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TABLE OF CONTENTS

FIRST QUARTER:DRAWING AND PAINTING


MODULE 1 Folk and Arts Designed from Luzon 4
Lesson 1-- Folk and Arts of Ilocos Region and Cordillera 7
Autonomous
Region (CAR)
Lesson 2- Folk Arts from Cagayan Valley and Central Luzon 16
Lesson 3- Folk Arts from Southern Luzon and Bicol Region 21
MODULE 2- Folk Arts from the Visayas 37
Lesson 1 and 2- Western, Easter, and Central Visayas 40
MOUDLE 3- Folk Arts from Mindanao 68
Lesson 1,2, and 3- Folk Arts from Different Cultural Group of 70
Mindanao
MODULE 4- Philippine Paintings 95
Lesson 1- Paintings During Spanish Colonization 99
Lesson 2- Paintings Before the Revolution 103
SECOND QUARTER: PRINTMAKING PROCESS IN THE
PHILIPPINES
MODULE 5- Printmaking Process in the Philippines 116
Lesson 1- Printmaking in the Philippines 119
Lesson 2- Printmaking Techniques and Processes 125
THIRD QUARTER: NEW MEDIA
MODULE 6- Printing and New Media 140
Lesson 1- Printing Using New Media 143
Lesson 2- Evolution of Philippine Printing 147
FOURTH QUARTER: SCULPTURE
MODULE 7- Sculpture 155
Lesson 1- Early Forms and Traditional Sculpture in the 157
Philippines
Lesson 2- Philippine Sculpture during Spanish Period 164
Lesson 3- Sculpture during the American Period up to Present 169
MODULE 8- Visual Arts in Philippine Drama and Festivals 177
Lesson 1- Traditional and Modern Philippine Drama 180
Lesson 2- Philippine Festivals 185

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Module 6
NEW MEDIA
Overview

You have learned that printmaking


was already practiced in the
Philippines since the olden times.
This practice served as prelude to
our printing today. Your
understanding on various
techniques and processes will help
you make your own print and make
new products and designs using
new media.

In this module, you will learn how


technology changed the perception
of the Filipinos in making art and
how art was made available to
everybody using new media. You
will further understand the role of
photocopying machines,
computers and scanners, video
cameras and the internet in making
art prints
and other printed works.

You are enjoined to discover your


artistic gift using the available From the hand-beaten
technology. Have fun! copperplate unearthed in
Lumban, Laguna to the
earliest printed book in the
Philippines using woodblocks
up to
technologically-advanced
printers nowadays,
printmakiand printing in the
141Philippines has gone a very
long way since 1593.
MODULE 6 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

New media refers to tools, device or


At the end of this module, you are expected
equipment that abandons the
to:
traditional practice of making
understand the role of technology and
something in the past such as digital
new media in printmaking.
cameras in favor of instamatic
create posters for special
cameras; photocopying machines
occasions
in favor of manual copying, and many
research on new duplicating
more.
techniques available in the
Technologyrefers to the advances as
locality; and
resulted by the application science
use new media to create a story as a
principles, concepts and discoveries.
reaction to current events.
Softcopy refer to digitized formats or
layouts of artworks, documents, and
designs that are ready for printing.
In this module, you will apply your
knowledge and understanding in the use
of various art elements and principles of You may have some of the
design as applied in printmaking. You will following in your school or
also understand the message and community:
meaning created by art elements and Computers and printers
designs when they are combinedwith Internet connections
technology. Photocopying machines (Xerox)
Duplicating machines (Risographs)
Digital camera or video camera
Scanner
Paper for printing
Stencil and frame
Squeegee
Textile paint
Additional gadgets such as SD
Reader and software for video
editing, file converters, etc.

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This lesson is good for one session or 60 minutes.

Use the pictures below to check


what have you learned from the
previous years.

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Technological advancements paved the way to mass production of printed


materials in the Philippines. From simple woodcut and lithograph printing during
the Spanish colonization, printing of materials for schools, offices, and
establishments become easier and readily available. The production of art
becomes simple also and easy due to the advent of photography, digital imaging,
photocopying, and scanning. Statistics shows that worldwide information doubles
every year because of the advances in technology unlike the rate of
production of arts, texts, and other documents during the medieval times. This is
particularly true in the Philippines where the demand for printed copies is
increasing.

Printing is both an art and industry. As an art, it requires creative expression


using the available media arts, tools, and equipment to produce printed copies of
books, flyers, brochures, magazines, billboards, posters, and the likes. As an
industry, it will need artists that are skilled and knowledgeable in the effective
use of art elements, principles of designs, and domains of the art - production,
appreciation, history, and criticism. Graphic artists, web page designers, cartoonists,
illustrators, designers, and animators are needed to make visually-pleasing and
persuasive digital layouts and formats that are essential in making printed copies
for business. Printing is a fast growing industry and the competition is rapidly
changing as new breed of artists discover new media and utilize varied ways to
meet the demands of the business world. This will pose great challenges to a 21st
century would-be artists like you.
Can you name objects around you that are made possible through printing?
Tell something about them.

