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Chapter 13: Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation of Selected Tests

I. Measuring parameters of athletic performance


a. Maximum muscular strength (Low-speed strength): 1 RM in exercises such as bench
press or back squat isometrically.
i. [PROTOCOL FOR Repetition Maximum TESTING]
b. Anaerobic or Maximum muscular power (High-Speed Strength): include high speed strength
tests that have 1RM explosive jerks (power clean, snatch, or push jerk), the height of vertical
jump, and time to sprint up a staircase.
i. As explosive exercise tests take about 1 second while low-speed maximal strength tests
generally require 2-4 seconds to complete, ATP stored in the active muscle(s) is the
primary energy source for both types of tests.
ii. Protocol: 30 second test interval
c. Anaerobic capacity: the max rate of energy production by the combined phosphagen and lactic
acid energy systems for moderate-duration activities.
i. Max power lasts between 30-90 seconds
d. Local muscular endurance: the ability of certain muscles or muscle groups to perform repeated
contractions against a submaximal resistance.
e. Aerobic capacity: the maximum rate at which an athlete can produce energy through oxidation
of energy resources and is usually expressed as a volume of oxygen consumed per kg of body
weight per minute.
f. Agility: The ability to stop, start and change the direction of the body or body parts rapidly and
in controlled manner.
g. Speed: Movement distance per unit and is typically quantified as the time taken to cover a fixed
distance.
i. 200 m or less
h. Flexibility: the ROM about a body joint.
i. Goni & Sit-and-reach box lower back and hips are targets
i. Balance and stability:
i. Balance: The ability to maintain static and dynamic equilibrium or the ability to maintain
the bodys center of gravity over its base of support.
ii. Stability: A measure of the ability to return to a desired position following a disturbance
to the system.
j. Body composition: The relative proportions by weight of fat and lean tissue.
i. Skinfold measurement technique
ii. Hydrostatic weighing
iii. DEXA- dual x-ray absorptiometry: Gold Standards
k. Anthropometry: the science of measurement applied to the human body
i. Measurement of height
ii. Weighed: minimal dry clothing
iii. Selected body girths
l. Testing conditions:
i. Jogging or light calisthenics and a specific warm up
II. Protocols & Normal Stats by sequence of tests
a. Non-fatiguing tests:
i. Anthropometry: Height, Weight, Girth Measurements
1. Chest: at the nipple level in males and maximum circumferences above breasts in
females.
2. Right upper arm: maximum circumference
3. Right forearm: at the point of maximal circumference with the elbow fully
extended, palm up and arm abducted to parallel with the floor
4. Waist (abdomen): level of umbilicus
5. Hips (buttocks): maximum protrusion of buttocks with the heels together
6. Right thigh & Right Calf: maximum circumference
ii. Body Compositions- Skinfold measurements
1. Chest: Diagonal fold the distance btwn anterior axillary line and nipple for men
2. Thigh: A vertical fold on the anterior aspect of thigh, midway between hip and
knee joints
3. Abdomen: A vertical fold 1 inch to the R of the umbilicus
4. Triceps: A vertical fold on the posterior midline of the upper arm way btwn
acromion and olecranon processes.
5. Suprailium: A diagonal fold above the iliac crest at the spot where an imaginary
line would come down from anterior axillary line.
6. Midaxilla: A vertical fold on the mid axillary line at the level of the xiphoid
process of the sternum
7. Subscapula: A fold taken on a diagonal line that extends from the vertebral border
to a point 0.5 inch to 1 inch from the inferior angle of scapula.
8. Calf: A vertical fold along the medial side of the calf, at the level of maximum
calf circumference.
MALES FEMALES SPORTS
Extremely lean <7 < 15 Gymnastics, bodybuilding, cross country,
wrestling
Average 14-17 21-25 Womens Basketball, Football, Hockey,
Tennis, Volleyball, Powerlifting

