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sidewalks induced by vertical movement

B. Rajani and C. Zhan

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

Abstract: This paper examines different numerical methods to estimate flexural strain from surface elevation

measurements on concrete sidewalks. Surface elevations, along a typical concrete sidewalk cross section, were

monitored on a monthly basis as part of a study to determine the cracking mechanism of concrete sidewalks. These

measurements were carried out in Calgary, Edmonton, and Camrose, Alberta, between 1993 and mid-1995. Finite

difference, cubic spline, polynomial fit, and Fourier series methods of analyses are described for an indirect estimation

of flexural strains in sidewalks. The sensitivity of these methods to measurement error is discussed. The Fourier series

method is found to be the best procedure to analyse sidewalk surface elevation data for flexural strains estimates. The

numerical methods to indirectly determine strain are best suited for those circumstances where installation of strain

gauges is difficult, expensive, or impossible.

Rsum : Cet article examine diffrentes mthodes numriques pour estimer la contrainte de flxion daprs des

mesures dlvations de surfaces de trottoirs en bton. Le long dune coupe transversale dun trottoir en bton typique,

des lvataions de surfaces ont t mesures mensuellement pour contribuer une tude visant dterminer le

mechanisme de fissuration de trottoires en bton. Ces mesures ont t prises Calgary, Edmonton et Camrose de 1993

mi-1995. Les mthodes danalyses de diffrences finies, de spline cubique, de ajustement polynomial et de sries de

For personal use only.

Fourier sont dcrites pour une estimation indirecte de tensions de flxion dans les trottoirs. La sensibilit de ces

mthodes des erreures de mesures est discute. Il a t trouv que la mthode de sries de Fourrier tait la meilleure

procdure pour analyser des donnes dlevation de surface dun trottoir pour estimer les tensions de flxion. Les

mthodes numriques pour dterminer la tension indirectement sont le plus appropries lorsque linstallation de gauge

de tension est difficile, coteuse ou impossible.

The estimated average service life of sidewalks is 20 years,

Premature damage to Canadian municipal infrastructure but sidewalks in some western Canadian cities fail prema-

amounts to a considerable capital expenditure and a subse- turely and some as soon as 15 years after construction. In

quent loss of revenue that could be put to use elsewhere. various cities in the Prairie Provinces, major evidence of

One such problem is cracked concrete sidewalks in some of damage to the sidewalk appears in the form of longitudinal

the major Canadian cities and particularly in the Prairie cracks along the centre of the sidewalk. Longitudinal cracks

Provinces. This problem has become acute recently and con- can extend several tens of metres within a single city block.

sequently regional municipalities are spending increasing These cracks usually occur at the centre of the sidewalk and

amounts of money on the repair or replacement of side- can extend through several expansion (or often called cut)

walks. Any significant improvement in the service life of joints before stopping abruptly. If the cracks do not open up,

sidewalks would reduce capital cost outlays and would make

and if no faulting develops along these longitudinal cracks,

budgets available for other more pressing needs.

they do not pose a safety hazard. However, this type of

Rajani and Zhan (1997) have described the extent of and

crack normally opens up with time and it is not uncommon

the form of damage to sidewalks in Canada. It is estimated

to observe faulting in the order of 10 mm.

that the cities need to replace between 15% and 30% ($1.5

Concrete sidewalks are essentially slabs-on-grade except

that their typical widths are between 1.2 and 1.5 m. The be-

Received May 12, 1998. haviour of sidewalks is dependent on the ongoing interaction

Revised manuscript accepted December 3, 1998.

with the soil on which it rests. Thus, the behaviour of side-

B. Rajani and C. Zhan. Institute for Research in walks is best understood by studying the corresponding soil

Construction, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, structure interaction rather than the individual aspects of the

ON K1A 0R6, Canada. structural concrete slab or the soil characteristics.

