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1. Whats the weather like today?

It is a mixture of cloudy and sunny, it is variable, sometimes it gets very cold and
then it changes and it is very hot, it depends.

2. Whats your favorite type of weather?

I think that my favorite type of weather is when it is cold, it isnt because I like
freezing temperatures, and honestly I rather shiver than sweat.

3. Do you think the weather is changing? If so, why do you think this is?
Of course it is, I strongly believe that it radically changed due to the unawareness
and careless actions of men.

4. Which countries have suffered extreme weather conditions recently?

Nicaragua, African countries, The UK, and according to experts Peru is about to
meet with the Nio phenomenon.

5. What do you think is the biggest threat to the world at the moment?
Greenhouse gases, being that these gases make gaps on the ozone layer, which falls
in vulnerability against the ultraviolet rays and their temperature consequences.

6. What is climate change?

Its when the clime has irregularities in its way of displaying.

7. What is the greenhouse effect?

Is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's
surface to a temperature above what it would be in the absence of its atmosphere.

8. What is the evidence of global warming?

The degradation of ecosystems, the increase of temperature, the dying of various
species, etc.

9. How will the weather change?

It will be irregular, it wont act like it should, and also it will not follow the seasons

10. What is the international community doing?

It is making agreements like the Kyoto Protocol (1997) commits industrialized
countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. It suffered a huge set back in
2001 when the USA, responsible for a quarter of global emissions, pulled out.

11. What does it mean to be green or to have a green thumb?

To be pro nature, to help against the pollution, to do anything to prevent the
dilapidation of nature and clime.
12. Is it easy to be green in your town?
Well it isnt, because we dont have the needed implements to follow a well-
structured green life.

13. What are some ways to be green in your town?

Well if anyone wants to be green the only way to be it is by not polluting, we
have no green culture, and I dont know any other way to act green.


Do the following quiz to find out how green you are.

14.) You are busy in your house tidying up going from room to room spending 5 to
10 minutes in each. Which is the best way to save energy?
a) Switch the lights on and off every time you move from room to room b) Keep
the lights on as you move about the house
15.) You are hungry and want to bake a potato. Which method is greener?
a) Put it in an electric oven for an hour b) Quickly zap it in the
16.) You are thirsty so you go to a caf to buy a drink. What do you choose?
a) A bottle of mineral water b) A cup of coffee in a polystyrene cup
17.) You need a new shirt / blouse and there are two that you like in the shop. You
look at the label and see that one is made of 100% pure natural cotton and the other
is 50% polyester. You want to be as environmentally friendly as you can.
Which one do you choose?
a) The 100% cotton shirt b) The 50% polyester shirt
18.) Do you leave the tap on when you brush your teeth?
a) Yes b) No
19.) As well as putting their health and the health of those around them in danger,
smokers also put the environment in danger.
a) True b) False
20.) Which is the greenest way to wash your clothes?
a) Machine wash in cold water b) Hand wash in hot water

21.) Which form of transport is better for the environment?

a) Driving by car b) Flying by plane
22.) When you go to the supermarket, how do you take your shopping home?
a) In plastic carrier bags from the supermarket b) In your own bag or
23.) If you have the choice, how do you prefer to buy a cold drink in a caf?
a) In a can b) In a glass bottle

How many did you get right?

1-3 - You have a lot of changes to make if you want to be greener.

4-6 - Not bad! You know about how you can help the planet. You are quite green.

7-10 - Well done! You have a very green head on your shoulders!

24. What do you recycle?

Used paper for printing.

25. How does the system work?

I just print on the back of them.
26. Do you think its a good idea to recycle?
Yes it is.

27. What types of materials can be recycled?

Metal, Paper, Plastic, Glass and Organics.

Write in each column what goes were.

Paper/Wood Plastic Metal Glass Organic

Sheets Plastic Bags Cans Glass Fruit skin
Pencils CD Rust food Broken glass Food
utensils objects Leftovers
Notebook Plastic Bottle Screws Jar Bones
Colors pencils Ruler Keys Glass Bowl Rotten Meat

You will be asked two of these questions which you should be ready to answer
in detail.

28. Why is climate change the most serious threat to our planet at the moment?

Because it indirectly affects our health, wellness and in general It privates a good
life development.

29. Should all countries be forced to apply serious regulations to reduce carbon

Yes it should be done like that.

30. Do you think that normal people cant do much to stop global warming?

We, mortals cannot do as much as rich people could do, but if we work as a one,
we will change the world.
31. What are some things that everyone can do to save energy?

Turn off the lights or electronic devices when not using them, Use alternative ways
of energy, etc.

32. Are you worried about climate change? Why?

Yes because now we are extremely vulnerable against skin problems, sight
problems, etc.

