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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

EINSTEIN
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

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Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12

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Department of Civil Engineering
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CE 43- STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
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Lecture notes
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Prepared by
V.TAMILARASI
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UNIT - I

Stress Terms

Stress is defined as force per unit area. It has the same units as pressure, and in fact
pressure is one special variety of stress. However, stress is a much more complex

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quantity than pressure because it varies both with direction and with the surface it acts on.

Compression
Stress that acts to shorten an object.
Tension
Stress that acts to lengthen an object.

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Normal Stress
Stress that acts perpendicular to a surface. Can be either compressional or
tensional.
Shear

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Stress that acts parallel to a surface. It can cause one object to slide over another.
It also tends to deform originally rectangular objects into parallelograms. The
most general definition is that shear acts to change the angles in an object.
Hydrostatic pa
Stress (usually compressional) that is uniform in all directions. A scuba diver
experiences hydrostatic stress. Stress in the earth is nearly hydrostatic. The term
for uniform stress in the earth is lithostatic.
Directed Stress
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Stress that varies with direction. Stress under a stone slab is directed; there is a
force in one direction but no counteracting forces perpendicular to it. This is why
a person under a thick slab gets squashed but a scuba diver under the same
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pressure doesn't. The scuba diver feels the same force in all directions.

In geology we never see stress. We only see the results of stress as it deforms materials.
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Even if we were to use a strain gauge to measure in-situ stress in the rocks, we would not
measure the stress itself. We would measure the deformation of the strain gauge (that's
why it's called a "strain gauge") and use that to infer the stress.

Strain Terms
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Strain is defined as the amount of deformation an object experiences compared to its


original size and shape. For example, if a block 10 cm on a side is deformed so that it
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becomes 9 cm long, the strain is (10-9)/10 or 0.1 (sometimes expressed in percent, in this
case 10 percent.) Note that strain is dimensionless.
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Longitudinal or Linear Strain


Strain that changes the length of a line without changing its direction. Can be
either compressional or tensional.
Compression

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Longitudinal strain that shortens an object.


Tension
Longitudinal strain that lengthens an object.
Shear
Strain that changes the angles of an object. Shear causes lines to rotate.
Infinitesimal Strain

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Strain that is tiny, a few percent or less. Allows a number of useful mathematical
simplifications and approximations.
Finite Strain
Strain larger than a few percent. Requires a more complicated mathematical
treatment than infinitesimal strain.
Homogeneous Strain

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Uniform strain. Straight lines in the original object remain straight. Parallel lines
remain parallel. Circles deform to ellipses. Note that this definition rules out
folding, since an originally straight layer has to remain straight.
Inhomogeneous Strain

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How real geology behaves. Deformation varies from place to place. Lines may
bend and do not necessarily remain parallel.

Terms for Behavior of Materials

Elastic
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Material deforms under stress but returns to its original size and shape when the
stress is released. There is no permanent deformation. Some elastic strain, like in
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a rubber band, can be large, but in rocks it is usually small enough to be
considered infinitesimal.
Brittle
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Material deforms by fracturing. Glass is brittle. Rocks are typically brittle at low
temperatures and pressures.
Ductile
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Material deforms without breaking. Metals are ductile. Many materials show both
types of behavior. They may deform in a ductile manner if deformed slowly, but
fracture if deformed too quickly or too much. Rocks are typically ductile at high
temperatures or pressures.
Viscous
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Materials that deform steadily under stress. Purely viscous materials like liquids
deform under even the smallest stress. Rocks may behave like viscous materials
under high temperature and pressure.
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Plastic
Material does not flow until a threshhold stress has been exceeded.
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Viscoelastic

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Combines elastic and viscous behavior. Models of glacio-isostasy frequently


assume a viscoelastic earth: the crust flexes elastically and the underlying mantle
flows viscously.

Beams

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A beam is a structural member which carries loads. These loads are most often
perpendicular to its longitudinal axis, but they can be of any geometry. A beam
supporting any load develops internal stresses to resist applied loads. These internal
stresses are bending stresses, shearing stresses, and normal stresses.

Beam types are determined by method of support, not by method of loading. Below are

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three types of beams that will be investigated in this course:

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The first two types are statically determinate, meaning that the reactions, shears and
moments can be found by the laws of statics alone. Continuous beams are statically
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indeterminate. The internal forces of these beams cannot be found using the laws of
statics alone. Early structures were designed to be statically determinate because simple
analytical methods for the accurate structural analysis of indeterminate structures were
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not developed until the first part of this century. A number of formulas have been derived
to simplify analysis of indeterminate beams.

The three basic beam types can be combined to create larger beam systems. These
complex systems can inevitably be distilled to the simple beam types for analysis. The
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beams shown immediately below are combinations of the first two beam types; these
systems are all statically determinate.
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The two beam loading conditions that either occur separately, or in some combination,
are:
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CONCENTRATED
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Either a force or a moment can be applied as a concentrated load. Both are applied at a
single point along the axis of a beam. These loads are shown as a "jump" in the shear or
moment diagrams. The point of application for such a load is indicated in the diagram
above. Note that this is NOT a hinge! It is a point of application. This could be point at
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which a railing is attached to a bridge, or a lampost on the same.

DISTRIBUTED
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Distributed loads can be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Both types are


commonly found on all kinds of structures. Distributed loads are shown as an angle or
curve in the shear or moment diagram. A uniformly distributed load can evolve into a n
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on-uniformly distributed load (snow melting to ice at the edge of a roof), but are normally
assumed to act as given. These loads are often replaced by a singular resultant force in
order to simplify the structural analysis.

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Introduction

Normally a beam is analysed to obtain the maximum stress and this is


compared to the material strength to determine the design safety margin. It

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is also normally required to calculate the deflection on the beam under the
maximum expected load. The determination of the maximum stress results
from producing the shear and bending moment diagrams. To facilitate this
work the first stage is normally to determine all of the external loads.

Nomenclature

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e = strain
= stress (N/m2)
E = Young's Modulus = /e (N/m2)

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y = distance of surface from neutral surface (m).
R = Radius of neutral axis (m).
I = Moment of Inertia (m4 - more normally cm4)
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Z = section modulus = I/ymax(m3 - more normally cm3)
M = Moment (Nm)
w = Distrubuted load on beam (kg/m) or (N/m as force units)
W = total load on beam (kg ) or (N as force units)
F= Concentrated force on beam (N)
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S= Shear Force on Section (N)
L = length of beam (m)
x = distance along beam (m)
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Calculation of external forces


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To allow determination of all of the external loads a free-body diagram is


construction with all of the loads and supports replaced by their equivalent
forces. A typical free-body diagram is shown below.
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The unknown forces (generally the support reactions) are then determined
using the equations for plane static equilibrium.

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For example considering the simple beam above the reaction R2 is


determined by Summing the moments about R1 to zero

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R2. L - W.a = 0 Therefore R2 = W.a / L

R1 is determined by summing the vertical forces to 0

W - R1 - R2 = 0 Therefore R1 = W - R2

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Shear and Bending Moment Diagram

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The shear force diagram indicates the shear force withstood by the beam
section along the length of the beam.
The bending moment diagram indicates the bending moment withstood by
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the beam section along the length of the beam.
It is normal practice to produce a free body diagram with the shear diagram
and the bending moment diagram position below

For simply supported beams the reactions are generally simple forces. When
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the beam is built-in the free body diagram will show the relevant support
point as a reaction force and a reaction moment....

