Sie sind auf Seite 1von 283

SCIENCE

Standard X

Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman

Standard X Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman College Road, Chennai

College Road, Chennai - 600 006.

© Government of Tamilnadu First Edition - 2004 Revised Edition - 2009

Chairperson

Dr. A. SUBBIAH PANDI

Reader in Physics

Presidency College (Autonomous) Chennai - 600 005

PHYSICS

Reviewer Dr. K. Sakthi Murugesan Senior Lecturer in Physics, Dr. Ambedkar Govt. Arts College, Vyasarpadi, Chennai - 600 039

Authors Dr. S. Pandi Reader in Physics Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005 G. Anbalagan Lecturer in Physics A.A. Govt. Arts College, Vilupuram N.A. Masilamani Headmaster, Govt. (Hindu) High School, Rasathupuram, Vellore District - 632 509

CHEMISTRY

Reviewer Dr. R. Nanthini Reader in Chemistry, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai - 600 030 Authors I. Rose Kumari Selection Grade Lecturer in Chemistry Queen Mary’s College, Chennai - 600 004 R.C. Saraswathi PG Asst. in Chemistry, Govt. Girls Hr. Sec. School, Ashok Nagar, Chennai - 600 083

Price : Rs.

BOTANY

Reviewer

Dr. K. Ajithadoss Reader in Botany Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005 Authors S.S. Rathina Kumar Selection Grade Lecturer in Botany, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005 Dr. Renu Edwin Lecturer in Botany, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005.

A. Parimmala Devi

Asst. Headmistress, Govt. Girls Hr. Sec. School, Ashok Nagar, Chennai - 600 083.

ZOOLOGY Reviewer Dr. K. Valivittan

Reader in Zoology, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005. Authors Dr. Susan Edward Headmistress, Dr. Ambedkar Govt. Hr. Sec. School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008.

V. Srinivasa Venkatanathan,

Lecturer in Zoology, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005. Indira Vincent Lecturer in Zoology, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005.

This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M. Paper.

PREFACE

Science dictates almost every field of our activities. Science is responsible for bringing out the vast social changes that we witness today. The impact of science and technology on society has led man from stone age to information age. Science has entirely transformed our standard of living with new dimensions.

The students have to be prepared to face the challenges of fast developing world, based on science and technology. The present text-book of science is an effort in making the children to be the future scientists in various disciplines. This text-book has been prepared strictly according to the revised syllabus (2003). We have attempted to present the basic concepts and their applications in day-to-day life.

This book consists of 15 chapters in different branches of science viz., physics, chemistry and biology. Every chapter starts with an introduction highlighting the importance and applications of the concepts in that chapter. A number of activities have been given. These activities may be modified and performed using the low cost, easily available and discarded materials. Science is the process of discovering the natural world. Science is not just memorising facts. It is a method of thinking process. It is about asking questions like what, how and why. Learning to ask questions and learning to question the answers are the two invaluable skills that the young children have to develop. It is our hope that the teachers encourage the students to do such activities. There is a Chinese proverb saying “I hear, I forget; I read, I remember; I do, I understand”. So, the demonstrations and activities should be an integral part of the teaching-learning process in the classroom.

A large number of clearly drawn and neatly labelled diagrams have been included wherever necessary.

This will definitely help the students to understand the concepts and experiments effectively. Additional information have been summarised in the form of tables. Feynman, Nobel laureate in physics, once said “you do not know anything until you have practised”. In keeping with this statement, the most important skill the students should develop is the ability to solve problems. So, adequate number of solved problems and exercises have been provided in this book.

To evaluate the knowledge and skills gained by the students, questions of different varieties, problems and activities have been designed and given at the end of each chapter.

While preparing for the examination, students should not restrict themselves, only to the questions / problems given in the self evaluation. They must be prepared to answer the questions and problems from the entire text.

Kothari Education commission report says, “If science is poorly taught and badly learnt, it is little more than burdening the young mind with dead information, and it could degenerate even into a new superstition”. Science education in addition to providing the students a sound knowledge, cultivate scientific skills and inculcate a scientific temper.

I, as the Chairperson, thank the authors, reviewers and those who have been associated with the

development of this book.

We welcome feedback from students, teachers and parents for the improvement of the book. Your comments and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.

Dr. A. Subbiah Pandi Chairperson

iii

CONTENTS

Preface

iii

Cover Illustration

iv

 

Syllabus

v

PHYSICS

1.

Mechanics and Properties of Matter

1

2.

Heat

19

3.

Light

34

4.

Electricity and its effects

60

5.

Atomic and Nuclear Physics

82

CHEMISTRY

6.

Chemical Reactions

95

7.

Chemical Compounds

110

8.

Metals and Non-metals

120

9.

Carbon Compounds

149

BIOLOGY

10.

Levels of Organisation

163

11.

Cell Biology

188

12.

Reproductive Biology

202

13.

Diseases and Immunology

222

14.

Our Environment

235

15.

Applied Biology

253

viii

COVER ILLUSTRATION

TOP : Cut-away view inside a human eye. The image is upside down because of the refraction of light through eye lens. BOTTOM LEFT : Dolly the sheep, born in 1997, was the first large animal to be cloned from an adult. A cell from a sheep (Dolly's mother) was injected into an unfertilized sheep's egg that had its nucleus removed. The two cells were fused using a spark of electricity. The new cell was placed in the womb of a third sheep where it grew into Dolly. Dolly has exactly the same genetic characters as her mother. BOTTOM RIGHT : Thulasi (Ocimum sanctum) is a traditional medicinal plant effectively used for common cold. CENTRE : A glass blower uses a long tube to blow through, so the heat from the glass won't burn him. CENTRE RIGHT : Genes are made from a chemical called DNA. Each gene is one section of an enormously long DNA molecule. DNA is like a long ladder, twisted into a spiral. The rungs of the ladder carry coded information that body cells can use to make proteins. BACKGROUND : Light beams emerge from the end of a cable of optical fibres. The fibres are made from flexible glass. Telephone conversations travel along optical fibre cables as pulses of laser light. A thin optical - fibre cable can carry 40,000 digitized telephone cells at the same time.

SYLLABUS

, ,

v

vi

vii

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Practical Physics - Jerry. D. Wilson - Saunders College Publishing.

