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All figures taken from Matrix Analysis of Structures second edition by Aslam Kassimali, 2010

Matrix Analysis of Structures: Matrix Algebra

Definition of a Matrix, Types of Matrices, and Matrix Operations

Matrix Analysis of Structures:

Matrix Algebra

  • 2.1 Definition of a Matrix

  • 2.2 Types of Matrices

  • 2.3 Matrix Operations

2.1 Definition of a Matrix

  • In matrix methods of structural analysis,

the fundamental

relationships

of

equilibrium, compatibility,

and

member

forcedisplacement

relations

are

expressed in the form of matrix equations.

  • The analytical procedures are formulated by applying various matrix operations.

  • Therefore,

familiarity

with

the

basic

concepts

of

matrix

algebra

is

a

prerequisite

to

understanding

matrix

structural analysis.

2.1 Definition of a Matrix

A rectangular array of numbers (we will concentrate on real numbers). A nm matrix has „n‟ rows and „m‟ columns

M

3x4

 M M M M  11 12 13 14   M M M M
M
M
M
M
11
12
13
14
M
M
M
M
21
22
23
24
M
M
M
M
31
32
33
34
First
Second Third
Fourth

column column column

column

First row

Second row

Third row

Elements or Entries:

Column number Row number 12 M
Column number
Row number
12
M

4

2.2 Type of Matrices

What is a vector?

A vector is an array of „n‟ numbers A row vector of length ‘n’ is a 1n matrix

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

A column vector of length ‘m’ is a m1 matrix

a

1

a

2

a

3

5

2.2 Type of Matrices

Square

matrix :

If

a matrix has

the same number of

rows and columns (i.e., m = n), it is called a square matrix. Diagonal element Off-diagonal
rows and columns
(i.e.,
m
=
n),
it
is called
a square
matrix.
Diagonal element
Off-diagonal element

Symmetric matrix: When the elements of a square matrix are symmetric about its main diagonal (i.e., A ij = A ji ), it is termed a symmetric matrix.

2.2 Type of Matrices Square matrix : If a matrix has the same number of rows

6

2.2 Type of Matrices

Lower triangular matrix : If all the elements of a square matrix above its main diagonal are zero, (i.e., A ij = 0 for j > i), it is referred to as a lower triangular matrix.

Upper triangular matrix: When all the elements of a square matrix below its main diagonal are zero (i.e., A ij = 0 for j < i), it is called an upper triangular matrix.

Diagonal matrix: A square matrix with all of

its

off-

diagonal elements equal to zero (i.e., A ij = 0 for i = j ), is called a diagonal matrix.

2.2 Type of Matrices Lower triangular matrix : If all the elements of a square matrix

Lower triangular matrix

2.2 Type of Matrices Lower triangular matrix : If all the elements of a square matrix
2.2 Type of Matrices Lower triangular matrix : If all the elements of a square matrix

Upper triangular matrix

Diagonal matrix

2.2 Type of Matrices Null or Zero matrix: A matrix all of whose entries are zero

0

3

4

 

 

  • 0000

  • 0000

  • 0000  

Unit or Identity matrix: A square matrix which has „1‟ s on the diagonal and zeros everywhere else.

I

3x 3

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

8

2.3 Matrix Operations

An important application of matrix multiplication is

to express simultaneous equations in compact

matrix form. Consider the following system of

linear simultaneous equations.

2.3 Matrix Operations An important application of matrix multiplication is to express simultaneous equations in compact

2.3 Matrix Operations

In which

xs

are the unknowns

and

As

and Ps

represent

the

coefficients

and

constants,

respectively.

 

By

using

the

definition

of

multiplication

of

matrices,

this

system

of

equations can be expressed in matrix form as

2.3 Matrix Operations In which x s are the unknowns and A s and P s

2.3 Matrix Operations

Equality of matrices

If A and B are two matrices of the same size, they are “equal” if each and every entry of one matrix equals the corresponding entry of the other.

A

1

3

 

9

2

0

1

4

7

5

a

1

,

B

a

d

g

b

2

,

A

B

d

  

3

,

g

9

,

e

0

,

h

1

,

b

e

h

c

f

i

 

c

f

i

4

,

7

,

5

.