Sign Convention
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The sign convention used for shear force diagrams and bending moments is
only important in that it should be used consistently throughout a
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project. The sign convention used on this page is as below.


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Typical Diagrams

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A shear force diagram is simply constructed by moving a section along the


beam from (say)the left origin and summing the forces to the left of the
section. The equilibrium condition states that the forces on either side of a
section balance and therefore the resisting shear force of the section is
obtained by this simple operation

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The bending moment diagram is obtained in the same way except that the
moment is the sum of the product of each force and its distance(x) from the
section. Distributed loads are calculated buy summing the product of the
total force (to the left of the section) and the distance(x) of the centroid of
the distributed load.

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The sketches below show simply supported beams with on concentrated
force.

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The sketches below show Cantilever beams with three different load
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combinations.
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Note: The force shown if based on loads (weights) would need to be


converted to force units i.e. 50kg = 50x9,81(g) = 490 N.

Shear Force Moment Relationship

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Consider a short length of a beam under a distributed load separated by a


distance x.

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The bending moment at section AD is M and the shear force is S. The
bending moment at BC = M + M and the shear force is S + S.

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The equations for equilibrium in 2 dimensions results in the equations..
Forces.

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S - w.x = S + S
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Therefore making x infinitely small then.. dS /dx = - w

Moments.. Taking moments about C


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M + Sx - M - M - w(x)2 /2 = 0
Therefore making x infinitely small then.. dM /dx = S
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Therefore putting the relationships into integral form.


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The integral (Area) of the shear diagram between any limits results in the
change of the shearing force between these limits and the integral of the
Shear Force diagram between limits results in the change in bending
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moment...

Torsion (mechanics)
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In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. In


circular sections, the resultant shearing stress is perpendicular to the radius.

For solid or hollow shafts of uniform circular cross-section and constant wall thickness,
the torsion relations are:

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where:

R is the outer radius of the shaft.

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is the maximum shear stress at the outer surface.
is the angle of twist in radians.
T is the torque (Nm or ftlbf).
is the length of the object the torque is being applied to or over.
G is the shear modulus or more commonly the modulus of rigidity and is usually
given in gigapascals (GPa), lbf/in2 (psi), or lbf/ft 2.

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J is the torsion constant for the section . It is identical to the polar moment of
inertia for a round shaft or concentric tube only. For other shapes J must be
determined by other means. For solid shafts the membrane analogy is useful, and

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for thin walled tubes of arbitrary shape the shear flow approximation is fairly
good, if the section is not re-entrant. For thick walled tubes of arbitrary shape
there is no simple solution, and FEA may be the best method.
the product GJ is called the torsional rigidity.
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The shear stress at a point within a shaft is:
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where:
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r is the distance from the center of rotation

Note that the highest shear stress is at the point where the radius is maximum, the surface
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of the shaft. High stresses at the surface may be compounded by stress concentrations
such as rough spots. Thus, shafts for use in high torsion are polished to a fine surface
finish to reduce the maximum stress in the shaft and increase its service life.
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The angle of twist can be found by using:


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Polar moment of inertia


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Main article: Polar moment of inertia

The polar moment of inertia for a solid shaft is:

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where r is the radius of the object.

The polar moment of inertia for a pipe is:

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where the o and i subscripts stand for the outer and inner radius of the pipe.

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For a thin cylinder

J = 2 R3 t

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where R is the average of the outer and inner radius and t is the wall thickness.

Failure mode
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The shear stress in the shaft may be resolved into principal stresses via Mohr's circle. If
the shaft is loaded only in torsion then one of the principal stresses will be in tension and
the other in compression. These stresses are oriented at a 45 degree helical angle around
the shaft. If the shaft is made of brittle material then the shaft will fail by a crack
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initiating at the surface and propagating through to the core of the shaft fracturing in a 45
degree angle helical shape. This is often demonstrated by twisting a piece of blackboard
chalk between one's fingers.
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Deflection of Beams
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The deformation of a beam is usually expressed in terms of its deflection from its original
unloaded position. The deflection is measured from the original neutral surface of the
beam to the neutral surface of the deformed beam. The configuration assumed by the
deformed neutral surface is known as the elastic curve of the beam.
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Methods of Determining Beam Deflections

Numerous methods are available for the determination of beam deflections. These
methods include:

1. Double-integration method
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2. Area-moment method
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3. Strain-energy method (Castiglianos Theorem)
4. Three-moment equation
5. Conjugate-beam method
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6. Method of superposition
7. Virtual work method
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Of these methods, the first two are the ones that are commonly used.

Introduction
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The stress, strain, dimension, curvature, elasticity, are all related, under
certain assumption, by the theory of simple bending. This theory relates to
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beam flexure resulting from couples applied to the beam without


consideration of the shearing forces.
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Superposition Principle

The superposition principle is one of the most important tools for solving
beam loading problems allowing simplification of very complicated design
problems..

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For beams subjected to several loads of different types the resulting shear
force, bending moment, slope and deflection can be found at any location by
summing the effects due to each load acting separately to the other loads.

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Nomenclature

e = strain
E = Young's Modulus = /e (N/m2)
y = distance of surface from neutral surface (m).

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R = Radius of neutral axis (m).
I = Moment of Inertia (m4 - more normally cm4)
Z = section modulus = I/ymax(m3 - more normally cm3)
F = Force (N)

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x = Distance along beam
= deflection (m)
= Slope (radians)
= stress (N/m2) pa
Simple Bending
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A straight bar of homogeneous material is subject to only a moment at one
end and an equal and opposite moment at the other end...
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Assumptions

The beam is symmetrical about Y-Y


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The traverse plane sections remain plane and normal to the longitudinal
fibres after bending (Beroulli's assumption)
The fixed relationship between stress and strain (Young's Modulus)for the
beam material is the same for tension and compression ( = E.e )

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Consider two section very close together (AB and CD).


After bending the sections will be at A'B' and C'D' and are no longer
parallel. AC will have extended to A'C' and BD will have compressed to
B'D'
The line EF will be located such that it will not change in length. This
surface is called neutral surface and its intersection with Z_Z is called the

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neutral axis
The development lines of A'B' and C'D' intersect at a point 0 at an angle of
radians and the radius of E'F' = R
Let y be the distance(E'G') of any layer H'G' originally parallel to EF..Then

H'G'/E'F' =(R+y) /R = (R+y)/R

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And the strain e at layer H'G' =

e = (H'G'- HG) / HG = (H'G'- HG) / EF = [(R+y) - R ] /R = y /R

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The accepted relationship between stress and strain is = E.e Therefore

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= E.e = E. y /R
/E=y/R

Therefore, for the illustrated example, the tensile stress is directly related to
the distance above the neutral axis. The compressive stress is also directly
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related to the distance below the neutral axis. Assuming E is the same for
compression and tension the relationship is the same.
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As the beam is in static equilibrium and is only subject to moments (no


vertical shear forces) the forces across the section (AB) are entirely
longitudinal and the total compressive forces must balance the total tensile
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forces. The internal couple resulting from the sum of ( .dA .y) over the
whole section must equal the externally applied moment.
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This can only be correct if (ya) or (y.z.y) is the moment of area of the
section about the neutral axis. This can only be zero if the axis passes
through the centre of gravity (centroid) of the section.