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Printing in the Philippines Today
Technology changed the way Filipinos view and express art. Because of
readily available materials and new media, production of art shifted from
traditional way to digitized lay outing and formatting of images to create visually-
persuasive art pieces that range from simple gift tags to huge tarpaulin prints for
billboards and signage along the major thoroughfares around the country.
Below are some of the printing devices and equipments available in the
Philippines today. These printing equipments and devices are important in making,
duplicating, and creating copies of art in the easiest way. Unlike the copies made
through printmaking, printing copies are duplicates from the original.
Pre-Printing Devices
Pre-printing devices are used to capture images or photos such as digital
cameras, memory storage devices such as compact discs and flash disks, compact
discs, camera phones, tablets, ipods, scanners, and similar equipment. These are
devices that are used to take pictures or images and store them for future use.
Lay outing and Formatting Devices
Computer is the most popular device in the country today in making lay
outs and formats for printing. Software, programs, applications are needed to
enhance and enable lay outing and formatting of images to create designs for
printing. The use of computer also made the use of texts and images in graphics
and digital designs easy and more enjoyable.. AutoCad for example made interior
designs and architectural designs easy and enjoyable for computer literate
persons to create
Final Output Devices
These are devices that are used to make printed copies, such as printers
that are directly connected to computers, risograph, photocopier, and other
duplicating machines. Printers, regardless of type, remain the most popular device
to make a sample or final output that can be used for making duplicates. Special
printers are also available for making large formats such as tarpaulin printing used
for billboards and signage. Specialized printers are also used in making souvenir
items such as cups, t-shirts, and mugs. In making large quantities of prints in the
case of printing presses, offset printers and color separation printers are being
used.
These are among the devices and equipment used by modern artists and
even by ordinary people like you who want to maximize the use of technology for
creative and enjoyable activities or for engaging in a profitable business venture.

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PERSONALIZED COMPUTER-BASED ART 3. At the Start Menu of your computer,


PROJECT select the MS Publisher and create a
Promising art-related careers nowadays new publication. It is the simplest
use computer-based methods.. The use of way of make your project. Adobe
technology in making art gained Photoshop can also be used if you are
popularity because of business, mass familiar with it.
media, and the advent of internet. 4. Make a design or a layout for your
Students who are knowledgeable in computer-based art project. When
making use of technology to make art done lay outing, print it using a sticker
projects have an advantage over others. paper.
Computer-based art projects are easy to 5. Cut your design and paste it evenly on
prepare because of so many visual your chosen object. Display your
materials available around or through the artwork.
internet.
In this activity, you will make a
personalized computer-based art project -
a saucer, plate, mug or tumbler for
display purposes.
What To Do? To complete this project, you will need to
1. Using your digital camera or check the availability of the
following:
camera phone, take a picture that
you want to use in your Digital camera or camera phone
personalized computer-based art Photos and images
project. If camera is not available, Computer
you can choose pictures or Printer
images from the internet or you Scanners
may draw a design of your choice. Memory card or SD card reader
2. Upload the pictures into your MS Publisher or similar programs in the
computer using a memory card computer
or SD car reader. If you took Aside from the said requirements, you
pictures from the internet, just will need the following:
download it and save into your Sticker paper
computer. When drawing your Plain colored saucer or plate, mug or
own design, scan the image tumblers
Cutter/scissors
and save it into your computer.

IMPORTANT
To minimize cost, this project can be performed in groups of 5 to 10 students.

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This lesson is good for one session or 60 minutes.

Use the pictures below to check


what have you learned from the
previous years.

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MODULE 6 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Describe the following machines and early attempts to make readable


papers.
and documents.

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GUIDE

The early attempts of the Filipinos to communicate with other people using
a written language can be learned from the fragments of pre-Hispanic artifacts.
The only written record in the Philippines with a date on it is the Laguna
Copperplate Inscription that dates back to 850 CE.

Another attempt to produce records that can be read by other people is


the ancient script with various names around the archipelago. In the Tagalog
region, it is called baybayin, kulitanin Kapangpangan, and suratin the Visayas, The
HanunuoMangyans of Mindoro and the Buhids retained their ancient script that
are similar to the baybayin of the Tagalogs.

The early printed books appeared during the Spanish times, as discussed in
the earlier modules. For centuries, printing of books in the Philippines were
controlled by friars and the government although some printers were able to
make copies of novenarios, pamphlets, and other reading materials using
lithography and woodblock printing.

Activity 2 will help you discover what happened in the Philippines for the
past 400 years from the coming of the Spaniards up to the present time.

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Printing and printmaking in the Philippines


today is quite different from the past. As an
art, printmaking gained popularity in the
Philippines only in the 1960s and 1970s. Printing
as means of creating cheap and readily
available or instant copies of artworks and
other printed materials gained support from the
general public and the corporate world.
Make a report about the evolution of In this activity, you will need the
printmaking and printing in the country. following:
Mention its brief history, artists involved and Reference materials from your
sample works. Your report can be submitted in
school library or from the
a soft copy form (in a flash drive or a data
internet
compact disc) or in hard copy format (printed).
Photos of sample prints
You can also make a PowerPoint Presentation
and submit your soft copy or printed format Computer and printer (printed
depending on your teacher. output)
Procedures: Flash disks/digital storage
1. Utilize your library resources first for your devices (for soft copy output)
report. If materials are not available in
your library, you can check the internet
for more information.
2. Write your report using a timeline
pattern to show chronology in the
evolution of printmaking in the
country.
3. If you can make a PowerPoint
presentation, use more visuals and brief
text descriptions.
4. Ask your teacher how you will submit the
report either soft copy in a flash drive,
CD or through the internet; and in
printed form.
REMEMBER
If computer and printer are not available in your area, you
can still make your report in a handwritten format. Visuals
can be supplied also using cut photos from periodicals,
magazines or any available old printed materials.