Written discussion of this article is welcomed and will be The Institute for Research in Construction of the National

received by the Editor until October 31, 1999 (address inside Research Council Canada initiated a project in collaboration

front cover). with the cities of Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Regina, Edmonton,

Rajani and Zhan 313

Calgary, and Camrose to identify the underlying mecha- paint or survey pins to ensure that successive elevations

nisms that lead to longitudinal cracks in sidewalks. One of were always measured at the same points. It is estimated

the tasks within this project was to observe and analyse the that the surface elevation measurements can have an error of

behaviour of sidewalks by taking regular surface elevation 1 mm. The implications of these measurement errors will

measurements. This paper describes the numerical methods be discussed later. These data are analysed and discussed in

used to obtain indirect estimates of sidewalk rigid body this paper.

movements and flexural strain in concrete sidewalks from The data on vertical surface elevations need to be pro-

the surface elevation measurements. The merits of each cessed appropriately to gain an insight into the modes of

method are discussed in relation to its sensitivity to mea- deformation and to obtain indirect estimates of flexural

surement errors and the likely behaviour of the concrete (bending) strains. As a first step, the nondamaging modes of

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

A concrete sidewalk slab is typically 150 mm thick and a from the total measured movements. The next step is to

common configuration of sidewalk construction is that the identify numerical methods that are best suited to obtain

distance between construction joints is marginally larger good estimates of flexural strain from differential vertical

than the sidewalk width. Older sidewalks consist of two movements. A number of methods can be used to analyse

components, a flat concrete slab of uniform thickness adja- the vertical movement of sidewalks, but not all methods are

cent to an L-shaped beam that forms the curb and gutter. well suited to analyse concrete sidewalks due to their sensi-

More recently, the preferred monolithic design is without tivity to measurement errors. In this paper, four possible

full-depth joints between the flat slab, curb, and gutter. Both methods, finite difference, cubic spline, polynomial fit, and

types of sidewalk are equally prone to cracks and there Fourier series methods, are evaluated to obtain estimates

seems no obvious benefit in terms of performance from ei- of flexural strains. Furthermore, sensitivity of these esti-

ther method of construction. mates to errors in survey measurements is discussed. Subse-

Initial damage to most concrete sidewalks appears as hair- quently, the most suitable method is identified and is used to

line cracks, and this occurrence is a confirmation that forces analyse the history of vertical movements for the sidewalks

acting on the concrete slab are large enough to induce at Calgary, Edmonton, and Camrose. Histories of rigid body

stresses that exceed the tensile strength of concrete. The movements and flexural strains are determined to assess their

For personal use only.

compressive strength of concrete used for sidewalks is 25 association with changes in climatic conditions.

35 MPa. It is well known that the tensile strength of con-

crete is limited and is usually in the range of 510% of the

compressive strength. The tensile strength of concrete is Methods of analysis

usually reflected through the minimum strain at which a What is an appropriate method to obtain good estimates of

crack develops in concrete. Estimates for tensile failure flexural strains? One method is to embed foil strain gauges

strain of concrete are quoted (Shaker and Kennedy 1991) in within the concrete slab and monitor the development of

the range of 200300 . Similarly, the flexural strain that strains with time. It is difficult to anticipate where the next

corresponds to crack initiation in concrete is estimated to be crack is likely to develop, making it difficult to place the

600700 . strain gauges. However, the sagging and hogging modes of

deformation discussed below suggest that the best options

Failure modes of concrete sidewalks are to place the strain gauges at the centre of the sidewalks.

An alternative approach is to estimate flexural strains from

Sidewalk damage occurs in one of three failure modes vertical movements of the concrete slab measured at regular

(Rajani and Zhan 1997): (i) sagging mode, where either the time intervals. In contrast, strain gauges can provide hourly

centre of the sidewalk has a larger thaw settlement than at data if so desired. However, the response of the sidewalk to

the edges, or instances where clays swell significantly at the climatic changes and to underlying soil is not so dynamic as

edges; (ii) hogging mode, where frost heave or upwards ver- to warrant measurement of surface elevations frequently.

tical movement due to swelling clays is greater at the centre The measurements analysed in this paper were taken

than at the edges; and (iii) tensile-shrinkage failure mode, monthly, although weekly surface elevations would probably

where nonuniform shrinkage of underlying soils induces ten- be ideal. Although this approach is indirect, it does avoid the

sion in the concrete sidewalk. One way to confirm the defor- installation and monitoring of strain gauges over an ex-

mation modes of sagging or hogging is to take vertical tended period of time and permits the monitoring of side-

surface elevation measurements in the transverse direction at walks at different locations with very little additional

regular time intervals. As discussed above, the vertical sur- resources. In this paper, several methods to determine flex-

face elevation measurements can also be used to obtain indi- ural strains from vertical surface elevation measurements are

rect estimates of flexural (bending) strains which are useful examined. Subsequently, the most suitable method is used to

to assess the impact of seasonal changes on the performance analyse the measurements from several cities.