The internal couple resulting from the sum of ( .dA .y) over the whole
section must equal the externally applied moment. Therefore the couple of

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the force resulting from the stress on each area when totalled over the whole
area will equal the applied moment

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From the above the following important simple beam bending relationship
results
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It is clear from above that a simple beam subject to bending generates a


maximum stress at the surface furthest away from the neutral axis. For
sections symmetrical about Z-Z the maximum compressive and tensile stress
is equal.
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max = ymax. M / I

The factor I /ymax is given the name section Modulus (Z) and therefore
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max = M / Z
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Values of Z are provided in the tables showing the properties of standard


steel sections
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Deflection of Beams

Below is shown the arc of the neutral axis of a beam subject to bending.

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For small angle dy/dx = tan =
The curvature of a beam is identified as d /ds = 1/R
In the figure is small and x; is practically = s; i.e ds /dx =1

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From this simple approximation the following relationships are derived.

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Integrating between selected limits.

The deflection between limits is obtained by further integration.


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It has been proved ref Shear - Bending that dM/dx = S and dS/dx = -w =
d2M /dx
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Where S = the shear force M is the moment and w is the distributed load
/unit length of beam. therefore
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If w is constant or a integratatable function of x then this relationship can be


used to arrive at general expressions for S, M, dy/dx, or y by progressive
integrations with a constant of integration being added at each stage. The
properties of the supports or fixings may be used to determine the constants.
(x= 0 - simply supported, dx/dy = 0 fixed end etc )

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In a similar manner if an expression for the bending moment is known then


the slope and deflection can be obtained at any point x by single and double
integration of the relationship and applying suitable constants of integration.

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Singularity functions can be used for determining the values when the
loading a not simple ref Singularity Functions

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Example - Cantilever beam

Consider a cantilever beam (uniform section) with a single concentrated load


at the end. At the fixed end x = 0, dy = 0 , dy/dx = 0

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From the equilibrium balance ..At the support there is a resisting moment -
FL and a vertical upward force F.
At any point x along the beam there is a moment F(x - L) = Mx = EI d 2y /dx
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Example - Simply supported beam


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Consider a simply supported uniform section beam with a single load F at


the centre. The beam will be deflect symmetrically about the centre line
with 0 slope (dy/dx) at the centre line. It is convenient to select the origin at
the centre line.

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Moment Area Method

This is a method of determining the change in slope or the deflection


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between two points on a beam. It is expressed as two theorems...

Theorem 1
If A and B are two points on a beam the change in angle (radians) between
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the tangent at A and the tangent at B is equal to the area of the bending
moment diagram between the points divided by the relevant value of EI (the
flexural rigidity constant).
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Theorem 2
If A and B are two points on a beam the displacement of B relative to the
tangent of the beam at A is equal to the moment of the area of the bending
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moment diagram between A and B about the ordinate through B divided by


the relevant value of EI (the flexural rigidity constant).
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Examples ..Two simple examples are provide below to illustrate these theorems

Example 1) Determine the deflection and slope of a cantilever as shown..

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The bending moment at A = MA = FL
The area of the bending moment diagram AM = F.L2 /2
The distance to the centroid of the BM diagram from B= x c = 2L/3

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The deflection of B = y b = A M.x c /EI = F.L 3 /3EI
The slope at B relative to the tan at A = b =AM /EI = FL2 /2EI

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Example 2) Determine the central deflection and end slopes of the simply
supported beam as shown..
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E = 210 GPa ......I = 834 cm4...... EI = 1,7514. 10 6Nm 2
in
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A1 = 10.1,8.1,8/2 = 16,2kNm
A2 = 10.1,8.2 = 36kNm
A2 = 10.1,8.2 = 36kNm
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A1 = 10.1,8.1,8/2 = 16,2kNm
x1 = Centroid of A1 = (2/3).1,8 = 1,2
x2 = Centroid of A2 = 1,8 + 1 = 2,8
x3 = Centroid of A3 = 1,8 + 1 = 2,8
x4 = Centroid of A4 = (2/3).1,8 = 1,2

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The slope at A is given by the area of the moment diagram between A and C
divided by EI.

A = (A1 + A2) /EI = (16,2+36).10 3 / (1,7514. 10 6)


= 0,029rads = 1,7 degrees

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The deflection at the centre (C) is equal to the deviation of the point A above
a line that is tangent to C.
Moments must therefore be taken about the deviation line at A.

C = (AM.xM) /EI = (A1 x1 +A2 x2) / EI = 120,24.10 3/ (1,7514. 10 6)


= 0,0686m = 68,6mm

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5.5Three Moment Equation
The continuous beams are very common in the structural design and it is necessary to develop
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simplified force method known as three moment equation for their analysis. This equation is a
relationship that exists between the moments at three points in continuous beam. The points are
considered as three supports of the indeterminate beams. Consider three points on the beam marked as
1, 2 and 3 as shown in Figure 5.25(a). Let the bending moment at these points is , and and
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the corresponding vertical displacement of these points are , and , respectively. Let and
be the distance between points 1 2 and 2 3, respectively.
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: Force Method - Introduction and applications

: Three Moment Equation


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The continuity of deflected shape of the beam at point 2 gives


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(5.4)
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From the Figure 5.25(d)


and
(5.5)
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Where

and
(5.6)

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Energy Method

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First law of thermodynamics
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Adiabatic Process
Work of Gravity << External force
change of internal energy of the material resulting from the surface traction
Then andbody force (no gravity)
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elastic material and without hysteresis


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body will perform the equal but opposite work in the surrounding during the Unloading
process.
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Energy stored in the body as a result of deformation which is equal to the external
work done.

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Strain energy due to Normal stress

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Strain energy due to shear stress

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Similarly by other components of stresses
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Super position
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Ex.1 Bar in tension

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Ex.2 Torsion of circular shaft (r , L)


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Ex.3
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Bending strain Energy Normal stress
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Strain energy due to shear in Beam
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Castigliano Theorem

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Castig liano Theorem

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Are corresponding deflection,twists

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and rotation due to

Fictitions loads are applied at the point where


there is no load and deflection is songat

ul
pa at that point where there is no load
in
Ex.1
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej

Ex.2
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej

Ex.3
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
pa
in
Ex.4
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
pa
Ex.5
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

SHORT COLUMNS
INTRODUCTION: AXIAL COMPRESSION

In this chapter the term column will be used interchangeably with the term

comprerssion member, for brevity and in conformity with general usage.

om
Three types of reinforced concrete compression members are in use:

Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and continuous spirals.

