Sie sind auf Seite 1von 52

CALIFORNIA. DEPT, OF WATER RESOUECES.

BULLETIN.
U.C.O.
iR^
^V
'/ STATE OF CALIFORNIA
The Resources Agency

Department of Wa ter Resources

BULLETIN No. 74-1

CATHODIC PROTECTION WELL STANDARDS

State of California

Copies of this bulletin at $2.00 each may be ordered fron


Stote of California
DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES
P. 0. Box 388
Sacramento, Colifornio 95802

MARCH 1973

NORMAN B. LIVERMORE, JR. RONALD REAGAN WILLIAM R. GIANELLI


Secretory for Resources Governor Direcior
The Resources Agency State of California Department of Water Resources

nrh im>A k "^ "'


AUTHORIZATION

The program under which this report was prepared is

authorized by Section 231 of the V/ater Code, State of California

which reads:
"231. The department, either independently or in
cooperation with any person or any county, state, federal
or other agency, shall investigate and survey conditions
of damage to quality of underground waters, which conditions
are or may be caused by improperly constructed, abandoned
or defective wells through the interconnection of strata or
the introduction of surface waters into underground waters.
The department shall report to the appropriate regional
water quality control board its recommendations for minimum
standards of well construction in any particular locality
in which it deems regulation necessary to protection of
quality of underground water, and shall report to the
Legislature from time to time, its recommendations for
proper sealing of abandoned wells."

In 1967, the Legislature established a procedure for

implementing standards developed under Section 231 by enacting

Chapter 323, Statutes of I967, which added Sections I38OO through

13806 to the Water Code. Cathodlc protection wells were added to

these provisions in I968. In Section 138OO, the Department of

Water Resources' reporting responsibility is enlarged upon:

"13800. The department, after such studies and investi-


gations pursuant to Section 231 as it finds necessary, on
determining that water well and cathodic protection well
construction, maintenance, abandonment, and destruction
standards are needed in an area to protect the quality of
water used or which may be used for any beneficial use,
shall so report to the appropriate regional water quality
control board and to the State Department of Public Health.
The report shall contain such recommended standards for water
well and cathodic protection well construction, maintenance,
abandonment, and destruction as, in the department's opinion,
are necessary to protect the quality of any affected water."

-2-
FOREWORD

This is a companion publication to


Bulletin No. 7^ "Water Well Standards: State of
California", published in I968. The standards presented
in this report are issued as guides to the construction
and destruction of cathodic protection wells in
California. Their purpose is to provide additional
protection for the quality of our ground water resources.

The Department recommends that all counties


and cities consider enacting well construction ordinances
that include both water wells and cathodic protection
wells. Such ordinances will comprise another step in the
continuing effort to protect the usability of
California's ground water supplies.

We recognize that effective and useful


standards must be periodically revised and updated to
reflect both the degree of success achieved in their
application and changes in practice. Accordingly the
Department will revise these standards as needed.

W. R. Gianelli, Director
Department of Water Resources
The Resources Agency
State of California
February 21, 1973

-3-
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

AUTHORIZATION 2

FOREWORD , 3

ORGANIZATION, DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 7

ORGANIZATION, CALIFORNIA WATER COMMISSION 7

ABSTRACT 7

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 9

Cathodic Protection Wells 9

The Problem 13

Corrosion Coordinating Committees 18

Scope of Program and Report 19

CHAPTER II. STANDARDS 23

Part I. General 23

Section 1. Definitions 23

Section 2. Exemption Due to Unusual Conditions . 23

Section 3. Exclusions 23

Section 4. Special Standards 23

Section 5. Contractors 23

Section 6. Reports 24

Section 7. Temporary Cover 24

Part II. Well Construction 24

Section 8. Well Location with Respect


to Pollutants 24

Section 9. Surface Construction Features .... 24

-4-
TABLE OP CONTENTS (CONT'D)

Page

Section 10. Sealing the Upper or Near-


Surface Annular Space 24

Section 11. Sealing-Off Strata 26

Part III. Destruction of Wells 30

Section 12. Purpose of Destruction 30

Section 13. Definition of "Abandoned" Well ... 30

Section l4. General Requirement 30

Section 15. Requirements for Destroying Wells . 30

CHAPTER III. CONSIDERATIONS IN APPLYING


THE STANDARDS 35

General Standards 35

Construction Standards 36

Destruction Standards 39

APPENDIXES

Appendix A: DEFINITION OP TERMS 4l

Appendix B: BIBLIOGRAPHY ^5

-5-
TABLE OP CONTENTS (CONT'D)

FIGURES
Figure Page
Number

1 Generalized Corrosion Situation


and Cathodlc Protection 11

2 Typical Cathodic Protection Well


(Deep Anode) 12

3 Surface and Shallow Subsurface


Pollution of a Well and
Adjacent Stratum l4

h Movement of Pollutant Between


Formations Via a Well 15

5 Typical Deep Anode Well


and Pollutants 17

6 Sealing Conditions - Upper Annular Space .... 25

7 Sealing-Off Strata Cases 1 and 2 28

8 Sealing-Off Strata Case 3 29

9 Well Destruction - Sealing Conditions 32

TABLES

Table
Number

1 Cathodlc Protection Requirements


for Pipeline Safety l8

2 Reports Issued Under Water Well


Standards Program Covering
Specific Areas 21

-6-
State of California
Department of Water Resources
state of California CALIFORNIA WATER COMMISSION
The Resources Agency
DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES
RONALD REAGAN, Governor IRA J. CHRISMAN, Chairman, Vlaalla
NORMAN B. LIVERMORE, JR., Secretary for Resources CLAIR A. HILL, Vice Chairman, Redding
WILLIAM R. OIANELLI, Director
JOHN R. TEERINK, Deputy Director

DIVISION OF RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT Mai Coombs Garbervllle

Ray W. Ferguson Ontario

Herbert W. Greydanus Division Engineer William H. Jennings La Mesa

James L. Welsh .... Chief, Environmental Quality Branch Clare Wm. Jones Flrebaugh

Robert L. HcDonell Chief, Water Resources William P. Moses San Pablo


Evaluation Section
Samuel B. Nelson Northrldge
This report was prepared by
Ernest R. Nichols Ventura
Edwin A. Ritchie . . . Associate Engineer, Water Resources
Orville L. Abbott
Executive Officer and Chief Engineer

Tom Y. Pujlmoto, Staff Assistant

ABSTRACT

Water wells have been recognized as a means whereby the quality of ground
water can be polluted or otherwise Impaired. Cathodlc protection wells (or "deep

anodes") present similar hazards to ground water quality.

This problem can be alleviated by the proper design and construction of

new wells and the proper destruction of wells no longer In use. Standards for the
construction and destruction of cathodlc protection wells are presented and discussed.

-7-
.

