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LEADERSHIP, CHANGE AND PEOPLE PERFORMANCE

Assignment Cover Sheet

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02. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The production of this assignment would not have met reality without the help of people who
facilitated me both morally and by the provision of knowledge; I would take the opportunity
to thank all of them.

1. Mr. Ramzeen Ismail (CEO of Ramford Institute), it was under his direction and moral
support that I opted for the assignment and scheduled it to fit in the time frame

2. Ms. Maryambatool (lecturer for business management), guided me throughout the


project, from choosing the topic to making me understand the different aspects of the
module.

3. Mr. Steve (branch manager Starbucks), a very gentle being provided a picture of
Starbucks locally and shared his experience as a staff member which opened many of
thought areas for my project.

4. Mr. Majid Hassan (warehouse manager of a retail business), enlightened me on the


contemporary challenges faced at every division of the organization and how they might
be encountered.
03. DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the assignment is purely my own work, with the guidance of others and
literature reviews. I have produced it for the subject leadership, change and people
performance for ABE level 7, for the year 2016-2017.

Date:______________________

Signature: __________________
CONTENTS

1.0. Introduction Page 5


2.0. Background Page 5
3.0. Rationale Page 6
4.0. Literature Review Page 7
5.0. Research Question Page 9
6.0. Research Methodology Page 10
7.0. Analysis and Findings Page 10
8.0. Recommendations Page 14
9.0. Conclusions Page 15
References Page 16
1.0 Introduction:

We will see that this task is an investigation of the adjustment in the hierarchical structure and
how that has influenced labour administration routines, needs of the organization and
different perspectives since Apple has experienced the change that was Tim Cook assuming
control as CEO of Apple after Steve Jobs' passing. Much has been said throughout the years
of Steve Jobs' style of working and administration and how he broadly focussed just on the
items and couldn't have cared less much about some other part of the organization.

His fabulous inclination towards the vision his organization would lead his biographer Walter
Isaacson to depict him as the "inventive business person whose enthusiasm for flawlessness
and brutal drive changed six commercial ventures: PCs, energized motion pictures, music,
telephones, tablet registering, and advanced distributed." His ability was great to the point
that he dragged back Apple from the verge of chapter 11 in the wake of coming back to the
organization in 1997 in the wake of having been expelled from Apple after a long drawn
force battle. This was one of the most exceedingly bad stages where the organization
attempted to pursue itself an earth shattering change in authority and the vision of the
organization. Steve Jobs' arrival delineates an awesome system for overseeing change and
driving an organization once again from the edge and also reviving the labor along. Then
again, after a drawn out disease, after he passed away, the reins of the business were given
over to Tim Cook, who was Chief Operations Officer of Apple before he took up the part of
CEO.

2.0. Background:

Cook, notwithstanding being all around qualified, did not convey the air and taking after that
Steve Jobs did furthermore had his own particular style of working contrasted with Jobs who
was frequently called 'dictatorial'. At first this prompted a considerable measure of hypothesis
in the matter of how Apple would change and how the execution of the fabulous workers
would contrast. This study endeavors to break down how this change was overseen and what
the impact on the organization's labor was. We additionally attempt to examine what some
great labor administration procedures are to guarantee that great results can be accomplished.
Further we will likewise attempt to talk about what conceivable changes could be achieved
by the present CEO to enhance the working of Apple and keep up its position as the $100
billion behemoth it is and make it significantly bigger and a much more universal part of
individuals' lives everywhere throughout the world.

3.0. Rationale

Power is one the most discussed, went head to head in regards to and investigated edges with
association with associations today. Book shops have complete fragments of self change
aides and symptomatic books went for endeavouring to fathom what an inconceivable
pioneer is and how to be one. Added to this, there are inestimable social affairs and
workshops held tight organization in assorted schools, colleges and affiliations. As one may
expect, such an epic measure of study has given a gathering of definitions, structures,
standards thus on to portray who a pioneer is. One legitimate clarification behind this vitality
behind this subject is that pioneers, are extensively considered, by a few techniques are in a
position to control the conduct of distinctive individuals and the outcomes of their activities.
While this may have been considerable in an other period, today affiliations work in a zone
where there is little control to be had by a single person who sits above all else.