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Printing using new media gained recognition in the Philippines. It is evident with
the widespread use of printing technology all over the country to make prints,
copies, and duplicates of books, art works, magazines, and other reading
materials. The use of different printing technology available helped in the
evolution of new forms of arts.

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CLASS EXHIBIT
Participate in a class exhibit and bazaar that your teacher will help you organize to
showcase all of your PRINTING projects. You will be graded based on the rubrics
that your teacher will prepare for such purpose.

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Links and Photo Credits

Page 139

1. http://nickledimepenny.blogspot.com/2010/03/la-solidaridad.html
2. http://cabanatuancity.olx.com.ph/xerox-machine-for-sale-iid-79511156
3. http://www.starburstprinting.com/traditional-offset.php#
4. http://digitals-printing.blogspot.com/2009/09/printing-press-heidelberg-kord-
64.html
5. http://brandasrazvan.blogspot.com/2010/11/risograph-printers.html
6. http://www.build-your-own-computer.net/computer-output-devices.html
Page 142
1. http://www.tooft.com/buying-digital-camera/
2. http://www.kenrockwell.com/epson/4990.htm
3. http://www.toptechreviews.net/tech-tips/buying-a-desktop/
Page 143 and 145
Designs made by J. S. Jimenez using photos taken by Rosel Valenzuela
Page 147
1. http://cabanatuancity.olx.com.ph/xerox-machine-for-sale-iid-79511156
2. http://www.starburstprinting.com/traditional-offset.php#
3. http://digitals-printing.blogspot.com/2009/09/printing-press-heidelberg-kord-
64.html
4. http://brandasrazvan.blogspot.com/2010/11/risograph-printers.html
5. http://www.build-your-own-computer.net/computer-output-devices.html
Page 148
1. http://thebulwaganfoundation.wordpress.com/2010/09/01/the-kingdom-of-
butuan/
2. http://ustpublishinghouse.wordpress.com/browse-books/all-subjects/language/

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Module 7
SCULPTURE

Overview

In the previous modules, you were


already introduced to different art
elements and design principles as
manifested from different Philippine
arts from simple basket and mat
weaving of different indigenous and
cultural communities to the highly
sophisticated textile weaving from
Northern to Southern Philippines.
You are also familiar with the
Angono petroglyphs, the Laguna
copperplate inscriptions,.

In this module, you will


understand how Philippine
sculpture evolved from its simplest
form as manifested in clay potteries
of Maitum, the Manungguljar, the
bul-ol, and the pre-historic Angono
cave art to the highly-Christianized
period of Chinese artisans in
Manila and the Paete woodcarvers
in Laguna and the western-
inspired, modern era of sculptors
Napoleon Abueva, Guillermo
Tolentino, Ed Castrillo, and Jun Yee
among others. You will also
experience how to create your own
sculpture and make an assemblage
Monument of San Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila - the
first Filipino saint, seen in Binondo Plaza, from available and seemingly
Manila. useless trash and discards.

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MODULE 7 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

This lesson is good for two sessions of 60 minutes each.

Use the pictures below to check


what have you learned from the
previous lessons.

These are some of the early forms of sculpture in the Philippines. Can you name
them?

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Can you identify these early forms of sculpture? Where are they found?

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Sculpture played an important role in the lives of the


early Filipinos. It is evident with the appearance of a low
relief engraving of human and animal figures seen in a cave
in Angono, Rizal (3000 BCE) which is believed to be the
oldest known art work in the Philippines and a highly
significant cultural landmark in the country. It is the early
attempt of the Filipinos to draw and record things around
him. It is said that the turtles or pawikan shown in the rock
arts of the early Filipinos symbolized honor and prestige as
defined in the Vocabulario de la lenguatagala written by
Father Pedro de San Buenaventura with the help of Filipino
printers Tomas Pinpin and Domingo Loag.
In a burial site in Calatagan, Batangas, archaeological
diggings recovered a stone figure made from brain corals
called likhapalapat. This is an early sample of stone carving
in the country using crude materials.
As civilization progressed, the use of clay as an
important medium in pottery became so popular that in
many parts of the country, dozens of artifacts have been
recovered. These artifacts are usually decorated with flora
and fauna motif but what makes ancient pottery interesting
is the presence of anthropomorphic figures such as those
that are found in Leta-Leta Cave, Langen Island, Palawan.
The effigy jar features a neck and lip of a yawning man. The
Manunggul jar, a secondary burial jar found in Palawan also
features on its lid a boat with two men rowing which may
show that the ancients are masters of the sea and that in
the Filipino cosmology, it is believed that the dead follows a
long journey to other world after completing his life on
earth. The boatmen on the lid of Manunggul jar are believed
to be the souls of the dead traveling to other world.