2. Science Experiments - H.J. Press - Scholastic.

3. Advanced Level Physics - Nelkon and Parker, C.B.S. Publishers.

4. Engineering Physics - R.K. Gaur & S.L. Gupta, Dhanpat Rai & Sons - New Delhi.

5. University Physics - Young & Freedom, Addison - Wesley.

6. Principles of Physics - Bueche and Jerde, McGran Hill.

7. Essential Science - Free Mantle Tidy, Oxford University Press.

8. Chemistry Matters - Richard Hart, Oxford University Press.

9. Introductory Chemistry - M. Katyal, Oxford University Press.

10. Chemistry - Facts, Patterns and Principles. Kneen, Rogers and Simpson - (ELBS), The English Language Book Society.

11. Physical Chemistry - P.L. Soni.

12. Advanced Organic Chemistry - Bahl and Arun Bhal.

13. Introductory Mycology - Alexopoulos & Mins.

14. Introductory, Microbiology - Pelizer.

15. Plant Physiology - Devlin & Witham CBS Publishers, Delhi.

16. A text book of Bio technology - R.C. Dubey, S.Chand Publications.

17. Ecology - H.D. Kumar

18. Plant Breeding - Choudhury - IBH.

19. Longman's medical embryology - T.W. Sadler.

20. Cell and Molecular Biology - De Robertis & Robertis - B.I. Publications - New Delhi.

21. A text book of fishery science & Indian fisheries - C.B.L. Srivastava. Kitab Mahal Publishers

22. Chordate Embryology - Developmental biology. Verma & Agarwal, S.Chand and Company.

23. Manual of Zoology - Ekambaranatha Iyer, Viswanathan Publishers.

24. Human Physiology - Guyton.

272

COVER ILLUSTRATION

TOP

:

Cut-away view inside a human eye. The image is upside down because of the refraction of light through eye lens.

BOTTOM LEFT

:

Dolly the sheep, born in 1997, was the first large animal to be cloned from an adult. A cell from a sheep (Dolly's mother) was injected into an unfertilized sheep's egg that had its nucleus removed. The two cells were fused using a spark of electricity. The new cell was placed in the womb of a third sheep where it grew into Dolly. Dolly has exactly the same genetic characters as her mother.

BOTTOM RIGHT

:

Thulasi (Ocimum sanctum) is a traditional medicinal plant effectively used for common cold.

CENTRE

:

A glass blower uses a long tube to blow through, so the heat from the glass won't burn him.

CENTRE RIGHT

:

Genes are made from a chemical called DNA. Each gene is one section of an enormously long DNA molecule. DNA is like a long ladder, twisted into a spiral. The rungs of the ladder carry coded information that body cells can use to make proteins.

BACKGROUND

:

Light beams emerge from the end of a cable of optical fibres. The fibres are made from flexible glass. Telephone conversations travel along optical fibre cables as pulses of laser light. A thin optical - fibre cable can carry 40,000 digitized telephone cells at the same time.

iv

PHYSICS

1. MECHANICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER

The branch of Physics dealing with the behaviour of matter under the action of forces is called Mechanics. Dynamics and Statics are the two branches of mechanics. The mathematical and physical study of the behaviour of bodies under the action of forces that produce changes of motion in them is known as dynamics. Statics deals with the cases where no motion is produced in the bodies under the action of forces. Objects have translational motion, rotational motion and vibrational motion. The motion of wheels, blades of fan, planets around sun and electrons around the nucleus of atoms are some examples of rotational motion. Elasticity, surface tension and viscosity are a few important physical properties of matter. These properties can be explained on the basis of forces between molecules of matter. A thorough knowledge of properties of matter is essential in identifying different materials available with us. This is useful in choosing proper materials for different applications. This study is made use in the branch of physics called Properties of matter.

In this chapter we shall study the basic concepts of projectile motion, circular motion, gravitation, planetary motion, surface tension, viscosity, Bernoulli’s theorem and their applications.

1.1 Motion of freely falling bodies and projectile motion

1. Freely falling bodies

When an object falls towards the earth under gravity in the absence of air resistance, it is called a freely falling body. All objects in free fall near the earth have the same acceleration called the acceleration due to gravity (g). The gravitational force acting on an object of mass (m) near the earth is its weight W = mg. The acceleration of an object in free fall is independent of its mass.

As air resistance normally acts on a falling body and opposes its motion, the object falls at a slower rate than in free fall.

Coin and feather experiment : Drop a coin and a feather simultaneously in a tube. Evacuate air from the tube and repeat the

in a tube. Evacuate air from the tube and repeat the Fig. 1.1 Coin and feather

Fig. 1.1 Coin and feather experiment

1.

falling feather

2. falling coin

3.

air

4. partial vacuumm

5.

vaccum device

same dropping. Observe that in the first case the coin which is heavier than the feather reaches the bottom of the tube more rapidly while the feather flutters down slowly. But in the second case the coin and the feather to fall together. From this experiment we understand that air resistance affects the motion of a falling body.

body

depends on its shape, size and speed.

Examples

The

air

resistance

on

a

falling

(1)

A skydiver with an unopened parachute falls quite rapidly and when the chute opens due to the shape and size of the body the air resistance increases and the descent is slowed. This is how the skydiving gives pleasure.

(2)

Automobiles are now streamlined in shape to reduce air resistance and improve fuel consumption.

1

(3)

When a body falls, it accelerates due to gravity and the retarding force of air resistance increases with speed. This continues till the force of air resistance equals the weight of the object. Now the object no longer accelerates but falls with a constant speed called the terminal velocity. The terminal velocity is about 200 km/hr for a skydiver with an unopened parachute.

(4)

While falling the skydivers use a "spread-eagle" position to increase the air resistance and prolong the time of

to increase the air resistance and prolong the time of Fig. 1.2 Air resistance in action

Fig. 1.2 Air resistance in action Spread-Eagle position

fall. When the parachute is opened, the fall is slowed by the additional resistive force.

2. Projectile motion

Any object which follows a path determined by the gravitational force and air resistance when an initial velocity is given, is called a projectile. A bullet shot from a rifle, a rocket after its fuel is exhausted, a javelin thrown by an athelate and a thrown cricket ball are examples of projectile. The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory.

1) Vertical projection

We often throw or toss things directly upward and this is a vertical projection. The initial velocity of the object is upward but the acceleration due to gravity is downward. Hence a vertically projected object at its maximum height stops instantaneously and changes its direction. Now it becomes a dropped object in free fall.

v = 0 v v v g g v v o v o g
v = 0
v
v
v
g
g
v
v o
v o
g

Fig. 1.3 Vertical projection

Acceleration remains constant and velocity varies.

