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DEVICES

CHAPTER 1
SEMICONDUCTOR
MATERIALS
Assoc Prof. Ir. Dr Sharifah Hafizah Syed
Ariffin

FKE, UTM
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1.0 Semiconductor Material


1.1 Atomic structure
1.2 Materials classification
1.3 Covalent bonds
1.4 Intrinsic semiconductor
1.5 Extrinsic semiconductor
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1.1 Atomic Structure


All matters on earth are made
up of elements or combination
of elements.
Elements are made up of
millions of atom.
An atom is the smallest
particle of an element that
retains the characteristics of
that element.
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Bohrs Atomic Structure

Bohrs Atomic Structure


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Bohrs Atomic Structure


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Atomic Structure
Valence Electrons: The outermost shell is called
the valence shell and electrons at this layer are
called valence electrons.
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Comparison

A Silicon atom has 4 electrons in A Copper atom has only 1 electron in


its valence ring. This makes it a its valence ring. This makes it a good
semiconductor. conductor.
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1.0 Semiconductor Material


1.1 Atomic structure
1.2 Materials classification
Conductor
Insulator
Semiconductor
1.3 Covalent bonds
1.4 Intrinsic semiconductor
1.5 Extrinsic semiconductor
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1.2 Materials Classification

Conductor

Material Insulator

Semiconductor
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Conductor
A conductor is a material that easily conducts
electrical current.
The best conductors are (with one valence
electron) e. g.: copper, silver, gold and aluminium.
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Insulator
An insulator is a material that does not conduct
electrical current under normal circumstances e.g.
diamonds and glass.
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Semiconductor
A semiconductor is between a conductor and
insulator.
A semiconductor in its pure (intrinsic) state is
neither a good conductor nor a good insulator.
Most common semiconductor are silicon,
germanium and carbon. Compound
semiconductors like gallium arsenide are also
used.
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Semiconductor

Compare silicon and germanium.


Which is better and why?
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Check up
1. What is a valence electron?

2. What is the basic difference between conductors and


insulators?

3. Name three of the best conductive materials?

4. What is the most widely used semiconductor?


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1.0 Semiconductor Material


1.1 Atomic structure
1.2 Materials classification
1.3 Covalent bonds
1.4 Intrinsic semiconductor
1.5 Extrinsic semiconductor
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Covalent Bonds
This bonding of atoms,
strengthened by the
sharing of electrons, is
called covalent
bonding.
The center silicon atom
shares an electron with
each of the four
surrounding silicon
atom, creating covalent
bond
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Covalent Bonds in a silicon crystal

The -ve signs


represent the
shared
valence
electrons

Certain atoms will combine in this way to form a crystal


structure. Silicon and Germanium atoms combine in this way in
their intrinsic or pure state.
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1.0 Semiconductor Material


1.1 Atomic structure
1.2 Materials classification
1.3 Covalent bonds
1.4 Intrinsic semiconductor
1.5 Extrinsic semiconductor
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Intrinsic Semiconductor
Also known as pure
semiconductor
Examples: Si, Ge, C
Electron and hole are
relatively small, Hence,
very small current are
possible.
Poor conductor
because the total
number of charge hole Free electron

carriers are small.


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1.0 Semiconductor Material


1.1 Atomic structure
1.2 Materials classification
1.3 Covalent bonds
1.4 Intrinsic semiconductor
1.5 Extrinsic semiconductor
Doping
N-type and P-type
Charge Carriers
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Extrinsic Semiconductor- DOPING


At intrinsic state, the number of free electrons and
holes are limited.
Intrinsic semiconductors must be modified to
increase its conductivity.
The process to increase the number of current
carriers (electrons or holes) by adding impurities
to the intrinsic material is called doping.
Two types of impurities:
n -type
p -type
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N-Type Semiconductor
N-type Silicon
(majority electrons)
Impurity with 5
valence electrons
(pentavalent) are
added.
Example: antimony
(Sb), arsenic (As),
phrosphorus (P).
Sb (pentavalent atom) is a donor
atom.
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P-Type semiconductor
Created by adding
trivalent impurity atoms
into an intrinsic
material to increase
the number of holes.
Trivalent atom is an
atom with three
valence electrons such
as aluminium (Al),
boron (B), indium (In),
and gallium (Ga).
B (trivalent atom) is an acceptor
atom.
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Charge Carriers
N-Type
Free electrons acquired by the doping process are called
majority carriers.
Holes produced by thermally generated electron-hole
pairs are called minority carriers.
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Charge Carriers
P-Type
Holes acquired by the doping process are called majority
carriers.
Free electrons produced by thermally generated electron-
hole pairs are called minority carriers.
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Check up
1. Define doping?

2. What is the charge carriers in n-type semiconductor?

3. What is the charge carriers in p-type semiconductor?

4. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic


semiconductors?