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SCREENING

Introduction
The processing of mixed particulate solids entails treatment of the bulk solids for
mixing, sampling, sizing and classification. Also important are operations for selective
separation or concentration of solids from a mixture. The effectiveness of size
classification or of size reduction will depend on the determination of the amount of
material of different sizes. The separation of materials based on size is frequently
important as means of preparing a product for sale or for a subsequent operation.

SCREENING
Separates a mixture of various sizes of particles into two or more portions,
each of which is more uniform in size of particle than the original mixture.
Passing a material over a surface provided with openings of the desired size.

Limitation:
Particles should be within the size range measurable by the available screens

Importance of Screening
Means of preparing a product for sale or for subsequent operation(as in
marketing of coal where the size is the basis for its classification for sale)

It is a means of analysis, either to control or gage the effectiveness of another


unit operation such as crushing or grinding ( to control rates of reactions
involving solids)

To determine the value or applicability of a product for some specific application

Types of Screening
1. Dry Screening- refers to the treatment of a material containing a natural amount
of moisture or a material that has been dried before screening
2. Wet Screening- refers to an operation when water is added to the material being
treated for the purpose of washing the fine material through the screen.
Advantages of Wet Screening
a. Material is washed-off evenly over the screen

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
b. Clogging of screens is prevented

c. Small particles are washed-off the surface of the large particles

d. Improved screen efficiency feed dilution and efficiency

e. Assist in dust suppression

Disadvantages of Wet Screening


a. Require drying of material after screening

b. Increased corrosion if wire screens are used

When to use Wet Screening:


a. Feed material has high moisture content (39%)

b. Feed is mostly composed of small particle size

c. Feed contains fine particle agglomerates (i.e. clay, balls)

Types of Screening Operations


1. Scalping

Used in the removal of oversize from a feed that is mostly fines

Mostly applied in trash removal

2. Coarse Separation

Used when making size separation greater than mesh 4 (i.e. > 4.76
mm)

Applied in dewatering operations (i.e. removal of free water from a solid-


water mixture)

3. Fine Separation

Used when making size separation smaller than mesh 4 but larger than
mesh 48 (0.297 < < 4.76 mm)

Applied in de-sliming operations (i.e. removal of extremely fine particles


from a wet mixture)

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
4. Ultrafine Separation

Used when making size separation smaller than mesh 48 ( < 0.297 mm)

Methods of Indication Particle Size Distribution

First Second Third

Oversize, 1/4 in. + +


Oversize, 20 mesh +20 mesh +20 mesh

Through 10 mesh on 20 mesh -10 + 20 10/20

Through 1/4 in on 1/8 in 1 1 1 1


+ /
4 8 4 8
Undersize, 200 mesh -200 -200

Terminologies
1. Screen Aperture

Aka Screen Opening

Clear space between the individual wires of the screens

Usually reported in mm or inch

Kinds of Screen Aperture

a. Square Apertures
The most commonly-used shape
Offer accurate sizing, good wear life with reasonable open area

b. Round Apertures
Provides strong deck surface

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
Usually used in heavy-duty applications where crushing and wear is
likely
Lower open area than square
Deck surface prone to blinding

c. Rectangular Apertures
Usually used in cases wherein blinding of screens is most likely occur
Problem in accuracy in sizing

2. Mesh
Number of apertures/openings per linear inch
The higher the mesh number, the smaller the screen opening

3. Open Area
The percentage of screen area that is aperture
The percentage of the actual openings vs total screen area
Depends on the shape of the aperture

4. Oversize or Plus Material


Material which fails to pass through the screen

5. Undersize or Minus Material


That which passes through the screen

6. Intermediates
Material passing one screening surface and retained on a subsequent
surface

7. Particle Size Distribution


Shows the relative percentages (usually by weight) of each of the size
fractions of the mixture being tested
Determined by conducting a complete sieve analysis using testing sieves

8. Testing Sieves
Used to determine the efficiency of screening devices, crushing and
grinding operations
Series of standardized woven wire screens
Types of Testing Sieves
a. Tyler Standard Sieve Series
Based on 200 Mesh screen

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
b. US Sieve Series
Based on No. 18 screen

c. International Test Sieve Series


Improvement done by ISO
Added screens to the existing US Sieve Series

Screen Efficiency
Measure of how successful the screen is in separating the components of the
mixture
Ratio of the % material actually passing through the screen to the % material
capable of passing
Industrial screens are typically designed to be 90 95% efficient

Screen Capacity
Measured by the mass of material that can be fed per unit time to a unit area of
the screen
Indicates how much material a screen can handle

Screen Analysis
Screening is accomplished by passing the material successively over a series of
screens or sieves having progressively smaller openings or apertures. The size of
material which has passed through one screen and has been retained on a screen
having openings of a smaller size is usually considered to be the arithmetic average of
the two (2) screen openings and is called the average diameter represented by the
symbol Dave.

SCREENING PRINCIPLE

Screening is defined as the mechanical separation of a mixture of various sizes


of particles into two or more portions by means of a screening surface, each of which is
more uniform in size of particle than the original mixture.