of concrete sidewalks. The direction of the longitudinal cracks is well defined

Starting in August 1993, vertical surface elevation mea- and the major principal stress is known to be perpendicular

surements were taken monthly at two locations in Edmon- to the direction of the cracks. In many instances, it was ob-

ton, Calgary, and Camrose over a period of 2 years. These served that the longitudinal cracks follow in parallel with the

measurements were typically taken at approximately 150-mm curved sidewalk. Longitudinal cracks also stop at the ap-

intervals, with a minimum of six points across the width of proach of a driveway and later resume. These observations

the sidewalk. The points were permanently marked with emphasise the role of the kinematic and thermal boundary

314 Can. J. Civ. Eng. Vol. 26, 1999

Fig. 1. Components of vertical movement for a typical sidewalk slab: (a) observed vertical movement; (b) uniform or floatingrigid-

body movement; (c) tiltingrigid-body movement; (d) first mode; and (e) second mode.

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

For personal use only.

conditions in the behaviour of concrete sidewalks. Conse- stress-free boundary condition, even though the edge of the

quently, for analytical purposes, it suffices to refer only to sidewalk adjacent to the curb and gutter is likely to offer

the transverse section and to analyse the sidewalk in two di- limited restraint. In the present analysis, the concrete side-

mensions only. It is assumed that the sidewalk has a width walk is simplified as a straight beam of width 2b with a uni-

of 2b and it is cast stress free, except for any shrinkage form thickness d resting on a soil medium (Fig. 1a).

strains that may be induced as a result of curing. Further- The known variables for the analysis are the vertical ele-

more, both edges of the sidewalk are assumed to have a vations measured at the survey points at different times. It

Rajani and Zhan 315

is important to establish the position of the sidewalk Calculated uniform vertical movement and tilt can be tracked

which corresponds to zero or no strain, since flexural strains seasonally, since points on the surface of the sidewalks are

are determined from vertical movements. Thus, topographic surveyed periodically at monthly intervals. The significant

measurements should ideally commence immediately after portion of the vertical movement in the sidewalk is the

the sidewalk has been cast-in-place. While it is generally differential vertical movement, wd, and it can be evaluated

difficult to plan these events in practice, the sidewalks at from eqs. [1] and [2], i.e.,

Edmonton had just been replaced prior to the commence-

ment of the surface elevation surveys. Meanwhile, for the [5] wd = w (xr) (wo + xr)

other sidewalks, a close look at the monthly variations of

differential vertical movements indicates that the movements However, as discussed by Rajani and Zhan (1997), it is diffi-

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

from June to November are minimal. Consequently, the po- cult to attach significance to the differential vertical move-

sition of the sidewalk which corresponds to zero flexural ments in relation to the level of stress in the sidewalk.

strain is assumed to be the average position of the sidewalk Nevertheless, these movements can be used to obtain an es-

between July and October in the year the survey started. In timate of curvatures and hence of flexural (bending) strains.

this paper, the vertical movement is referred to as the differ-

ence between the measured elevations and the average ele- Analysis of flexural strain

vations of the sidewalk in summer. Using the coordinate system given in Fig. 1, the flexural

strain b at the top and bottom fibres of a concrete sidewalk

Analysis of rigid-body and differential movements can be calculated from

During the life of a sidewalk, the underlying soil under-

goes frost-heave, thawing, swelling, consolidation, and d 2w

shrinking processes which subject the sidewalk to primarily [6] b =

2 x 2

vertical movements. During these movements there is con-

tinuous soilstructure interaction between the soil and the where d is the thickness of the concrete sidewalk slab and

concrete sidewalk slab. The total vertical movement (w) of a positive strain corresponds to tension. In accordance with

concrete sidewalk of width 2b can be broken down into Eulers beam bending theory, the second term in eq. [6] is

For personal use only.

three components: two rigid-body modes (uniform or float- commonly referred to as curvature. Since the concrete side-

ing vertical movement and tilt, Figs. 1b and 1c), and differ- walk is treated as a beam, tension always coexists with com-

ential vertical movements: pression. The flexural strain discussed in the analyses refers

[1] w (x) = wo + x + wd to the flexural strain at the bottom surface of the sidewalk. It

is a challenge to calculate the curvature from vertical move-

where wo is the first rigid-body mode uniform vertical ments measured at discrete points, since a numerical differ-

movement, and the second rigid-body movement is tilt (). ential procedure is involved. Spurious results can be