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

Wells are commonly excavated to recommendations for standards


extract ground water or Inject for the construction and
water into the ground. There destruction of water wells
are other types of wells, how- (Section 231 of the California
ever, less common than the water Water Code). Later a procedure
well, constructed for other was established for implementing
purposes which penetrate and such standards (Chapter 10 of
pass through the underlying Division 7 of the Water Code).
aquifers. One of these is the In 1968, having concluded that
cathodic protection well, or cathodic protection wells could
"deep anode'' as it is called in also function as instruments
the corrosion industry. for the deterioration of ground
Cathodic protection wells house water quality, the Legislature
devices used to alleviate amended the Water Code to
electrolytic corrosion of pipe- include such wells.
lines, tanks, and similar
installations. Bulletin No. 7^-1 was prepared
in partial fulfillment of the
Water wells have been recognized Department's responsibilities
as a means whereby the quality under the Water Code and is an
of underground waters can be extension of the Department's
polluted or otherwise impaired. Bulletin No. Jh "Water Well
Such impairment is usually the Standards: State of California",
result of inadequate design or February I968.
construction or of improper
destruction when the well is no A detailed discussion of how
longer in use. Actually the wells may contribute to ground
construction of any type well, water pollution Is presented in
regardless of its purpose, tends Bulletin No. 7^. Therefore,
to disrupt the geologic only the highlights, and
environment particularly those pertaining
to cathodic protection wells,
As the number of wells in an are discussed in this bulletin.
area increases, the potential for First, however, because many
impairing ground water quality persons know little about the
Increases. The solution to this cathodic protection well, some
problem is to see that wells are explanation of its purpose and
designed, constructed, and construction is presented.
properly destroyed so that they
will not cause deterioration of Cathodic Protection Wells
ground water quality.
Cathodic protection wells are
If our ground water resources installed to provide protection
are to be effectively used, we from corrosion, primarily where
must protect their quality. extensive conveyance and
Recognizing this, the California storage facilities such as oil,
Legislature enacted legislation natural gas, water and other
directing the Department of pipelines, powerlines, telephone
Water Resources to develop cables, tanks, switchyards.

-9-
;

control centers, etc. have been For a number of years, protec-


constructed. They are also used tive anodes composed of
to control corrosion In water materials that deteriorate
wells, because the cost of con- slowly have been installed at or
structing a large capacity water close to the surface of the
well is increasing, and extending ground. Horizontal or shallow
its life is an important vertical anodes have certain
consideration. disadvantages, however, particu-
larly in metropolitan areas or
Corrosion, as used in this in areas of heavily concentrated
bulletin, is defined as the facilities, e.g., oil fields.
deterioration of metal by In such locations, electrical
electrochemical reaction with interference may be high. More-
the environment in which the over, the installation of a large
metal is situated.* The process number of horizontal or shallow
is illustrated in Figure 1, vertical anodes requires exten-
which depicts the deterioration sive right of way.
of a steel pipeline. The pipe-
line is situated in a soil-water To offset these disadvantages,
environment in which the water the vertical deep anode (cathodic
acts as an electrolyte. As protection well) was developed
dissolved salts in the water and first used in the 19^0 's.
increase, the resistance to the
flow of electric current A typical deep anode, shown in
decreases (thus, saline water is Figure 2, is constructed by:
an excellent electrolyte). This,
coupled with a varying electric 1. drilling a hole 6 to 12
potential on the surface of the inches in diameter to the
pipe, establishes a flow of desired depth;
current from a cathode to an 2. placing a string of anodes
anode and causes the removal of in the hole to designated
metal from the anode. The depths
process gradually weakens the 3. backfilling the anode
pipe, resulting in its eventual interval with a conductive
failure. material (usually granular
carbonaceous material);
Cathodic protection is under- 4. installing a small-
taken to prevent or minimize diameter (about one-inch)
corrosive action by redirecting plastic pipe to vent the gases
the current to a substitute generated by the decomposition
anode which then deteriorates of the anode;
instead of the pipeline. 5. backfilling the upper, or
vent", interval with a non-
Note that chemical corrosion, conductive material (usually,
which occurs when a specific a uniform, small-diameter
compound or element is present gravel), which provides a
in sufficient concentration to further permeable medium for
bring about removal of a migration of gases, and prevents
material, is not considered here. caving of the walls of the
Examples would be oxygen, carbon hole;
dioxide or hydrochloric acid in 6. installing a permanent
a liquid solution flowing cover over the well;
through a pipeline. 7. electrically connecting

-10-
GROUND SURFACE

SOIL- WATER REMOVAL OF METAL


ACTION

CATHODIC AREA ANODIC AREA

CORROSION OF PIPELINE

CURRENT D-C
CURRENT
SURFACE

PIPELINE

ANODE

CATHODIC PROTECTION

FIGUREI.GENERALIZED CORROSION
SITUATION AND CATHODIC PROTECTION
-11-
RECTIFIER
(DC Current Source)

GROUND SURFACE

ELECTRICAL
CABLE
PIPE

NONCONDUCTIVE BACKFILL

VENT PIPE

- CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL
ANODE
INTERVAL

ANODES

FIGURE TYPICAL CATHODIC


2.
PROTECTION WELL (DEEP ANODE)
-12-
the anode leads, and leads from Francisco Bay Area, and (3) the
the Installation to be protected, oil-producing areas of the
to a source of current. Southern San Joaquin Valley and
Central Coast.
Depths of these "deep anodes"
normally range from 100 to 500 Only a few cathodic protection
feet. Installations less than wells have been installed in the
50-feet deep are considered rest of California. For example,
shallow anodes. in the entire State north of
Sacramento only an estimated
The basic design may, of course, 25-50 wells are known to be in
vary. For example, during operation.
construction, casing may be used
in the uppermost section to hold
back caving or sloughing mate- The Problem
rials such as dune sand. How-
ever, casing, which is used in Any improperly constructed (or
the water well to keep out sub- destroyed) well can endanger
surface materials and to house ground water quality in three
the pump mechanism, is not ways. These are:
normally used in a cathodic
protection well. 1. When the surface portion
of the well is constructed
Now widely used, cathodic without protective features,
protection wells have distinct so that water may flow into
advantages over horizontal or the well and subsequently
shallow anodes. These are: into the adjacent formation
(Figure 3).
1. Right-of-way costs, 2. When the annular space,
particularly in congested that is, the space between
areas, are substantially the outside of the casing (or,
reduced. in the case of the cathodic
2. Less incidence of cathodic protection well, the vent pipe)
protection current interference and the wall of the hole lacks
with nearby unprotected an adequate vertical seal, and
structures. (This has even surface or shallow subsurface
more future significance water may flow laterally into
considering the advent of the well and to the adjacent
direct current electric rail formation along the outside of
systems and d.c. high voltage the casing (Figure 3).
transmission systems with their 3. When, during well construc-
inevitable stray current tion (or destruction), aquifers
problems.) that produce water of undesir-
3. Current is made available able quality are ineffectively
to a much larger area of the sealed off so that interchange
protected structure. of water results in a signif-
icant deterioration of the
In California, most cathodic quality of water in one or more
protection wells are located in other aquifers. In this case
areas where underground the well provides a physical
conveyance systems are most connection between aquifers
numerous, i.e., (l) the South (Figure 4).
Coastal Area from San Diego to
Santa Barbara, (2) the San A well that is intentionally or

-13-
POLLUTANT
CASING

FIGURE 3. SURFACE AND SHALLOW SUBSURFACE POLLUTION


OF A WELL AND ADJACENT STRATUM

-14-
FIGURE MOVEMENT OF POLLUTANT
4.

