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Introduction to the AS/400

The IBM Application System/400 popularly known as AS/400 is a family of


mid-range business computing systems, that supersedes IBM's highly
successful System/3X family. The AS/400 is available in three different types
the 9402, 9404, and the 9406.

Currently, here at Minnesota State University, Mankato, the Computer


Services is supporting a dual processor IBM AS/400 9406 model D80, that
contains 192 Megabytes of primary memory and 7.1 Gigabytes of mirrored
secondary storage.

The AS/400 systems exclusively use the IBM Operating System/400


(OS/400). It is a multi-user operating system that works with the Licensed
Internal Code (LIC) instructions to implement the functions that are basic to
the AS/400 architecture. OS/400 can perform tasks under direct control of
both the user and an application program.

The AS/400 system differs from the traditional systems in several ways. They
offer more compatibility across the product line since only one operating
system and architecture is used consistently across the entire family. The
system offers very high performance compared to the earlier System/3X
computers. This is achieved by a combination of faster processors, extended
storage and improved fixed disk systems. The software architecture is
different from that of more traditional systems. Implementing functions such as
security, database and communications in microcode, and providing a one-
piece operating system resulted in improved efficiency, consistency and
simplicity.
Now, to take a look into the highlights of the system

AS/400's standard functions plus the many communications options and


supporting software provide users with flexibility for various communications
environments. The AS/400 application programming interface provides some
new capabilities not found in earlier operating systems. The basic architecture
of AS/400 systems makes for a very productive program development
environment. The built-in database and single-level storage provide high-level
structures and consistency. This along with the programming tools available
for AS/400 can increase programmer productivity. The programmer has the
flexibility to choose one of the following programming languages for their
application programs:

BASIC
C
CL command language
COBOL X3.23-1974 & X3.23-1985
FORTRAN
Pascal
PL/I
REXX
RPG II & III

The AS/400 marks a new beginning in the business computing world. This
new generation of systems with advanced technology and advanced
applications serve as a growth platform for the customer to expand in
application, size and network complexity.

Signing On to the AS/400


PC Support/400

Reboot the PC by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Delete>at the same time. Press


this key combination twice.
Select the option that indicates PC Support and/or AS/400.
Answer "Enter common user ID:" with your username
Answer "Enter password for common user ID:" with your password.
If there is a beep or a message press <Enter>to bypass the message.
At this point you should have the following screen:
Sign On

System . . . . . : MKTAS400
Subsystem . . . . : QINTER
Display . . . . . : PCnnnnS1

User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________
Password . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program/procedure. . . . . . . . __________
Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________
Current library. . . . . . . . . __________

Type your username in the "User" blank.


Press the <Tab>key.
Type your password. The password will not be displayed.
Press the <Enter>key.

If for some reason you can not longer type, press the <Reset>key. On the
Microterms or PC-VT this would be the <Esc>key then R. On PC Support/400
this would be the left <Ctrl>key.

If this is the first time you signed on continue with the Changing your
password section of this manual.

Changing Your Password


The first time you log on the AS/400 you will be forced to change your
password before continuing.

Press <Enter>to change your password.


At the "Current Password" field, type `xx' followed by the last six digits of
your social security number (ie. xx999999) NOTE: nothing you type on
this screen will be displayed to ensure that no one views your password
as you type it.
Press <Tab>or <Field Exit>.
For the "New Password" field, type the password you would like to use
when you sign on to the computer. It must not exceed 10 characters, it
must begin with a alphabetic character and the remaining characters
may be any combination of alphabetic, numeric characters. Note: Try
not to make it too difficult, you will need to know it to sign on the AS/400
again.
Press <Tab>or <Field Exit>
At the "New Password (to verify)" field, type in your new password for a
second time to make sure you have entered it correctly. If you have
entered it incorrectly you will get an error message and your initial
password will still be `xx' followed by the last four digits of your social
security number.
Press <Enter>
Upon completion, the following message will be displayed:
Password changed successfully
Read the following screens, pressing <Enter>to exit each one, until you
reach the AS/400 Main Menu screen.