11

2.3 Matrix Operations

Addition of two matrices

If A and B are two matrices of the same size, the sum of the matrices is a matrix C=A+B whose entries are the sums of the corresponding entries of A and B

A

1

   3

9

2

0

1

4

7

5

C

A

B

0

   6

10

B

1

3

1

5

1

1

14

7

11

3

1

0

10

0

6

12

2.3 Matrix Operations

Addition and subtraction of two matrices (properties)

Properties of matrix addition:

1. Matrix addition is commutative (order of addition does not matter)

A B B A

2. Matrix addition is associative

A B C A B C A 0 0 A A

3. Addition of the zero matrix

2.3 Matrix Operations

Multiplication by a scalar

If A is a matrix and c is a scalar, then the product cA is a matrix whose entries are obtained by multiplying each of the entries of A by c

A

1

   3

9

2

0

1

4

7

5

c 3

3

cA   9

27

6

0

3

12

21

15

2.3 Matrix Operations

Transpose

If A is a mn matrix, then the transpose of A is the nm matrix whose first column is the first row of A and second column is the second row of A and so on.

1

A   3

9

2

0

1

4

7

5

A

T

1

2

4

3

0

7

9

1

5

2.3 Matrix Operations

Transpose

If

A is

a square matrix (mm),

symmetric if

it

is

called

A A

T

2.3 Matrix Operations

Scalar (dot) product of two vectors

If a and b are two vectors of the same size

a

a

1

a

2

a

3

;

b

b

1

b

2

b

3

The scalar (dot) product of a and b is a scalar

obtained

by

adding

the

products

of

corresponding entries of the two vectors

T

a b

a b

1

1

a

2

b

2

a

3

b

3

2.3 Matrix Operations

Matrix multiplication

For a product to be defined, the number of columns of A must be equal to the number of rows of B.

A m x r B r x n inside
A
m x r
B
r x n
inside

outside

=

AB

m x n

2.3 Matrix Operations

Matrix multiplication

If A is a mr matrix and B is a rn matrix, then the product

C=AB is

a

mn matrix whose

entries are obtained

as

follows. The entry corresponding to row „i‟ and column „j‟ of C is the dot product of the vectors formed by the row „i‟ of A

and column „j‟ of B.

A

3

3

C

3

2

2.3 Matrix Operations Matrix multiplication If A is a m  r matrix and B is

3

0

1

7

5

 

9

AB

2.3 Matrix Operations Matrix multiplication If A is a m  r matrix and B is

10

7



5

9

28

B

3

2

2.3 Matrix Operations Matrix multiplication If A is a m  r matrix and B is

3

1

0

notice

2.3 Matrix Operations Matrix multiplication If A is a m  r matrix and B is

T

 

 

2.3 Matrix Operations Matrix multiplication If A is a m  r matrix and B is

2.3 Matrix Operations Matrix multiplication If A is a m  r matrix and B is

  3

19

2.3 Matrix Operations

Matrix multiplication (properties)

  • Matrix multiplication is noncommutative (order of addition does matter)

AB BA

Not necessarily equal

  • It may be that the product AB exists but BA does not (e.g. in the previous example C=AB is a 3x2 matrix, but BA does not

exist)

  • Even if the product exists, the products AB and BA are not generally the same

2.3 Matrix Operations

Matrix multiplication (properties)

Matrix multiplication is associative

A BC AB C

Distributive law

A B

C

AB

AC

B

C

A

BA

CA

AI A; IA A

 

AB

T

T

B A

T

 

Multiplication by identity matrix

Multiplication by zero matrix

A0 0 ; 0 A 0

21

2.3 Matrix Operations

Other properties

If

A,

B

and

C

are square matrices of the

same size, and

A 0

not necessarily mean that

B AB C AC

does

  • AB 0

does not necessarily imply that

either A or B is zero

2.3 Matrix Operations

Inverse of a matrix

If

A

is

any square matrix

and

B

is

another

square matrix satisfying the conditions

AB BA I

  • (a) The matrix A is called invertible, and
    (b) The matrix B is the inverse of A and is

denoted as

A -1 .

The inverse of a matrix is unique

is associative

Multiplication

2.3 Matrix Operations

Inverse of a matrix (uniqueness)

The inverse of a matrix is unique Assume that B and C both are inverses of A

AB

BA

I

AC

CA

I

(BA)C

IC

C

B(AC)

BI

B

B

C

Hence a matrix cannot have two or more inverses.

2.3 Matrix Operations

Inverse of a matrix (properties)

Property 1:

If

A

is

any invertible

square

matrix the inverse of its inverse is the matrix A

itself

A

-1

1

A

Property 2:

If

A

is

any invertible

square

matrix and k is any scalar then

k A

1

  • 1 A

-1

k

2.3 Matrix Operations

Inverse of a matrix (properties)

Property 3: If matrices:

(AB) AB

1

I

A and

B are invertible

square

 1  1 -1  AB   B A
 1
 1
-1
AB
B
A

Premultiplying both sides by A

-1

A

-1

(AB) AB

1

A

-1

A B AB

1

A

1

A

1

B AB

1

A

1

Premultiplying both sides by B

-1

AB

1

B

1

A

1

26

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant

The determinant of a square matrix is a number obtained in a specific manner from the matrix.