33. Do you think that climate change is as serious as people say or do you think
that people just like to worry about something?

It is really serious, this is not just regular people complaining about the clime, the
people who say this things are experts, they know what they are talking about,
because they do research before even expressing their opinion.

34. Do you think there are simply too many people living on planet earth? How
can we slow this down?

Yes, we can limit the child that a family should have, but that sounds awful to me.

35. Are we going to lose many animal species and areas of low land in the very
near future because of global warming? Which ones? Where?

Yes I guess so, I think that the areas that are going to be most affected are the
coasts, due to the melting of ice capes.


The temperature in different parts of the World has been increasing in recent
decades. The global average temperature has increased by 0.6 C 0.20 C over the
last century. Globally, 1998 was the warmest year and the 1990s the warmest
decade in comparison. Many countries have experienced increases in rainfall,
particularly in the countries situated in the mid to high latitudes.

In some regions, like Asia and Africa, the frequency and intensity of droughts have
been observed to increase in recent decades. Episodes of El Nio phenomenon,
which creates great storms, have been more frequent, persistent and intense since
the mid-1970s compared with the previous years. All these are signs that the Earth
is ailing. Its climate is changing, making it more difficult for men to survive. The
earth is losing its equilibrium due to the imbalances created by human activities.

Predictions for Future climate change are derived from a series of experiments
made by global climate models. These are calculated based on factors like future
population growth, energy use, etc.

These studies have shown that in the near future the global surface temperature
will rise by 1.4C 5.8 C. this warming will be greatest over land areas, and at
high latitudes. The projected rate extreme is likely to increase, leading to floods or
drought. There will be fewer colds but more heat waves. The frequency and
intensity of the El Nio phenomenon is likely to increase.

The global sea level is projected to rise by the coming years. More than half of the
worlds population now lives approximately within 60 km of the sea. They are
likely to be seriously impacted by the entry of salt water and by the rising sea.
Human societies will be seriously affected by extremes of climate such as droughts
and floods. A changing climate would bring about changes in the frequency
and/or intensity of these extremes. This is also a fundamental concern for human
health. To a large extent, public health depends on safe drinking water, sufficient
food, secure shelter, and good social conditions. All these factors are affected by
climate change.

Freshwater supplies may be seriously affected, reducing the availability of clean

water for drinking and washing during drought as well as floods. Water can be
contaminated and sewage systems may be damaged. The risk of spread of
infectious diseases such as diarrheal also indirectly through an increase in pests
and plant or animal diseases.

The local reduction in food production would lead to starvation and malnutrition
with land-term health consequences, especially for children. Food and water
shortages may lead to conflicts in vulnerable regions. Climate change related
impacts on human health could lead to displacement of a large number of people,
creating environmental refugees and lead to further health issues.

Now, I will list in a chart the pros and cons of Thermal Pollution:

Pros: Cons:
The power plants which produce that Problems for fish, amphibians and
pollution also create a good amount of other aquatic organisms.
power for the cities.
It disrupts the food chains of the
The thermal change sometimes help for environment causing overpopulation
the ecosystems, it is called thermal and/or extinction.
The lakes or rivers near those power
Thermal pollutions is very easy to plants will get contaminated and all the
control using cooling ponds, cooling species will end up unable to reproduce
towers, etc. because of the poor conditions.

Chapter 22:

Pages 136-139

Pg. 136.-

1. Speaking
a. I live in the south western coast of South America, the clime is very
hot, tropical-ish, with high humidity.
b. Yes it definitely does.
c. For me the perfect weather would a mix of warm and fresh, and also
with the sun barely showing.
d. Yes.
e. That the overall annual temperature has raised enormously in
comparison of past years.

2. Reading
a. It is just reporting facts, like statistics, scientific statements and future
temperature rates.
b. There are scientists, politicians, and climatologists.
c. They say that temperature will increase if greenhouse emissions do
not stop also that they only way to solve it is by international
Pg. 137.-

3. Vocabulary
a. Climate change is affecting the whole world, greenhouse gas
emissions do not help to reduce the amount of droughts and floods,
Ice caps are melting and carbon dioxide is now less absorbable by
the ozone layer, which causes a cumulative effect therefore the
phenomenon that we all know and love called <<Global
b. Torrential-rain, High-tide, Ice-cap, Sea-forecast, Below-freezing, Long
range-defences, Ozone-layer, Heat-wave, Carbon-footprint.
c. Torrential rains, ice cap, sea forecast, the ozone layer, below freezing.

Pg. 138.-

4. Interpreting and comparing

a. Main weather features, Rio de Janeiro, Stockholm, visibility,
pollution, temperatures, humidity, Buenos Aires.
b. 1-B, 2-A, 3-D, 4-C.
c. On the other hand, However, Whereas, Contrary to, Indeed, because.