Later on when you want to change your password, type CHGPWD on the
command line and go through the same steps.

Signing Off of the AS/400


Press <F3>until you see a command prompt, ===>.
At the command prompt type SIGNOFF.

Getting Online Help


AS/400 provides extensive On-line help, and a simple method of accessing
the help information. On-line help information is provided for all system
displays. The type of help provided depends on the location of the cursor.

For all displays, the following information is provided:

What the display is used for


How to use the display
How to use the command line if there is one
How to use the entry fields and parameter line if any
What function keys are active and what they do.

If the <Help>key is pressed when the cursor is in an area where specific on-
line help information is available, the help text for that area of the display is
shown.

If the <Help>key is pressed when the cursor is in an area for which no specific
information is available, information for the entire display is shown. Then you
can page forward or backward through the information for the entire display
and for each area.
If the <Help>key is pressed while a help display is shown, a description of the
types of help that are available on the displays, and how to get each type of
help is shown.

The <Help>key on the PC Support stations is labeled <Scroll Lock>. On the


VT-100 or PC-VT stations the key sequence for < Help>is <ESC>h.

If <F11>=Search index is shown at the bottom of the display, you can press
<F11>to see the Search Help Index display. On that display, you can request
information about any topic you specify.

STRSCHIDX

The start search index command is used when you would like to get help on a
specific or general topic. To use the index search facility type STRSCHIDX
and hit <Return>. Type your subject topic, or topics on the bottom subject line.
When you hit <Return>again your topic will be searched for and the topics
found will be displayed on the screen above the topic line. To display the
information you are looking for type 5 in the option field by the topic line press
<Return>. To get out of the index search facility press <F3>until exited.

CD-ROM Manuals

If you are attached to the AS/400 using PC Support/400 you have the ability to
look at a hypertext version of a subset of the complete AS/400 manual set. To
start the hypertext book reader type the command MANUALS at any AS/400
prompt. This guide is laid out like a library. The library contains bookshelves.
These bookshelves contain books. For example our library contains a
bookshelf name Languages. We select the bookshelf by using the arrow keys
to place the highlighted cursor over it and press <Enter>. On this bookshelf
there are several books on languages. One of the books is titled "COBOL/400
Reference". Once again we use the arrows and cursor to select the item. Now
that we have the book it opens up a "Table of Contents" for the book. By using
this search and select procedure you can look through the book like a book
you'd check out at the library.

More Help

There are three ways to get help on the READ/DOS book reader (AS/400
command MANUALS):
Start the book reader and select the bookshelf entitled BookManager
READ/DOS.
Press <F1>anywhere you're in question about your current options.
Press <Alt>h (or <F10>h) and select the appropriate help selection for
your current problem.

Using the Prompt Facility

AS/400 provides interactive command prompting for any command supplied


with the system or created by the user. On the command entry screen notice
the option F4 = Prompt at the bottom of the screen. You can type the
command name only, and press <F4>to see the prompt display for the
command. Usually, a command may require many parameters before it can
be executed. The prompt displays provide a convenient method of supplying
that parameter information. For example, type SNDMSG on any command
line and press <F4>. The following prompt display is shown:

Send Message (SNDMSG)

Type choices, press Enter.

Message text . . . . . . . . . . ________________________________________


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________

To user profile . . . . . . . . . __________ Name , *SYSOPR, *ALLACT...

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F10=Additional parameters F12=cancel


F13=How to use this display F24=More keys

To execute the command, supply the required information for Message text
and user profile and press <Enter>. Most of the parameters used on
commands have default values that are used if no other value is specified.
You may change the default values if you desire to do so.

If <F4>= Prompt is shown on the prompt display, you can press < F4>to
request a list of predefined values (such as *SYSOPR and *ALLACT in the
above display) that are permitted in the field where the cursor is currently
positioned.
In relation to the SNDMSG command, you can use DSPMSG at any time to
display messages in your message queue.