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In the jungle mountain of Pinol, Maitum


in Sarangani, remains of anthropomorphic burial
jars have been discovered in Ayub Cave by a
team of experts from National Museum in the
late 20th century. The burial jars unique feature
is the intricately carved head figures on the jar
cover that are believed to be the image of the
deceased. Other features of the jar cover are
the use of red coloring around the neck and
black ink as eyebrows. Hundreds of pieces of
the broken jars are now on permanent display
Leta-leta jar at the National Museum.
In the mountain region of the
Cordilleras, woodcarving is an important art for
it plays a significant role in their belief system.
The bul-ol is a wooden figure of a god that
serves as guardian to rice granaries and
pathways. It is believed that this seated figure
will drive away evil and keep the owner away
from bad luck and bring good harvest.
On the other hand, the Muslim people
in Mindanao, particularly the Maranaos
carve the image of sarimanok, a mythical bird in
the Darangen and similar to the garudabird in
Maitum jar
Indonesian mythology. This figure is said to be a
status symbol in the community. The art of
sculpture is also popular among the
Maranaos as evident in their okir designs in the
torogan, panulong, and their musical
instruments.
Sarimanok

Manunggul
Bul-ol

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Making Your Fruit and Vegetable Sarimanok

Sarimanokis a traditional Maranao design based on


okirdesign. This mythical bird with a fish in its beak,
symbolizes power and social status.
Procedure:
Materials:
1. Prepare your materials. Use your knife, to cut the
vegetables according to the shape needed for the
Several pieces of hard
project. vegetable for beak, wings,
2. Peel the vegetables which will form the and tail
parts of the body of the figure.
A big roundish vegetable
3. Carve the body of the bird and also the
like
the feet and legs to make the bird a free-
singkamas
standing figure. Join the pieces using leafy vegetable like
thin bamboo sticks or tooth picks.
lettuce
4. Prepare the neck and cut it at least 3 a medium-sized soft fruit
inches long and carve it according to the
(or any substitute)
shape of the sarimanokneck. Attach it to
bamboo tooth pick
thebody using a tooth pick. pins (aspili)
5. Work on the head and beak of the bird sewing thread
and use a soft vegetable for the crown. . carving Instrument (or
6. You can work on the tail of the bird using
knife)
thin strips of vegetables. Bind the strips
picture of a sarimanok
together using the aspili or pin and
attach it to the body.
7. Prepare the wings of sarimanokusing
vegetable that are solid like tubers. Cut
into half then slice into desired thick
ness. Use aspilito binds strips together
8. You are almost complete. Now, work on
the fish held by the bird in its beak. Caution: Carving instruments
Use a thin strip of hard vegetable and must be used under the
attach it to the beak of your sarimanok supervision of your teacher or an
using thread. You have now a fruit adult. Always observe safety at
and vegetable sarimanok. work.

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Samples of Fruit and Vegetable Sculptures that may awaken your apetite!

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Make your Own Bul-ol

Procedures:
1. Prepare your materials and your
working area. Make sure that it is
well-lighted and free from clutter..
2. Cut the softwood or any similar
material into a desired length or
preferably at least one foot high.
1. Using the marking pen, draw the
outlines of the bul-olin the wood
before working on it.
2. Using a chisel and a wooden
hammer, carefully carve the excess
wood around the outlines.
3. When chiseling is finished, polish the
wood using a sand paper especially
made for wood.
4. Apply varnish to your bul-ol and let it
dry.

In this activity, you will need the following:


Picture of bul-ol
Soft wood (preferably acacia)
Cutting instruments
Chisel
Wooden Hammer
Marking pen
Sanding paper for wood
Varnish (maple brown)
Caution:Carving instruments must be used
under the supervision of your teacher or an
adult. Always observe safety at work.

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This lesson is good for 4 sessions of 60 minutes each.

Use the pictures below to check


what have you learned from the
previous years.

Can you name the santospresented above? How do they represent the
religiosity of your community? Do you think that the Spaniards refined our
practice in making sculpture? Why?

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GUIDE

The arrival of Spain in 1521 prompted the shift from


indigenous techniques of woodcarving to a more sophisticated
carving of santos using a variety of media such as wood, stone, and
ivory. The Spaniards found that sculpture in the Philippines was less
developed than the sculpture in India, Java, China, or Sumatra.
By the end of the 16th century, the establishment of
Academy of Arts and Sciences by the Augustinians made significant
imprints in the Filipinos taste for sculpture. Our sculpture was
severely hieratic, almost archaic and Byzantine in style in order to
conform to the Christian ideals. The Chinese were the first artisans
employed by the Spaniards outside of Manila to carve santosfor the
Catholic Church. These santoswere used to adorn churches and
homes of the well-to-do families in the lowland areas. It is said that
the carving of santos evolved from the pre-historic belief of the
Filipinos in their ancestors that the spirits of the deceased continue
to influence the lives of the living. The practice of making altars at
home for santos was similar to the ancestor worship before the
coming of the Spaniards. Santosare also called poon which was a
clear indication that the ancient beliefs remained despite of the
persecution of the Catholic church. The santos of the Filipinos were
Michael the
characterized by its simplicity of form and expressiveness.
Archangel
Paete in Laguna is known for its fine artisans working on a
variety of biblical subjects such as the creation, the crucifixion, the
life of saints, the Virgin Mary, and many others.
Another form of sculpture during the Spanish colonization
was the retablo or the church altars that are in high relief. Beautiful
retablosare found in some of the old churches in the Philippines
such as San Agustin Church in Intramuros, one of the churches in
the Baroque style in the Philippines. Another is the St. Michael de
Archangel Minor Basilica in Tayabas, Quezon and the Taal Basilica.
Old churches are of great significance in towns and provinces and
are found throughout the Philippines.