iii. Flexibility:
1. Sit-and-Reach test
a. Tape measure to the floor
b. Non-ballistic exercise
c. Sit shoeless
d. Slowly reach forward with both hands
e. Score less than 15 inches indicates that the athlete could not reach the
bottom of the feet.
f. Best of 3 trials, nearest 0.25 inches
g. NORMS:
i. 90% RANK: MEN 20-29 years old 22 inches
ii. 90% RANK: WOMEN 20-29 years old 24 inches
2. Overhead Squat
a. Wooden dowel overhead
b. Grip should be 2x the shoulder width apart
c. Lowering continues until the crease of the hips is below the top of the
knee should be able to hold this position
d. Minimum 5 repetitions
e. Pass/Fail scoring
b. Balance & Stability Tests
i. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS)
1. 6 positions
2. Stances held for 20 seconds with eyes closed for each condition and hands on
hips.
3. Errors include:
a. Opening eyes
b. Lifting hands from hips
c. Touchdown of non-stance foot
d. Step, hop or other movement of the stance foot or feet
e. Lifting forefoot or heel
f. Moving hip into more than 30 degrees of hip flexion or abduction
g. Remaining out of position for more than 5 seconds
WOMEN MEN
30-39 65-69 30-39 65-69
11.4 19.9 11.5 20

ii. Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT)


1. 120 cm8 lines extending out at 45 degrees increments
2. 15 second rests
3. Trails are discarded if:
a. Athlete does not touch the line
b. Lifts stance foot from the center grid
c. Loses balance
d. Does not maintain start and return positions for 1 full second.
4. 4 practice trials before being tested
5. Testing: antero-medial, medial and postero-medial positions is sufficient for most
situations.
c. Agility tests
i. T-test
1. A-B (10 yds), B-C (5 yds), C-B-D (5-5 yds)
2. Start at A, Face forward the entire time.
3. Touch cones with hand
4. Disqualification of trial:
a. Athletes fails to touch the base of any cone
b. Crosses one foot in front of another
c. Fails to face forward for the entire test
ii. Hexagon test
1. 24 inches
2. 120 degrees in the form of a hexagon
3. Athlete begins by standing in the middle of the hexagon and initiate double leg
hopping from center over the each side and back.
4. If the athlete lands on a side of the hexagon rather than over it, or loses balance
and takes an extra step or changes the direction in which he or she is facing, the
trial is stopped.
5. Best of 3, up to 0.1 seconds.
6. NORMALS
a. Recreational Women athlete: 13.21s
b. Recreational Men athlete: 12.33s
iii. Pro-Agility Test
1. 20 yard shuttle
2. 3 parallel lines 5 yards apart
3. Best of 2 trials up to 0.1 seconds.
iv. 505 Agility Test
1. 7 cones
2. 10 m Start line, 5 m from Finish line to turning line.
3. Begin at the start line.
4. Go to the turning line and come back to finish line.
5. Best of 2 trials, record to the 0.1 second.
d. Maximum strength tests
i. 1 RM Bench Press
1. 1 RM protocol
ii. 1 RM Back Squat
1. 1 RM protocol
iii. 1 RM Bench Pull
1. 1 RM protocol
e. Maximum power tests
i. 1 RM Power Clean
1. Decreased predictive value with athletic performance because more technique
based than muscle strength driven
2. 1 RM protocol
ii. Standing long jump
1. At least 20 feet in length
2. 2-3 ft length of tape as a starting line
3. Toes behind the line
4. Countermovement and jumps forwards
5. Back of the rearmost heel measured.
Males Elite Males 15-16 yr old Females Elite Females 15-16 yr old
148 79 124 65

iii. Vertical Jump


1. Two options:
a. Using a walk and chalk
b. Using a commercial vertec device
2. Best of 3 trials is recorded
iv. Static Vertical Jump
1. Using a contact mat
2. No counter-movement
3. Athlete descends into a squat position and holds the position for 2-3 seconds
4. Best of 3 trials is recorded
v. Reactive Strength Index
1. Athlete stands on drop box with a mat at least 0.2 m in front of box
2. Step forward off of the box, without stepping down or jumping up.
3. Takeoff and landing positions
4. Reactive strength index = jump height divided by contact time
vi. Margaria-Kalamen test
1. Equipment: Stair case with 9+ steps
2. Height of each step, Elevation from 3rd to 9th step
3. Switch mechanism on 3rd step
4. Athlete sprints toward the stairs starting 20 feet from the base of stairs and run up
the stairs 3 steps at a time.
5. Power = (weight x height)/ time
6. Repeat the test 2 more times with 2-3 minute recovery
MEN 20-30 40-50
2059 + 1226+
WOMEN 20-30 40-50
1648+ 736+