(1) Equations of motion for bodies projected upwards

If a body is projected vertically upwards its velocity gradually decreases and when the body reaches the maximum height its velocity becomes zero.

The general equations of motion which are useful in discussing the projectile motion are,

v

s

v 2

=

=

=

u + at

1

ut +

at 2

2

u 2 + 2as

When the body is projected vertically upwards the equations of motion become,

v

s

v 2

=

=

=

u

ut

u 2

gt

1

2

gt 2

2gs

(1)

(2)

(3)

(2) Maximum height attained (h)

Let a body be projected vertically upwards with an initial velocity u. As it moves upwards its acceleration is taken as g. As the body goes up its velocity decreases and finally becomes zero (v = 0) when it reaches maximum height. Now the equation (3) becomes

2

u 2

h

=

=

2gh

u

2

2g

(4)

Hence the maximum height attained by a body is directly proportional to the square of its initial velocity u.

(3) Time of ascent (t 1 )

The time taken by a body thrown up to reach maximum height is called its time of ascent.

ascent. At the

maximum height its velocity v = 0.

Let

t 1

be

the time

of

Equation (1) becomes

0

=

u

gt 1

t 1

=

u

g (5)

(4) Time of descent (t 2 )

After reaching the maximum height, the body begins to travel downwards like a freely falling body.

The time taken by a freely falling body to reach the ground is called the time of

descent

positive.

(t 2 ).

In

this

case

u

=

0

and

g

is

Equation (2) becomes

By equation (4)

1 2 h = 0 + 2 gt 2 2h t 2 2 = g
1
2
h =
0 + 2 gt 2
2h
t 2 2 =
g
2h
t 2 = ÷
g
u 2
h =
2g
2
2
u
=
t 2
g
2g
2
u
=
2
g

3

t 2

=

u

g

(6)

Comparing equations (5) and (6)

t 1 =

t 2

It is an interesting fact that the time of ascent is equal to the time of descent in the case of bodies moving under gravity.

(5) Time of flight

The time of flight is the time taken by

given by the

ascent (t 1 ) and the time

a body

sum of

of descent (t 2 ).

=

to remain in

the time of

=

=

t 1 + t 2

u + u

g

g

2u

g

air

and is

Here t f

t f

(7)

(6) Velocity on reaching the ground

When a body is dropped from a height initial velocity u is zero. Let the final

h

velocity on reaching the ground be v.

its

Equation (3) becomes

 

v 2

= 2gh

v

= ÷ 2gh

(8)

from equation (4)

u

= ÷ 2gh

(9)

From equations (8) and (9) we conclude that the velocity of the body falling from a height h on reaching the ground is equal to

the velocity with which it is projected vertically upwards to reach the same height h.

Hence the upward velocity at any point in its flight is the same as its downward velocity at that point. The value of g at a place can be determined by noting the time taken (t) to cover a vertical height (h) in free

fall

2h

t 2

;

g

=

Problem : A body is thrown vertically

upwards and rises to a length of 10 metre.

Calculate (i) the velocity with which the body

was thrown upwards and (ii) the time taken by the body to reach the highest point.

Here

h

=

10

m,

v

=

0,

u

=

?,

 

g

=

9.8

ms 2

(i)

v 2

u 2

=

2gh

 
 

0

u 2

=

2

9.8

10

 

u 2

=

196

 

u

=

14

ms 1

 

(ii)

v

=

u

gt

0

=

14

9.8

t

t

= 1.43 second

Problem : A body is thrown up vertically with a velocity of 14.7 ms 1 from a tower of height 49 metre. Find the time required by the body to reach ground.

metre. Find the time required by the body to reach ground. Fig. 1.4 Vertically thrown body

Fig. 1.4 Vertically thrown body from the top of a tower

Let AB be the tower of height h.

A body projected from the point ‘A’ vertically upwards reaches the maximum height at C, from where it falls freely.

Let AC

Displacement of the body

u

= 14.7 ms

1 ,

g

=

=

=

=

x

s

=

h

9.8

x

(x + h)

=

49

m

2

ms

Time required to reach the ground = t

Using the equation of motion

s

=

49 =

1

ut + 2 gt 2

14.7 t

1

2 9.8

t 2

Dividing by 4.9 on both sides,

 

10

=

3t

t 2

t 2

3t

10

=

0

(t 5) (t + 2)

=

0

 

t

=

5 s

or

t

=

2 s

t cannot be negative.

t = 5 seconds.

2) Horizontal projection

A horizontally thrown ball and a bullet fired from a rifle held horizontally are the projectiles in the horizontal direction. For this type of projection there is an initial velocity u only in the horizontal or x-direction. But

4

v

u v u v u v
u
v
u
v
u
v

Fig. 1.5 Path of a projectile

A. Freely falling body

B. Horizontally projected body

there is no initial velocity in the vertical or y-direction. However, there is an acceleration in the downward direction due to gravity. Since there is no acceleration or force in the x-direction after it is projected, the projectile moves in this direction with a constant speed (u). As the object moves horizontally, it also falls in the downward direction due to gravity. In the downward direction, the motion is the same as that of a dropped object.

is

allowed to fall freely and another body B projected horizontally with a velocity u from the same height and at the same time. The

Let

us

consider

a

body

A

which

body B possesses simultaneously (i) uniform horizontal velocity u and (ii) a non-uniform vertical velocity v. As the body B travels down

its vertical velocity (v) increases due to acceleration due to gravity. But the horizontal velocity u remains constant. Hence the body

A which is freely falling and the body B

projected horizontally from the same height at

the same time will strike the ground simultaneously at different points.

But the two bodies at any instant will

be at the same vertical height above the ground.

Thus the motion of a freely falling body is same as that of a horizontally thrown projectile.

A stone released from a moving train behaves like the horizontal projectile B (Fig.1.5). As the path of B is a parabola, a stone released from a moving train also follows a parabolic path.

3)

Projection at an angle (Oblique projection)

Consider a body which is projected at

the

initial velocity of the projectile and be the angle of projection. Initial velocity can be resolved into two components viz. (i) the horizontal component u cos and (ii) the

an angle with the horizontal. Let

u

be

vertical component u sin . The path of the

Let u be vertical component u sin . The path of the Fig. 1.6 Projection at

Fig. 1.6 Projection at an angle

projectile ACB is a parabola and CD (h) is the maximum height reached by it.