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CHURCH RETABLOS OR ALTARS

Pakil Church in Laguna

Minor Basilica of St. Michael the Archangel, Tayabas, Quezon

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Making an Inventory of Sculptural Works at


Home, School, and the Community

You have learned different examples of Share your


sculpture. Sculptures are forms of art that are experiences and discoveries
in three-dimension. It usually occupies space to your classmates. Identify
and is free standing. It can be a figure of man, the styles utilized by the
plants, animals, events or in the case of artists in their works.
abstract art, a sculpture can represent Your inventory is
emotions, expressions and ideas. important in the promotion
of our culture as well as in
Your task is to make an inventory of preserving our heritage.
sculptural works at home, in school, and in the
community. These works may have been
around you for a long time but you failed to
take notice of their significance. Find out the
story that they want to tell you. You can do this
alone or work with your friends. Dont forget to
include pictures of the work or if you are good
in drawing, draw it as exactly as possible. Use
the table below.
PLACE/LOCATION MATERIAL STYLE ARTIST HISTORY/SIGNIFICANCE

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Interviewing a Local Artist/Craftsman

This task is a group task. Conduct an interview with a local artist or


craftsmen. Indicate what subjects he or she loves to work on, such as religious
icons, figurines, pottery, sceneries, and biblical themes.

Remember: You will probably interview a busy person. As a sign of courtesy, see
to it that you ask for an appointment with him/her. Come on time. Prepare an
interview schedule to get the most important information that you want. Ask
the assistance of your teacher in preparing your interview schedule. An
interview schedule is a set of questions that will guide you in the interview.
Always observe tact and manner. Say thank upon leaving and express your
desire to be with him/her some other time.

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MODULE 7 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

This lesson is good for 4 sessions of 60 minutes each.

Use the pictures below to check


what have you learned from the
previous years.

Can you identify the works above? These are works of well-known Filipino
sculptors. Tell something about them.

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GUIDE

Several artists emerged during the American period as a result of the


abolition of Catholicism as a state religion. It paved the way to more liberal
themes and subjects in sculpture. Art movements in the west influenced our
Filipino artists and as a response, they developed their own style in conformity
to the international standards.
Philippine sculptures during the American period, were often
symbolic and represented events in Philippine history like the UP Oblation, the
Pieta, Cry of Balintawak, Bonifacio Shrine near Manila City Hall, Bonifacio
Monument in Caloocan, Gomburza monument in front of the National
Museum, People Power Monument along EDSA, Our Lady of Peace, also in
EDSA, the Palo, Leyte Landing in Leyte, and many more.
A variety of media has been used by artists to express their art in
addition to wood and stone such as fiber glass, plastic, stainless steel,
aluminum, and bronze. More creative and revolutionary artists used junk
material and organic materials to make artworks.
Some of the notable artists during the American period and in the
modern period are Napoleon Abueva, Guillermo Tolentino, Ed Castrillo, Jun Yee,
Abdul Mari Imao, and many others who made significant contributions in the
development of new styles, forms, and expressions.

Ed Castrillo Napoleon Abueva Guillermo Tolentino

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Making Junk Art

You can make a sculpture using junk materials


around you. These seemingly useless materials
can be used to make an exciting work of art, as
you can see in the picture below.
Any type of junk around
Procedures: you that are made of
1. Conceptualize your junk art by collecting plastic, glass, metal,
various junk material and experiment and clay
how you can compose these into a Adhesive materials or
sculpture. Make sketches of your ideas. . wire
2. Using any piece of wood or plywood, as a Spray paint
base for your junk art, begin working with Plywood
your project by joining each piece of junk Soldering iron (optional)
to form a three-dimensional rendering of Soldering wire (optional)
your conceptualized drawing. You can
work as a group
3. Use soldering iron and wire for materials
made of metal.
4. When everything is finished, spray your
work with a spray paint. Let it dry.

Left: Two Antelopes by Ann P.


Smith made from electronics and
machine parts. You too can make
an artwork like this using junk and
found material at home. Your
creativity can transform a
mountain of trash and waste into
something aesthetically pleasing.
Caution: You will be dealing with electronic and volatile substances that may
cause burns, irritations, and allergy. Use materials in this activity with great
caution and under the supervision of your teacher or an adult when you are
working at home.
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GUIDE

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Sculpture as an art is a reflection of our countrys rich cultural heritage. Locate


the following artworks in the map using a line.

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CLASS EXHIBIT
Participate in an exhibit to be organized by your teacher to showcase your
sculptures. Be the usher /usherette to those who will view your works. Explain
to them what do you intend to express in your work and what it represents.
Your teacher will develop his/her rubric to grade you in this activity.