f. Speed-
i. Straight-Line Sprint Tests: 40-yard sprint, 10 m, 20 m, 40 m) with at least 20 yards after
the finishing line.
1. Allow at least 2 practice runs at submax speed.
2. Start in 3 point or 4 point stance
3. Best split time of 2 trials nearest 0.1 second.
4. Allow at least 2 minutes of active recovery or rest between trials.
g. Local muscular endurance tests
i. Partial curl-up test
1. Measures muscular endurance, metronome at: 20 per minute
2. Favored over sit up test because it eliminates hip flexor
3. Arms touching the 4 inch long piece of masking tape perpendicular to fingers
4. Place a second tape of appropriate distance (4.7 inches for < 45 and 3.1 for 45
inches for those 45 or older)
5. Max of 75 reps
20-29 50-59
Male 75 74
Female 70 48

ii. Push-up
1. ACSM standards
2. Men:
a. Hands shoulder width apart
b. Elbow and Body straight
3. Women:
a. Knees flexed
b. Same other rules
c. Upper arms are parallel
4. AMRAPs within 2 minute period for army
20-29 50-59
Male 36 30
Female 21 21

ARMY
27-31 52-56
Male 77 56
Female 50 31

iii. YMCA Bench Press Test


1. Spotter at head end of bench
2. Resistance at 80 pounds for males
3. Resistance at 35 pounds for females
4. Metronome cadence at 60 beats per minute, 30 reps per min 1 beat up, 1 beat
down
5. Start with elbows extended and go down with smooth and controlled motion
18-25 56-65
Male 44 24
Female 42 24

h. Anaerobic capacity tests (Fatiguing)


i. 300-yard shuttle
1. 2 lines 25 yards apart
2. 6 round trips without stopping
3. Rest interval= 5 minute
4. Perform a second trial & then average of 2 trials is recorded.
i. Aerobic capacity tests
i. 1.5 mile run
1. Record in minutes and seconds
2. Same normal recordings as a high school PE
3. NORMALS:
a. 90% Rank: MEN 20-29 year old
i. VO2max: 54
ii. Run time: 9:34
b. 90% Rank: WOMEN 20-29 year old
i. VO2max: 46
ii. Run time: 11.10
ii. 12 minute run
1. Line up on the starting line
2. 400 m track or flat looped course
MEN WOMEN
20-29 1.81 1.61
30-29 1.75 1.57
40-49 1.69 1.51

iii. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test


1. These tests are more specific to team sports as they mimic the demands of short
intensive bursts of exercise followed by short recovery periods.
2. 2 x 20 m shuttle runs interspersed with 10 second period of recovery
3. Intermittent recovery test (IRT 1) start at 10 km/hr, IRT 2 start at 13 km/hr.
4. IRT 1 recommended by Strength and Conditioning Professionals.
5. Begin at the start line, go the turning line. This is based on the auditory signal.
a. Criteria: one foot over line
6. Broadcasting with the audio files
7. Final Yo-Yo intermittent recovery speed and interval score can be used to
calculate the total distance covered by athlete during the test.
iv. Maximal Aerobic Speed Test
1. 25m intervals
2. 8-12 km/hr, usually recommend 10 km/hr.
3. Speed is increased by 1 km/hr every 2 minutes.
4. Last speed maintained for at least 2 minutes is the VO2 max or MAS.
5. The speed at the last completed stage is increased by 0.5 km/hr if the athlete is
able to run a half stage.
6. The VO2max of the athlete can be calculated by multiplying 3.5 x MAS
7. Calculate the timing of whistles using a set speed for reaching the next cone.
III. Statistical evaluation of test data
a. A difference score is the difference between an athletes score at the beginning and end of a
training period or between two separate testing times.
b. Types of statistics
i. Descriptive statistics
1. 3 categoriescentral tendency, variability, percentile rank
2. Central tendencies:
a. Are values about which the data tend to cluster
b. Mean, Median, Mode
3. Variability2 categories: range and standardized deviation
4. Percentile rankpercentage of test takers scoring below that individual
ii. Inferential statistics
1. Allows one to draw general conclusions about a population from information
collected in a population sample.
c. Developing an athletic profile
i. Select tests that will measure specific parameters
ii. Choose valid and reliable tests