Organization of OS/400 Objects


Objects

On the AS/400, everything that can be stored or retrieved is stored in an


object. Examples of objects are libraries, files, executable programs, queues,
and more. Objects share some common attributes such as name, type, size,
description, date created, and owner. The concept of an object allows the
system to perform certain standard operations, such as authorization
management, on all objects types. The object types that we will be primarily
concerned with in this manual are:

*LIB Libraries
*FILE Files
*PGM Compiled programs
*OUTQ Output queues

Libraries
Every object is contained in a library. A library is an object, of type *LIB, that
contains a group of objects. It is similar to the "root" or top-level directory on
Unix, MS-DOS, and VAX/VMS. However, unlike these systems, a library
cannot "contain" other libraries (with the exception of QSYS, the system
master library, which "contains" all libraries on the system). An interesting
implication of the non-hierarchical nature of libraries is that two users cannot
have libraries with the same name. There are basically three general
categories of libraries:

1. QSYS - the library that contains all other libraries,


2. System supplied libraries NOTE:all IBM-supplied library names begin
with the letter "Q" or "#"
3. User-created libraries.

Files
A file is an object, of type *FILE, that contains data in the form of a database,
device data, or a group of related records that are handled as a unit. In this
manual, we are primarily concerned with database files. There are two types
of database files:

1. physical files
2. logical files.

A physical file contains actual data stored on the system. It has a fixed-length
record format. In this manual, we are primarily interested in two kinds of
physical files:

1. data physical files


2. source physical files.

A data physical file (*FILE PF-DTA) contains data that cannot be compiled,
such as an input file to a program. In conventional terms, a data physical file is
a data file, for example an employee master file. A data physical file normally
has a record format. This record format is defined using Data Description
Specifications (DDS is a language that is used to describe database files to
the system). This description is then compiled to produce a *FILE object with
attribute PF-DTA.

A source physical file (*FILE PF-SRC) contains source statements, for


example the source statements of a Pascal or COBOL program. A source
physical file has the attribute "PF-SRC". It is usually created using the "Create
Source Physical File" (CRTSRCPF) command (more information about this
command will be given later). A source physical file is actually a special type
of data physical file. The CRTSRCPF command creates a physical file with
attributes appropriate for source physical files. For example, the default record
length is 92 (80 for the source data field, 6 for the sequence number field, and
6 for the date field. Refer to the section on the SEU editor for the meanings of
these fields.)

The data records in a data physical file can be grouped into members. A data
physical file may contain one or more members. These members are not
objects themselves but subsets of an object. This implies that all members of
an object share the same basic characteristics with the other members in the
object such as ownership and security. In a PF-SRC file, each member
contains source statements for a program or DDS source. Members have an
attribute associated with them, which in the case of PF-SRC members,
determines how the various systems programs (such as the editor and
compilers) on the AS/400 treat the member. This attribute is specified when
creating the member, and allows compilation to be totally automatic. Once, for
example, a member has been specified as having an attribute of CBL (for
COBOL program,) the AS/400 editor, SEU, will format the program as a
COBOL program, and when PDM (Program Development Manager) is given
the instruction to compile the file, it "knows" that it should invoke the COBOL
compiler. An example of a PF-SRC file and its members is shown below (we
will explain how to get to this screen in the section on PDM):

Work with Members Using PDM

File . . . . . . SRCFILE___
Library . . . . YOURLIB___ Position to . . . . __________

Type options, press Enter.

2=Edit 3=Copy 4=Delete 5=Display 6=Print


7=Rename 8=Display description 9=Save 13=Change text ...

Opt Member Type Text


__ NAMEEMP LF Sample DDS Source for a Logical File
__ CLPROG CLP Sample Control Language Source Program
__ RPGPROG RPG Sample RPG Source Program
__ EMPMAST PF Sample DDS Source for a Physical File
__ SCRNMBR DSPF Sample DDS Source for a Display File

Parameters or command
===> ___________________________________________________________

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F6=Create


F9=Retrieve F10=Command entry F23=More options F24=More keys

The name of the source physical file is SRCFILE, and it is contained in the
library YOURLIB. Although, in the above example, source members of
different types are stored in the same source physical file, you will probably
want to store source programs of the same type in a separate source physical
file. For example, you may want to keep all your RPG source programs in a
PF-SRC file called, for example, "RPGSRC" and DDS source in a PF-SRC file
called, for example, "DDSSRC". You may also use the standard IBM-supplied
names such as "QRPGSRC", "QDDSSRC", and "QCLSRC" for the various
PF-SRC files. However, you may choose to include source members of
different types belonging to the same application in the same PF-SRC file, as
in the above example.

