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All figures taken from Matrix Analysis of Structures second edition by Aslam Kassimali, 2010

3x4

M
M
M
M
11
12
13
14
M
M
M
M
21
22
23
24
M
M
M
M
31
32
33
34
First
Second Third
Fourth

Column number
Row number
12
M

4

1

2

3

5

# the same number of

rows and columns
(i.e.,
m
=
n),
it
is called
a square
matrix.
Diagonal element
Off-diagonal element

6

3

4

3x 3

8

# If A and B are two matrices of the same size, they are “equal” if each and every entry of one matrix equals the corresponding entry of the other.

A

1

3

 

9

2

0

1

4

7

5

a

1

,

B

a

d

g

b

2

,

A

B

d

  

3

,

g

9

,

e

0

,

h

1

,

b

e

h

c

f

i

 c  f i      4 ,  7 ,  5 .

11

A

1

   3

9

2

0

1

4

7

5

C

A

B

0

   6

10

B

1

3

1

5

1

1

14

7

11

3

1

0

10

0

6

12

A

1

   3

9

2

0

1

4

7

5

c 3

3

cA   9

27

6

0

3

12

21

15

T

1

2

3

1

2

3

A
m x r
B
r x n
inside

# and column „j‟ of B.

 A 3  3 C 3  2

3

0

1

7

5

 

9

AB

10

7



5

9

28

B

3

2

3

1

0

notice

T

 

 

  3

19

21

# The inverse of a matrix is unique Assume that B and C both are inverses of A

 AB  BA  I AC  CA  I (BA)C  IC  C B(AC)  BI  B  B  C

(AB) AB

1

I

# square

 1
 1
-1
AB
B
A

Premultiplying both sides by A

-1

A

-1

(AB) AB

1

A

-1

A B AB

1

A

1

A

1

B AB

1

A

1

Premultiplying both sides by B

-1

AB

1

B

1

A

1

26

 a
a
11
12
A 
;
a
a
21
22

a
a
11
12
13
a
a
21
22
23
a
a
31
32
33
 
a
a
a
a
a
11
12
13
11
12
a
a
a
a
a
21
22
23
21
22
a
a
a
a
a
31
32
33
31
32

29

Example 2
2
4
- 3
2
4
3
2
4
A 
1
0
4
1
0
4
1
0
- 1
2
  2
 
1
2
1
  2
  2
0
32
3
0
-8
8

13

23

33

23

33

21

33

23

31

12

23

12

32

33

2
M 33
1

33

34

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