BETWEEN FORMATIONS VIA A WELL

-15-
inadvertently used for the specify that all buried or sub-
disposal of wastes can also be a merged pipelines be cathodically
source of impairment to water protected as shown in Table 1.
quality. However, cathodic
protection wells are seldom so These requirements have also been
used, simply because they have a adopted and reiterated by the
small opening at the surface. California Public Utilities
On the other hand, water is Commission (1). Therefore, with-
sometimes introduced into in the next few years, considera-
cathodic protection wells in bly more cathodic protection
locations where natural electro- wells will probably be installed
lytes are lacking, to keep the in California.
system functional. Should the
water so introduced be of Of immediate concern are cathodic
questionable quality, this protection wells no longer in
practice could be considered as use. The present practice is to
waste disposal. Fortunately, remove the electrical connections
the volumes of water involved and abandon the well. Such a
are probably small, and the water well is a potential intermediary
does not usually migrate appre- for the travel of pollutants
ciably. underground and should be
destroyed.
Cathodic protection wells con-
structed as described on Page 10 The life of the anode in a
are particularly conducive to cathodic protection well will
the lateral and vertical movement determine the useful life of the
of fluids. The granular back- well. Anodes are usually
filled excavation is uniformly designed to last about I5 to 20
permeable and thus will readily years. Fortunately, only a few
convey pollutants. Consequently, older wells exist at present,
the three conditions that but eventually many wells will
contribute to water quality be abandoned. However, in recent
impairment Just outlined can years there has been a tendency
become a reality. This is to design and construct wells so
depicted in Figure 5. that the anodes can be replaced,
thus obviating the need to drill
Because of increasing concern a new hole and extending the life
for the safety of pipelines that of the well several times.
transport natural gas and other
hazardous materials, more and Cathodic protection wells are
more cathodic protection wells almost always backfilled and
are being constructed. The therefore are not a hazard to
Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act children and animals, as are
(Public Law 90-481) adopted by abandoned water wells. However,
the Congress in August I968 variations in design and
directs the United States increasing vent pipe (or casing)
Department of Transportation to sizes could pose a safety
establish safety regulations problem as, for example, should
governing the transportation of the diameter exceed eight Inches.
natural and other gases by pipe-
line. These regulations {&)* In summary, as stated in
Bulletin No. 7^:
*See Appendix B, Item 8 for
complete title.

-16-
FIGURE 5. TYPICAL DEEP ANODE WELL AND POLLUTANTS

-17-
TABLE 1

CATHODIC PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS


FOR PIPELINE SAFETY*

Date Pipeline : Date Protection


Condition of Pipeline or Location Installed : Required

1. Transmission Lines with Prior to 8/1/71 8/1/74


effective external coating.

2. In areas where active corrosion Prior to 8/1/71 8/I/76


is found:

a. Bare or ineffectively
coated transmission lines.
b. Bare or coated pipes at
compressor, regulator or
measuring stations.
c. Bare or coated distribution
lines.

3. New A^ter 7/31/71 Within one year


after completion

Adapted from regulations of U, S. Department of Transportation. (8)

"Irrespective of the prob- requires the development of


ability of occurrence and standards for ... well construc-
which form of deterioration tion and destruction, which
takes place, California's will, if followed, assure the
ground water supplies must be protection of the quality of
preserved and protected to the State's ground waters ..."
meet the increasing demands
which are being made on them.
Moreover, while the well Corrosion Coordinating
construction industry, Committees
advisory groups, and regula-
tory agencies obviously intend Because the various networks of
to prevent any impairment of deep anode installations, like
the quality of the State's the systems they protect, criss-
ground water supplies which cross one another, serious
might result from improperly electrical interference problems
constructed or 'abandoned' can develop. For example, the
wells, there appears to be no current produced at one anode
broad, uniform approach to the may affect an adjacent anode or
development of the means of facility. Moreover, in congested
such prevention in California. areas many "stray" currents are
It follows then that the produced. In one instance, the
resolution of this dilemma use of salt as a deicer on

-18-
: .

electric street railways In the eastern portion of the State,


northeastern United States
contributed to a lowered resist- These committees represent the
ance between the track and ground, majority of the utilities and
thus Increasing the magnitude of other companies who install
currents flowing In the soil. deep anodes. The members keep
The problem was partially solved one another apprised of their
by the advent of the trolley bus organization's plans and
and liquid fuel driven bus (3). coordinate the installation and
However, with the trend toward operation of cathodic protection
direct current electric rail facilities, thereby minimizing
systems and high-voltage trans- problems of interference from
mission lines, this aspect of the stray currents. Unfortunately,
stray current problem Is renewed. not all those who install and
operate cathodic protection
To overcome these and other facilities are allied with a
problems, corrosion coordinating corrosion coordinating committee.
committees have been formed in Those not associated with a
many areas. Most are affiliated committee are largely Individuals
with the National Association of or local agencies (such as school
Corrosion Engineers, and at districts) who are usually
present there are 33 such unaware of the existence of other
affiliates in the United States. Installations. Often such a
Four are located in California. facility will produce currents
They are that Interfere with nearby deep
anode installations. In such
1. The Joint Committee for the cases this may reduce or actually
Protection of Underground nullify the effect of other
Structures in Alameda and cathodic protection installations,
Contra Costa Counties.
2. Southern California Cathodic
Protection Committee (covering Scope of Program
all of Southern California south and Report
of San Luis Obispo, Kern and
Inyo Counties except San Diego The purposes of the Department of
County) Water Resources' Well Standards
3. The San Francisco Committee Program are to (1) formulate
on Corrosion (including a small recommendations for standards to
Sortion of San Mateo County). protect the quality of the
. Central California Cathodic State's ground water resources
Protection Committee (covering from impairment that might result
all of Central California, the from inadequately constructed,
Sacramento Valley Counties and defective, or improperly abandoned
the western Sierra Nevada wells; and (2) encourage the
mountain counties south of establishment of these standards
Plumas County). throughout the State.

A fifth but informal group, the The general statewide water well
San Diego County Underground standards developed are intended
Corrosion Control Committee, for use throughout the State and
deals with that area. There are under the majority of conditions
no groups functioning in the encountered. However, in a
coastal counties north of number of areas specific infor-
San Francisco or in the north- mation, principally the

-19-
definition, both vertically and frequently misunderstood. In
areally, of affected or endan- an effort to clarify such terms,
gered aquifers, is needed so a list of definitions is
that the standards can be presented in Appendix A.
applied. For this reason,
special studies have been made, Publications reviewed in prepa-
and others will be conducted in ration of this report are listed
the future, to develop this in Appendix B. References to
information for certain areas publications concerning the
of the State. Publications development and protection of
reporting the results of these ground waters and water well
studies, together with recom- construction are contained in
mendations for the application Bulletin No. 7^.
of standards, have been issued
for 10 areas in California. In accordance with Section 138OO
These publications are listed of the Water Code, the Department
in Table 2. of Water Resources has recom-
mended to the appropriate
This report presents recommended California Regional Water Quality
standards for the construction Control Boards and the State
and destruction of cathodic Department of Public Health
protection wells (Chapter II) that water well standards be
together with a discussion of established and enforced in the
their application (Chapter III). 10 areas listed in Table 2.
The standards contained in this Ordinances governing well
report are intended to be used construction and destruction
throughout California. The are in effect in five of these
information presented in the areas and are being developed
reports listed in Table 2 can in the other five. In addition
be used as an aid in applying several counties have taken the
these standards in the 10 areas initative and adopted similar
studied. ordinances. It is anticipated
that all California counties and
Technical terms concerning cities will eventually enact
ground water and wells are such ordinances.

-20-
TABLE 2

REPORTS ISSUED UNDER


WATER WELL STANDARDS PROGRAM
COVERING SPECIFIC AREAS

Area of Study
CHAPTER II. STANDARDS

The standards presented in this B. Enforcing Agency An agency


.

report for the construction and designated by duly authorized


destruction of cathodlc protec- local, regional, or state
tion wells are considered satis- government to administer laws or
factory under most conditions ordinances pertaining to well
throughout the State. However, construction.
geologic and ground water
conditions vary widely, and to Section 2. Exemption Due to
devise standards for every Unusual Conditions .
conceivable situation would have
been impossible. Accordingly, If the enforcing agency finds
provision has been made for that compliance with any of the
deviation from the standards and requirements prescribed herein
in their application with the is impractical for a particular
objective of providing ground location because of unusual
water quality protection equal conditions, it may prescribe
to that provided by these alternative requirements which
standards. are "equal to" these standards
in terms of protection obtained.
The standards recommended are
similar to those for water wells Section 3. Exclusions .
set forth in Bulletin No. 7^.
Because certain general water The standards prescribed In
well standards apply equally to Part II, "Construction", do
cathodic protection wells, they not apply to test holes or
have been repeated verbatim. exploratory holes. However.
The wording in others has been Part III, "Well Destruction*^,
slightly modified. The arrange- does apply to test holes and
ment is parallel to those for exploratory holes.
water wells.
Section 4. Special Standards .
Part I. General In locations where existing
geologic or ground water
Section 1. Definitions conditions require additional
or more restrictive standards
A. Cathodic Protection Well . As than those described herein,
defined in Section 13711 of the such special standards may be
Water Code: prescribed by the enforcing
"...means any artificial agency.
excavation in excess of 50 feet
constructed by any method for Section 3. Contractors .

the purpose of installing


equipment or facilities for the Cathodic protection wells shall
protection electrically of be constructed by contractors
metallic equipment in contact licensed in accordance with the
with the ground, commonly refer- provisions of the Contractors
red to as cathodic protection." License Law (Division 3,

-23-
.