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Estolas, Josefina V., Javier, Clarita G. &Pada-Payno, Nieves. (1995). Introduction


to Humanities (Art for Fine Living).National Book Store: Mandaluyong
City.
Van de Bogart, Doris. (1970). Introduction to the humanities (Painting,
sculpture, architecture, music, and literature).Barnes and Noble
Everyday Handbooks: New York, reprinted in the Philippines by National
Book Store: Mandaluyong City.
Zulueta, Franciso M. (2003). The humanities: Revised Edition. National Book
Store: Mandaluyong City.
Page 154
Photos by J. S. Jimenez except for the background
Page 155
Photo by J. S. Jimenez
Page 157, 158, 159, 160
Photos by J.S. Jimenez
Page 161
1. http://www.greendiary.com/entry/32-mouth-watering-amazing-fruit-and-
vegetable-carvings-to-please-your-culinary-taste-buds/
2. http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-stock-photography-fresh-
fruits-vegetables-image8919682
Page 162
1. http://www.greendiary.com/entry/32-mouth-watering-amazing-fruit-and-
vegetable-carvings-to-please-your-culinary-taste-buds/
2. http://www.greendiary.com/entry/32-mouth-watering-amazing-fruit-and-
vegetable-carvings-to-please-your-culinary-taste-buds/
Page 164
1. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/62/Santo_Ni%C3%B1o_de_Ce
bu.jpg
2. http://www.lomography.com/magazine/locations/2010/01/28/quiapo-the-
feast-of-the-black-nazarene
3. http://www.flickr.com/groups/marianevents/discuss/72157604015675469/

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Page 165
http://saints.sqpn.com/litany27.htm
Page 166
1. http://www.philippineheritage.com/2011/01/pakil-church-pakil-laguna.html
2. http://www.geocities.ws/quezonians/Slideshow/QuezonSlideshow03.htm
Page 168
http://www.cityofpines.com/tamawanvillage.html
Page 169
1. http://pandoraspace.com/2009/pinaglabanan-san-juan/
2. http://giftofquills.blogspot.com/2011/05/ever-taught-english.html
3. http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_Abueva
4. http://www.kulay-diwa.com/guillermo_tolentino
5. http://cuadrofilipino.blogspot.com/2009/07/abueva-and-new-sisa-murals-
at-national.html
Page 171
1. http://www.deepfun.com/labels/Junk.html
2. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-
warming/toxic-waste-overview/
Page 173
1. http://ebtenorio.wordpress.com/2009/06/07/cebu-scenic-spots-i-visited/
2. http://beallnew.blogspot.com/2011/04/sanduguan-bohol-philippines.html
3. http://discoveryislamarticles-onlinedawah.blogspot.com/2011/07/ang-
kasaysayan-ng-islam-sa-pilipinas.html

176
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Module 8
Visual Arts in Philippine Drama and Festivals
Overview

The Filipinos are art loving people.


Our previous discussions revealed
the great interests of our people in
making their lives artistic in varied
ways through their ornaments,
farming implements, home and
office decors, fishing implements,
fighting armaments, and more.
These are evidences of the Art of
our people: representations for the
eyes to enjoy. Our people love
beautiful and meaningful things.
Our psyche is designed for art
appreciation and art production. We
are people with simple and natural
taste for the arts.

In this module, you will understand


how the Filipinos live with art. From
the moment they are born up to the
moment that they pass this life,
Filipinos developed ways of
employing art in their lives. Here,
we will focus on the visual arts as
mirrored in drama such as cenaculo,
duplo, zarzuela, Santacruzan,
Lutrina, Subli, moro-moro, and
moriones.

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At the end of this module, you are


Parts of a Drama
expected to:
Exposition is an element of the story
Understand that art is an
that tells about the background of
integral component of Philippine
the situation. Development in a story
dramas and festivities
refers to the succession of events
Create a motif using a
and movements leading the situation
particular festival
to its turning point. Turning point in a
Analyze the unique forms,
story tells about the solutions
materials, colors, and uses of the arts
employed for conflicts as a result of
in Philippine dramas and festivals
difficult decision-making. Climax is
Identify unique features of
the highest point of the
different festivals in each region
story. Denouement is the unraveling
Relate the visual components
of the plot in a story. It gives the idea
of the festivals to the values, religious
of how the character is discovered or
rituals, rites, and its meaning in the life
how a mystery is resolved or how the
of the people.
unknown is revealed. Conclusion is
Design sets, costumes,
the ending of the story.
accessories, and props for a selected
play or festival
Analyze a modern telenovela
and how it uses color, costume, You will need the following in
setting, props, accessories, and in your school or community or
enhancing the elements of a story. substitutes for these:
Different colors of textiles
In this module, you will you will apply your (preferable satin)
knowledge and understanding in the use of Cutting instruments
various art elements and principles of design Marking pens
in associating meaning with the visuals from Adhesive materials
Philippine drama and festivals. You will also Coloring materials
understand the message and meaning Building materials (for sets)
created by art elements and designs utilized Photos or video clips of
by the community in their festivals as way of
different Philippine festivals
life.
Other materials of your
choice

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This lesson is good for four sessions of 60 minutes each.

Use the pictures below to check


what have you learned from the
previous years.

These are some of the forms of Philippine drama. Most of them are influenced
by the Christian faith but traces of local beliefs can often be seen. Can you
describe each picture and its relevance to you? How do they influence you as an
individual?