In a data physical file (PF-DTA), the member(s) contains data for use by
programs. Normally, a PF-DTA file will only have one member (by default, the
member's name is the same as the file name). However, it is possible to
include multiple members in a single PF-DTA file. For example, you may want
to group the records in a sales transactions file so that each member contains
data for each month. In this way, each month's data can be processed
separately by processing one member at a time. It is important to understand,
at this point, the difference between "source" and "data" in regards to data
physical files. In the "Work with Members using PDM" screen above, the "PF"
member, "EMPMAST", contains DDS source that defines a physical file.
When this source member is compiled (using CRTPF or option 14 in the
"Work with Members using PDM" screen), it will produce a *FILE object with
attribute PF-DTA. This compiled object is the actual file that is used to hold
data records.

A data logical file (*FILE LF-DTA) is a data file that contains no actual data,
but provides a different method of viewing the data of an accompyning data
physical file(s) which it internally references. It is similar to the concept of a
"view" in SQL. A data logical file is described to the system using DDS. When
the DDS source is compiled, a *FILE object with the attribute LF-DTA is
produced.

Another *FILE object type that you may encounter in your programming
courses is the device file. A device file contains a description how data is to be
presented to a program from a device or vice versa. Two common types of
device files are printer files (*FILE PRTF) and display files (*FILE DSPF). A
printer file describes the attributes that printed output will have, such as the
length and width of a printed page. A printer file can be created using the
"Create Printer File" (CRTPRTF) command. A display file describes what
information is to be displayed and where it is to be displayed on the screen of
a display station. One way of defining and creating a display file is with the
Screen Design Aid (SDA) utility.

Other Object Types


A program object (*PGM) is a compiled program. The attribute for a *PGM
object indicates the language the program was written in. For instance, when
a COBOL source program is compiled, it produces an object with a type of
*PGM with the attribute CBL.

An important object type on the AS/400 is the output queue (*OUTQ). On the
AS/400, whenever something is printed, the output goes to an output queue
and it stays there as a spooled file. A spooled files, like a member, is not an
object itself but a subset of an object. The spooled file stays in the output
queue until it is directed to a printer or removed. An output queue has already
been created for you with the creation of your user profile. The name of the
output queue is normally the same as that of your user profile. Refer to the
section "Printing Procedure" in this manual for more information on printing
spooled files.

The relationships between the various objects that have been discussed in
this section are as follows:

QSYS (*LIB)
[special library]
|
| contains
|
Library (*LIB)

|
| contains
|
.------------------+----^-----------------.--------.
| | | |
Programs (*PGM) Outqueues (*OUTQ) Files (*FILE) Other
[Executable] | | objects
| contains |
Spooled Files |
[Output intended for Printer] |
|
.----------------^--.
| |
Physical Data Logical
file file
(PF) (LF-DTA)
| ^ contains
.------^-----. Member(s)
| | [Reorginized data]
Source Data
Physical Physical
File File
(PF-SRC) (PF-DTA)
| |
contains | | contains
| |
Member(s) Member(s)
[Program source] [Actual Data]
Creating a Library
A library has already been created for during user profile creation. The name
of this library is normally the same as that of your user profile. In this section,
we will create another library and use this library as an example throughout
the manual. Note that you can use your default library, i.e. the library that has
the same name as that as your user profile, to store all your application
objects.

To create a library, type the CRTLIB ("Create Library") on a command line


and press <F4>to prompt on it. Type in the name of the library and enter a
brief description for the library. Leave the library type as *PROD (a production
library is one that is used for normal processing).

Create Library (CRTLIB)

Type choices, press Enter.