4.0. Literature Review

Yukl and Van Fleet (1992) said that organization includes the tries of one individual from an
affiliation concerning distinctive people with the reason for peopling and various leveled
units perform their targets. Maccoby (2000) said that, "Activity is an association between the
pioneer and the drove that can engage an affiliation". This direct infers a pioneer is tasked
with the commitment of driving people in the bearing which is required moreover has the
errand of stirring them and keeping them amped up for the work. If a pioneer misfires in
managing his work, then the affiliation is bound to kick the container.
Different sorts of business, especially the all inclusive community orientated ones in
perspective of organization/showcasing, present themselves as game-plan of practices. While
the practices are based on individuals, the significant focus is on the practices themselves, not
the comprehensive group for whom they are executed. Then again, this is not a precise
rundown to judge these parameters. True blue organization happens when pioneers focus their
attempts towards the flourishing of their own family

Reichheld (1996) depicted this point in The Loyalty Effect and outlined with reference to
how productive affiliations need to keep up and move the side interests of their essential
assetsthe delegates. Reichheld's methodology demonstrates how pioneers must
acknowledge hazard for their family. Constituents, for case, workers or clients, must not be
seen as adversaries but rather as individuals who have an association with the relationship in
light of the way that it suits general leisure activities.

Prevalent working structures are key for the advancement of any association. They are a
social affair of interconnected Human Resource Processes - eg: determination, planning,
execution examination and pay. A study appropriated in the American Journal of Applied
Psychology by Jake Messersmith et al exhibits that HPWS contributes colossally to
assembling execution. The criteria investigated were job satisfaction, legitimate obligation
and reinforcing in the occupation. It was found that there was an uncommonly vital and
helpful result on these mindsets when HPWS was completed.

Anderson's speculation helps in understanding that people offer resources for the firm. In
light of current circumstances, the response to the solicitation, "Why ought to an alliance
consider the flourishing of its staff?" is that the general open are the soul of the association.

It is altogether comprehended that Steve Jobs was a pioneer who was fit for empowering
accomplices of the association in light of his vision and in the meantime "asked for enormity
from his staff and was known for his heartless transport of input" (McInerney, 2011).
Harrison's Model of Culture (1972) says that Apple's various leveled society in the midst of
Steve Jobs' residency is appointed a power society. Power society was portrayed by Handy
like a general public where the power rested in the hands of a few people and the status of a
man in that association depended more on his relationship with those people than on his title.

Thus, Steve Jobs had centered an expansive segment of the choice making force in his grasp,
constantly pushing subordinates for better execution, and rebuking delegates prominently and
thoughtlessly if their execution did not experience his principles. (Arneson, 2011). This was a
decent ground for the development and advancement of the top entertainers, however most of
the workforce, who fell in the normal to above normal classification endured a considerable
measure and were liable to a great degree abnormal amounts of anxiety. It is surely
understood that his ouster from Apple, designed by John Scully was essentially in light of the
fact that he got the backing of Managers who did not care for Steve Jobs' conduct with his
representatives.

The power portion of running an association has reliably been examined as being one of the
supervisor clarifications behind improvement and furthermore disaster. Notwithstanding the
way that we can't comment even handedly whether the failure of an association to well
suggests that the power is defective, it is sure honest to goodness that each productive
companies have uncommon pioneers who know how to run their association. One of the huge
describing segments of successful pioneers is their ability to accomplish awesome change and
likewise direct undesirable change.

Beside directing change, another genuine edge is the way the execution of people is affected
by organization and any change which happens in the affiliation. It has long been guessed
that change influences execution of work. We may try to inspect the sum it did in that
capacity, especially by virtue of Apple and how it was administered and how those
methodology join with frameworks maintained by experts and standard managers.
Today's feelings have been all that much highlighted by Jeff Jarvis in his late book, What
Would Google Do? His first govern of what he calls the " Google economy' is to "give the all
inclusive community control and they will use it." Much has been discussed engaging experts
as a cure to Frederick Taylor's test associationa system that saw a business as a machine to
be worked as usefully as could be typical considering the current circumstance. This is
uncommonly difficult to analyze.