The differential vertical movement, wd, contributes to the generated even if only minor errors are present in survey

buildup of stress which ultimately damages or cracks the measurements. It is also tempting to measure vertical eleva-

sidewalk. The uniform vertical movement and tilt can be de- tions at as many survey points as possible but the inclusion

termined following the usual minimization procedure of of more points introduces higher frequency components of

least squares (Hildebrand 1956). If the measured vertical displacement, which may not necessarily be present in prac-

movement is represented by w(x), then the following func- tice.

tion needs to be minimized: Two options are available to estimate the curvature and

hence flexural strains from vertical movements measured at

NP discrete points. The first option is a nonsmoothing procedure

[2] [w (xr ) wo xr ] 2 = minimum that fits a function that obligingly passes through the mea-

r =1 sured vertical movements. The other option is to fit a func-

tion that minimizes the error between the measured vertical

where xr is the coordinate of the survey point, and NP is the movements and the function of choice. This procedure, re-

number of survey points along a section. The components of ferred to as a smoothing procedure, is accomplished here by

the rigid-body movements of uniform vertical movement the application of a high degree polynomial curve fit and

and tilt are given by Fourier series. Both nonsmoothing and smoothing proce-

NP dures are discussed together with the influence of errors in

w (xr )

1

[3] wo = measurement on the estimates of flexural strain. Only essen-

NP r =1 tial mathematical details are presented in this paper but com-

plete information can be found in well-known texts such as

and that of Hildebrand (1956).

NP NP The finite difference method is a nonsmoothing procedure

xrw (xr ) w o xr based on a piece-wise (local) fit of a quadratic function be-

tween two consecutive points. It permits the estimation of

[4] = r =1 r =1

NP curvature (or the second derivative of vertical movement) at

xr2 point i (Fig. 1) in terms of vertical movements using the fol-

r =1 lowing equation:

316 Can. J. Civ. Eng. Vol. 26, 1999

2w (w i +1 w i)hi (w i w i 1)hi 1 It is evident that both the polynomial fit and the Fourier

[7] x 2 = (hi + hi 1)2 series automatically incorporate the rigid-body modes of

i movement in the analysis. The extractions of the rigid-body

modes of movement for the finite difference and the cubic

where wi1, wi, and wi+1 are the corresponding vertical move- spline methods have to be done independently, e.g., using

ments at points i 1, i, and i + 1, respectively; and hi1 and eqs. [3] and [4].

hi are the distances between points i 1 and i and between

points i and i + 1, respectively.

Sensitivity analysis of the four methods

An alternative nonsmoothing procedure is to fit a cubic

spline between two consecutive points and ensure continuity Numerical sensitivity of nonsmoothing and smoothing

of curvatures. The vertical movement between two adjacent

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

procedures

points is given by The estimated flexural strains from the analysis of vertical

movements using the nonsmoothing and smoothing proce-

[8] w e (x) = w ie i + w ie+1i +1+ ei i + ei i +1 dures can be dramatically different. The differences arise be-

cause the nonsmoothing procedures oblige the curve fits to

where w ie and w ie+1 are the measured vertical movements at

pass through all the data points. Therefore, these procedures

points i and i + 1 of element e, respectively; ei and ei +1 are

ensure that curve fits best locally (i.e., depends on neigh-

the corresponding first derivatives; and i , i+1, i , and i+1

bouring data points) rather than globally. These procedures

are the Hermite cubic functions (Reddy 1993). In finite ele-

ensure that estimates of flexural strain obtained as the sec-

ment terminology, the element e is the beam; w ie , w ie+1, ei ,

ond derivatives of the curve fit lead to high strains because

and ei +1 are the nodal degrees of freedom (vertical and rota-

the curve fits meet the local boundary conditions. In the

tional, respectively); and i , i+1, i , and i+1 are the shape

smoothing procedures, it is tempting to increase the number

functions. The internal degrees of freedom are the unknowns

of terms in the polynomial or Fourier series for a better esti-

in a typical finite element problem, but the unknowns in the

mate of flexural strains. The increase in the number of terms

present application are the rotational degrees of freedom (ei

may not always be required because the inclusion of more

and ei +1). A system of linear equations is established by im-

terms means additional modes of deformation (Figs. 1d, 1e)

posing the following conditions: (i) the second derivative is

For personal use only.

continuous at the internal points, and (ii) curvatures at both

structure under consideration.

ends of the sidewalk are zero, i.e., no flexural stress. The

flexural strain at any point along the sidewalk can be calcu- A typical set of vertical surface elevation measurements

lated using eqs. [6] and [8] once the rotational degrees of (Fig. 2) taken at a sidewalk in Edmonton on February 1994

freedom at each point are determined. are analysed using the nonsmoothing and smoothing proce-

dures to illustrate the numerical sensitivities discussed above.