The time (t) taken by the projectile to reach the maximum height is given by

t

u sin

=

g

(1)

The maximum height reached is given

by

h

u 2 sin 2

=

2g

(2)

The time of flight ( t f ) of a projectile is defined as the time taken by it to reach the horizontal plane after its projection. It is given by

The

t f

=

distance

2u sin

g

between

 

(3)

the

point

of

projection A and the point B where the projectile strikes the horizontal plane again is called its range (R). It is given by

u 2 sin 2

R =

(4)

(4)

g

shows

45 o

=

that

the

range

Equation

is

maximum when

Y

X R max
X
R max

Fig. 1.7 The projection angle is 45 o for maximum range

This is a consideration in several sports events such as shotput, javelin and golf where maximum ranges are desired.

1.2 Circular motion

Relation between Linear velocity and angular velocity

When a particle moves in a circle with a constant speed then the motion is known as uniform circular motion.

5

Consider an object moving in a circle with a uniform speed a round a fixed point

O as centre. B O r A
O as centre.
B
O
r
A

Fig. 1.8 Circular motion

If

the object moves from

A

to

B

so

that the radius OA moves through an angle ,

its angular velocity (

as the rate at which the radius vector sweeps.

If t is the time taken by the object to move

from A to B then,

)

about O

is defined

=

t

(1)

the angular velocity is

rad s 1 .

describe the circle once is called the period

of

object to

The

unit

of

The time taken T

by the

circular motion. It is given by

If

s

T =

is the length of

2

the arc AB, then

(2)

s

= r

s

t

=

r

t

(3)

The linear velocity v of the rotating object

is

given by

v

=

s

t

(4)

Substituting equation (1) and (4) in (3)

v

= r

(5)

This is the relation connecting the linear

velocity and the angular velocity of the object

in circular motion.

6

1. Centripetal force

Activity : Swing a stone tied to a string and observe that the stone follows a circular path. Let the string slip through your fingers

a circular path. Let the string slip through your fingers Fig. 1.9 Centripetal force 1. String

Fig. 1.9 Centripetal force

1. String

2. Stone

3. Tangential velocity

and observe that the stone no longer follows a circular path but flies off in the direction of the instantaneous velocity. This direction is tangential to the circular path.

From this activity we understand that a force acting on the stone pulls it towards the centre of the circle. This force is called the centripetal force. Centripetal force is the force needed to make an object travel in the circular path.

The centripetal force causes an acceleration towards the centre of the circle and this acceleration is called the centripetal

acceleration. The centripetal acceleration (a c )

of

is

given by

an

object

in

uniform

circular

motion

a c =

2

v

r

(6)

If

m is the mass of the object then the

centripetal force (F) is given by

F = mv 2

r

In terms of angular velocity ( )

(7)

of the

object, equation (7) becomes

2

m r

Centripetal force finds many practical applications

(1)

In washing machine’s spin cycle, water is separated from the clothes. The tub

F =

(8)

of the washer rotates rapidly. The force exerted on the water present in the clothes is not much enough to make the water

1
1

2

Fig. 1.10 Washing machine

1. Clothes

2. Tub of washer

travel in a circle with the clothes. The water flies off, leaving the clothes less wet due to lack of centripetal force.

The less desirable case of lack of centripetal force is when the rear wheel of an automobile spins in mud. The adhesion of the mud to the wheel which is the centripetal force in this case is not enough to hold the mud on the tyre. So it comes off tangentially to the tyre’s circular motion.

(3) Gravitational force between a satellite and the earth acts as a centripetal force, keeping the satellite in orbit.

2. Centrifugal force

We feel a force pushing us outward or away from the centre of curvature when we travel in a fast moving car rounding a sharp curve or in a rotating ride in an amusement park. This force is known as centrifugal force. It acts in the opposite direction to that of centripetal force. The centrifugal force is also given by

(2)

F

=

mv 2

r

When earth rotates about its own axis, the velocity of bodies near the equator is more than that at the poles. On earth the centrifugal force is minimum at the poles and maximum

7

at the equator. This is the reason why the poles of the earth are found to be nearly flat and the diameters of earth along the equator

and poles are different by 48 km.

The centripetal force required for a car or a bicycle to go round a circular curve depends on its speed and the radius of curvature of the curve.

3. Applications of centrifugal force

(1) The principle of centrifugal force is applied to the machines called centrifuges. They are used to separate materials of different weights or densities by spinning action. The liquid is rotated in a cylindrical vessel at a high speed with the help of an electric motor. The heavier particles move away from the axis of rotation and lighter particles move nearer to the axis of rotation.

The spinning drum in a washing machine to separate water from clothes is a centrifuge. Centrifuges are used in separating blood cells from plasma and cream from milk in dairy separators. Ultra centrifuges with speeds of the

order

viruses in solution.

10 5 rpm are used to concentrate

of

5

The holder of a centrifuge container is pivoted, so that the container will be in the horizontal position, when the centrifuge spins rapidly. The heavier materials migrate towards the outer end of the container. For example when blood samples are centrifuged, the red cells reach the bottom and lighter white cells go to the top of the tube. Sugar crystals are separated from molasses with the help of a centrifuge. Honey is also separated from bees wax with the help of a centrifuge.

(2) If a vehicle moves at very high speed over a curved path, the centrifugal force

force

frictional force between the road and the tyres of the vehicle. To prevent this, the

curved

the

the

makes it topple. This is because

2 centrifugal
2
centrifugal

mv

r

overcomes

tracks are always banked. It

means that the outer edge of the road

is

angle of elevation is given by

slightly elevated at an angle . This

= tan

1

2 v rg
2
v
rg

where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Due to banking of curves the centrifugal force balances with frictional force and equilibrium is reached. Thus toppling of vehicles is prevented on curved roads. This is known as banking of tracks. The racing track is designed like a concave disc for the same reason.

(3) Watt governor makes use of the centrifugal force for regulating the speed of an engine or machine.

It consists of two heavy balls B 1 and

R 1 and

S.