.c
Composite compression members reinforced longitudinally with structural

steel shapes, pipe, or tubing, with or without additional longitudinal bars,

ul
and various types of lateral reinforcement.

pa
The main reinforcement in columns is longitudinal, parallel to the direction

of the load, and consist of bars arranged in a square, rectangular, or circular


column.
in
Columns may be divided into two broad categories: short columns, for

which the strength is governed by the strength of the materials and the geometry
ej

of the cross section, and slender columns, for which the strength may be
.R

significantly reduced by lateral deflections. A number of years ago, an ACI -

ASCE survey indicated that 90 percent of columns braced against sidesway and

40 percent of unbraced columns could be designed as short columns. Only short


w

columns will be discussed in this chapter.


w

The behavior of short, axially loaded compression members, for lower

loads for which both materials remain in their elastic range of response, the steel
w

carries a relatively small portion of the total load. The steel stress fs is equal to

n times the concrete stress:

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
Pacting parallel to (underformed axis to positive column)

ul
pa
in
ej
.R

About c :-
w
w

About x :-
w

We know :-

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Let EI is conott and q =0.


order DE can be
solved

om
solution

Case1: Cantilever are evaluated from the B.C


Column

.c
B.C
x=0, deflection = 0
slope = 0

ul
x=L, moment = 0
shear force=0

(Buckling).
Buckling Of Long slender column's
pa
Mechanism of membrane energy transfer to bending strain energy gives rise to Phenomenon of instability
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
Then Trival Solution

For Non -Trival Solution


pa
then
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

eflection Curve

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

case II:

om
.c
ul
pa
Substituting in last two equation we get
in
Examine the ways of
satisfying these equations
ej

Objective =
Lowest critical load
.R

Let c1 = 0 for non trivial solution we get


w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Both the conditions are simultaneously satisfying


when

then lowest Critical load

om
Other possibilities
eliminating c2 from equation (A) & (B)

.c
ul
Multiplying by
trigonometric identity.
pa
and expanding in the expression and using the
in
ej

We get
.R

Using trigonometric identity i.e.


w

Again trigonometric
w

identity
w

identical to the privious one

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

and

om
Which is larger than therefore
Case III:

.c
x = 0 y = 0 => c2 + c4 = 0 => c2 = 0 => c4 = 0

ul
x=L pa
in
ej
.R

Lowest

n=
Deflection Shape
1
w
w

cn - any arbitrary constant which of course is very small does not violate the condition of
linearly i.e. small deflection.
w

Principle of Superposition
The principle of superposition is a central concept in the analysis of structures.
This is applicable when there exists a linear relationship between external forces
and corresponding structural displacements. The principle of superposition may
be stated as the deflection at a given point in a structure produced by several

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

loads acting simultaneously on the structure can be found by superposing


deflections at the same point produced by loads acting individually. This is illustrated
with the help of a simple beam problem. Now consider a cantilever
beam of length L and having constant flexural rigidity EI subjected to two
externally applied forces and as shown in Fig. 2.1. From moment-area
theorem we can evaluate deflection below , which states that the tangential

om
deviation of point from the tangent at point
1P 2PCc A is equal to the first moment of the area of the EI
M
diagram between A and C about . Hence, the deflection below
due to loads and acting simultaneously is (by moment-area theorem),

.c
DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

Structures undergo deformation when subjected to loads. As a result of this


deformation, deflection and rotation occur in structures. This deformation will disappear

ul
when the loads are removed provided the elastic limit of the material is not exceeded.
Deformation in a structure can also occur due to change in temperature & settlement of
supports.
pa
Deflection in any structure should be less than specified limits for satisfactory
performance. Hence computing deflections is an important aspect of analysis of
structures.
There are various methods of computing deflections. Two popular methods are
in
i) Moment area Method, and
ii) Conjugate beam method
ej

In both of these methods, the geometrical concept is used. These methods are
ideal for statically determinate beams. The methods give a very quick solution when the
beam is symmetrical.
.R

Moment Area Method


This method is based on two theorems which are stated through an example.
Consider a beam AB subjected to some arbitrary load as shown in Figure 1.
w

Let the flexural rigidity of the beam be EI. Due to the load, there would be
bending moment and BMD would be as shown in Figure 2. The deflected shape of the
w

beam which is the elastic curve is shown in Figure 3. Let C and D be two points
arbitrarily chosen on the beam. On the elastic curve, tangents are drawn at deflected
positions of C and D. The angles made by these tangents with respect to the horizontal
w

are marked as C and D . These angles are nothing but slopes. The change is the angle
between these two tangents is demoted as CD . This change in the angel is equal to the
M
area of the diagram between the two points C and D. This is the area of the shaded
EI
portion in figure 2.

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

M
Hence CD = C D = Area of diagram between C and D
EI
CD = Area BM 1 (a)
EI

It is also expressed in the integration mode as

om
M
CD = CD EI
dx 1 (b)

Equation 1 is the first moment area theorem which is stated as follows:

.c
Statement of theorem I:
The change in slope between any two points on the elastic curve for a member
M

ul
subjected to bending is equal to the area of diagram between those two points.
EI

pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
Fig. 1

.c
ul
pa
Fig. 2
in
ej
.R

Fig. 3
w

Fig. 4
w
w

In figure 4, for the elastic curve a tangent is drawn at point C from which the
vertical intercept to elastic curve at D is measured. This is demoted as KCD. This vertical
intercept is given by
KCD = (Area BM X)CD 2 (a)
EI

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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

M
Where X is the distance to the centroid of the shaded portion of diagram
EI
measured from D. The above equation can be expressed in integration mode as

Mxdx
KCD =
CD
EI
2 (b)

om
Equation (2) is the second moment area theorem which is stated as follows.

Statement of theorem II :
The vertical intercept to the elastic curve measured from the tangent drawn to
M
the elastic curve at some other point is equal to the moment of diagram, moment

.c
EI
being taken about that point where vertical intercept is drawn.

ul
Sign Convention:
While computing Bending moment at a section, if free body diagram of Left Hand
Portion (LHP) is considered, clockwise moment is taken as positive. If free body
pa
diagram of Right Hand Portion (RHP) is considered, anticlockwise moment is taken as
positive. While sketching the Bending Moment Diagram (BMD), Sagging moment is
taken as positive and Hogging moment is taken as negative.

Proof of Moment Area Theorems:


in
Figure 5 shows the elastic curve for the elemental length dx of figure 2 to an
enlarged scale. In this figure, R represents the radius of curvature. Then from equation
ej

of bending, with usual notations,

M E
= (3)
.R

I R
From figure 5,
Rd = dx
w

dx
Hence R =
d
w

Substituting this value of R in equation (3),


M E
=
dx
w

I

d
M d
=E
I dx

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

M
d = dx
EI
d is nothing but change in angle over the elemental length dx. Hence to compute
change in angle from C to D,
M
CD = CD
d = dx
EI

om
CD

Hence the proof.

.c
ul
R
d
pa d
in
C D
1 2 d

KCD
ej
.R

Fig. 5
Fig. 6
w

Figure 6 shows the elastic curve from C to D. Change in slope from 1 to 2 is d.


Distance of elemental length from D is x.
M
d = xd = x dx
w

EI
M
Therefore, from C to D = xdx
EI
w

CD

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Problem 1 : Compute deflections and slopes at C,D and E. Also compute slopes at A
and B.

