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Reading and Comprehension Questions for Chapter 9

1. This is a correct statement of a statistical hypothesis: H 0 : x 10 .

True False

False an hypothesis involves one or more parameters of a distribution, and the sample
mean is not a parameter.

2. A type I error occurs if the null hypothesis is rejected when it is actually true.

True False

True

3. A type II error occurs if we fail to reject the null hypothesis when it is false.

True False

True

4. The probability of type II error increases if the difference between the hypothesize
value of the parameter increases, assuming that the sample size and other parameters do
not change.

True False

False the probability of type II error will decrease if the difference between the
hypothesized value of the parameter increases, assuming that the sample size and other
parameters do not change.

5. In testing a statistical hypothesis about the mean of a distributing, the probability of


type II error decreases if sample size increases, assuming that the true value of the mean
and other parameters do not change.

True False

True

6. The power of a statistical test is 1 Probability(type II error).

True False

True

7. Rejecting a null hypothesis is always a weak conclusion.


True False

False - rejecting the null hypothesis is always a strong conclusion because we can control
the probability of incorrectly rejecting this hypothesis (type I error). See page 299.

8. The P-value is the smallest level of significance that would lead to rejection of the null
hypothesis.

True False

True see page 300.

9. If the P-value for a certain hypothesis test is 0.0125, we can say that the null
hypothesis is rejected at the level of significance 0.01.

True False

False the null hypothesis could be rejected at any level of significance greater tan or
equal to 0.0125. See Section 9-1.4.

10. Suppose that you are testing the following hypotheses: H 0 : 10, H 0 : 10. A
95% CI on the mean is 11 13 . Select the correct answer from the following:

a. The null hypothesis cannot be rejected at the five percent level of significance.
b. The null hypothesis can be rejected at the five percent level of significance.
c. The null hypothesis can be rejected at the one percent level of significance.
c. No conclusion about the null hypothesis can be drawn.

Answer the correct choice is b. See section 9-1.5 page 301.

11. Statistical significance always implies practical significance.

True False

False see page 302.

12. Suppose that you are testing the following hypotheses: H 0 : 10, H 0 : 10. If the
null hypothesis is rejected at the one percent level of significance, what statement can
you make about the CI on the mean?

a. 9 13
b. The lower bound of a 95% one-sided CI on the mean exceeds zero.
c. The lower bound of a 95% one-sided CI on the mean exceeds 10.
d. 10 15
e. No statement can be made.

Answer b. The connection between CIs and hypothesis tests is discussed on page 301.

13. You are testing H 0 : 10, H 0 : 10 with known standard deviation. The sample
size is n = 15, the test statistic value is z0 = 2.45, and the P-value is 0.0143. If the value
of the test statistic had been 2.00 the P-value would have been larger.

True False

False because the calculated value of the test statistic is smaller, the P-value must be
smaller. See page 308.

14. Suppose that you are testing a hypothesis on the mean of a normal distribution and
are interested in determining the appropriate sample size. Consider the following
display:

Power and Sample Size

1-Sample Z Test

Testing mean = null (versus not = null)


Calculating power for mean = null + difference
Alpha = 0.05 Assumed standard deviation = 3

Sample
Difference Size Power
2 10 0.558940

What would happen to the power of the test if the sample size was increased to 20?

a. Power would increase


b. Power would decrease
c. Power would not change
d. Results are not predictable

Answer a. Power increases with an increase in sample size.

15. Consider the information in question 14. If the standard deviation were smaller than
3, the power would be larger.

True False

True Remember that Power = 1 Probability(type II error).

16. If the population standard deviation is unknown, the test statistic for
H 0 : 10, H 0 : 10 would be compared to the chi-square distribution.
True False

False the test statistic is compared to the t-distribution.

17. You are testing H 0 : 10, H 0 : 10 with unknown standard deviation and a sample
size of n = 15. The computed value of the test statistic is t0 = 2.45. Because
t0.01,14 2.625 we can say that the null hypothesis can be rejected at the 0.01 level of
significance.

True False

False t0 would have to exceed to 2.625 to reject the null hypothesis at the 0.01 level.

18. Reconsider question 17. Because t0.05,14 1.76, t0.025,14 2.148, and t0.01,14 2.625 we
can say that the P-value for this test is:

a. P > 0.05
b. 0.05 > P > 0.025
c. 0.025 > P > 0.01

Answer c. The computed value of the test statistic is between the 0.025 and 0.01
percentage points of the t distribution.

19. Hypothesis tests on the variance of a normal distribution refer the test statistic to a
chi-square distribution.

True False

True

20. Tests of hypothesis on a proportion use the normal approximation to the binomial
distribution.

True False

True

21. A chi-square test for goodness-of-fit can be used instead of probability plotting to
determine if a particular distribution adequately describes the population from which a
sample was drawn.

True False

True
22. A contingency table is a tabular arrangement of data that have been classified
according to two criteria.

True False

True

23. A contingency table can be used to test for independence between the two variables of
classification when all of the observations are selected from a single population.

True False

True

24. Nonparametric or distribution-free statistical procedures make no assumptions about


the form of the underlying distribution other than it is continuous.

True False

True

25. The sign test is used to test hypotheses about the median of a continuous distribution.

True False

True