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OIL PRICE DYNAMICS REPORT

Updated: April 17, 2017


.

Oil prices rose slightly owing to decreasing supply.


A perceived tightening in supply drove oil prices up for the third The 2017:Q1 developments largely offset the 2016:Q4 oil price
consecutive week, although at a slower pace than in previous increase that was driven by contracting supply and strengthening,
weeks. In 2017:Q1, steadily loosening supply conditions triggered albeit volatile, global demand.
a decline in oil prices.
Overall, since the end of 2014:Q2, both lower global demand
expectations and looser supply have held oil prices down, though
this trend seems to have reversed in 2016:Q2 and 2016:Q4.

Our analysis of oil price movements does not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Federal Reserve System,
or the Federal Open Market Committee.

NY Fed / Research & Statistics Group 2017 Federal Reserve Bank of New York Oil Price Dynamics Report / April 17, 2017 1
Cumulative Weekly Decomposition, Jan 06-Apr 14, 2017 Recent Decomposition Data
. change
Percentage The chart at left depicts the cumulative oil price decomposition
20 20
Brent price from January 6, 2017.
Jan 6
$57.10 The table below presents the most recent cumulative values.
10 10

Residual
Cumulative Percentage Changes since January 6, 2017
0 0
Demand
Brent crude Demand Supply Rest Brent
price
-10 -10
Mar 31, 2017 0.3 -10.2 2.2 -7.8
Supply Apr 07, 2017 1.4 -8.8 4.1 -3.3
Apr 14, 2017 1.5 -8.3 4.4 -2.4
-20 -20
Jan 6 Feb 6 Mar 6 Apr 6
Sources: Authors calculations; Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters; Bloomberg L.P.
Notes: Residual re ects price movements unexplained by supply and demand factors.
Supply, demand, and residual sum to Brent crude price.

Cumulative Weekly Decomposition, 2010-Present Longer-Term View of Oil Price Movements


Percentage change This nal chart provides a somewhat longer-term perspective by
100 100
Brent price means of a cumulative decomposition from 2010 onward.
Jan 8, 2010 Residual
75 75
$81.37 The analysis shows that excess supply became a signi cant driver
50 50
of oil prices in mid-2012 and generally dominated price dynamics
25 25 after mid-2014.
0 0
Demand
-25 -25

-50 Supply -50

-75 -75

-100 Brent crude -100


price
-125 -125
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sources: Authors calculations; Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters; Bloomberg L.P.
Notes: Residual re ects price movements unexplained by supply and demand factors.
Supply, demand, and residual sum to Brent crude price.

NY Fed / Research & Statistics Group 2017 Federal Reserve Bank of New York Oil Price Dynamics Report / April 17, 2017 2
Oil Price Decomposition Q&A
.

1. What is the goal of the oil price decomposition? References


Our aim is to determine how much of the observed oil price change has Groen, J., and P. Russo. 2016. Lower Oil Prices and U.S. Economic
been driven by demand and supply factors. Activity. Liberty Street Economics, May 2.
Groen, J., and P. Russo. 2015. Is Cheaper Oil Good News or Bad News for
2. What is the modeling strategy? the U.S. Economy? Liberty Street Economics, June 8.
Using a statistical model and a large number of nancial variables, we Groen, J., K. McNeil, and M. Middeldorp. 2013. A New Approach for
decompose weekly oil price changes into demand effects, supply effects, Identifying Demand and Supply Shocks in the Oil Market. Liberty Street
and an unexplained residual. Economics, March 25.
Sparse partial least squares regression allows us to construct linear
combinations from the variables in our nancial market data setcalled
Authors
factorswhich have maximum explanatory content for oil price changes.
We rst use this procedure to generate factors that best capture the Brandyn Bok and Jan Groen
patterns in the data, and then examine the estimated factors to determine
how they re ect demand or supply dynamics.
The model is re-estimated every week using weekly data from January
1986 through the close of business on Friday of the most recent week.
Over this sample, the model can explain about two-thirds of the weekly oil
price dynamics.

3. How to interpret the results?


The output of the model is used to decompose weekly changes in an
accounting sense. More speci cally, the weekly Brent crude price change
always equals the change explained by demand factors plus the change
explained by supply factors plus a residual (the weekly change
unexplained by the sum of the estimated demand and supply factors).
Given the noise in weekly price changes, we choose to show the results
as a cumulation from a certain starting point (usually the start of the
previous quarter).

NY Fed / Research & Statistics Group 2017 Federal Reserve Bank of New York Oil Price Dynamics Report / April 17, 2017 3