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

To Compute Reactions:

fx 0 0
A

fy 0 V V

A
B
WW0

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

VA VB 2W
WL 2L 0
+ M B
0 LVA
3
W
3
WL 2WL
LVA WL
3 3

om
VA = W ; VB =W

Bending Moment Calculations:


Section (1) (1) (LHP, 0 to L/3)

.c
+ Mx-x = Wx
At x = 0; BM at A = 0
x = L 3 ; BM @ C = WL 3

ul
Section (2) (2) (LHP, L 3 to 2L 3 )
+ Mx-x = Wx W(x - L 3 )
At x = L 3 , BM @ C = W L 3 W L 3 W L 3

At x =
2L
= W L3

, BM @ D = W
pa
2L
W
2L L

3 3 3 3
in
2WL 2WL WL
=
3 3 3
WL
ej

=
3
Section (3) (3) RHP (0 to L 3 )
.R

+ Mx-x = Wx
At x = 0; BM @ B = 0
WL
At x = L 3 , BM @ D =
3
w

This beam is symmetrical. Hence the BMD & elastic curve is also symmetrical.
In such a case, maximum deflection occurs at mid span, marked as E. Thus, the tangent
w

drawn at E will be parallel to the beam line and E is zero.


Also, c = D, A = B and C = D
w

To compute C
From first theorem,
CE = Area of BMD between E&C
EI

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

W L 3 L 6
C~ E =
EI

WL2
=
18EI

om
E being zero, C = WL2 ( )
18EI

To compute

From First theorem,

.c
E = Area of BMD between A&E
EI
L WL WL L

ul
1
2
A~ E =
3 3 3 6
EI

WL2 WL2
18

18
pa
=
EI
in
WL2
E being zero, A = ( )
9EI
ej

WL2
B = ( )
.R

9EI

To compute E

From 2nd theorem


w

Area of BM X EA
w

KEA =
EI

1 L WL 2 L WL L L L
w


KEA = 2 3 3 3 3 3 6 3 12
EI

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

WL3 5WL3

= 81 216
EI

1 8WL3 15WL3
=

om
EI 648

23WL3
=
648EI

.c
From figure, KEA is equal to E.

ul
23WL3
Therefore E =
648EI

To compute C
pa
From 2nd theorem
in
KEC =
Area of BMD X CE

EI
ej

=
W
L
3
L
6
L
12

EI
.R

= WL 1
3

EI 216
w

WL3
=
216EI
w

c = E - KEC
w

23WL3 WL3
C
648EI 216EI

23WL3 3WL3
=
648EI

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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

20WL3
=
648EI

5WL3
=

om
162EI

5WL3
= D C
162EI

.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Problem 2. For the cantilever beam shows in figure, compute deflection and slope at
the free end.

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

Consider a section x-x at a distance x from the free end. The FBD of RHP is taken into
account.
(RHP +) BM @ X-X = MX-X = -10 (x) (x/2) = -5x2

At x = 0; BM @ B = 0

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

At x = 4m; BM @ A = -5(16) = -80 kNm

The BMD is sketched as shown in figure. Note that it is Hogging Bending


Moment. The elastic curve is sketched as shown in figure.
To compute B

om
For the cantilever beam, at the fixed support, there will be no rotation and hence
in this case A = 0. This implies that the tangent drawn to the elastic curve at A will be
the same as the beam line.
From I theorem,
4
M dx
AB = A ~ B =

.c
0
EI


4
1
= 5X 2 dx

ul
EI 0
5 x3 4
= 3 0
EI
5
= 64 320 pa
3EI 3EI
A being zero,
320
B = ( )
in
3EI

To compute B
ej

From II theorem
4
M xdx

.R

KAB =
0
EI


4
1
EI 0
= 5X 2 xdx
w

5 x4 4 5
= 4 0 256
EI 4EI
320
w

=
EI

From the elastic curve,


w

KAB = B =
320
EI

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Problem 3: Find deflection and slope at the free end for the beam shown in figure by
using moment area theorems. Take EI = 40000 KNm -2

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w

Calculations of Bending Moment:


w

Region AC: Taking RHP +


Moment at section = -6x2/2

= -3x2

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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

At x = 0, BM @ A = 0
x = 4m; BM @ C = -3(16) = - 48kNm

Region CB: (x = 4 to x = 8)

om
Taking RHP +, moment @ section = -24 (x-2)
= -24x+48;

At x = 4m; BM @ C = -24(4) + 48 = -48kNm;


x=8m BM @ B = -144 kNm;

.c
To compute B:
First moment area theorem is used. For the elastic curve shown in figure. We

ul
know that A = 0.
M dx
AB = A ~ B =
EI

=
1 4

EI 0
3x 2
dx
1 8
24x 48dx
EI 4
pa
3 x
A 3
4

1
24 x 2 48x 84
2
in
3 0
EI EI
64 1
= 1264 16 488 4
ej

EI EI
= -0.0112 Radians
= 0.0112 Radians ( )
.R

To compute B
w

Mxdx
K AB
EI
4 8
3x 2 xdx 24x 48xdx
1 1
w

=
EI 0 EI 4

3 x
1

24x 48x
w


4 4 3 8 2 8
= 4 0 3 4 2 4
EI EI
3
= 256 1 24 512 64 2464 16
4EI EI 3

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

192 1
= 3584 1152
EI EI
2624
= 0.0656m 0.0656m
EI

om
Problem 4: For the cantilever shown in figure, compute deflection and at the points
where they are loaded.

.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

To compute B :

BA = B ~ A =
1 1
2 2.537.5 12 1.515
EI
58.125
B = ( )

om
EI

C =
1 1
2 1.537.5 15 12 1.515
EI
50.625
= ( )

.c
EI

B =
1
2 2.537.5 2.5
2
3 1 1
2 1.5451
EI EI

ul
100.625
=
EI

=
100.625
EI

pa
2 1.537.5 150.857 2 1.5451
1 1
EI
C =
in
1

C =
44.99

ej

EI
.R

STRAIN ENERGY
Introduction
w

Under action of gradually increasing external loads, the joints of a structure


w

deflect and the member deform. The applied load produce work at the joints to which
they are applied and this work is stored in the structure in the form of energy known as
Strain Energy. If the material of structure is elastic, then gradual unloading of the
w

structure relieves all the stresses and strain energy is recovered.


The slopes and deflections produced in a structure depend upon the strains
developed as a result of external actions. Strains may be axial, shear, flexural or torsion.
Therefore, ther is a relationship can be used to determine the slopes and deflections in a
structure.
4.2 Strain energy and complementary strain energy

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

When external loads are applied to a skeletal structure, the members develop
internal force F in the form of axial forces (P), shear force (V) , bending moment
(M) and twisting moment (T). The internal for F produce displacements e. While
under goint these displacements, the internal force do internal work called as Strain
Energy
Figure 1 shows the force displacement relationship in which Fj is the internal

om
force and ej is the corresponding displacement for the jth element or member of the
structure.