It is the separation of a mixture of various sizes of grains into two or more


portions by means of a screening surface, the screening surface acting as a multiple go-
no-go gauge and the final portions consisting of grains of more uniform size than those

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
of the original mixture.

Material Balance
Single Screen Analysis

Feed, F

XF

Oversize or tails, R

XR

Undersize or fines, P, X P

Let x = mass fraction of the desired material (in this case the undersize)


Recovery =

(1)
Rejection = 1 Recovery of Undesired Material = 1
(1)

Effectiveness = Recovery x Rejection

(1 )
E= x (1 )
(1 )

In terms of mass fraction: F = P + R


Component Material Balance: = + ; =

( )
Recovery =
( )

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
(1)() ( ) (1 )( )
Rejection = 1 E= x (1 )
(1)() ( ) (1 )( )

Industrial Screening Equipment

1. Grizzlies- are widely used for screening large sizes, particularly of 1 in. and
over. The material enters at the top left and works its way downward to the right. The
large and oversize particles are discharged over the lower right end and the smaller
particles pass through the slots between the bars into the hopper directly below.

2. Stationary Screens- are made of punched metal plate or woven wire mesh,
usually set an angle with the horizontal up to about 60 degrees. Suitable for small scale
operation such as screening sand, gravel or coal.

3. Vibrated Screens- are used where large tonnages are to be treated. They are
particularly useful in the chemical and fertilizer industry. They handle very successfully
many light, fine, dry materials and metal powders. Most of this screens has intense,
high speed (1500-7200 vibrations/min)

4. Oscillating Screens- are characterized by low speed (300-400 rpm)


oscillations. Screens in this group are usually used from in. to 60 mesh. Silk cloths
are often used.

5. Reciprocating Screens- these screens are used extensively and are standard
equipment in many chemical and processing plants for handling fine separations even
down to 300 mesh. Used to handle a variety of chemicals usually dry, light or bulky
materials, light metal powders, powdered foods and granular materials.

6. Trommels or Revolving Screens- consists of a cylindrical screen rotating about


its axis. Revolves at very low speed of 15-20 rpm. Efficiency is relatively low.

7. Gyratory Screens- are box like machines either round or square with a series
of screen cloths nested atop one another.

8. Testing Sieve Shakers:

a. Ro-Tap Testing Sieve- this is equipped from 1-13 sieves at a time


b. End-Strak Testing Sieve Shaker
c. Dynamic Sieve Shaker

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
Motions of Screens :(a) gyrations in horizontal plane; (b) gyrations in vertical plane; (c)
gyrations at one end, shaking at other;(d) shaking;(e) mechanically vibrated;
(f)electrically vibrated

(a)Heavy Duty Vertically Gyrated Screen :( b) Horizontally Gyrated Screen

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
Capacity of Screens:

The screen capacity indicates how much material a screen can handle.

Expressions of Screen Capacity:



Mass of feed/(time)(area):


Mass of feed/(time)(area)(aperture):

PROBLEM SOLVING ON SCREENING

Problem #1
It is desired to separate a mixture of sugar crystals into two fractions, a coarse
fraction retained on an 8-mesh screen, and a fine fraction passing through it. Screen
analysis of feed, coarse and fine fractions show
Mass fraction of +8 particles in feed = 0.46
Mass fraction of +8 particles in coarse fraction = 0.88
Mass fraction of +8 particles in fine fraction = 0.32

The overall efficiency of the screen used for the separation purpose per 100 kg of
feed is?

Problem #2
If the total percentage of particles larger than the screen opening in the feed,
product, and undersize are 36%, 89% and 3% respectively. What is the effectiveness of
the screen? Ans: 88.61%

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
Problem #3
Limestone is crushed by six units operating in parallel and the products
separated by six 35 mesh screens also in parallel, into two fractions. The effective
dimension of each screen is 6ft x 20ft. the common undersize from the screen comes
out at the rate of 50 tons/hour. Assume no losses.
Feed
Mesh Size Size Oversize Undersize
6/8 0.075 0.08 0.02
8/10 0.125 0.145 0.055
10/20 0.1 0.17 0.09
20/28 0.125 0.15 0.085
28/35 0.125 0.28 0.1
35/48 0.175 0.175 0.15
48/65 0.225 0.15
65/100 0.05 0.25
100/150 0.1

Determine:
a. Efficiency of screening operation Ans. 52.82%
b. Capacity of each screen in lb/24 hr per sq.ft

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye
Problem #4
A quartz mixture having a screen analysis below is screened through standard
10-mesh screen. Calculate the mass ratio of overflow to feed, underflow to feed and
overall effectiveness of screen.
Cumulative Screen Analysis

Mesh Dp, mm Feed Overflow Underflow


4 4.699 0 0
6 3.327 0.025 0.071
8 2.362 0.15 0.43 0
10 1.651 Xf=0.47 Xo= 0.89 Xu=0.199
14 1.168 0.73 0.97 0.58
20 0.833 0.885 0.99 0.83
28 0.589 0.94 1 0.91
35 0.417 0.96 0.94
65 0.208 0.98 0.975
Pan 1 1

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Separation Processes & Introduction to Particle Technology
Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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