A broad number of strengths, including money related hardship, the need for
straightforwardness, shifts in labor markets, and the dynamic effect of front line and web
frameworks organization is actuating an impressively more individuals focused economy.
This requires a more people orientated approach to manage oversee movement and
association.

In this assignment, we will separate how Steve Jobs, regardless of being an appealing
personality took after the more settled schedules for people organization and how they may
have made issues the tremendous work force included with the affiliation. With the change in
activity after his destruction, we may in like manner inspect how Tim Cook's methods
wandered from that of Steve Jobs' and what kind of results that is yielding.

5.0. Research Evaluation:

This assignment was immensely useful to decide upon how a subject for an assignment has to
be selected. Had a smaller company been selected, there might not have been sufficient
resources to base an observation on. Additionally, there was the benefit of having exposure to
the viewpoints of several learned people due to the size of Apple and hence there was
sufficient literature available for research.

Also, the analysis of different types of management systems, what is expected from a leader
and what situations require which type of management style. Basically the concept of
working with share-holders, employees and competitors together provided an interesting
view point as to how companies can expect to grow. Overall, this thesis afforded an
interesting and immense learning opportunity to understand the basic method of researching a
subject, connecting different sources, analysing different management techniques and
strategies for making employees and other people comfortable and value especially by using
High performance Working Systems.

6.0. Research Methodology

For examination of our hypothesis, we may rotate toward the sky the chronicled scenery of
Apple and the movements which it encountered, the enduring misfortune rates, accounts by
power sources and power biographers, news clippings and distinctive studies which separated
Apple's HR courses of action. Since Apple is an association subject to boundless media
thought and spotlight, most of this data is open all in all general public space, while there are
some examination papers which endeavored to think about the working models of diverse
totals which will help in our appreciation of the structure and organization frameworks used
by Apple. From a general point of view, we will in like manner look at the changed sorts of
organization practices and systems included with genuine associations and draw parallels
with them with relationship to Apple in the season of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook.

7.0. Analysis and Findings

Since Jobs' passing and Tim Cook's landing, things have unquestionably changed. One
noteworthy pointer of this was the point at which a gathering of speculators went to Apple
drove by an examination investigator for the monetary major, Citibank. The entire session
began with a 45-moment talk by Peter Oppenheimer, Apple's CFO. The CEO Tim Cook all of
a sudden went into the room after around 20 minutes into the discussion and unobtrusively
sat in the back of the room and listened to the entire presentation deliberately without
hindering with supreme focus.

After the CFO's discussion was done, Cook, who was CEO then for just around 5 months,
stood and exhibited his comments. He was by all accounts in complete control and knew
precisely what way he needed to take Apple along, said one of the financial specialists. Each
inquiry was addressed straightforwardly and there was no evasion of issues. This episode is
critical since Steve Jobs would not have disturbed with any of this. In his whole vocation at
Apple, he had once in a while met with any financial specialist. Indeed, even this undertaking
had been consigned by him to those let down the rung, since he considered it of no worth. It
is an inconspicuous however critical change wherein financial specialists now feel that the
CEO really thinks about them and that has lightened a few concerns which speculators had
when Tim Cook had assumed control.

Being a 14 year veteran of Apple, Cook is keeping up most of Apple's extraordinary


corporate society, having worked with Jobs for a long time. Nevertheless, the developments
in his behavior and tone are amazingly clear. Some of them even impact the focal point of
Apple's thing change process which was seen as untouchable by Jobs. Cook has been
allowing people the capacity to settle all alone decisions. This was impossible in the midst of
Jobs' residency. In a couple cases Cook has made a move that Apple and its specialists
required gravely. It seems like he has decided to work through a potential summary of issues
Steve Jobs had subsequent to a long time prior declined to convey due to his commended
determination and hatred for feedback from delegates.

Given the way that there was much hypothesis as to the eventual fate of Apple without Jobs,
it is entirely amazing how consistently the organization has been cruising alongside Cook at
its steerage. Apparently, Wall Street has a few billions of motivations to bolster the Cook
administration. The organization's reasonable worth has ascended by about $140 billion since
Cook assumed control. In the seventy five percent after Cook turn into the CEO, Apple
reported around $31 billion of benefits and transported and sold 89 million iPhones and 38
million iPads, figures which far surpassed Wall Street's desires. The client base too has seen a
phenomenal, considerable development. His execution has been appraised as shining, over-
whelming and impossible by speculators and stock-specialists.