A polynomial function can be used to fit the measured

In addition, Fig. 2 shows the differential vertical movement

vertical movements:

calculated using eq. [5] so that it can be related to calculated

N strains in Figs. 35. The measured surface elevations and

[9] w (x) = a i x i 1 differential vertical movement have been connected together

i =1 with cubic splines in Fig. 2. Figure 3 shows the similarity in

the variations of the flexural strains obtained using the

where N 1 is the degree of the polynomial function. The nonsmoothing procedures of finite difference and cubic

method smoothes the fit of the polynomial, since the un- spline. Estimates of flexural strains from the cubic spline fit

known coefficients ai (i = 1, ..., N) are determined by apply- are consistently higher than those obtained with finite differ-

ing the least-squares procedure to minimize the errors ence. The variations in flexural strains across the width of

between the function and the discrete measured movements. the sidewalk are very dramatic and are unlikely to corre-

Subsequently, the flexural strain at any point along the side- spond to real behaviour. The corresponding analyses with

walk is determined from eq. [6] by differentiating the func- the smoothing procedures of polynomial and Fourier series

tion eq. [9]. lead to estimates of flexural strain as shown in Figs. 4 and 5.

Another practical alternative is to use specific terms of the It is also to be noted that the flexural strains obtained with

Fourier series which smooth the measured vertical move- the nonsmoothing procedures are an order of magnitude

ments. Sine terms are most appropriate, since boundary con- higher than those obtained with the smoothing procedures.

ditions are automatically met: This response illustrates the fact that numerical differentia-

N tion based on local data can produce spurious results.

i(x + b)

[10] w (x) = w o + x + ci sin The agreement of the estimates from the two smoothing

i =1 2b procedures implies that both procedures capture the same

mode of deformation. This example clearly shows that the

where wo and are the first and second modes of rigid-body inclusion of additional terms in the series excites additional

movement described in eq. [1]. These modes of rigid-body modes of deformation that may not reflect reality. It is true

movement and the unknown coefficients, ci (i = 1, ..., N), are that the use of many terms is preferred if the only intent is to

determined using the least-squares procedure; N is the num- obtain a solution that matches the measured vertical move-

ber of sine function terms. The flexural strain at any point ments. However, calculation of flexural strains involves the

along the sidewalk is determined from eq. [6] by differenti- second derivative of the displacement function that satisfies

ating the function given in eq. [10]. given kinematic boundary conditions. It is the second step in

Rajani and Zhan 317

Fig. 2. Typical set of vertical surface elevation measurements taken at a sidewalk in Edmonton.

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For personal use only.

Fig. 3. Comparison of flexural strains obtained with finite difference and cubic spline methods.

the procedures that leads to spurious strains. The second de- half the number of elevation measurement points to avoid

rivative of eq. [10] will lead to a summation of the sine se- the introduction of spurious strains.

ries where each term has a factor of ci(i/2b)2. Therefore,

even though ci may be small, i2 becomes large as i increases. Sensitivity to measurement errors

Numerical tests on typical data were conducted with a vary- Field measurement errors are bound to occur in practice.

ing number of Fourier terms. It was observed that in general Therefore, there is a need to know what is the likely impact

the number of terms in the Fourier series should be less than of these errors in strain estimates determined with the appli-

318 Can. J. Civ. Eng. Vol. 26, 1999

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

For personal use only.

ation of the four methods. A profile of expected vertical where w(x) is the vertical movement, b is the half width of

movements for a sidewalk of 1.5 m width and 150 mm the sidewalk, and x is the coordinate as shown in Fig. 1.

thickness was assumed to follow the expression: For the sake of this exercise, it is assumed that the surface

elevation measurements generated by eq. [11] are taken at

five equally spaced points across the width of the sidewalk.