Athletic Profiles

Football
High-school 14-15 yrs
o 1RM Bench Press: 210
o 1RM Squat: 344
o 1RM Power clean: 195
High-school 16-18 yrs
o 1RM Bench press: 250
o 1RM Squat: 425
o 1RM Power clean: 235
NCAA Div II
o 1RM Bench press: 325
o 1RM Squat: 425
NCAA Div I:
o 1RM Bench press: 345
o 1RM Squat: 455
o 1RM Power clean: 280
o Pro-agility: 4.21s

Rugby
< 18 league
o 1RM Bench press: 228
o 1RM squat: 295
o 1RM Bench Pull: 200.8
o Sprints:
10m: 1.8s
20m: 3.1s
State
o 1RM Bench Press: 259
o 1RM Squat: 329
o Vertical jump: 14.7 24.7 in
Forwards Backs Men
o Sprints:
10m: 2.1s
20m: 3.4s
30m: 5.8s
National
o 1RM Bench Press: 315-332 lb
o 1RM Squat: 385 lb
o YoYo: 1656 m

Baseball
NCAA Div I Males
o 1RM Bench Press: 260
o 1RM Squat: 324
o 1RM Power clean: 239
o Pro-agility: 4.25s
o Sprints10 yard: 1.52s-1.59s

Basketball
o College Female
1RM Bench press: 119
1RM Squat: 160
1RM Power clean: 124
505 agility test: 2.7s
Pro-agility (NCAA I): 4.7s
NCAA Div I Male
o 1RM Bench press: 250
o 1RM Squat: 305
o 1RM Power clean: 235
o Pro-agility: 4.22s
<17 Elite basketball men
o YoYo: 1412 m

Swimming
College Female
o 1RM Bench press: 109
o 1RM Squat: 135

Softball
Female College
o 1RM Bench press: 108
o 1RM Squat: 170
o 1RM Power clean: 115
o 505 agility test: 2.7s
o Pro-agility: 4.9s

Lacrosse
NCAA Div III women
o 1RM Bench press: 96
o 1RM squat: 158
o Vertical jump: 15.8
o Pro-agility: 4.9
o T-test: 10.5s
o Sprints:
20m: 3.4s
40m: 6.0s

Volleyball
Female college
o 1RM Bench press: 108 lb
o 1RM Squat: 171 lb
o Vertical jump: 21 inches
o 300 yard shuttle: 67 s
o T-test: 10.7s
o Pro-agility: 4.8s
High School
o Vertical jump: 19 inches
o 300-yard shuttle: 68 s
o Sprint: 10m: 1.8s

Soccer
National men
o 1RM Bench press 182 lb
o 1RM Squat: 378 lb
o Vertical jump: 17.8 in
o Static jump: 17.4 in
o 300 yard shuttle: 56.7s
o YoYo: 2260m
o Pro-agility: 4.80s
o Sprints:
10m: 1.8s
20m: 3s
o National women
Vertical jump: 16.1
YoYo: 1224 m
College Pro-agility: 4.9s
College 20m: 3.4s
College 40m: 6.0s

Ice Hockey
National women
o 1RM Bench press: 144
o Vertical jump: 20
o Broad jump: 85

National men
o Vertical jump: 24
o Broad jump: 100

Handball
o National women
1RM bench press: 113
Vertical jump: 15
National men
o 1RM bench press: 235
o Vertical jump: 19

Sailing
National men
o 1RM bench press: 310
o 1RM bench pull: 265

National Canoe/ rowing/ wrestling/ judo (men)


1RM Bench press: 199
1RM Bench pull: 176
Vertical jump with wrestling: 21