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Traditional Drama
Before the coming of Spain, the Filipinos were already entertained by the
elders they were the first storytellers narrating the great epics of their tribes, the
legends surrounding their place, the stories from distant lands, the lives of their gods
and goddesses, the conflict between the good and the evil, and almost every aspect
of life. Other groups found it more entertaining to employ music, costume, and
accessories to these stories such as the Sakuting dance in the south that narrates a
story of a princess, who in search for her prince ventured into the dangerous forest
passing through different obstacles along her way. In the North, the people of
Cordillera are often entertained by village storytellers who are chanting the stories of
their gods and ancestors as in the Hudhud.
In the lowland, Christianized communities, dramas find its new setting in re-
enacting the lives of the saints, the life and death of Jesus, the miracles of the Virgin
Mary, and in the battles between the Christians and the Moslems. The Santacruzan for
example dramatizes the search of Empress Elena for the Holy Cross; Lutrina is similar to
Santacruzan but it is celebrated by the farmers asking for rains to water their crops.
Equally similar is the Subli in Alitagtag and Bauan in Batangas which is set into dance
and music narrating the search for the Holy Cross. The actions in each canto narrate
the odds encountered by the person who searched for the wooden cross. Although
Christian in manner, it is still noticeable that the Filipinos adapted the new religion to
enhance their old beliefs. Drama in the Philippines may have evolved also from early
religious rituals that involve chanting and dancing. In Obando, Bulacan, dancing is
associated with fertility rites of the early Filipinos as observed in the archaeological
diggings in Pila, Laguna. The Santa Clara dance dramatizes the desire for the gods to
send or not to send rains for the crop as well as the Karakol dance. The Putong and
Tobong dances of Marinduque and coastal municipalities of Quezon facing
Marinduque are actually forms of drama set into music. The text of Tobong narrates
how the three kings (Gaspar, Melchor and Balthazar) searched for the birthday
celebrant to give their felicitations and gifts which is similar to the story of the three
kings during the Yuletide season. As we examine those dances, we will discover the
underlying drama narrated through dance and spectacles.

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Cenaculo, a drama about the life, passion, and death
of Jesus Christ usually set in the town plaza is actually a
communal affair because it uses the entire community as the
actors and the spectators as equally significant part of the
drama. This Lenten traditional drama uses European-inspired
clothes particularly the Roman centurions, the attires of the
Jews and the disciples. This, including the PabasangPasyon,
is among the highlights of Lenten celebration in Christian
Philippines.
Moro-moro is a bloody skirmish between the
Christians and the Moslems. This immortalizes the conflict of
A man reading the the Spain with the Moors as narrated in the national epic of
PasyongMahal Spain, El Cid. This could have originated with the long time
commemorating the conflict between the converts to Christianity and the
life, passion, and
Moslems in the south or the old tradition of pangangayaw or
death of Jesus Christ
raids. That is why this form of drama gained acceptance
during Lenten
Season.Pasyon is among the Christian population.
usually sang. Dupluan, a form of game can also be classified as
drama because it narrates a story often of a king seeking for
something among his loyal servants. This tells us that the
trustworthy are often rewarded while the offenders are always
punished.
With the above forms of drama in the
Philippines, it can be deduced that the plot and performance is
the essential element of every Philippine drama. Major
characters are often portrayed with extra-special roles, status,
or experience, almost revered, edified, and idolized while
enjoining the audiences as participants. There is always a
Moro-morodancers . The protagonist and an antagonist. In some traditional drama,
dance dramatizes the
such as in cenaculo, the audience themselves are members
conflict between the
of the cast; they set the tone and the mood of the story. They
Christians and the Moors
are part in the development of the story from exposition to
introduced by the
Spaniards in the conclusion. Setting and theme are often defined and merged
Philippines. with the community. Spectacles are often simple. The music is
supplied by the audience although there is already an
accompaniment. Traditional dramas are often characterized
with poetic dialogues and evocative mood. They aimed at
expressing intense feelings and emotions that will make the
audience cry, laugh, or even hate.

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Modern Drama
During the American period,
zarzuela became popular. National Artist
Atangdela Rama was among the popular
zarzuelistas. It is a form of drama with music
and acting that evolved from Latin influences
of Spain and Mexico and the Broadway
performances and vaudevilles of the
Americans. Zarzuelas dominated the
Philippine theatres during the American
regime and these theatrical performances
made Philippine drama more interesting and
western in character but veryFilipino in spirit.
Modern drama in the Philippines
evolved from radio drama in the mid-20th
century and found new grounds in
Philippine television. From soap operas and
Mexican novelas, the Filipinos created the
telenovela, fantaserye, and epic serye.
Dubbing became popular also in the later part
of the 20th century and early 21st century.
Filipino dubbers made Mexican and Korean
novelas more interesting to Filipino
viewers by translating foreign dialogue into
Tagalog.

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Traditional Drama Analysis


Make a drama analysis of the traditional drama
found or practiced in your community.
Remember that traditional drama may have
disguised themselves through dances. You can
only understand that these dances are dramas
set into music and seasoned with movements.
Use the guide below to describe each element:

Title of the Drama: _______________________________________


Author: ________________________________________________
Place of Origin: __________________________________________

Element Manifestations

Plot or Action (Look for the


exposition, development, turning
point, climax, denouement, and
conclusion of the story)

Characters (Identify the protagonist


and antagonist)

Setting (Describe the setting or place


where the story happened)

Theme (What is the meaning of the


story)

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This lesson is good for 4 sessions of 60 minutes each.