It has likewise come to see that the workers have significantly all the more breathing space
now. Amid Jobs' administration, individuals were said to be terrified to leave their workplaces
notwithstanding for lunch because of a paranoid fear of running into Jobs and losing their
occupations.
In different procedures, Cook has attempted to hold the respectability and oddity which Apple
has been related to and changed just those which should be changed. In mid-April the
organization sorted out its first ultra-shrouded "Main 100" meeting following the demise of
Jobs. This is an uncommon open door for top chiefs to realize what items and administrations
are being gotten ready for the following eighteen months or somewhere in the vicinity. Cook
took after custom generally by sorting out the go on contracted transports so that their
comings and goings were in the organization's control. There were likewise presentations by
the gathering which was like what Jobs used to do.

The distinction however lay in the way that the soul of the meeting was fairly energetic and
fun as well. Cook was evidently in a jolly state of mind which was a difference to the dreary
and genuine tone which Jobs conveyed at the gatherings, and produced an environment of
pressure. He additionally wandered so far as to solicit them what their conclusion from the
items was, which was never found in Apple's imperious society. A man with access to a
percentage of the Apple officials who were at the conference, said that individuals looked
absolutely alright with the bearing in which the organization is going. This was one of the
significant vital turning points where representatives got a vibe that Cook was an alternate
CEO.

A CEO of a powerful tech organization who as of late met with Cook portrayed him to be
sensible, non-corporate, meticulous, and incapacitating, which is an incessant depiction of
Cook, even by his representatives. He kept on saying that he was easygoing, grounded, and
simple to converse with and that he very nearly overlooked he's the CEO of Apple. Also, that
was not my involvement with Jobs.

With regards to the representatives, a large portion of them appear to be all the more very
fulfilled by Cook. He frequently takes a seat arbitrarily with workers for lunch in the cafeteria
as opposed to Jobs who for the most part ate with configuration head Jonathan Ive which
talks a considerable measure about what was most vital to him I the running of the
organization. It is a moderately minor contrast that talks a great deal about how
representatives see their CEO and interface with him. Cook is unquestionably a requesting
supervisor, yet he is not threatening and representatives discover him a great deal more
congenial to voice their worries and thoughts.

After Cook's entrance, Apple has turned into an exceptionally socially mindful organization,
and has attempted to enhance working conditions in its production lines worldwide after
reports that the working conditions were to a great degree brutal, particularly in China.

It has been noticed that Cook is a great deal less incredible when he is driving the
organization. An occupation was resolutely fixated on completing things right, and it didn't
make a difference what others felt about it. He even used to venture to flame individuals just
to demonstrate his point and those stories are fabulous.

Cook understands that there were sure issues with Jobs' style of working, and consequently
he has decided to fabricate connections as opposed to be in control dependably. This
occasionally causes slower choice making however it has lessened the issue which were
carried on from the past overseeing practices.

Cook, while keeping on looking for greatness at Apple, however it is finished with an
unmistakable and distinctive style. It has been a proceeding with attempt to stretch upon
straightforwardness and cooperation inside of the Apple association. Cook has an
exceptionally quiet disposition, and he is substantially more receptive than Jobs was.

Cook rouses his workers through an open-entryway arrangement and by empowering a


shared situation at Apple.
8.0. Recommendations

Suggestions:

1. A move is required from force society to an errand society at Apple.

The conventional administration style embraced by Steve Jobs-the force society requires to
be uprooted. A move has been as of now made by Tim Cook, however significantly more
requires to be done to make representatives OK with their employments and more open
Harrison's Model of Culture (1972) proposes option society sorts as errand society, so that the
force is dynamic and changes as indicated by the current workload and upon the group at
play.

It likewise offers the benefit of a much higher opportunity level and adaptability for workers,
enhanced choice making with expanded velocities, and making of space for representative
imagination and development.

2. The CEO needs to assume a noteworthy part in advancing undertaking society

It is extremely clear at this point a pioneer assumes a vital part in molding any society in the
association.