(x + b)

[11] w (x) = 5 sin The measurement error in the vertical movement at the cen-

2b tre of the sidewalk is arbitrarily set to 1 mm higher than the

Rajani and Zhan 319

Table 1. Vertical movements of the sidewalk for both expected series methods are best suited to estimate the seasonal varia-

and error-prone generated surface elevation measurements. tions of flexural strains. In the subsequent discussions only

one term in the Fourier series method is used to estimate the

Survey Location of Expected Error-prone

flexural strains in the sidewalk, since it is unlikely that a

point point from surface generated surface

stiff structural member such a narrow concrete sidewalk is

number centre (mm) elevation (mm) elevation (mm)

able to deform higher than in the first mode. Furthermore, it

1 750 0.0 0.0 is noted that most longitudinal cracks occur within the mid-

2 375 3.535 3.535 dle third of the concrete slab width which concurs with the

3 0 5.0 6.0 fact that the maximum strain response obtained with these

4 375 3.535 3.535 methods is also in this region of the sidewalk slab.

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

Analysis of sidewalk vertical movements

actual elevation to produce the so-called error-prone gen- The analysis of the data on vertical movement of side-

erated surface elevations. The city surveyors indicated that walks at Edmonton, Calgary, and Camrose was previously

the expected error in the surface elevation measurement is analysed and discussed by Rajani and Zhan (1997). In this

1 mm. Table 1 shows expected and error-prone generated paper analysis of the data from only one particular sidewalk

surface elevation measurements at the survey points. (62 Avenue NW) site in Calgary is presented because the fo-

The four methods discussed earlier were used to analyse cus of this paper is to illustrate how different numerical pro-

the error-prone data shown in Table 1. Figure 6 shows the cedures can be used to estimate flexural strain from vertical

comparisons between the error-prone and estimated surface surface elevation measurements when other means are un-

elevations obtained using polynomial fit and the Fourier se- available.

ries methods. The fit corresponding to the finite difference The vertical-movement profiles between November

method is not shown because it is piece-wise and repre- 1993 and April 1994, across the sidewalk at 62 Avenue NW,

sented by a local quadratic function between successive points. Calgary, are presented in Fig. 8. The field measurements

The fits obtained with the fifth-degree polynomial and the showed a large scatter, which was quite different from the

For personal use only.

two-term Fourier series are very similar and difficult to dis- measurements at the other sidewalk sites. The lines in Fig. 8

tinguish from each other in Fig. 6. Estimates of flexural represent interpolated values obtained from using one term

strains from the application of the four methods to the data in the Fourier series, i.e., sine term.

in Table 1 are compared with the expected strains as shown The rigid-body movements (uniform vertical movement

in Fig. 7. The so-called expected flexural strains can be cal- and tilt, Fig. 9) and flexural strains (Fig. 10) were deter-

culated (eq. [11]) because a continuous function has been mined at the end of each 30-day period. The sidewalk began

used to define the hypothetical deformation of the sidewalk. to heave in October 1993 and within 3 months it had risen to

The expected flexural strains at the top and bottom fibres of a maximum value of about 18 mm in January 1994. Subse-

the sidewalk slab are calculated from the expression: quently, the sidewalk settled to a level about 5 mm lower

than its position for the previous summer, which may indi-

2

5 (x + b) cate a loss of moisture in the underlying soil. During the

[12] b(x) = d sin summer and early fall, the sidewalk heaved up slowly with a

2 2b 2b

rate less than 1 mm per month. During the same period, the

where d is the thickness of the sidewalk. The estimated flex- sidewalk tilted away from the road by about 0.6 and then

ural strains with the cubic spline and the finite difference moved back to its initial tilt in April 1994. The degree of tilt

show larger differences compared with the expected flexural increased concurrently with the increase of uniform vertical

strains (Fig. 7) than those obtained with the polynomial fit movement (Fig. 9); similar behaviour was observed at other

and the Fourier series methods. sidewalk sites.