Use the pictures below to check


what have you learned from the
previous years.

Can you tell what provinces celebrate these festivals? Describe the festivals.

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Festivals are delightful events for the Filipinos we are all feast-loving people.
We love to celebrate almost every aspect of our existence from birth to death. We
have birthday celebrations, wakes for the dead , marriage feasts, and others.
Our life is surrounded by festivals. Our festivities are our expression of
thanksgiving and celebration for the blessings from God.
In almost every barangay, sitio or district, there is a fiesta in honor for a
particular patron saint. There are municipalities with many fiesta celebrations all year
round. For example, the Turumba Festival in Pakil is the longest religious festival in the
country. In Lucban, Pahiyas is in honor of their patron saint, San Isidro Labrador. In
some municipalities of Quezon, the festival features different products and
celebrated differently from each other although the theme is the same. In Cebu,
Sinulog is in honor of Senior Sto. Nino which is also celebrated in
PistangItimnaNazarenoin Quiapo.
Other festivals are geared towards cultural preservation and tourism such as
the Panagbenga in Baguio City, Ati-Atihanin Aklan, Binirayanin Antique, Dinagyangin
Iloilo, Kadayawanin Davao, Maskarain Bacolod, Kasadyaan in Tacloban, Morionesin
Marinduque, Sorteo in Carmona, Cavite, Lechonin Batangas, Boling-bolingin
Catanauan, Quezon, Kakanindayog and Wagaywayin Imus, Lubi-lubiin Negros,
Coramlan in Alaminos, Bangusin Pangasinan, and thousands of others. It is only in the
Philippines that every municipality celebrates its own festival annually in addition to
provincial-wide and regional-wide festivals organized by the Department of Tourism.
Each festival is unique. Flowers and ornamentals dominate the Panagbenga,
kiping in the Pahiyas, colors and paints in Maskara, Ati-atihan and Sinulog, and
products in other festivals. Several festivals are profit-oriented; others are religious in
spirit; while others are festivals for a cause. No matter what type of festival is
celebrated, the important element is that the community is united in these festivals.

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Making your Own Maskara

Procedures:
1. Draw a face that will serve as base of
your maskarausing a cardboard.
2. Cut the edges of the drawing and work
on the designs.
3. Use glue or any adhesive that fits to your
You will make the
needs.
following materials:
4. Add accents to your maskara using birds
cardboards
feathers and glitters, beads and buttons
adhesive materials
and found objects.
cutting materials
birds feathers
glitters

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188

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Using the Philippine map, list down all the festivals you know indicating their
place of origin.

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SCHOOL FESTIVAL OF
TALENTS
Participate in a school festival that your teacher will organize for you. Your
teacher will group and assign you to a particular province or region. It is up to
your group how you will represent the assigned region. Use your creativity in
designing sets, costume, accessories, or props as may be required in your
assignment. Your teacher will develop criteria to grade your participation and
performance in this activity.

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(2011) Karakol 2011: A dance for thanksgiving, honor, and sacrifice. Published
in The Caballeros, Imus National High School Alapan Annex.

Estolas, Josefina V., Javier, Clarita G. &Pada-Payno, Nieves. (1995). Introduction


to Humanities (Art for Fine Living).National Book Store: Mandaluyong
City.

Van de Bogart, Doris. (1970). Introduction to the humanities (Painting,


sculpture, architecture, music, and literature).Barnes and Noble
Everyday Handbooks: New York, reprinted in the Philippines by National
Book Store: Mandaluyong City.

Zulueta, Franciso M. (2003). The humanities: Revised Edition. National Book


Store: Mandaluyong City.

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Page 1
1. http://www.photo.net.ph/blogalicious/fiesta-report/masskara-2007-schedule-of-
activities-celebrating-the-icons-of-bacolod/
2. http://thebackpackchronicles.com/2012/02/panagbenga-festival-2012-event-
schedules-highlights/
3. http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Asia/Philippines/Southern_Tagalog/Quezon/Luc
ban/photo909625.htm
4. http://tourism-philippines.com/festivals/
Page 4
1. Photo by Yasmin F. Santiaguel and J. S. Jimenez
2. http://alaehpagkasarap.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/sublian-festival-parade-
2009.jpg
Page 5
http://www.lovelyphilippines.com/festivals/santacruzan-the-queen-of-all-filipino-
festivals/
Page 6
1. http://filipinessence.wordpress.com/tag/tradisyon-sa-mahal-na-araw/
2. http://www.paradise-philippines.biz/paradise-philippines/upcoming-events-this-
august/
Page 7
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paglipas_ng_Dilim_scene_zarzuela.jpg
2. http://playbillphilippines.blogspot.com/2011/09/zarzuelas-of-pampanga-in-mikit-
tamu.html
3. http://showbiznest.blogspot.com/2011/05/marian-rivera-mikael-daez-and-sid.html
Page 9
http://www.davaotraveler.com/blog/2007/08/03/kadayawan-festival-in-davao/
Page 10
1. http://www.dumaguete-hotels.com/ati-atihan-festival-aklan/
2. http://aralingpinoy2.blogspot.com/2011/05/dinagyang-festival.html
3. http://en.wikipilipinas.org/images/2/25/BinirayanFestival.jpg
Page 11
http://outoftownblog.com/masskara-festival-2012/

192