Chapter 9, of the Business and Section 9. Surface Construction


Professions Code unless exempted ^Features.
by that act
A. The top of the well shall be
Section 6. Reports . protected against the entrance of
surface water draining from the
Reports concerning the construc- surrounding land by installation
tion of cathodic protection of watertight caps, covers, plugs
wells shall be filed In accord- or similar devices.
ance with the provisions of
Sections 13750 through 13755 In drainage ways, exclusive of
(Division 7, Chapter 10, highways, streets, paved surfaces
Article 2) of the Water Code. (such as parking lots, equipment
yards, etc.), sidewalks, and the
Section 7. Temporary Cover . like, the top of the well shall
terminate above, or be otherwise
During periods when no work Is protected against, known condi-
being done on the well, such as tions of flooding.
overnight or while waiting for
sealing material to set, the well B. When extended above ground
and surrounding excavation. If surface, the vent pipe shall be
any, shall be covered. The cover terminated at the rectifier
shall be sufficiently strong and housing or other protective
well enough anchored to prevent housing at an elevation which is
the Introduction of foreign above known conditions of flood-
material into the well and to ing.
protect the public from a
potentially hazardous situation. Section 10. Sealing the Upper
or Near-Surface Annular SpaceT
PART II. Well Construction The space between the well casing
or vent pipe and the wall of the
Section 8. Well Location with drilled hole (the annular space)
Respect to Pollutants ^ shall be effectively sealed to
protect against contamination or
A. In congested urban areas or pollution by surface and/or
where the cathodic protection shallow, subsurface waters, as
well is located within 100 feet set forth below.
of a source of pollution (sewer,
septic tank, etc.) the annular A. Sealing Conditions , Follow-
space shall be sealed to a depth ing are requirements to be
of at least 50 feet below the observed in sealing the annular
land surface (as described In space:
Section 10, following).
1. The space shall be filled
B. Where in the opinion of the with sealing material (Para-
enforcing agency adverse condi- graph B below) to a depth of
tions exist, wells located at least 20 feet, or as pre-
further than 100 feet from scribed in Section 8 of these
sources of pollution shall be standards, or to the minimum
sealed as prescribed in depth (greater than 20 feet)
Paragraph A, above, or the depth as prescribed by the enforcing
of seal Increased. agency (Figure 6).

-24-
SOIL
<

GROUT SEAL

GRAVEL'-
a t ' .
"

C \>
o o

VENT_OR
^
CLAY
CASING

NONCONDUCTIVE ^
BACKFILL SAND

CONDU CTIVE
MATERIAL B. WELL PENETRATING
STRATIFIED FORMATION

ANODES

DEPTH OF GROUT SEAL'-

1. NGN URBAN AREAS -20 FEET


A. GENERAL REQUIREMENT 2. CONGESTED URBAN AREAS-50FEET

3. AS OTHERWISE REQUIRED BY
ENFORCING AGENCY (MINIMUM
OF 20 FEET)

FIGURE 6. SEALING CONDITIONS FOR UPPER ANNULAR SPACE

-25-
)

2. In wells that penetrate part of cement with five to seven


stratified formations, if any gallons of clean water (per bag
Impervious formation is en- of cement). Quick-setting cement,
countered within five feet of retardants to setting, and other
where the bottom of the seal additives, including hydrated
described in Paragraph 1 of lime to make the mix more fluid
this section would terminate, (up to 10 percent of the volume
the seal should be extended of cement), and bentonite (up to
into the impervious formation five percent) to make the mix
a distance of 10 feet or its more fluid and to reduce shrink-
total thickness, whichever is age, may be used. Concrete shall
least (Figure 6). be "Class A'' (six sacks of
Portland Cement per cubic yard)
3. When a temporary conductor or ''Class B" (five sacks per cubic
casing is used to hold out yard).
caving material during con-
struction of the well or during C. Thickness of Seal . The
placement of the seal, it may thickness of the seal shall be
be left in place or withdrawn at least two (2) inches, and not
as the sealing material is less than three (3) times the
placed. size of the largest coarse
aggregate used in the sealing
4. The space between the base material.
of the seal and the anode
interval may be filled with D. Placement of Seal. The
granular permeable backfill sealing material shall be
(such as pea gravel or other applied, if possible, in one
Inorganic material).* (See continuous operation from the
Figure 6. bottom of the interval to be
sealed to the top. Where the
B. Sealing Material The seal-
. seal extends from the anode
ing material shall consist of Interval to the ground surface
neat cement, cement grout, and its depth is extensive, the
bentonite-gelatinous mud, seal may be applied in steps or
puddled clay, or concrete. The a plug may be placed at the top
neat cement mixture shall be of the anode interval first to
composed of one bag (9^ pounds) provide a base for the seal.
of Type I Portland Cement to If the plug consists of a
five to seven gallons of clean material that must solidify
water. Cement grout shall be (cement grout, etc.) it shall
composed of not more than two extend at least 10 feet and be
parts by weight of sand and one allowed to set at least 12 hours
before placing the remainder of
It is not intended here to the seal.*
discourage or preclude the
practice of sealing the entire Section 11. Sealing-Off Strata .

upper interval. It may be more


practical and economical to do In areas where a well penetrates
so. However, where the depth of
seal is shallow, the owner may *The use of quick setting
wish to exercise the option of cement is not precluded, in
backfilling the remainder of the which case the time of set
Interval. is correspondingly reduced.

-26-
more than one aquifer and any of Case 1. Upper Aquifers
.

the aquifers contain water of a (Figure ^k) Where the aquifer


quality such that, if allowed to producing poor quality water
mix in sufficient quantity, will lies above the aquifer to be
result in a significant deteri - protected, the seal shall
oration * of the quality of water extend from the top of the
in the other aquifer(s) or the aquifer down to at least 10 feet
quality of water produced, the into the confining stratum (the
strata producing such water shall material separating the two
be sealed-off to prevent entrance aquifers) or the thickness of
of the water into the well or its the confining stratum whichever
migration to other aquifer(s). is least.

A. Sealing Conditions. Case 2. Bottom Aquifers .

(Figures 7 and 8) The aqulfer(s) (Figure 7B) Where the aquifer


shall be sealed off by placing producing poor quality water
Impervious material opposite the lies below the aquifer to be
aquifer and/or opposite confining protected, the annular space
strata as described in the fol- opposite the aquifer Itself
lowing paragraphs. Sufficient should not be sealed. Instead
sealing material shall be applied the annular space opposite the
to fill the annular space between aquifer to be protected shall
the casing or vent pipe and the be sealed its full length and
wall of the drilled hole In the 10 feet into the confining
interval to be sealed, and to stratum.
fill the voids which might absorb
the sealing material.** Case 3. Multiple Strata .