The ratio of calculated and expected flexural strains at the The flexural strain profiles across the sidewalk width for

centre of the sidewalk is a good measure to compare the the period between November 1993 and April 1994 are

ability of different methods to estimate flexural strain. These shown in Fig. 10. The figure shows that the sidewalk is in a

ratios are 1.6, 2.44, 1.09, and 1.12 for finite difference, cu- hogging mode of deformation except for the months of Feb-

bic spline, polynomial fit, and Fourier series methods, re- ruary and April 1994. The time dependence of flexural strain

spectively. These ratios clearly indicate the inability of the at the centre of the sidewalk is given in Fig. 11. In general,

finite difference and cubic spline methods to estimate flex- higher flexural strains are observed during the winter months

ural strains when the surface elevation measurements are than during the summer months. A maximum strain of 600

subject to small errors. This should be of no surprise, since occurred in March 1994, the level of strain at which con-

it was established in the previous section that poor estimates crete is expected to crack.

of flexural strain are obtained from nonsmoothing proce-

dures. On the other hand, estimates of flexural strain com- Summary and conclusions

pare very well with the application of the polynomial fit and

the Fourier series methods. Different numerical procedures to estimate flexural strain

The above analysis leads to the qualitative assessment of from surface elevation measurements on concrete sidewalks

the four methods to estimate flexural strains as summarized were closely examined. The use of finite difference, cubic

in Table 2. It is concluded that the polynomial and Fourier spline, polynomial fit, and Fourier series methods of analy-

320 Can. J. Civ. Eng. Vol. 26, 1999

Fig. 6. Comparisons of measured and estimated surface elevation measurements with polynomial and Fourier series methods.

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

For personal use only.

Fig. 7. Comparisons of estimated flexural strains obtained with finite difference, cubic spline, polynomial, and Fourier series methods.

ses were described to estimate flexural strains from surface Table 2. Summary of qualitative assessment of different methods

elevation measurements across the sidewalk width. The fi- to estimate flexural strain.

nite difference and cubic spline methods give unrealistic Numerical Numerical Sensitivity to errors

high flexural strains, and the two methods are particularly method sensitivity in measurement

sensitive to the errors in measurement. Polynomial fit and

Finite difference Very Very

Fourier series methods give similar results, and their sensi-

Cubic spline Very Very

tivities to the errors in measurement are acceptably low. The

Polynomial fit Not Not

one-term Fourier series method is recommended to be the

Fourier series Not Not

best procedure to analyse sidewalk surface elevation data for

1999 NRC Canada

Rajani and Zhan 321

Fig. 8. Measured and estimated surface elevation measurements at sidewalk on 62 Avenue NW, Calgary.

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

For personal use only.

flexural strains, since it is unlikely that a stiff structural ele- gauges is difficult, expensive, or impossible. In practice,

ment member such as a narrow concrete sidewalk is able to these methods to estimate flexural strains are applicable to

deform higher than in the first mode. However, the fourth- instances where the principal mode of deformation is bend-

degree polynomial can be equally used. Furthermore, it is ing and not axial or torsional.

noted that most longitudinal cracks occur within the middle

third of the concrete slab width which is in agreement with

the fact that the maximum strain response obtained with Acknowledgements

these methods is also in this region of the slab.

The numerical methods to indirectly determine strain are The authors extend their appreciation to the staff at the

best suited for those circumstances where installation of strain cities of Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Regina, Edmonton, Calgary,

1999 NRC Canada

322 Can. J. Civ. Eng. Vol. 26, 1999

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

For personal use only.

Fig. 11. Variation of flexural strains with time at sidewalk on 62 Avenue NW, Calgary.

and Camrose for their collaboration in the collection of field Shaker, A.F., and Kennedy, D.J.L. 1991. The effective modulus

data. of elasticity of concrete in tension. Structural Engineering

Report 172, Department of Civil and Environmental Engi-

neering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.

References

Hildebrand, F.B. 1956. Introduction to numerical analysis. 2nd ed.

McGraw-Hill Company, New York. List of symbols

Rajani, B., and Zhan, C. 1997. Performance of concrete sidewalks:

field studies. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 24: 303312. ai (i = 1, ..., N): unknown coefficients in the polynomial fit

Reddy, J.N. 1993. An introduction to the finite element methods. method

2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York. b: half-width of the concrete sidewalk slab

Rajani and Zhan 323

ci (i = 1, ..., N): unknown coefficients in the Fourier series w ei : measured vertical movements at point i of element e in

method cubic spline method

d: thickness of the concrete sidewalk slab wi: vertical movements at point i

hi: x-coordinate distance between points i and i + 1 wo: first rigid-body mode of movement or uniform vertical

movement

N: number of terms in the polynomial or Fourier series

xr: x coordinate of survey point

methods

: second rigid-body movement or tilt

NP: number of survey points along sidewalk width b: flexural strain

w: total vertical movement i, i : Hermite cubic functions

wd: differential vertical movement ei : rotational degree of freedom

Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Canadian Science Publishing on 03/28/17

For personal use only.

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