Fj

Complementry SE(Ui)j

.c
Fj+Fj

ul
Fj
Strain Energy(Ui)j

ej ej+ej
pa ej
in
Fig.1 FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONSHIP
The element of internal work or strain energy represented by the area the strip
ej

with horizontal shading is expressed as:

Ui Fje j .....(1)
.R

Strain energy stored in the jth element represted by the are under force-
displacement curve computed as :
w

(Ui ) j Fjde j .....(2)


w

For m members in a structure, the total strain energy is


m m
U i (Ui ) j Fjde j
w

.....(3)
j1 j1
The area above the force-displacement curve is called Complementary Energy.
For jth element, the complementary strain energy is represented by the area of the strip
with vertical shading in Fig.1 and expressed as

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Ui e jFj .....(4)
Complementary strain energy of the entire structure is
(Ui ) j e jdFj .....(5)

om
Complementary strain energy of the entire structure is
m
Ui e dF
j1
j j .....(6)

When the force-displacement relationship is linear, then strain energy and

.c
complimentary energies are equal

Ui Ui .....(7)

ul
4.3 Strain energy expressions
Expression for strain energy due to axial force, shear force and bending moment
is provided in this section
pa
4.3.1 Strain energy due to Axial force
in
ej

A,E L
.R

dL
w

Fig.2
w
w

A straight bar of length L , having uniform cross sectional area A and E is the Youngs
modulus of elasticity is subjected to gradually applied load P as shown in Fig. 2. The bar

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

deforms by dL due to average force 0+(P/2) = P/2. Substituting Fj = P/2 and dej = dl in
equation 2, the strain energy in a member due to axial force is expressed as

P
(Ui ) P dL ....... (8)
2

om
From Hookes Law, strain is expressed as dL P
where,
dx E A

PLx
dL

.c
Hence .............(9)
AE
Substituting equation 9 in 8, strain energy can be expressed as

ul
L
P 2dx
(Ui ) P ....... (10)
0
2AE pa
For uniform cross section strain energy expression in equation 10 can be modified as
P2L
(Ui ) P ....... (10 a)
in
2AE
If P, A or E are not constant along the length of the bar, then equation 10 is used instead
ej

of 10a.
4.3.1 Strain energy due to Shear force
.R

dx
dy
dy
w


dx
w


Fig.4
Fig.3
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

A small element shown in Fig.3 of dimension dx and dy is subjected to shear force V x .


Shear stress condition is shown in Fig. 4. Shear strain in the element is expressed as

Vx
......(11)
ArG

om
Where, Ar= Reduced cross sectional area and G= shear modulus
Shear deformation of element is expressed as

Vx dx
de v .............(12)

.c
ArG
Substituting Fj = Vx/2, dej = dev in equation (2) strain energy is expressed as

ul
L 2
V dx
(U i ) V x
pa ....... (13)
0
2A r G
4.3.2 Strain energy due to Bending Moment
in
An element of length dx of a beam is subjected to uniform bending moment M.
Application of this moment causes a change in slope d is expressed as
ej

dx M x dx
de M d ......(14)
R EI
.R

1 Mx
Where , , Substituting Fj = Mx/2, dej= deM in equation (2), Strain energy due to
w

R EI
bending moment is expressed as
w

2
M dx L
(Ui ) M x ....... (15)
w

0 2EI

Theorem of minimum Potential Energy

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Potential energy is the capacity to do work due to the position of body. A body of weight
W held at a height h possess an energy Wh. Theorem of minimum potential energy
states that Of all the displacements which satisfy the boundary conditions of a
structural system, those corresponding to stable equilibrium configuration make the
total potential energy a relative minimum. This theorem can be used to determine the

om
critical forces causing instability of the structure.
Law of Conservation of Energy
From physics this law is stated as Energy is neither created nor destroyed. For the
purpose of structural analysis, the law can be stated as If a structure and external

.c
loads acting on it are isolated, such that it neither receive nor give out energy, then
the total energy of the system remain constant. With reference to figure 2, internal

ul
energy is expressed as in equation (9). External work done W e = -0.5 P dL. From law of
conservation of energy Ui+We =0. From this it is clear that internal energy is equal to
external work done.
Principle of Virtual Work:
pa
Virtual work is the imaginary work done by the true forces moving through imaginary
in
displacements or vice versa. Real work is due to true forces moving through true
displacements. According to principle of virtual work The total virtual work done by
ej

a system of forces during a virtual displacement is zero.


Theorem of principle of virtual work can be stated as If a body is in equilibrium under
.R

a Virtual force system and remains in equilibrium while it is subjected to a small


deformation, the virtual work done by the external forces is equal to the virtual
work done by the internal stresses due to these forces. Use of this theorem for
w

computation of displacement is explained by considering a simply supported bea AB, of


span L, subjected to concentrated load P at C, as shown in Fig.6a. To compute deflection
w

at D, a virtual load P is applied at D after removing P at C. Work done is zero a s the


load is virtual. The load P is then applied at C, causing deflection C at C and D at D, as
P' D
w

shown in Fig. 6b. External work W


Wedone e by virtual load P is . If the virtual
2
load P produces bending moment M, then the internal strain energy stored by M acting
on the real deformation d in element dx over the beam equation (14)

U M'd L L M'M dx
dU i ; Ui
0 OF ENGG0
EINSTEIN COLLEGE 2 0 2 EIOF CIVIL ENGG
DEPT
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Where, M= bending moment due to real load P. From principle of conservation of energy

P' D L M'M dx

om
We=Wi

2 0 2 EI

.c
A C D B

ul
a
Fig.6a
pa x
L
P P
C D
in
A C D B
ej

a
Fig.6b
.R

x
L
w

If P=1 then
L M'M dx
D (16)
0 EI
w

Similarly for deflection in axial loaded trusses it can be shown that n P' P dx
(17)
0 AE
w

Where,
= Deflection in the direction of unit load
P = Force in the ith member of truss due to unit load
P = Force in the ith member of truss due to real external load

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

n = Number of truss members


L = length of ith truss members.
Use of virtual load P = 1 in virtual work theorem for computing displacement is called
Unit Load Method

om
Castiglianos Theorems:
Castigliano published two theorems in 1879 to determine deflections in structures and
redundant in statically indeterminate structures. These theorems are stated as:
1st Theorem : If a linearly elastic structure is subjected to a set of loads, the partial

.c
derivatives of total strain energy with respect to the deflection at any point is equal
to the load applied at that point

ul
U
Pj j 1,2, ..... N (18) pa
j
2nd Theorem: If a linearly elastic structure is subjected to a set of loads, the partial
derivatives of total strain energy with respect to a load applied at any point is equal
to the deflection at that point
in
U
j j 1,2,....... N (19)
Pj
ej

The first theorem is useful in determining the forces at certain chosen coordinates. The
.R

conditions of equilibrium of these chosen forces may then be used for the analysis of
statically determinate or indeterminate structures. Second theorem is useful in computing
the displacements in statically determinate or indeterminate structures.
w

Bettis Law:
It states that If a structure is acted upon by two force systems I and II, in equilibrium
w

separately, the external virtual work done by a system of forces II during the
deformations caused by another system of forces I is equal to external work done by
w

I system during the deformations caused by the II system

I II

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Fig. 7

om
A body subjected to two system of forces is shown in Fig 7. Wij represents work done by
ith system of force on displacements caused by jth system at the same point. Bettis law
can be expressed as Wij = Wji, where Wji represents the work done by jth system on
displacement caused by ith system at the same point.