(Figure 8) Where more than one


Should the top of Interval to be aquifer produces poor quality
sealed lie within 10 feet of water, they are adjacent to one
where the base of the seal another, and overlie an aquifer
specified in Section 10 of these to be protected, all overlying
standards would end, the seal aquifers and impervious strata
shall extend the full length of shall be sealed (Figure 8A).
the annular space from the Should they underlie the aquifer
ground surface to the bottom of to be protected, the aquifer and
the interval.*** its underlying confining strata
for a distance of at least
Significant deterioration is 10 feet shall be sealed off
discussed in Chapter III. (Figure 8b). If separated
by the aquifer to be protected,
**Thus the volume of material the upper and lower confining
Introduced must at least strata, the aquifer to be
equal the calculated volume of protected, and the upper aquifer
annular space to be sealed. containing poor quality water
shall be sealed off (Figure 8c).
***In many instances sealing the
entire Interval above the anode B. Sealing material shall
Interval will expeditiously and consist of neat cement, cement
economically fulfill the condi- grout, or other suitable
tions outlined here and in impervious material. (See
Section 10 of these standards. Section 10, Part B).

-27-

> " . ' "
*
6
o
*
O i
t>

AQUIFER ^
CONTAINING
POOR ^-T^. GROUT
QUALITY " O
WATER " ,
o 6 I

a i
o 6 ^
' a ' ^
6 o
o
. * o a

O ^
o
c>

^ y^ y yy y
-'/;"'
CONFINING/ ^ -STRATUM/^
///;^/// /
-"z/;/^^//
'/ ^^ / //
o o " - .

AQUIFER TG^'bE
PROTECTED

O 6
6 o
6 . <^

6 '

O D

CASE I

UPPER AQUIFER
AQUIFER
TO BE
PROTECTED

FIGURE 8. SEALING OFF STRATA- CASE 3- MULTIPLE STRATA

-29-
: :

C. Sealing shall be accomplished the owner shall properly main-


by a method approved by the tain the well in such a way that
enforcing agency.
A. The well has no defects which
D. The sealing material shall be will facilitate the impairment of
placed from the bottom to the top quality of water in the water-
of the Interval to be sealed and, bearing formations penetrated.
if possible, in one continuous
operation. If the depth of the B. If the casing exceeds eight
sealing interval is extensive and inches in diameter the well is
begins at the top of the anode covered with an appropriate
interval, a plug may be placed at locked cap.
the top of the anode interval and
the seal may be placed in steps. C. The well (or its surface
Should the plug be composed of location, if terminated below
cement grout or similar material ground) is marked so that it
which must "set up" it shall be can be clearly seen.
at least 10 feet thick and shall
be allowed to set undisturbed at D. The area surrounding the
least 12 hours before placing the well is kept clear of brush or
remainder of the seal.* debris.

Section l4. General Requirement .

Part III. Destruction of Wells


All "abandoned" cathodic protec-
Section 12. Purpose of Destruc - tion wells shall be destroyed in
tion . such a way that they will not
act as a channel for the inter-
Proper destruction of a well that change of waters, when such
is no longer useful serves two interchange will result in
main purposes significant deterioration of the
quality of water in any or all
A. To assure that the ground water-bearing formations pene-
water supply is protected and trated, or present a hazard to
preserved for further use. the safety and well-being of
people and of animals.
B. To eliminate the potential
physical hazard that exists. Destruction of a well shall
consist of the complete filling
Section 13. Definition of of the well in accordance with
"Abandoned" V/ell .
the procedures described in
Section 15 (following).
A cathodic protection well is
considered "abandoned" when it Section 13. Requirements for
has not been used for a period Destroying Wells .

of one year, unless the owner


declares his intention to use A. Objective . The objective of
the well again. As evidence of the requirements described in
his intentions for continued use. this section is to restore as
nearly as possible those sub-
The use of quick setting cement surface conditions which
is not precluded, in which case existed before the well was
the setting time is reduced. constructed, taking Into account

-30-
*

also changes, if any, which have cables and remove by redrilling*


occurred since the time of the granula r backfill material
construction. (For example, an under condi tions described below,
aquifer which may have produced Exceptions are those cathodic
good quality water at one time protection wells constructed
but which now produces water of since Janua ry 1970 in accordance
Interior quality, such as a with the de sign adopted by the
coastal aquifer that has been Southern Ca lifornia Cathodic
Invaded by sea water. Under Protection Committee (7).
these conditions the aquifer
must now be sealed-off to prevent C. Filling and Sealing Conditions .

further migration via the well). (Figure 9) The following require-


ments are to be observed when the
B. Preliminary Work Before the
.
stated conditions are encountered:
hole IS filled, the well shall be
Investigated to determine if 1. V/ell wholly situated in
there are conditions which will unconsolidated material in an
interfere with the process of unconfined ("free") ground
filling and sealing. Such water zone. The upper 20 feet
conditions will be corrected. shall be sealed with impervious
material and the remainder of
1. If there are any obstruc- the well down to the anode
tions, they shall be removed. interval may be filled with
If possible, by cleaning out clay, sand, or other suitable
the hole or by redrilling. inorganic material.
2. Where necessary, to insure 2. V/ell penetrating several
that the sealing material fills strata. In all cases the upper
not only the well casing or 20 feet of the well shall be
vent pipe but also any annular sealed with impervious material.
space or nearby voids, the
casing or vent pipe should be In areas where the interchange
perforated or otherwise of water between aquifers may
punctured. result in a significant dete-
rioration of the quality of
3. In wells that have been water in one or more aquifers,
constructed prior to the or may result in a loss of
adoption or implementation of artesian pressure, the well
the construction standards in shall be filled and sealed so
Part II, it will be necessary as to prevent such interchange.
to remove the vent pipe and The aquifer producing the
deleterious water shall be
*If wells have been constructed sealed by placing impervious
in accordance with the construc- material opposite the aquifer.
tion standards in Part II, the
annular space will have already *An alternate method is the
been sealed and perforating or injection under pressure of
puncturing the casing or vent sealing material into the
pipe will not be necessary. granular backfill.

-31-
OO D
* :

and opposite the confining shall be filled with impervious


strata for a sufficient material. The remainder of the
vertical distance (but no less well may be filled with any suitable
than 10 feet) in the direction inorganic material.
of confinement. Sand or other
suitable inorganic material may 5. Well penetrating specific
be placed opposite the aquifers aquifers. Under certain
producing good quality water conditions, the enforcing
and other strata where imper- agency may require that
vious sealing material is not specific aquifers be sealed
required. off during destruction of the
well.
In locations where interchange
is in no way detrimental, suit- D. Placement of Material The
.
able Inorganic material may be following requirements shall be
placed opposite the formations observed in placing fill or
penetrated. sealing material in wells to be
destroyed
3. Wells penetrating creviced
or fractured rock. Where 1. The well shall be filled
creviced or fractured rock is with the appropriate material
encountered, the portions of (as described in Paragraph E
the well opposite this material of this section) from the
shall be sealed with neat bottom of the well up.
cement, cement grout, or
concrete. 2. Where neat cement, cement
grout, or concrete is used.
4. Well in noncrevlced, con- It shall be placed if possible,
solidated material. The upper in one continuous operation.
20 feet of a well in a non- Where the length of seal is
creviced, consolidated material extensive the material may be
placed in steps.
Determining the significance of
Interchange of waters whose 3. Sealing material shall be
qualities vary and of the loss placed in the Interval (or
of artesian pressures requires intervals) to be sealed by
extensive knowledge of the ground methods that prevent free
water basin in question. The fall, dilution, and/or
Department of Water Resources has separation of aggregates
over the years, and frequently in from cementing materials.
cooperation with agencies such as
the U. S. Geological Survey, 4. Where a flow (usually)
undertaken a number of ground that is under substantial
water studies and amassed consid- pressure Is encountered,
erable information and data about methods must be used to
the subject. Although much is restrict the flow while
known about the State's ground placing the sealing material.
water supplies, detailed studies In such cases, the casing
sufficiently accurate to define must be perforated opposite
Interchange problems have been the area to be sealed and the
made only in certain areas. In sealing material forced out
still other areas, there is only under pressure into the
partial definition of the problem. surrounding formation.