These rods are connected through the link rods

R 2 hinged at H, the end of the spindle

B 2 joined to the ends of the rods

end of the spindle B 2 joined to the ends of the rods Fig. 1.11 Watt

Fig. 1.11 Watt governor

B 2

S - Spindle

B 1 ,

- Heavy balls

L 1 ,

L 2

R 1 ,

R 2

-

- Link rods.

rods H - Hinged position,

L 1 and L 2 to a sleave m which can slide up and down on the spindle. As the speed of the engine increases, the speed of rotation of the spindle also increases and consquently the centrifugal force on the balls B 1 and B 2 increases. Now the balls and the sleave move up due to the increase in speed of rotation of the balls. This partially closes a valve which controls the entry of steam to the engine and the speed of the engine is checked. Thus the speed of the engine is regulated by regulating the supply of steam.

(4)

In circus there is an event known as the cage of death. In this event, a motor

cyclist drives a motor cycle at a high speed on the inner walls of a spherical cage of iron. But he does not fall off

the motor cycle even when he is upside down. The centrifugal force keeps the motor cyclist glued to his seat while driving his motor cycle inside the cage.

1.3 Gravitation

Planetary motion is one of the important periodic motions. According to Ptolemy’s (2nd century A.D.) geocentric theory, the earth was assumed to be at the centre of the universe and the sun, the moon, the planets and even the stars were thought to move around in complicated paths. Later Copernicus proposed a new theory called heliocentric theory (15 century A.D.) In this theory the sun was considered to be at the centre and the earth and other planets revolve around the sun in circular orbits of different radii. Copernicus also believed that the earth rotates on its axis once every day. The famous Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhatta who lived in the fifth century A.D. perceived the earth’s rotation on its axis.

Later in 16th century Tycho Brahe made very careful and accurate measurements of the motion of the planets and the sun. Based on the study of Tycho Brahe, another astronomer Kepler laid the foundation of modern astronomy. Kepler deduced three laws which accurately described the motions of planets about the sun. These laws formed the basis of the famous Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

1. Kepler’s laws First law (Law of orbits)

Each planet moves around the sun in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one of its foci.

An ellipse is a closed curve such that the sum of the distances from any point P on the curve to two fixed points (F 1 , F 2 ) remains constant. That is (F 1 P + F 2 P) is the same for all points P on the curve. In fig. F 1 is the position of the sun at one of the foci of the ellipse. P is the position of the planet revolving round the sun. The position A of the planet

8

where

perigee (A) and the position of the planet L

as

it

is

close

to

the

sun

is

known

position of the planet L as it is close to the sun is known Fig. 1.12

Fig. 1.12 Kepler’s first law

P - Planet,

F 1

- Sun,

A - Perigee,

L - Apogee

where it is farthest (L) from the sun is known as apogee.

Second law (Law of areas)

As the planet moves in its orbit, a line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

Let PQS and RST be the areas swept by the line joining the planet and the sun in equal intervals of time. Kepler found that these areas are equal. Hence the speed of the planet

that these areas are equal. Hence the speed of the planet Fig. 1.13 Kepler’s Second law

Fig. 1.13 Kepler’s Second law

S

- Position of

sun

P - Position of planet

must be maximum at the perigee position and minimum at the apogee position.

Third law (Law of periods)

The squares of the periods of revolution of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.

If R is the mean distance of the planet

its

from the sun and

revolution the third law states that

T

is

the

period

of

T 2

T 2

R 3

µ

R 3

= a constant

The planets with the mean distances from the sun, their orbital periods and velocities are listed in the table.

Table 1.1. Law of periods

Name

Time

Period

Mean

distance

from the

Mean

velocity

 

T

R

2

3

of

T

 

sun

(

 

10

3

(

10 25 )

Planet

   

(years)

 

R

m/s 1 )

 

years 2

 

(

10 9 m)

km 3

Mercury

0.241

 

57.91

47.875

 

2.991

Venus

0.615

108.21

35.056

2.985

Earth

1.000

149.60

29.806

2.987

Mars

1.881

227.94

24.144

2.988

Jupiter

11.862

778.30

13.072

2.985

Saturn

29.458

1427.00

9.651

2.986

Uranus

84.015

2869.00

6.804

2.990

Neptune

164.788

4498.00

5.438

2.984

Pluto

248.400

5900.00

4.732

3.004

About 100 years later, Newton demonstrated that Kepler’s laws were the consequence of a simple force that exists between any two masses. Newton’s law of gravitation and laws of motion, provide the basis for the motion of planets and satellites.

2.Newton’s universal law of gravitation

Everybody in the universe attracts every other body with a force which is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the two bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

are the masses of two

bodies separated by a distance r, the force of

attraction F between them is given by

If

m 1

and m 2

m 1 m 2 r
m 1
m 2
r

Fig. 1.14 Newton’s law of gravitation

F =

G m 1 m 2

r

2

where G is the universal constant of gravitation.

9

The value of

G

=

6.67

10 11

N m 2

Kg 2

The force of gravitation is directed along the line joining the two bodies.

If

m 1

=

m 2

=

1

kg

and r

=

1

m

 

then F

=

G

Thus the gravitational constant is equal to the force of attraction between two bodies each of mass 1 kg separated by a distance of 1 metre.

1.4 Surface Tension

Have you seen insects like ants, water-spider walking on the surface of water ? You have seen mosquitoes sit and move freely on the surface of stagnant water. When we sprinkle water at the roots of trees and shrubs, the sprinkled water gradually rises to their branches upwards. All these observations can be explained on the basis of a property of liquids.

Activity : Take a clean glass plate. Place very small amount of mercury on the plane surface. Observe that mercury assumes the

on the plane surface. Observe that mercury assumes the Fig. 1.15 Shape of a small and

Fig. 1.15 Shape of a small and big drop of mercury

form of a spherical drop. Place large amount of mercury on the plane surface observe that now mercury assumes ellipsoidal shape.

Activity : Place a greased sewing needle carefully on a water surface. The sewing needle makes a small depression in the surface.

The sewing needle makes a small depression in the surface. Fig. 1.16 Needle Floating on water

Fig. 1.16 Needle Floating on water

1. Tub

2. Water

3. Needle

Observe that the needle floats on the surface of water even though the density of the needle

is very much greater than that of water.

From the above activities we understand

that there exists a tension on the surface of

a

liquid which tends to contract the surface

to

a minimum area. This property of the liquids

is

known as surface tension.

Surface tension of a liquid is defined as the tangential force per unit length acting at right angles on an imaginary line drawn on the surface of the liquid. It’s unit is

N m

1 .

1. Molecular Forces :

Surface Tension is essentially a molecular phenomenon. There are two types of molecular forces of attraction (1) adhesive force and (2) cohesive force.