Library . . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB__ Name


Library type . . . . . . . . . . *PROD____ *PROD, *TEST
Text 'description' . . . . . . . Sample_Library__________________

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F10=Additional parameters F12=Cancel


F13=How to use this display F24=More keys

Press <Enter>. You should see a message at the bottom of the screen saying
"Library ... created". If you see the message "Library ... already exists", it
means that some other user already has a library by the same name. Note: All
libraries are on the same "level" with only QSYS above them. If you get this
message, try another name for the library. Other commands that operate on
libraries are:

DSPLIB (Display Library)


DLTLIB (Delete Library)
WRKLIB (Work with Library).

Creating a Source Physical File


Now, let's create a source physical file in the library that we have just created.
To create a source physical file, type CRTSRCPF and press <F4> to prompt
on it. Supply the names for the source file and the library that will hold it.
Below, we show the display for creating a source file called "SRCFILE" in the
library "YOURLIB". Press < Enter> and you should see the message "File ...
created in library ..." at the bottom of your screen.
Create Source Physical File (CRTSRCPF)

Type choices, press Enter.

File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SRCFILE___ Name


Library . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ Name, *CURLIB
Record length . . . . . . . . . 92_______ Number
Member, if desired . . . . . . . *NONE_____ Name, *NONE, *FILE
Text 'description' . . . . . . . Sample_Source_File___________________

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F10=Additional parameters F12=Cancel


F13=How to use this display F24=More keys

Library Lists
You may have noticed in the previous screen that the "Library" field defaults to
the value *CURLIB, meaning the current library. The current library is tied
closely to the concept of a library list. Before we discuss what the current
library is, we first explain what a library list is. A library list is similar in concept
to the "PATH" in Unix and MS-DOS. It specifies which libraries are to be
searched and the order in which they are searched when the system looks for
an object. A library list is identified by the value *LIBL. A default library list is
automatically created by OS/400 for each job started by a user. Your default
library, that is the library that has the same name as that as your user profile,
is automatically included in your library list. You can display your library list by
typing DSPLIBL and press <Enter> on a command line. The following is the
library list for the user "JOHNDOE".

Display Library List

System: MKTAS400

Type options, press Enter.

5=Display objects in library

Opt Library Type Text


__ QSYS SYS System Library
__ QHLPSYS SYS
__ QUSRSYS SYS *IN USE
__ JOHNDOE CUR JOHN DOE's default library
__ QTEMP USR
__ QGDDM USR
__ QGPL USR GENERAL PURPOSE LIBRARY
__ QMSU USR MSU generated commands and programs
__ QPAS USR
__ MBNLQ USR Common Library for MBNLQ ..
__ ONLINE USR COLLECTION - created by SQL

F3=Exit F12=Cancel F17=Top F18=Bottom

Note that you may not have all the libraries in the above list. As you can see,
a library list is divided into three parts:

system portion

which consists of the libraries that are required to run system functions

current library

which by default, is the library that has the same name as your user
profile (in this case, the library "JOHNDOE"). The current library is the
first user library that is searched before the rest of the user libraries in
the list.

user portion

which consists of libraries that holds user objects. Some user libraries,
such as QTEMP, QGPL, and QGDDM come with the system while
others are locally supplied. In addition, the user can create their own
libraries and add them to their library list.

If a user does not specify a library name when requesting an operation on an


object, the libraries in the library list are searched for the object (starting with
the system libraries, the current library, and the user libraries). For example,
assume that the user "JOHNDOE" has an executable program (*PGM object)
called "TESTPROG" in the library "YOURLIB". User "JOHNDOE" wants to run
the program (using the CALL command) and issues the command CALL
TESTPROG. A message will appear stating that the program is not found in the
library list. This is because "YOURLIB" is currently not in the library list. If,
however, "TESTPROG" is qualified by "YOURLIB" as CALL
YOURLIB/TESTPROG then the program can be found and executed.
To add a library to the library list, type the "Add Library List Entry"
(ADDLIBLE) command, followed by the library name (or prompt on the
command) ADDLIBLE YOURLIB.