-33-
:

5. '.{hen pressure Is applied coefficient of permeability


to force sealing material into of less than 100 feet per
the annular space, the year. Used drilling muds
pressure shall be maintained are not acceptable.
for a length of time sufficient
for the cementing mixture to Neat cement, cement grout, and
set. concrete shall be composed of
mixtures described in
6. To assure that the well is Section 10, Paragraph B of
filled and that there has been these standards.
no jamming or ''bridging'' of the
material, verification shall 2. Fill Material. Many
be made that the volume of materials are suitable for
material placed in the v/ell use as a filler in destroying
Installation at least equals wells. These include clay,
the volume of the empty hole. silt, sand, gravel, crushed
stone, native soils,*
To determine that the specified mixtures of the aforementioned
material extends to the types, and those described in
required elevation, after each the preceding paragraphs.
filling operation the depth to Material containing organic
the top of the material from matter shall not be used.
the ground surface shall be
measured. F. Additional Requirements for
V/ells in Urban Areas . To make
E. Materials Requirements for
. further use of the well site in
sealing and fill materials are incorporated areas or unincor-
as follows: porated areas developed for
multiple habitation, the follow-
1. Impervious Sealing ing additional requirements must
Materials. No material is be met
completely impervious. How-
ever, sealing materials shall 1. The sealing operation
have such a low permeability shall extend only to within
that the volume of water six feet of the ground surface.
passing through them is of
small consequence. 2. After the well has been
properly filled, including
Suitable materials include sufficient time for sealing
neat cement, cement grout, material to set, the upper
concrete, bentonlte clays six feet of well casing or
(muds), silt and clays, well- vent pipe and other surface
proportioned mixes of silts, structures shall be removed
sands, and clays (or cement), and the excavation backfilled
and native soils* that have a with native soil.
Examples of materials of this Examples of materials of this
type are: V?ry fine sand with type are: Very fine sand with
a large percentage of silt or a large percentage of silt or
clay. Inorganic silts, mixtures clay, inorganic silts, mixtures
of silt and clay, and clay. of silt and clay, and clay.
Native materials should not be Native materials should not be
used when the sealing operation used when the sealing operation
involves the use of pressure. involves the use of pressure.

-3U-
CHAPTER III. CONSIDERATIONS IN APPLYING THE STANDARDS

The factors considered In devis- Cathodic protection wells are


ing standards for wells are usually constructed by con-
grouped into three categories: tractors who specialize in this
(1) ground water geology and type of installation. Such
hydrology, (2) impairment to contractors are licensed by the
ground water quality, and State of California under the
(3) well constx'uction practices. Contractors' License Law (Divi-
The first and second are dis- sion 3, Chapter 9, of the
cussed in detail in Bulletin Business and Professions Code).
No. Jh, together with a review At one time they were classified
of water well construction as C-6l "Limited Specialty"
practices. Cathodic protection contractors since they worked
well construction has been with low voltages for the most
described in Chapter I of this part. Now, however, they
report. How these factors usually hold the license classi-
relate to the development of fication C-IO "Electrical
certain of the standards Contractor" because the instal-
presented in the previous lation is primarily an electrical
chapter requires explanation. one and involves connection to
In addition, there are practi- high voltage lines. The drilling
calities involved, and such operation is considered
discussion should serve to essentially one involving the
clarify their application under construction of a facility for
given circumstances. housing the below-ground protion
of the electrical installation.
First, it is important to The classification C-57 "Well
recognize that standards, while Drilling Contractor" was
limiting by nature, are not a established to include all those
limitation on variation in engaged in the construction,
design or means of construction. etc. of water wells as defined
On the contrary, there can be a in Section 7026.3 of the
great deal of variety in design Business and Professions Code.
and method of construction (or
destruction) that can satisfy Therefore, to clarify what might
the objectives of standards, appear to be an ambiguity, it
and this variety is limited only seems clear that a contractor
by the ingenuity of the designer holding a C-IO license can drill
or contractor. Accordingly, the hole for the cathodic
there is no intent to limit that protection well (or, as is often
ingenuity; rather the intent is the case, sublet the work to a
to encourage its use. water well drilling contractor).
Moreover, whereas a water well
drilling contractor could drill
General Standards the hole he could not assume
the prime responsibility for
Two of the general standards the electrical installation.
require further discussion.
They are Section 5 'Contractors" For 22 years, persons construct-
and 6 ''Reports". ing, altering, or destroying

-35-
.

water wells have been required to cathodic protection wells in


file reports of completion with California. Obviously, because
an agency of the state government deep anode construction is less
within 30 days after the work has variable than water well construc-
been completed. These reports tion, the report requirements
must be on forms provided by the will not be as complex or detailed,
Department of V/ater Resources.
They contain much geologic and
hydrologic information that is Construction Standards
used by governmental agencies in
the study of the State's ground The nature of the cathodic
water resources and their protection installation is such
geologic environment. In I965 that the practicality of provid-
the Legislature directed that a ing cathodic protection may
notice of intent to engage in conflict with the application of
such work also be filed. certain standards when viewed
from the resource protection
In 1968, when legislation adding standpoint. Consequently,
cathodic protection wells was compromise is In order if both
enacted, the provisions relating objectives are to be achieved.
to reporting were also amended to As a result these particular
include them. However, until standards have been modified
these standards were v:ritten, it (in comparison to those for
was felt reporting was not water wells) to accomplish this
completely necessary. (it should purpose.
be noted here that the corrosion
control committees notify members The first of these concerns
of the installation, activation, "Well Location with Respect to
and discontinuance of cathodic Pollutants" (Section 8).* In
protection devices; therefore, congested urban areas v;here
while details of their construc- underground facilities are a
tion are not exchanged, the maze of pipelines, cables,
existence of cathodic protection tunnels etc., it would be
wells constructed by committee impractical to situate a given
members is reasonably documented.) deep anode so that it would be
Consequently, the Department of at least 50 feet from the
Water Resources did not provide nearest sewer line or upgradient
the report forms as prescribed in from any source of pollution.
Sections 13750 and 13751 of the Therefore, instead of a horizon-
Water Code. tal distance requirement as
specified for water wells, a
With the publication of these vertical requirement i.e. the
standards and in anticipation of depth of seal, is specified.
the Installation of a larger Accordingly, as described in
number of cathodic protection Sections 8 and 10, in urban
wells, the Department now feels areas the minimum depth of seal
it appropriate to issue the is set at 50 feet as a sub-
required report forms. Accord- stitute for a horizontal
ingly, following publication of requirement
this bulletin, the reports will
be developed in cooperation with *For a discussion of pollution
the corrosion control committees, as related to location the
and printed and distributed to reader is referred to Bulletin
all persons known to install No. 7^.

