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Hypodermic Needle Theory

The hypodermic theory is an implied mass media, which has a direct,

immediate and powerful effect on its audience. All of the mass media back
in the 1940s and 50s were perceived as a powerful influence on behaviour
change. This theory is all about communication and it has an incredible
strong effect. Such as the fast rise in the popularisation of radio drama
and in the television industry. The emergence of the persuasion industries,
such as advertising and propaganda. This is a very interesting theory,
which gets into the audience minds by showing them something on
television and the audience wanted it like nothing else. Mass media
companies are influencing very large groups of people directly informing
them with appropriate massages designed to trigger a desired response.
However, this theory has always been questioned against, because media
is a dangerous way of communicating to people because the receiver of
the audience is powerless to resist the message. It is as though they have
no choice what so ever and its just the TV companies or the government
controlling people and telling their minds how they think it and what they
should do. Personally, I believe it is morally
wrong. To this theory there are strengths and
weaknesses, such as the use of numbers and
statistics can be effective and reliable way of
seeing trends, also effect studies often involve a
large number participants and sometimes extend
over long periods of time which are the strengths
of the hypodermic theory. All of the weaknesses
that comes along with this theory is that it is too
simplistic and it changes to many attitudes and
beliefs, this is because people all have different
views of what they see on television. Audience
interprets media differently to others.

Uses & Gratifications Theory

The uses and gratifications theory is a popular approach to understanding

mass communication, the theory is more focused on the audience and the
consumer instead of the actual message itself asking what people do with
media rather than what media does to people. It pretty much assumes
that the audience are not passive but they take an active role in
interpreting and integrating media into their own lives. This theory also
states that audiences are responsible for choosing their own media to
meet their own needs. Therefore, if there is a revolting channel on
television you have the choice to change the channel onto something that
suits you better. The approach of this theory suggests that people use the
media to fulfil specific gratifications.
When choosing a form of media there is many variables to consider, so
the audience needs to identify what product or person is in front of you.
There are different models within television allowing them all to be
different with a bunch of different variables. So for example educational
television which acquires you with information, knowledge and an
understanding of whats happening. Entertainment channels that are
comedy made to entertain the audience, making the audience not think
about their day-to-day lives. Social interaction within the media, speaking
about a topic and interacting with each other producing topics to talk
The uses and gratification theory can be seen in cases such as personal
music selection, we select only music that we personally like ourselves. In
addition, it depends what type of mood you are in such as if you are in a
great mood you may want to listen to some Bruno Mars, which is upbeat
and gives of a happy vibe or sad music like James Bay which would be
when you are in a sad mood. There is various different genres and types
of music and we choose from them to fulfil a particular need. The main
idea from the Uses and gratification model is that people are not helpless
victims of all powerless media, but use media to fulfil their various needs.

Reception Study

Reception study has three different types of models, which are dominant,
oppositional and negotiated. Dominant reading is when the reader fully
shares the text codes and accepts and reproduces the preferred reading in
such a stance so that the code seems natural and transparent. Negotiated
reading is where the reader partly shares texts codes and broadly accepts
the preferred reading, but sometimes resists and modifies it in a way that
reflects their own position, experience and interests. Final model is called
oppositional reading which is where the reader whose social situation
places them in a directly oppositional relation to the dominant code,
understand the preferred reading but does not share the texts code and
rejects of this reading, bringing to bear an alternative frame reference.
The reception study is changing due to the neuroscience and the new
brain sciences.

Passive or Active Consumption

passive consumption is where the audience does not engage or question

the media messages they just accept it without thinking about the
message the media intentionally imply to the audience. Media outlets
intend to this, they want to do this when making a show or a film they
want the audience to view it but not question anything about it. An active
consumption is the complete opposite to what passive consumption
consists of. Active consumption is where the audience discuss all of the
medias messages between themselves and they refer to the media
messages from past life experiences. There is a great difference between
the two simply because they both have opposite meanings.