For a 11 matrix:

A

a

11

;

det( A) a

11

For a 22 matrix:

 a a  11 12 A  ;   a a  21 22
 a
a
11
12
A 
;
a
a
21
22

det(

A

)

a

11

a

22

a

12

a

21

Product along red arrow minus product along blue arrow

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant

Example 1

Consider the matrix

A

Notice (1) A matrix is an array of numbers (2) A matrix is enclosed by square brackets

1

5

3

7

det( A)

 

1

3

5

7

1

 

7

3

 

5

 

8

Notice (1) The determinant of a matrix is a number

(2) The symbol for the determinant of a matrix is a pair of parallel lines

2.3 Matrix Operations

Duplicate column method for 3x3 matrix

For a 3x3 matrix (only) write down the first two columns after the third column

A

a

 

a

a

a a  11 12 13  a a 21 22 23  a a 31
a
a
11
12
13
a
a
21
22
23
a
a
31
32
33
 
 a a a  a a 11 12 13 11 12   a a
a
a
a
a
a
11
12
13
11
12
a
a
a
a
a
21
22
23
21
22
a
a
a
a
a
31
32
33
31
32

Sum of products along red arrow minus sum of products along blue arrow

det(

A)

a

11

a

22

a

33

a

12

a

23

a

31

a

13

a

21

a

32

a

13

a

22

a

31

a

11

a

23

a

32

a

12

a

21

a

33

This technique works only for 3x3 matrices

29

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant

Example 2 2 4 - 3  2 4  3  2 4  
Example 2
2
4
- 3
2
4
3
2
4
A 
1
0
4
1
0
4
1
0
- 1
2
  2
 
1
2
1
  2
  2
0
32
3
0
-8
8

Sum of red terms = 0 + 32 + 3 = 35 Sum of blue terms = 0 8 + 8 = 0 Determinant of matrix A= det(A) = 35 0 = 35

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant (Special case)

If two rows or two columns are proportional (i.e. multiples of each other), the determinant of

the matrix is zero

  • 2 8

7

   
  • 3 4

2

0

2

7

8

If the determinant of a matrix is zero, it is called a singular matrix.

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant (Cofactor method)

If A is a square matrix

     
 

a

  • 11 a

a

  • 12

13

 

A

 

a

a

  • 21 a

a

  • 31 a

a

  • 22

23

  • 32  

33

The minor, M ij , of entry a ij is the determinant of the submatrix that remains after the i th row and j th column are deleted from A. The cofactor of entry a ij is C ij =(-1) (i+j) M ij

 

a

  • 21 a

23

 

M

  • 12

 

a

a

a

a

a

  • 31 a

33

 

21

33

C

23

31

  M  

12

a

  • 21 a

23

 

12

32

a

  • 31 a

33

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant (Cofactor method)

Sign of cofactor:

Example 3 Find the minor and cofactor of a 33

 

-

-

-

-

  

2.3 Matrix Operations Determinant (Cofactor method) Sign of cofactor: Example 3 Find the minor and cofactor

- 3

2.3 Matrix Operations Determinant (Cofactor method) Sign of cofactor: Example 3 Find the minor and cofactor

2

1

4

0

A

  • 4

  • 2  

Minor

2.3 Matrix Operations Determinant (Cofactor method) Sign of cofactor: Example 3 Find the minor and cofactor

  2

- 1

2.3 Matrix Operations Determinant (Cofactor method) Sign of cofactor: Example 3 Find the minor and cofactor
2  M 33 1
2
M 33
1

33

Cofactor

C

  • 33 ( 1)

4

0

(3+3)

2

0

M

33

4

1

  

4

M

33

4

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant (Cofactor method)

The determinant of a n n matrix A can be computed by multiplying ALL the entries in ANY row (or column) by their cofactors and adding the resulting products. That is, for

each

1 i n

or

1 j n

Cofactor expansion along the j th column

det( A) a

1j

C

1j

a

2j

C

2j

a

n j

C

n j

Cofactor expansion along the i th row

det( A) a

i1

C

i1

a

i2

C

i2

a

in

C

in

34

2.3 Matrix Operations

Determinant

(Example 4)

A=

det(A)=(1)

- (-3)

4

5

1

3

-1

0

     
   

1

0

2

-3

 
 

3

4

0

1

-1

5

2

-2

det(A) = a 11 C 11 +a 12 C 12 + a 13 C 13 +a 14 C 14

0

1

1

3

0

1

3

0

1

3

4

1

2

-2

 

- (0)

-1

2

-2

+ 2

-1

5

-2

1

3

0

1

3

0

1

3

4

 

0

5

2

= (1)(35)-0+(2)(62)-(-3)(13)=198

 

1

1

 

35