Pg. 139.-

d. In conclusion we can say that the worlds temperature has

significantly risen over the last couple of decades; On it may be said
that we are experiencing more the whole weather extreme
conditions; Therefore, all scientists are concluded that the following
climate change interest can be increased; Given that it may be a threat
to climate unless the countries deduced to reduce this carbon
5. Vocabulary
a. Increase, rise, decrease, decline, reduction, fall, deep.
b. Upwards change= increase, rise; Downwards change= decrease,
decline, reduction, fall, deep.
c. It is both, an irregular rising and falling in number or amount; a
d. Minimal= small; Steady= stable, Marked= evident, Quick= rapid.


1. Metaphysics: Metafsica
The branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things
2. Dilapidate: Dilapidar
Cause (something) to fall into disrepair or ruin.
3. Breach: Incumplimiento
An act of breaking or failing to observe a law, agreement, or code of
4. Furthermore: Adems
In addition; besides
5. Thus: Por lo tanto
As a result or consequence of this; therefore.
6. Signifies: Significa
Be an indication of.
7. Distinction: Distincin
A difference or contrast between similar things or people.
8. De re: De re
Relating to the properties of things mentioned in an assertion or expression,
rather than to the assertion or expression itself.
9. De dicto: De dicto
Relating to the form of an assertion or expression itself, rather than any
property of a thing it refers to.
10. Ex nihilo: Ex Nihilo
Out of nothing.
11. Harm: Lastimar
Physically injure.
12. Fatuous: Fatuo
Silly and pointless.
13. Gravitas: Gravitas
Dignity, seriousness, or solemnity of manner.
14. Elucidate: Elucidate
Make (something) clear; explain.
15. Facsimile: Facsmil
Make a copy of.
16. Outlive: Sobrevivir
Live longer than another person.
17. Mourn: Llorar
Feel or show deep sorrow or regret for someone or their death.
18. Admonish: Amonestar
Warn or reprimand someone firmly.
19. Sluggish: Lento
Slow-moving or inactive.
20. Ennui: Tedio
A feeling of listlessness and dissatisfaction arising from a lack of occupation
or excitement.
21. Entropy: Entropa
Lack of order or predictability; gradual decline into disorder.
22. Demeanor: Comportamiento
Outward behavior or bearing.
23. Maelstrom: Tornado
A powerful whirlpool in the sea or a river.
24. Excerpt: Extracto
A short extract from a film, broadcast, or piece of music or writing.
25. Solicitor: Abogado
The chief law officer of a city, town, or government department.
26. Tide: Marea
The alternate rising and falling of the sea.
27. Marsh: Pantano
An area of low-lying land that is flooded in wet seasons or at high tide.
28. Causeway: Calzada
A raised road or track across low or wet ground.
29. Inn: Posada
An establishment providing accommodations, food, and drink, especially
for travelers.
30. Supper: Cena
An evening meal, typically a light or informal one.
31. Mist: Niebla
A cloud of tiny water droplets suspended in the atmosphere at or near the
earth's surface limiting visibility.
32. Ubiquitous: Ubicuo
Present, appearing, or found everywhere.
33. Copse: Bosquecillo
A small group of trees.
34. Theism: Tesmo
Belief in the existence of a god or gods,
35. Act: Acto
a thing done; a deed.
36. Potency: Potencia
The power of something to affect the mind or body.
37. Accident: Accidente
An event that happens by chance or that is without apparent or deliberate
38. Substance: Sustancia
A particular kind of matter with uniform properties.
39. Immaterial: Inmaterial
Spiritual, rather than physical.
40. Body: Cuerpo
The physical structure of a person or an animal, including the bones, flesh,
and organs.
41. Change: Cambio
The act or instance of making or becoming different.
42. Essence: Esencia
Tthe intrinsic nature or indispensable quality of something.
43. Theology: Teologa
The study of the nature of God and religious belief.
44. Epistemology: Epistemologa
The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity,
and scope.
45. Logic: Lgica
Reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity.
46. Ethic: tica
A set of moral principles.
47. Moral: Moral
A person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not
acceptable for them to do.
48. Consider: Considerar
Think carefully about something.
49. Minute: Minuto
A period of time equal to sixty seconds or a sixtieth of an hour.
50. Accord: Acuerdo
An official agreement or treaty.
51. Evident: Evidente
Plain or obvious; clearly seen or understood.
52. Practice: Prctica
Repeated exercise in or performance of an activity or skill so as to acquire or
maintain proficiency in it.
53. Intend: Intencin
Design or destine (someone or something) for a particular purpose or end.
54. Concern: Preocupacin
Anxiety; worry.
55. Commit: Cometer
Carry out or perpetrate (a mistake, crime, or immoral act).
56. Issue: Asunto
An important topic or problem for debate or discussion.
57. Approach: Enfoque
A way of dealing with something.
58. Establish: Establecer