.c
Numerical Examples
1. Derive an expression for strain energy due to bending of a cantilever beam of

ul
length L, carrying uniformly distributed load w and EI is constant

w
pa 1
in
x

1
ej

Solution:
wx 2
Bending moment at section 1-1 is M x -
.R

2
2
L M dx
Strain energy due to bending is (Ui ) M x
0 2EI
w

2
- wx 2
dx
L
L
L w 2x 4 w 2x5
2
w

Ui dx
0 2EI 0 8EI 40EI 0
w

w 2 L5
Ui Answer
40EI

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

2. Compare the strain energies due to three types of internal forces in the
rectangular bent shown in Fig. having uniform cross section shown in the same Fig.
Take E=2 x 105 MPa, G= 0.8 x 105 MPa, Ar= 2736 mm2

12kN

om
B C
12 mm 240 mm
5 4m

.c
m

ul
A 120 mm

Solution:
pa
Step 1: Properties
in
120 * 2403 108 * 2163
A=120 * 240 108 * 216 = 5472 mm2, I - 47.54 x 106 mm 4
12 12
E= 2 * 105 MPa ; G= 0.8 * 105 MPa ; Ar = 2736 mm2
ej

Step 2: Strain Energy due to Axial Forces


Member AB is subjected to an axial comprn.=-12 kN
.R

Strain Energy due to axial load for the whole str. is

n 2 P 2 L (-12 *103 ) 2 * 5000


(Ui ) P 328.94 N - mm
i 1 2AE 2 * 5472 * 2 *105
w

Step 3: Strain Energy due to Shear Forces


w

Shear force in AB = 0; Shear force in BC = 12 kN


Strain Energy due to Shear for the whole str. Is
w

n 2Vx2 L (12 *103 ) 2 * 4000


(Ui ) V 1315.78 N - mm
i 1 2A r G 2 * 2736 * 0.8 x10 5
Step 4: Strain Energy due to Bending Moment
Bending Moment in AB = -12 * 4 = -48 kN-m

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Bending Moment in BC = -12 x


Strain Energy due to BM for the whole structure is
n 2M 2x dx (-48 *106 ) 2 * 5000 4000 (-12 *103 * x) 2 dx
(Ui ) M 767.34 *103 N - mm
i 1 2EI 2 * 2x10 5 * 47.54 *106 0 2 * 2 *10 5
* 47.54 *10 6

om
Step 5: Comparison
Total Strain Energy = (Ui)p + (Ui)V+ (Ui)M
Total Strain Energy =328.94 +1315.78 +767.34 x 103
= 768.98 x 103 N-mm

.c
Strain Energy due to axial force, shear force and bending moment are 0.043%, 0.17% &
99.78 % of the total strain energy.

ul
3. Show that the flexural strain energy of a prismatic bar of length L bent into a complete
2 EI
circle by means of end couples is
L2 pa
in
R
M M
ej

L
.R

Solution:
Circumference = 2 R =L or
w

From bending theory


EI 2EI
M where M couple applied
w

L L
2

M2L 2EI L L 2 EI Answer


2
2
w

(Ui ) M
2EI 2EI L

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
4. Calculate the strain energy in a truss shown in Fig. if all members are of same cross-
sectional area equal to 0.01m2 and E=200GPa

30 kN 30 kN

.c
B D F

3m
ul
A H
4m C 4m pa E 4m G 4m

Solution: To calculate strain energy of the truss, first the member forces due to external
in
force is required to be computed. Method of joint has been used here to compute member
forces. Member forces in the members AB, BC, BD, BE, CE and DE are only computed
ej

as the truss is symmetrical about centre vertical axis.


Step1: Member Forces:
i) Joint A: From triangle ACB, the angle = tan-1(3/4)=36052
.R

The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in members are computed
considering equilibrium condition at joint A
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

FAB

FAC

om
RA= 30 kN

.c
ul
Fy=0; FABsin+30=0; FAB=-50kN (Compression)
Fx=0; FABcos + FAC=0; FAC=40kN (Tension)
pa
ii) Joint C: The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in
members are computed considering equilibrium condition at joint C

FCB
in
ej

FCE
FAC=40kN
.R

Fy=0; FCB=0;
Fx=0; FCE - 40=0; FCE=40kN(Tension)
w

iii) Joint B: The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in
w

members are computed considering equilibrium condition at joint B


w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

30kN

FBD

om
FAB= 50kN FBE
FCB=0

.c
Fy=0; -30+50 sin-FBEsin=0; FBE=0
Fx=0; 50 cos - FBD=0; FBD=-40kN (Compression)

ul
iv) Joint D: The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in
members are computed considering equilibrium condition at joint D

FBD=40
pa
FDE
FDF

Fy=0; FDE=0; Fx=0; FDF + 40=0; FDF=-40kN (Comprn.)


in
Forces in all the members are shown in Fig.
ej

B -40 D -40 F
.R

-50 0 0 0 0 -50
0
A H
40 C 40 E 40 G 40
w
w

Step 2: Strain Energy


A= 0.01m2; E=2*105 N/mm2 = 2*108 kN/m2, AE = 2*106 kN
w

P2L
4 * 402 * 4 2(50) 2 5 2 * (-40)2 * 4
n 13 1
(Ui ) P 6
i 1 2AE 2 * 2 *10
(Ui)p=15.83*10-3 kN-m

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

5. Determine the maximum slope and maximum deflection in a cantilever beam of span
L subjected to point load W at its free end by using strain energy method. EI is constant

om
1
W

A B
x

.c
L
1

ul
Solution:
i) Maximum Deflection
BM at 1-1 Mx= -Wx
From 2nd theorem of Castigliaino U
pa
M x

L
W
M x dx
B
M 0 EI
M L (-x) (-Wx) dx
in
- x, B
W 0 EI
L
WL 2 W x3 WL3
B
ej

x dx Answer
EI 0 EI 3 0
3EI

ii) Maximum Slope


.R

Maximum slope occurs at B, Virtual moment M is applied at B


w

1
W
w

B
A M
x
w

L
1

Bending moment at 1-1 is Mx = -Wx M M x


M x dx
U
M'
L
B
M' 0 EI
EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

From 2nd theorem of Castiglano


M x L (-1) (-Wx - M') dx
- 1, B
M' 0 EI
Substituting M=0

om
L
WL W x2 WL2
B x dx Answer
EI 0 EI 2 0
2EI

6. Calculate max slope and max deflection of a simply supported beam carrying udl of
intensity w per unit length throughout its length by using Castiglianos Theorem

.c
ul
w

pa
L
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

i) Maximum Slope:
Maximum slope occurs at support. A virtual moment M is applied at A.

om
1
w

M
x
L

.c
1
RA RB

ul
wL M' wL M'
Reactions: RA - ; RB
2 L pa 2 L

BM at 1-1 wL M' wx 2 M x x
Mx - x- M' and 1-
in
2 L 2 M' L

U 1 L wL M' wx 2 x
A ( - )x- M' 1 - dx
ej

M' EI 0 2 L 2 L
Put M=0 1 L wL 2wx 2 wx3
.R

A ( x- dx
EI 0 2 2 2L
L
w Lx 2 x3 x4
w

A ( x-
2EI 2 3 4L 0
w

wL3
A Answer
w

24EI
ii) Maximum Deflection:
Maximum Deflection occurs at mid span. A virtual downward load W is applied at
mid-span.