Forces between molecules of different

substances are called adhesive forces. The adhesive force is different for different pairs of substances. Gum or glue is an adhesive. The force of attraction between gum and paper

is an adhesive force.

Forces between molecules of the same substances are called cohesive forces. The cohesive forces are short range forces and therefore they are effective only up to a very small distance.

The adhesion of water to glass is stronger than the cohesion of water. On the other hand, the cohesion of mercury is greater than its adhesion to glass. The maximum distance at which the molecules can attract each other is called molecular range. The molecular range

is

of

the

order

of

10 8

cm.

2. Explanation of surface tension on

the basis of molecular theory :

A sphere drawn with the molecule as

centre and radius equal to the molecular range

is called the sphere of molecular influence.

The molecular forces are effective within this sphere of molecular influence. Therefore all the molecules lying within this sphere of

10

molecular influence exert a force of attraction on the molecule at the centre. These molecular forces are responsible for surface tension.

Laplace gave an explanation of the surface tension on the basis of molecular theory.

PQ represents the free surface of a liquid in a container.

Let A, B and C represent molecules with their spheres of influence drawn around them. The sphere of influence around the molecule A is well within the free surface

around the molecule A is well within the free surface Fig. 1.17 Inter Molecular forces 1.

Fig. 1.17 Inter Molecular forces

1. water

2. molecule-A

3. molecule-B, 4. molecule-C

PQ. Hence it is equally attracted in all directions by the molecules in the sphere of influence. Therefore the resultant force acting on the molecule A is zero.

In the case of molecule B the sphere of influence is partly outside the liquid surface PQ. The number of molecules in the upper half is less than that in the lower half. Thus the resultant force on B acts in the downward direction.

The molecule C is exactly on the free surface PQ. The sphere of influence around the molecule C is exactly half outside and half inside the liquid. Hence this molecule C is attracted in the downward direction with maximum force.

Thus we conclude that the molecules in the surface PQ are pulled downwards due to the resultant cohesive force. This makes the free surface of the liquid at rest behave like

a stretched elastic membrane. This force gives rise to the surface tension of the liquid.

3. Illustrations of Surface Tension

The following activities illustrate surface tension of liquids.

Activity : A wire ring is made as shown

in the figure and a loop of thread is attached

across the ring. The wire and thread are dipped

in a soap solution and taken out gently. Now

are dipped in a soap solution and taken out gently. Now Fig. 1.18 Illustrations of Surface

Fig. 1.18 Illustrations of Surface Tension

1. Wire ring puncturing

2. Soap film

3. Loop of thread before

4. loop of thread after puncturing

a film of the soap solution is formed across the ring. The zig-zag loop of the thread lies on the film.

If the film inside the loop of thread is punctured with a needle, then the loop takes the shape of a circle due to surface tension.

The surface of the liquid film pulls the thread radially outward as shown by the arrows.

Activity : A tumbler is filled to the brim with water. Some nails are put inside

the water so that water is displaced upwards.

A few more nails are added carefully. It is

found that water surface rises well above the edge of the tumbler but water does not

overflow. This is because the water surface stretches as water is displaced upwards.

Activity : If a brush is dipped in water

its bristles spread out. If it is taken out the

bristles come closer and cling together.

11

The above three activities show that the surface of a liquid acts like a stretched

show that the surface of a liquid acts like a stretched Fig. 1.19 Illustrations of Surface

Fig. 1.19 Illustrations of Surface Tension

1. Brush in water 2. Brush takenout from water

membrane and surface tension always tends to minimise the surface area of a liquid.

4. Capillary rise :

A glass tube with a very fine uniform bore is called a capillary tube. When a capillary tube is dipped vertically into a liquid contained in beaker, the liquid immediately rises or falls in the tube.

1

2

the liquid immediately rises or falls in the tube. 1 2 is the angle of contact

is the angle of contact for the given pair of solid and liquid. The angle of contact is defined as the angle between the tangent to the liquid surface at the point of contact and the solid surface inside the liquid.

If the angle of contact is acute, the level of liquid inside the capillary tube is higher than that in the beaker. This capillary rise is observed in the case of water. If the angle of contact is obtuse, the level of liquid inside the tube is lower than that in the beaker. This capillary fall is observed in mercury (

=90 o and

h = 0. The level of liquid remains the same.

For pure water and clear glass = 0 o .

This phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid in a capillary tube is called capillarity and this capillarity is due to the property of surface tension of liquids.

Examples of capillary action

140 o ). For

water in silver

tube,

(1)

The rise of sap in trees and plants.

(2)

The rise of kerosene or oil in the wick

of

an oil lamp or stove

(3)

The absorption of ink in a blotting paper.

(4)

Sandy soil is drier than clay : The interspaces between the particles of the

3 clay form finer capillaries and water rises to the surface quickly.

5. Applications of Surface Tension

Fig. 1.20 Capillary rise

1. Capillary tube

The rise or

2. Water

fall

of

3. Mercury

a

liquid

in

a very

narrow capillary tube is given by

where T

given liquid.

h

2T cos

=

r

g

is the surface tension of the

r

is the radius of the capillary tube

is the density of the liquid

g

is acceleration due to gravity

12

(1)

Capillary rise is responsible for rising

of

water

in plants.

In

an

oil lamp

or

stove the

oil

rises up the wick

due to

capillarity.

(2)

The purpose of applying soap to clothes is to spread it over large area. When soap is dissolved in water the surface tension of water is lowered. Surface tension always opposes the spreading of a liquid. By reducing surface tension we facilitate the liquid to spread over larger surfaces. This is why soap is used for washing. For the same reason The paste spreads more freely in the mouth and facilitates cleaning of the mouth.

(3)

When we pour oil on the surface of water it lowers the surface tension of water. Hence the mosquito breed sinks down and perishes.

(4)

In voyage at the high seas, when there are violent waves the sailors pour tins of oil around their boats or ships. Due to oil the surface tension of sea water is reduced thereby the height of water waves is also reduced.

(5)

A pen nib is split at the tip to provide the narrow capillary and the ink is drawn upto the tip continuously.

(6)

When molten lead is allowed to fall through the end of a narrow tube, lead drops assume spherical shape due to surface tension. In factories lead shots are manufactured in this way. Rain drops assume spherical shape due to surface tension of water.

that the liquid offers a frictional force. The resistance offered by fluids (liquids and gases) to relative motion between its different layers is called viscos force. This property is called viscosity.