Achieve permanent acceptance or recognition for.
59. Utter: Total
Complete; absolute.
60. Conduct: Conducta
The action or manner of managing an activity or organization.
61. Engage: Engranar
Participate or become involved in.
62. Obtain: Obtener
Be prevalent, customary, or established.
63. Scarce: Escaso
Insufficient for the demand.
64. Policy: Poltica
A course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government,
party, business, or individual.
65. Straight: Derecho
In a straight line; directly.
66. Stock: Valores
The goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a business or warehouse
and available for sale or distribution.
67. Apparent: Aparente
Clearly visible or understood; obvious.
68. Property: Propiedad
A thing or things belonging to someone; possessions collectively.
69. Fancy: Elegante
A feeling of liking or attraction, typically one that is superficial or transient.
70. Concept: Concepto
An abstract idea; a general notion.
71. Court: Corte
A tribunal presided over by a judge, judges, or a magistrate in civil and
criminal cases.
72. Appoint: Nombrar
Determine or decide on (a time or a place).
73. Passage: Pasaje
A narrow way, typically having walls on either side
74. Vain: Vano
Having or showing an excessively high opinion of one's appearance,
abilities, or worth.
75. Instance: Ejemplo.
An example or single occurrence of something.
76. Coast: Costa
The part of the land near the sea; the edge of the land.
77. Project: Proyecto
A government-subsidized housing development with relatively low rents.
78. Commission: Comisin
A group of people officially charged with a particular function.
79. Constant: Constante
A situation or state of affairs that does not change.
80. Circumstances: Circunstancias
A set of circumstances in which one finds oneself; a state of affairs.
81. Constitute: Constituir
Be a part of a whole.
82. Level: Nivel
A position on a real or imaginary scale of amount, quantity, extent, or
83. Affect: Afectar
Emotion or desire, especially as influencing behavior or action.
84. Institute: Instituir
A society or organization having a particular object or common factor.
85. Render: Hacer
Cause to be or become; make.
86. Appeal: Apelacin
A serious or urgent request, typically one made to the public.
87. Generate: Generar
Cause something to arise or come about.
88. Theory: Teora
A supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something.
89. Range: Rango
The area of variation between upper and lower limits on a particular scale.
90. Campaign: Campaa
A series of military operations intended to achieve a particular objective
91. League: Liga
A collection of people, countries, or groups that combine for a particular
92. Labor: Labor
Work, especially hard physical work.
93. Confer: Conferir
Grant or bestow (a title, degree, benefit, or right).
94. Grant: Conceder
A sum of money given by an organization, for a particular purpose.
95. Entertain: Entretener
Provide (someone) with amusement or enjoyment.
96. Contract: Contratar
A written or spoken agreement, especially one concerning employment,
sales, or tenancy that is intended to be enforceable by law.
97. Earnest: Serio
Resulting from or showing sincere and intense conviction.
98. Yield: Rendimiento
The full amount of an agricultural or industrial product.
99. Wander: Vagar
Walk or move in a leisurely, casual, or aimless way.
100. Insist: Insistir
Demand something forcefully, not accepting refusal.
101. Knight: Cabalero
A man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.
102. Convince: Convencer
Cause someone to believe firmly in the truth of something.
103. Inspire: Inspirar
Fill with the urge or ability to do or feel something, especially to do
something creative.
104. Convention: Convencin
A large meeting or conference, especially of members of a political party or
a particular profession.
105. Skill: Habilidad
The ability to do something well; expertise.
106. Harry: Acosar
Persistently carry out attacks.
107. Financial: Financiero
Of or relating to finance.
108. Reflect: Reflejar
Think deeply or carefully about.
109. Novel: Novela
A fictitious prose narrative of book length, typically representing character
and action with some degree of realism.
110. Furnish: Amueblar
Provide a house or room with furniture and fittings.
111. Venture: Riesgo
A risky or daring journey or undertaking.
112. Territory: Territorio
An area of land under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state.
113. Temper: Genio
A person's state of mind seen in terms of their being angry or calm.
114. Bent: Talent
A natural talent or inclination.
115. Intimate: ntimo
A very close friend.
116. Undertake: Emprender
Commit oneself to and begin a responsibility; take on.
117. Majority: Mayora
The greater number.
118. Assert: Afirmar
State a fact or belief confidently and forcefully.
119. Crew: Tripulacin
A group of people who work closely together.
120. Chamber: Cmara
A large room used for formal or public events.