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

1 w

M
x L/2

om
1 L
RA RB
Reactions: wL W' wL W'
RA ; RB
2 2 2 2

.c
wL W' wx 2 M x x
BM at 1-1 Mx x- and for Region AC
2 2 2 W' 2

ul
U 2 L/2 wL W' wx 2 x
C ( )x- dx
W' EI 0 2 L 2 2

Put W=0 C
2w L/2
(Lx 2
pa
- x 3
dx w

Lx 3
-
x 4 L/2


4EI 0 2EI 3 4 0
in
L/2
w L L 4 4
C -
ej

2EI 24 64 0
5wL4
.R

max C Answer
384EI
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

CONJUGATE BEAM METHOD

om
This is another elegant method for computing deflections and slopes in beams.
The principle of the method lies in calculating BM and SF in an imaginary beam called as
Conjugate Beam which is loaded with M/EI diagram obtained for real beam. Conjugate
Beam is nothing but an imaginary beam which is of the same span as the real beam
carrying M/EI diagram of real beam as the load. The SF and BM at any section in the
conjugate beam will represent the rotation and deflection at that section in the real beam.

.c
Following are the concepts to be used while preparing the Conjugate beam.

It is of the same span as the real beam.


The support conditions of Conjugate beam are decided as follows:

ul
pa
in
ej
.R

Some examples of real and conjugate equivalents are shown.


w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

om
.c
ul
pa
Problem 1 : For the Cantilever beam shown in figure, compute deflection and rotation
at (i) the free end (ii) under the
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

load

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w

Conjugate Beam:
w

By taking a section @ C and considering FBD of LHP,

SF f x

- 150
3 1 2 225
EI EI

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

BM @ C=
- 150
3 12 2 450 ;
EI EI
Similarly by taking a section at A and considering FBD of LHP;
225
SF @ A =
EI

om
225
BM @ A = 2 2 900
EI EI
SF @ a section in Conjugate Beam gives rotation at the same section in Real Beam

.c
BM @ a section in Conjugate Beam gives deflection at the same section in Real Beam

225

ul
Therefore, Rotation @ C = ( )
EI

Deflection @ C=
450
pa
EI

225
Rotation @ A = ( )
EI
in
Deflection @ A =
900

ej

EI
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Problem 2: For the beam shown in figure, compute deflections under the loaded
points. Also compute the maximum deflection. Compute, also the slopes at supports.

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w

Note that the given beam is symmetrical. Hence, all the diagrams for this beam should be
symmetrical. Thus the reactions are equal & maximum deflection occurs at the mid span.
The bending moment for the beam is as shown above. The conjugate beam is formed and
w

it is shown above.
For the conjugate beam:
w

VA' VB' 1 2 [Total load on Conjugate Beam ]

= 1
2 2 12 60EI 3 4 30EI

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

180 120 150


=
EI EI EI
1
2

To compute C :
A section at C is placed on conjugate beam. Then considering FBD of LHP;

om
+ BM @ C=
150
3 12 3 60 1
EI EI

450 90 360
=

.c
EI EI EI

C
360
;

ul
EI
D = C (Symmetry)

To compute E:
pa
A section @ E is placed on conjugate beam. Then considering FBD of
LHP;
in
+ BM @ E=
150
5 12 3 60 3 30 21
EI EI EI
ej

i.e E =
750 270 60 420

.R

EI EI EI EI

150 150
A = ( ) B = ( )
EI EI
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Problem 3: Compute deflection and slope at the loaded point for the beam shown in
figure. Given E = 210 Gpa and I = 120 x 106mm4. Also calculate slopes at A and B.

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

Note that the reactions are equal. The BMD is as shown above.

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

To Compute reactions in Conjugate Beam:

1 60 1 120
fy 0 V VB' 3
'
3 0
2 EI 2 EI
A

90 180
VA' VB' 0;
EI EI

om
270
VA' VB'
EI

1 60 1 120
m VA' 6 34
0 32 0

.c
2 EI 2 EI
B'

360 360 720


6VA'

ul
EI EI EI
120 150
VA' V '

EI ;
B
pa
EI

SF and BM at C is obtained by placing a section at C in the conjugate beam.


in
120 1 60
SF @ C = 3
EI 2 EI
ej

30

EI
120
3 1 60 31
.R

+ BM @ C =
EI 2 EI
360 90 270

w

EI EI EI

Given E = 210 x 109 N/m2


w

= 210 x 106 kN/m2


I = 120 x 106 mm4
= 120 x 106 (10-3 m)4
w

= 120 x 106 (10-12)


= 120 x 10-6 m4;
EI = 210 x 106 (120 x 10-6) = 25200 kNm-2
30
Rotation @ C = = 1.19 x 10-3 Radians ( )
25200

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

270
Deflection @ C = = 0.0107 m
25200
= 10.71 mm ( )
A = 4.76 X 10-3 Radians

om
B = 5.95 X 10-3 Radians:
Problem 4: Compute slopes at supports and deflections under loaded points for the
beam shown in figure.

.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

To compute reactions and BM in real beam:

fy 0 V A VB 150

+ M B 0 9VA 506 1003 0

om
600
VA 66.67kN VB 83.33kN
9

.c
BM at (1) (1) = 66.67 x
At x = 0; BM at A = 0, At x = 3m, BM at C = 200 kNm

ul
BM at (2) (2) = 66.67 x 50 (x-3) = 16.67 x + 150
At x = 3m; BM at C = 200 kNm, At x = 6m, BM at D = 250 kNm

BM at (3) (3) is computed by taking FBD of RHP. Then

At x = 0, BM at B = 0,
pa
BM at (3)-(3) = 83.33 x (x is measured from B)
At x = 3m, BM at D = 250 kNm

To compute reactions in conjugate beam:


in
1 200 100
fy 0 V '
VB' 3 3
2 EI EI
A
ej

1 25 1 83.33
3 3
2 EI 2 EI
.R

762.5

EI
+ M '
0
w

1 200 100 1 25 1 83.33


i.e 9VA 3 7 3 4.5 3 4 3 2 0
'

2 EI EI 2 EI 2 EI
w

3850
9VA'
w

EI
427.77
VA'
EI
334.73
VB'
EI

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

334.73
427.77 ( ) B ( )
A
EI EI

To Compute C :

om
A Section at C is chosen in the conjugate beam:

+ BM at C =
427.77
3 1 3 200 1
EI 2 EI

.c
983.31
=
EI

ul
C =
983.31

EI
To compute D:
pa
Section at D is chosen and FBD of RHP is considered.
in
+ BM at D =
334.73
3 1 3 83.33 1
EI 2 EI
ej

879.19
=
EI
.R

D
879.19

EI
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

Problem 5: Compute to the slope and deflection at the free end for the beam shown in
figure.

om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43

The Bending moment for the real beam is as shown in the figure. The conjugate beam
also is as shown.

Section at A in the conjugate beam gives

om
5x 2
4

SF @ A = dx
0 EI

5 x 5
64

.c

3 4
= 3 0
EI 3EI

320

ul
=
3EI

A =
320
3EI
( )
pa
1 4
BM @ A = 5x 2 x dx
in
EI 0
4
- 5 x4 5
ej

= 256
EI 4 0 4EI
.R

A =
320
EI

w
w
w

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