-36-
Section 9 "Surface Construction Where seals are extensive, on
Features" deals with protection the order of 100 feet or more
of the well against flooding by in depth, conductive material
drainage or runoff from the used in backfilling the anode
immediate area because of the interval is sometimes unable
danger of introducing pollutants to support the weight of seal-
to the underlying water (as ing material. Consequently,
described on Page 13). Vaults, provision has been made for the
meter boxes, "street caps" and installation of a plug consist-
the like are commonly installed ing of a short section of
at the well site and usually of sealing material at the top of
a construction that will prevent the anode interval. The plug
the entrance of significant must be capable of supporting
quantities of water into the the sealing material until it
well. Likewise all cable sets.
conduits and many vent pipes
terminate in vaults or the Several aspects of the require-
rectifier housing usually above ments of Section 11 "Sealing-Off
flood levels. Strata" must be considered in
connection with its application.
It is not intended here to pre- Foremost is the significance of
clude the installation of deep interchange of waters of dif-
anodes in streets, sidev/alks, fering qualities, a point
parking lots, etc. as commonly frequently misunderstood or
practiced. However, it is misinterpreted. The interchange
intended that the ovmer and/or of waters betv/een aquifers v;hen
contractor consciously provide they are of differing qualities
for protection against flooding. is undesirable (and therefore
Further, in circumstances where to be prevented) when the
surface drainage is inadequate quality of the one is signif -
or lacking (such as natural low icantly" poorer than the other
spots, sumps, etc.) protection and the quantity involved in
may include terminating the top such interchange is significant .

of the well above known condi-


tions of flooding. To illustrate, a cupful of salt
water mixed into a 50 gallon
Some comments regarding the drum of fresh water has little
sealing material and its place- effect on the fresh water.
ment under Section 10 "Sealing Adding ten cups of salt water is
the Upper or Near-Surface another thing; the effect will
Annular Space" and Section 11 be "significant". On the other
"Seallng-Off Strata" are deemed hand, adding only one cup of
necessary. While all the arsenic to the drum will obvi-
materials listed will provide an ously have immediate significance]
adequate seal, experience has
shown that cement grout (sand, That a significant change of
cement and water) and neat cement quality in one aquifer as a
(cement and water) are the most result of the introduction of
effective seals. The first is poor quality v;ater from another
less expensive than the second, has taken place is evidenced by
both are easy to mix, and han- the effects on the uses to which
dling problems are minimal. the pumped water is put. Changes
in quality have been severe
enough in certain areas to limit

-37-
use of the water and in some is underlain by poor quality
instances eventually led to the waters with depths ranging
abandonment of water wells. from just a few hundred feet
in some locations to thousands
In contrast, the mixing of waters of feet below the land surface.
of differing qualities can also In the case of water wells,
be of little or no consequence. deliberate penetration of
However, the possibility of bottom waters is to be avoided.*
significant interchange must be The recommendation for water
considered if it has not already wells is to cease drilling
been established. The Department within a reasonable vertical
of Water Resources has made such distance from such waters where
a determination in areas where the base of fresh v/ater is
well standards studies have been known or, if bottom waters are
conducted (see Table 2, Chap- penetrated, to backfill the
ter l) and in time will do so in drilled hole with impervious
other areas of the State, The material a sufficient distance
Department also has a great deal to prevent upward movement.
of information concerning
geologic and ground water condi- In the case of the water whose
tions throughout California which movement, unless checked, is
is available to the public. downvr^ard, their areal extent,
V/hile not every locale is covered, even those that have been
in many areas the data are projected, is much less in
sufficient to make a gross magnitude. Of the 10 areas
judgment as to whether or not where the Department has
interchange is likely to be conducted studies and issued
involved. V^here no information formal recommendations,
exists and the problem is prevention of downward inter-
suspected, a determination must change was not deemed necessary
be made at the well site during in one (Del Norte County) and
construction. in the others preventive
measures are recommended for
The next consideration is the areas which extend to 2,400
areal extent of the significant square miles (about 40 percent)
interchange both existing and out of 5, Boo square miles of
projected. Frequently, those water bearing materials.
who misunderstand the Interchange
problem are inclined to view its A final consideration dealing
areal extent as exaggerated. with the sealing off of strata
Two cases must be considered; is the conflict in purpose
the upward moving "bottom" waters which may arise when on the
and those whose movement is one-hand interchange is to be
primarily (but not always) down-
ward. However, it must be recognized
that there are circumstances
Poor quality "bottom" waters i.e. when extraction of saline water
those waters underlying the is feasible or necessary as for
lowest zones of fresh water example the use of such water
supplies, usually at great depth for Injection into oil and gas
and under pressure, are very fields to aid in recovery of oil
extensive. The entire Central and gas or where desalination is
Valley of California for example practical.

-38-
prevented, while on the other direct personal benefit to the
hand such action would hinder or well owner, he is reluctant to
possibly nullify the operation expend the effort and funds
of a deep anode installation. Involved in doing such work.
The corrosion engineer, in selec- This is, unfortunately, a
ting the depth at which he will selfish point of view, and in
place his anodes, is looking for the long run, one which could
water with low resistance to the result in problems and econom.ic
flow of electric current. Since loss to him as well as his
the salinity of water is related neighbors.
to resistance (i. e. as the
salinity Increases the resistance The concept that all have an
decreases), he is obligated to interest in our water resources,
use the most saline waters and therefore an obligation to
penetrated. Thus, the zone to protect them for their present
be sealed-off is possibly the and continued use, is a funda-
very zone needed to provide the mental one. It holds true
desired length of anode Interval. whether the issue is construction
or destruction, or whether water
In the case of a bottom water or wells or cathodic protection
a water that is below an aquifer wells (or other kinds of holes
to be protected, this presents in the ground) are Involved.
no problems. The recommendations
call for a seal which will The general requirement
prevent upward movement. How- (Section l4) that all cathodic
ever, where downward moving protection wells be destroyed
waters are Involved, the situ- is based on the premise that no
ation can be conflicting. opening should be left which
would allow movement of water
An extreme hypothetical example or which would present a safety
might be a location where the hazard. Furthermore, the
downward movement of the upper Department has long concluded
400 feet of water must be that complete filling as a
prevented. Assuming the water method of destruction eliminates
to be saline, it is difficult all existing or potential
to envision constructing the problems at the well site.
deep anode beyond the 400 foot Other methods such as plugging
depth. At worst the linear at selected intervals or just
extent of the facility being at the top are valid only so
cathodically protected could long as the plug remains Intact
require installation of addition- and in position.
al 400 foot deep anodes. In any
event, the exercise of good With regard to Section 15
judgment and ingenuity in design "Requirements for Destroying
should overcome situations that Wells", three points should be
appear conflicting without an reviewed. The first involves
unreasonable Increase in cost preliminary work on wells
or, for that matter, any increase constructed previous to the
in cost. implementation of these stand-
ards (Section 15, Paragraph B3).
Destruction Standards The requirement that the vent
pipe and cables be removed and
Because destruction seldom is of the backfill be "drilled out"

-39-
(by redrilling) imposes no gravel envelope should be no
difficult undertakings; in fact, more difficult.
redrilling should prove to be
easier than the original dril- The second point is the filling
ling. V/hile it is possible that, and sealing conditions in
over a considerable period of Section I5, Paragraph C. The
time, the openings in the back- requirements are designed to
fill could be filled with fine- assure complete filling of the
grained material or ''cemented well and that sealing takes
up", it is not considered likely place at specific intervals.
to occur throughout the entire It should be apparent that in
length of the backfill column. many cases it will be more
Too frequently, a "bridge" in practical or economical to seal
the material is formed and the the entire well with an
remainder of the column un- impervious material. Further-
changed. Thus, the only sure more, in the case of wells
way to eliminate the backfill constructed in accordance with
as a channel for water movement these standards (see Part II),
is to remove it or to inject a it is reemphasized that sealing
sealing material into it. of the vent pipe or casing with
Impervious material is all that
It is also possible that some will usually be necessary in
sections of the vent pipe can the future.
become wedged or cemented in
place and thus not easily pulled. Finally, in regard to additional
This also happens v/here water requirements for wells in urban
wells are concerned. However, areas (Section 15, Paragraph F),
water well drilling contractors the assumption is made that the
have pulled steel casing of site can be used again for
diameters in excess of 12 inches another purpose at some unknown
that have been surrounded by future date. In fact, the
gravel and other material with installation being protected
considerable success. It would may be removed or relocated.
appear that removal of a two- Thus, at the time of destruction,
inch plastic pipe and as many allowance should be made for
as a dozen anode cables from a future use.