Essentially, Tim Cook needs to take up a proactive way to deal with advance errand society in
the organization through appropriate correspondence of applicable desires to partners
obviously and in a productive way. He likewise needs to assume responsibility of the
procedure and needs to guarantee that there is no misconception in what he anticipates.

3. Development and imagination must be saved

Inventiveness and Innovation were the fundamental ideas on which Apple was established
and has survived hitherto and was the center of business system in the time of Steve Jobs and
has been the significant main thrust behind the Apple juggernaut. Consequently it is basic that
these excellencies be maintained later on and it is upto Tim Cook to guarantee that Apple
doesn't transform into yet another corporate which concentrates just on benefits and incomes.
Since that would realize a to a great degree negative response from all Apple followers since
the essential columns would be evacuated. In the event that Apple begins playing protected,
then it will without a doubt lose its client base.

4. HPWS must be actualized in a greater way:


Till date, there is no understanding of HPWS in Apple which was the explanation behind the
disappointment of the lower level normal workers. In spite of the fact that Tim Cook is
gradually presenting this idea, it must be executed on a more extensive scale and ought to be
made a vital part of Apple's HR society.

Outcome of the project:

Implications of leadership and personality of the leader in the formation of organisational


culture is immense in a way that actions and behaviour of the leader is often emulated by
employees in lower management ranks. Therefore, organisational leaders usually set the
culture within their organisation through their communication skills, work ethics, methods
and general behaviour.

To put it simply, the power culture in Apple developed during Steve Jobs era has a range of
disadvantages such as under-utilisation of employee creativeness and initiatives, high level of
risk associated with decisions taken, and decisions of a leader not facing criticisms in lower
management ranks. Accordingly, these disadvantages might have serious negative effects for
Apple because the business and leadership skills of the current corporate leader of the
company might not match the skills of Steve Jobs.

With age and experience, Steve Jobs became a better leader of people. Although Jobs was
never one to dwell on his own shortcomings, Isaacson quotes a statement he made during a
2007 conference in which he revealed a somewhat reluctant, even latent sense of an
important flaw. Because Woz and I started the company based on doing the whole banana,
we werent so good at partnering with people, he said of Apples design philosophy. I think
if Apple could have had a little more of that in its DNA, it would have served it extremely
well. Jobs would have benefited from more of that in his leadership DNA, too. Who knows
if he had had more time, he might have been able to close that gap altogether.

Advantages and Benefits. The combination of top-notch excellence, creativity and


innovation in Apples organizational culture supports the firms industry leadership. These
characteristics of human resources empower Apple to stand out and stay ahead of
competitors. These features of the companys organizational culture are key factors that
enable success and competitive advantage. Creativity and excellence are especially important
in Apples rapid innovation processes.
Drawbacks and Weaknesses. Apples organizational culture brings challenges because of
the emphasis on secrecy and the moderate degree of combativeness. An atmosphere of
secrecy limits rapport among workers. Also, the moderate combativeness that still exists in
the firm today has the disadvantage of limiting the morale of some employees. These issues
indicate that Apples organizational culture has room for major improvements to strengthen
the firms human resource capabilities.

9.0. Conclusions

From the above given focuses, a couple of things are clear:

1. The development from force society to all the more a just work society is
apparent.

2. The new administration at Apple is focussing more on adding to a decent work


society for a wide range of representatives instead of simply focussing on the top
entertainers.

3. Efforts are being made to keep speculators likewise cheerful, since they are the
general population who really help Apple by monetarily supporting it.

4. The beginnings of High Performance Working Systems is self-evident, despite


the fact that it is in the starting stages.

5. Inclusiveness, solace in working and professional stability have expanded a


few fold which will ideally offer the organization some assistance with growing
quickly since individuals won't be reluctant to voice reservations and pitch new
thoughts to the top administration. This is fundamentally the same to Facebook's style
of working and has been a noteworthy main impetus for their development.
References

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UpBerrett-Koeher Publishers

Executive Profiles (2012) Apple Retrieved from www.apple.com

Katzenbach, J. (2012) The Steve Jobs Way Retrieved from www.strategy-business.com

McInerney, S. (2011) Steve Jobs: an unconventional leader The Sydney Morning Herald,
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OReilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A
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