this x at n plus 1, Vn plus 1
at k plus 1 th iteration will be written as the values corresponding to the previous iteration
that is at k th iteration, x of n plus 1 at k, V of n plus at k plus these changes the change is
called delta xn plus 1 k delta Vn plus 1 k right these are the increments which you will get
in each step okay. Now this is what is the way where we we use any iterative method.
Now these increments can be obtained by applying the Newton-Raphson technique
suppose when you apply the Newton-Raphson technique these increments can be
obtained by solving these equations.

## (Refer Slide Time: 45:44)

Here, what exactly has given is the we have applied the Taylor series expansion and
considered only the first order terms because in the Newton-Raphson technique we do
consider only the first order terms therefore here we can write down minus F of xn plus 1
k, V of n plus 1 k similarly, minus G of xn plus 1 k, V of n plus k equal to Jacobian, this
is the Jacobian where you find out the partial derivative of F with respect to x partial
derivative of F with respect to V because our vector is now comprising x and V unknown
vector right is comprising x and V.

Therefore we are getting first the partial derivatives with respect to with respect to x and
partial derivative with respect to V that is you will get the terms will be suppose this F
will have number of terms F1, F2, Fn right and x depending upon the number right
therefore this will be a this is a matrix this is also a matrix right therefore similarly delta
G by delta x delta G delta V.

Now this Jacobian the size of the Jacobian will depend upon the number of the state
variables and number of network variables and so far the network variables are concerned
we are considering them as reals that is the real part and imaginary part to form vector V
okay then that this is what we normally do in the Newton-Raphson technique again we
consider the real part and imaginary part and using this you find out this correction vector
that is when you just invert this matrix multiply with this you will get the correction
vector and this correction vector when you add to the previous values you will get the
new values right.
(Refer Slide Time: 48:13)

Now in fact if you when when 1 carefully examines the uh Jacobian right then this
Jacobian can be written in the form of AD, BD, CD, YN plus YD that is when you obtain
this Jacobian of the system then you can look actually as it has it comprises of 4 matrices
AD, BD, CD and YN plus D the YN is the network matrix and this AB, AD, BD, CD and YD
are in this form.

## (Refer Slide Time: 48:48)

This AD will be diagonal matrix where on this diagonal in each diagonal we have on each
diagonal we have the ah block, it is the block diagonal you can call it actually right it is a
matrix Ad1 is a matrix, Ad2 is a matrix, Adn is also a matrix BD is written as Bd1, Bd2, Bdm.
(Refer Slide Time: 49:17)

Similarly this YD is written as Yd1, Yd2, Ydm basically this YD when you write down right
this will be corresponding to the ah static load models. Okay and CD equal to Cd1, Cd2 up
to Cdm. This is the way 1 can solve the differential algebraic equations applying the
implicit rule of integration okay.

Now you can understand here understand here that when you are applying this implicit
rule of integration this the the non-linear algebraic equations are solved solved during
each time step once you have completed 1 time step and you go to the next step the same
thing has to be repeated because our time steps are say delta t this starting from to to t1, t1
to t2, t2, tn and each time step right the the non-linear equations which you obtained have
to be solved.

Now only 1 small which I wanted to tell is that since we are solving a transient stability
problem right and during this solution we will come across switching phenomena where a
fault will occur fault will be cleared and so on and therefore the problem is therefore how
to simulate the fault conditions. Now whenever you consider actually a 3 phase fault in
the system then the movement the 3 phase fault occurs the voltage of the bus at which the
3 phase occurs reduces to 0 and therefore to simulate this 0 condition, one way is that you
connect between the faulted bus and the reference bus a large value of conductance
between the faulted bus and the reference bus you connect a large value of conductance.

If you connect a large conductance then the the impedance connected is very small and
therefore the voltage of that bus will become 0 right. Therefore without disturbing our Y
bus matrix or anything the simplest way to incorporate the the fault will be to connect a
large admittance normally it is of the order of 10 to the power 6 right. So that voltage at
that bus becomes 0 that is simulated in case it is a unbalanced fault right we will find out
the fault shunt right depending upon the type of fault and that fault shunt will be
connected between the faulted bus and the network and accordingly accordingly the self
admittance of that particular bus will change that is what is to be changed.

When the fault is cleared cleared and if you have removed 1 particular line to clear the
fault right then the admittance matrix will be appropriately changed by modifying the
mutual admittance and the self admittance terms correspondingly. With this let me
conclude today that we have discussed how to simulate the dynamic response of the
system as a whole.

We have discussed the 2 different approaches, one we call actually the where we use the
explicit explicit integration methods for solving the differential equations or another
technique which we have discussed is where we use the implicit integration method,
where the differential algebraic equations are simultaneously solved. Thank you!
Power System Dynamics
Prof. M. L. Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 28
Dynamic Equivalents for Large Scale Systems

Friends, today we will study dynamic equivalents for large scale systems. We know that the
stability studies is one of the most fundamental and important study to be performed for system
expansion planning for design of the system, for operation and control also.

Now to solve actually the stability problem what is to be done is that we have to develop the
model of the system and then solve these equations using numerical techniques. Further, we
require actually large number of stability studies to be performed and since there is no analytical
you can explicit solution when has to resort to the numerical techniques.

Now this numerical techniques take lot of time to obtain the solution. Further the size of the
system has become very large and therefore when the size of the system becomes very large we
will have a mathematical model of very large dimension or very high dimension and therefore
that two problems one is actually that the dimension of the mathematical model of the system
another is the time which is required by using the numerical techniques and in practical
situation, in practical situation it is practically impossible to represent the entire system in detail
and therefore there is a necessity to to resort to some equivalency.

Now here the when you talk about the equivalencing the basic philosophy is something like this
that whenever a disturbance occur in a particular portion of the system then the that portion of
the system which is very close to the disturbance is severely affected, while the system which is
away from the disturbance disturbance is is lesser affected right and the system which is very far
away may have very little