-^0-
APPENDIX A

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are defined as used in this report;

Abandoned Well - A well whose, original purpose and use has been
permanently discontinued or which is in such a state of
disrepair that its original purpose cannot be reasonably
achieved.

Annular Space - The space between two well casings or a well


casing and the wall of the drilled hole.

Anode - An electrode at which oxidation is occurring on its


surface or on one component of the solution.*

Aquifer - A formation or group of formations or part of a


formation that is water bearing, and which transmits water
in sufficient quantity to supply pumping wells.

Backfill - Material placed in the drilled hole to fill space


around anodes, vent pipe, and other components.*

Casing - A tubular retaining structure which is Installed in


Uhe excavated hole.

Cathodic Protection - A technique to reduce corrosion of a metal


surface by passing sufficient cathodic current to it to
cause its anodic dissolution rate to become negligible.*

Clay - A fine-grained inorganic material (grains less than


0.005 mm in diameter) which has very low permeability and
is plastic.

Confined Ground Water - A body of ground water overlain by


material sufficiently impervious to sever free hydraulic
connection with all overlying ground water except at the
upper edge of the confining stratum where the confined
water connects with free ground water. Confined ground
water moves in strata, conduits or arteries under the
control of the difference in head between the intake and
discharge areas of the confined water body.

Definitions from National Association of Corrosion Engineers


Standard RP-05-72.

-41-
* *

Contamination - Defined In Section I305O of the California V/ater


Code:

"(k) 'Contamination' means an Impairment of the


quality of the v/aters of the state by waste to a
degree v/hich creates a hazard to the public health
through poisoning or through the spread of disease.
Contamination' shall include any equivalent effect
resulting from the disposal of waste, whether or
not v;aters of the state are affected."

Corrosion - The deterioration of a material, usually a metal,


because of a reaction with its environment.*

Deep Groundbed - One or more anodes installed vertically at a


nominal depth of 50 feet or more below the earth's surface
in a drilled hole for the purpose of supplying cathodic
protection for an underground or submerged metallic
structure.

Deterioration - An impairment of water quality.

Driller's Mud - A fluid composed of water and clay (either native


clay or combination with commercial clays) used in the
drilling (primarily rotary) operation to remove cuttings
from the hole, to clean and cool the bit, to reduce friction
between the drill stem and the sides of the hole, and to
plaster the sides of the hole. Such fluids range from
relatively clear water to carefully prepared mixtures of
special purpose compounds.

Electrolysis - The chemical change in an electrolyte resulting


from the passage of electricity. Electrolysis is the
dissociation of an electrolyte by passage of direct current,
in which anions are discharged at the anode and cations at
the cathode. Elements released at the anode may include
oxygen, chlorine, and other gases. Hydrogen is the element
commonly released at the cathode.*

Electrolyte - A chemical substance or mixture, usually liquid,


containing ions that migrate in an electric field. The
term electrolyte refers to the soil or liquid adjacent to
and in contact with a groundbed or metallic structure.
Including the moisture and other chemicals contained
therein.

Ground V/ater - That part of the subsurface water which is in the


zone of saturation.

Definitions from National Association of Corrosion Engineers


Standard RP-05-72.

-H2-
Ground V/ater Basin - A ground water basin consists of an area
underlain by permeable materials which are capable of
furnishing a significant water supply; the basin includes
both the surface area and the permeable materials beneath
it.

Grout - A fluid mixture of cement and water (neat cement) of a


consistency that can be forced through a pipe and placed as
required. Various additives, such as sand, bentonite, and
hydrated lime, are included in the mixture to meet certain
requirements. For example, sand is added when a considerable
volume of grout is needed.

Interference - The situation that arises when a foreign sub-


structure is affected in any way by a direct current source.

Impairment - A change in quality of water which makes it less


suitable for beneficial use.

Impermeable - Having a texture that does not permit water to


move through it perceptibly under the head differences
ordinarily found in subsurface water.

Impervious Stratum - A formation, group of formations, or part


of a formation which, although often capable of absorbing
water slowly, will not transmit it fast enough to furnish
an appreciable supply for wells or springs.

Impressed Current - Direct current supplied by a device


employing a power source external to the anode system.*

Permeability - The capacity of a material for transmitting a


fluid. Degree of permeability depends upon the size and
shape of the pores, the size and shape of their inter-
connections, and the extent of the latter.

Pollution - Defined in Section I305O of the California Water Code:

"(1) 'Pollution' means an alteration of the quality


of the v\raters of the state by waste to a degree which
unreasonably affects: (l) such waters for beneficial
uses, or (2) facilities which serve such beneficial
uses. 'Pollution' may include 'contamination'."

Pressure Grouting - A method of forcing grout into specific


portions of a well, such as the annular space or into the
surrounding formation, for sealing purposes.

Definition from National Association of Corrosion Engineers


Standard RP-05-72.

-^3-
Puddled Clay - Clay or a mixture of clay and sand, kneaded or
worked when wet to render it Impervious to water.

Quality of Water or Water Quality - Defined in Section I305O of


the California Water Code:

'(g) 'Quality of the water' or 'quality of the waters'


refers to chemical, physical, biological,
bacteriological, radiological, and other properties
and characteristics of water which affect its use."

Unconflned Ground V/ater - Water moving through an interconnected


body of pervious material unhampered by Impervious confining
material, and moving under control of the water table slope.

-hk-
APPENDIX B
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. California State Public Utilities Commission. "General


Order No. 112-C Rules Governing Design, Construction,
Testing, Maintenance and Operation of Utility Gas
Gathering, Transmission and Distribution Piping
Systems." Effective April 30, 1971.

2. California State Department of V/ater Resources. "V^ater VJell


Standards: State of Calif or-nia. " Bulletin No. 7^.
February I968.

3. Materials Protection. "Stray Current Electrolysis: An Old


Monster Resurrected." August 1971.

h. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. "Recommended


Practice - Control of External Corrosion on Underground
or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems." NACE
Standard RP-Ol-69. August I969.

5. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. "Recommended


Practice - Design, Installation, Operation, and
Maintenance of Impressed Current Deep Groundbeds."
NACE Standard RP-05-72. June 1972.

6. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Western Region.


"Proceedings - V/estern States Corrosion Seminar - V
California State Polytechnic College, Pomona, California
May 4-6, 1971". 1972.

7. Southern California Cathodic Protection Committee. "Tentative


Deep Anode Standards to Comply With California
Department of Water Resources Water Well Standards."
Drawing Numbers A-497-S-1 and A-497-S-2. Revision of
December 10, 1969.

8. United States General Services Administration, National


Archives and Records Service, Office of the Federal
Register. "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49,
Transportation, Chapter 1, Hazardous Materials
Regulations Board, Department of Transportation,
Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by
Pipeline: Minimum Federal Safety Standards." Effective
November 12, 1970.

"Subpart 1 - Requirements for Corrosion Control."


Effective August 1, 1971. Federal Register,
Volume 36, No. 126 - June 30, 1971.

-^15-
THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE

STAMPED BELOW

BOOKS REQUESTED BY ANOTHER BORROWER


ARE SUBJECT TO RECALL AFTER ONE WEEK.
RENEWED BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO
IMMEDIATE RECALL

LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS


m D4613 (12/76)
3