The viscous forces are similar to frictional forces which resist relative motion between two bodies in contact.

Activity : Take two long cylinders, one filled with water while the other filled with glycerine. Take two identical lead shots and drop one in water and the other in glycerine at the same time. Observe that the lead shot dropped in water comes down more quickly and the leadshot in glycerine descends slowly.

This activity shows that the viscous force is more in the case of glycerine than that in the case of water.

1. Flow of liquid through a pipe :

Let us consider a liquid flowing through a pipe. There are two types of flow namely streamlined flow and tubulent flow. If all the particles of the liquid pass across a point with

1 2
1
2

1.5 Viscosity

Activity : Take three beakers one containing water, the other honey and the third glycerine. When all are poured in a funnel water immediately starts flowing while honey

1

2

in a funnel water immediately starts flowing while honey 1 2 3 Fig. 1.22 Flow of

3 Fig. 1.22 Flow of liquid through a pipe

1. Tube

2. Liquid

4 the same velocity, the flow is said to be stream lined. In this flow, a particle follows the same path throughout its motion. If the particles pass across a point with different velocities, the flow is turbulent. In this flow, a particle does not follow the same path throughout its motion. When a liquid flows slowly and steadily through a pipe, the velocity of the layer of the liquid in contact with the walls of the pipe is zero. As we move towards the axis of the tube, the velocity of the layers gradually increases and reaches a maximum value along the axis of the tube. In the case of streamlined flow of a river, the velocity is maximum for water on the upper layer (surface) of river.

Fig. 1.21 Demonstration for Viscous force

2. Water

3. Leadshot

4. Glycerine

1. Long cylinder

and glycerine take more time to flow down. This shows that glycerine is more viscous than honey and honey is more viscous than water. A less viscous liquid is more mobile.

If we move our fingers through any liquid we experience a resistance. This shows

13

The velocity is minimum for water in the bottom most layer. When two parallel layers of a liquid are moving with different velocities, they experience tangential forces which tend to retard the faster layer and accelerate the slower layer. These forces are (F) called viscous forces. Newton found that the viscous force is

(i)

directly proportional to the common area (A) of the liquid layers in contact.

(ii)

directly proportional to their relative velocity (v 1 v 2 )

(iii)

inversely proportional to the distance (x) between them.

(or)

F

=

A

where

is

a

(v 1

v 2 )

x

constant

known

coefficient

(v 1

of

viscosity

of

the

liquid

v 2 )

x

is called the velocity gradient.

as

and

The unit of coefficient of viscosity is

2 or Poise. The values of coefficient

of viscosity are different for different liquids.

N s m

Table 1.2. Coefficient of viscosity of some fluids

Fluid

 

(poise)

Glycerine

 

13.4

Castor oil

9.86

Olive oil

0.84

Turpentine

0.015

Water

0.018

Mercury

0.0015

Honey

0.2

Blood

0.0027

Air

0.019

10 3

2. Applications of viscous fluids in daily life

(1)

The motion of falling raindrops is opposed by the viscous force offered by air. Hence the rain drops falls slowly.

(2)

The viscosity of sea water makes the waves subside during a storm.

(3)

The motion of objects in fluids depends upon the viscosity of the fluids. The

viscous force of water or air opposes

the motion of ships, cars, aeroplane etc.,

Hence their shapes are streamlined in

order to minimise the viscous drag on them.

(4) Friction reduces the efficiency of a machine by converting mechanical energy into heat energy and causes much

wear and tear of the moving parts. Friction is reduced by using lubricants.

A lubricant is a substance used to reduce

friction. The lubricant forms a thin layer

between the two surfaces in contact. It also fills the depressions present in the surfaces of contact and reduces friction considerably. In light machinery, thin oils (e.g., clock oil) with low viscosity

are used. In heavy and fast moving machinery solids or thick highly viscous oils (e.g., grease) are used. By adding long chain polymers with lubricating oil,

its coefficient of viscosity is kept constant

even at high temperatures.

A good

lubricant

should

have

the

following properties.

(i)

It should be able

the minute depressions in the surfaces.

It should be chemically inert and should

not undergo any decomposition at high

temperature.

It should be capable of conducting away

the heat produced by friction.

If the arteries and veins of human body contract and become hard, their diameters decrease. Hence the flow of blood is affected due to the viscosity of blood and the blood pressure increases. This affects the functioning of heart. When

the temperature of human body increases

during fever, the coefficient of viscosity

to spread and fill up

(ii)

(iii)

(5)

of blood decreases. This increases the blood circulation and the normal heart functioning is maintained.

1.6 Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications

Activity : When air is blown over the top of a sheet of paper, the paper rises in the

14

air stream. This happens because the pressure falls above the paper where the air is moving faster.

ball in

a funnel and hold it with the mouth sloping upwards. Blow as hard as you can through

Activity : Place a table tennis

as hard as you can through Activity : Place a table tennis Fig. 1.23 Activity for

Fig. 1.23 Activity for Bernoulli’s principle

1. Funel

2. Ping pong ball

the spout. Observe that you cannot blow the ball out. Activity : When two balloons are suspended side by side and air is blown up through the space between them. As the air flows through the narrow space between the balloons, the pressure falls. The atmospheric pressure from the sides brings the balls together. From these activities it is observed that there is a relation between pressure and velocity of air.

Bernoulli’s equation is a fundamental relation in fluid mechanics. It can be derived from the work-energy theorem. The

It can be derived from the work-energy theorem. The Fig. 1.24 Bernoulli’s Theorem A - Narrow

Fig. 1.24 Bernoulli’s Theorem

A - Narrow bore

B

- Broad bore

work-energy theorem states that the work done by the resultant force acting on a system is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the system.

15

A liquid possesses kinetic energy by

virtue of its motion. It has potential energy due to its position. Since a liquid is subjected

to pressure it also possesses pressure energy.

Kinetic energy of the liquid

Let m be mass of the liquid and v be

its velocity in motion. Then its kinetic energy

=

1

2

2 mv

kinetic energy per unit mass =

1

2 v 2

Potential energy of the liquid

Let h be the height of the liquid above the earth’s surface. Then its potential energy

= mgh

Pressure energy of the liquid

Let p be the hydrostatic pressure excerted

potential energy per unit mass = gh

volume. Then its pressure energy = PV

by a liquid,

be its density

and

V

be

its

m = P
m
=
P

Pressure energy per unit mass = P

These three types of energies possessed by a liquid under flow are mutually convertible one into another.

1. Bernoulli’s Theorem

The sum of the energies possessed by

a flowing, non-viscous, incompressible liquid

at any point throughout its flow is constant when the flow is streamlined. This is called

Bernoulli’s theorem.

Pressure

+ Kinetic

+ potential

energy

energy

energy

 

= a constant.

For unit mass of a liquid flowing

+

p

1

2 v 2

+

gh = constant

This is called Bernoulli’s equation.

In

the case

of

a

horizontal pipe h is

constant,

P

2

+ v 2

= constant.

The above equation shows that when the velocity of the fluid increases, the pressure of the fluid decreases and vice versa. This principle can be illustrated by the following demonstrations.

2. Demonstration of Bernoulli’s principle

(1) Magic ball : A small ping pong ball is placed in a vertically upward
(1)
Magic ball : A small ping pong ball is
placed in a vertically upward stream of
liquid. It is observed that the ball rises
to a certain height above the nozzle and
stays there against gravity. The ball
continues to spin. The velocity of the
liquid along the axis of the nozzle is
high and hence the pressure is low. As
1
2
Fig. 1.25 Magic Ball
1.
Ping-pong ball
2. Jet of water
(2)
the atmospheric pressure is greater than
this pressure, it pushes the ball against
the stream without falling down.
A monometer is a U-tube containing a
liquid. When both arms of a manometer
are open to the atmosphere, the liquid
level is the same in both arms.
When air is blown over one end of the
manometer tube the pressure of air
decreases and liquid level rises in that
arm of the tube.

3. Applications of Bernoulli’s theorem

(1) Bernoulli’s principle is used in venturimeter to find the rate of flow of a liquid.

(2)

It is used in pitot tube to find the velocity of a fluid in motion.

(3)

It

is used in a carburettor

to mix

air

and

petrol

vapour

in

an

internal

(4)

combustion engine. Bernoulli’s principle is used in an

(5)

atomiser and filter pump. Wings of an aeroplane are made tapering as shown in fig. The upper surface is made convex and the lower surface is made concave. Due to this shape of the wing, the air currents at the top have a large velocity than at the bottom. Consequently the pressure above the surface of the wing is less as compared to the lower surface of the wing. This difference of pressure is helpful in giving a vertical lift to the plane.

4. Effects of Bernoulli’s principle

16

(1)

(2)

Due to strong wind, storm or cyclone, the roofs are blown off. When a strong wind blows over the roof, there is lowering of pressure on the roof. As the

the roof, there is lowering of pressure on the roof. As the Fig. 1.26 Blowing of

Fig. 1.26 Blowing of roofs

pressure on the bottom side of the roof is higher, roofs are easily blown off without damaging the walls of the building. A suction effect is experienced by a person standing close to the platform at railway station when a fast train passes the person. This is because the fast moving air between the person and train produces a decrease in pressure and the excess air pressure on the other side pushes the person towards the train.

SOLVED PROBLEMS

mass 1000 kg takes a

round turn of radius 50 metre with a velocity

of 15 ms 1 . Calculate the centripetal force required by the truck.

(1)

A truck of

Mass of the truck,

m

=

1000 kg

Radius of circular path,

r

=

50 m

Velocity of the truck,

v

=

15

ms 1

Centripetal force required, F = ?

Centripetal force required, F = mv 2

r

F =

F

=

=

1000

15

15

100

50

3

15

4500 N

(2) A cyclist is running at a speed of 10 ms 1 . If the radius of each wheel of the bicycle be 45 cm, Calculate the angular velocity of the wheels.

Speed of the cyclist,

v

=

10

ms 1

Radius of the wheel of the bicycle,

 
 

r

=

45 cm

 
 

=

45

10 2

m

Angular velocity,

 

=

?

v

=

r

 

v

 

=

 

r

 

=

10

 

45

10 2

1000

 
 

=

 

45

 
 

=

22.2 radian/second

(3) A bullet fired from a gun with a velocity of 140 ms 1 strikes the ground at the same level as the gun. If the angle of inclination with the horizontal at which the bullet is fired is 15 o . Find the horizontal range.

Velocity of the bullet,

v

=

140

ms 1

Angle of projection,

=

15 o

Horizontal range,

R

=

?

17

R

u 2 sin 2

 

=

g

140

140

sin (2

15) o

=

9.8

 

140

140

sin 30 o

 

=

9.8

 
 

140

140

1

=

 

9.8

2

=

1000 m

=

1

Km

SELF EVALUATION

Choose the correct answer

1. The relation between time of ascent and time of descent in the case of bodies moving under gravity is (1) time of ascent is more than the time of descent. (2) time of ascent is less than the time of descent.

(3) time of ascent is

descent. (4) time of ascent and time of descent

equal to the time of

will never be equal.

2. The force between a satellite and the earth which acts as a centripetal force keeping the satellite in orbit is

(1) gravitational force (3) cohesive force

(2) molecular force (4) adesive force

3. The centripetal force required for a car or a bicycle to go round a circular curve depends

on

(1) the angle of elevation of the curved

4.

track

(2) speed of the vehicle only

(3) the radius of curvature of the path only (4) speed and the radius of curvature of the curve

Kepler’s

also called (1) law of periods (3) law of orbits

first

law

of

planetary

motion

is

(2) law of areas (4) law of distances

5. Rain drops assume sperical shape due to

(1) surface tension (3) centripetal force

(2) gravitational force (4) centrifugal force

Fill in the blanks

6. Automobiles are now streamlined in shape

to

air resistance and improve fuel

consumption.

7. makes use of the centrifugal force for regulating the speed of an engine or machine.

8. Forces between molecules of different

substances are called

forces.

9. Surface tension always tends to the surface area of a liquid.

Answer briefly

10. On which factors does the air resistance on a falling body depend? Explain this with an example.

11. Why does a stone released from a moving train follow a parabolic path ?

12. What is time of flight of a projectile ?

13. Define the range of a projectile.

14. At what angle the range of the projectile is maximum ? Give examples where maximum ranges are considered.

15. What is uniform circular motion ?

16. Define angular velocity. Give its unit.

17. What is called the period of circular motion ?

centripetal

18.

Define

centripetal

force

and

acceleration.

19. Give any one of the practical applications of centripetal force.

20. What are called centrifuges ? Mention ay two of its uses.