If "JOHNDOE" now issues the the unqualified CALL command, the program
can now be located and executed since the library that contains the program
is now in the library list. You can edit your library list using the EDTLIBL
command and remove a library list entry using the RMVLIBLE command.
"YOURLIB" can be made the current library by typing CHGCURLIB YOURLIB.

Some commands automatically default to the current library (*CURLIB), such


as the CRTSRCPF command. Note, however, that both commands
(ADDLIBLE and CHGCURLIB) are only effective for a particular session. Next
time, when "JOHNDOE" signs on, "YOURLIB" will no longer be in their library
list and hence, no longer the current library. In the section "Steps in
Developing a Program", we will create an "initial program" that will
automatically run these commands when a user signs on the system.

Using the Program Development Manager (PDM)


The Program Development Manager (PDM) is a set of utilities under OS/400
designed to simplify the creation and development of software. It automates
file and member creation, editing, compilation and program execution, and
allows the programmer to manage their environment from a set of standard
menus.

Starting PDM

PDM may either be started using the command STRPDM (for Start PDM,)
which will produce a menu of options for the level on which the user wishes to
work (libraries, objects, or members,) or using one of three commands which
indicate the level at which the user would like to work:

WRKLIBPDM -- Work with libraries using PDM


WRKOBJPDM -- Work with objects using PDM
WRKMBRPDM -- Work with file members using PDM

Work with Objects

One of the most commonly used commands to start PDM is WRKOBJPDM.


This allows the user to work with objects inside a library. Type WRKOBJPDM
and press <F4> to prompt on it.
Work with Objects Using PDM (WRKOBJPDM)

Type choices, press Enter.

Library . . . . . . . . . . . . *PRV______ *PRV, name, *CURLIB


Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, name, *generic...
Object type . . . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, *ALL, *ALRTBL, *AUTL..
Object attribute . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, attribute, *generic...

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display


F24=More keys

The *PRV value on the "Library" field indicates that the default is to work on
the library the user last worked with. These may be replaced with the name of
a specific library. The "Object" and "Object type" options allow the user to limit
which objects will be displayed. Type WRKOBJPDM and prompt with <F4>.

Work with Objects Using PDM (WRKOBJPDM)

Type choices, press Enter.

Library . . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ *PRV, name, *CURLIB


Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, name, *generic*...
Object type . . . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, *ALL, *ALRTBL, *AUTL..
Object attribute . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, attribute, *generic...

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display


F24=More keys

The screen resulting from command WRKOBJPDM, with the library specified
as YOURLIB, and *ALL on the other options, is shown below.

Work with Objects Using PDM

Library . . . . . YOURLIB___ Position to . . . . . . __________


Position to type . . . . __________

Type options, press Enter.


2=Change 3=Copy 4=Delete 5=Display 7=Rename
8=Display description 9=Save 10=Restore 11=Move ...
Opt Object Type Attribute Text
__ SRCFILE *FILE PF-SRC Sample Source File

Bottom

Parameters or command
===> ________________________________________________________________

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F6=Create


F9=Retrieve F10=Command entry F23=More options F24=More keys

Presently, there should be just one object in the library, the source physical
file "SRCFILE" that you have just created.

PDM Options

Options are displayed across the top of the screen (for a list of all the options
available in PDM, see Table 1 at the end of this section.) Each option is an
action which may be performed on an object by placing its number on the
"Opt" line next to the object and pressing the < Enter> key. This method of
specifying actions on a form listing the objects available is consistent
throughout PDM.

There are two important special features which this method of specifying
actions offers: First, the options support the prompting facility, and second,
multiple objects may be operated on in succession. To use the prompting
facility, simply press <F4> while an option number is on one of the "Opt" lines.
PDM will present the prompt screen for the command associated with that
option number. Multiple objects may be operated on sequentially by placing
numbers on more than one Opt line. For example, assume we have two
source files in "YOURLIB". You can type "5" (Display) against one and type
"7" (Rename) against the other. Pressing <Enter> causes PDM to process
each option in turn.

More on PDM levels

Moving down levels in PDM is accomplished using the "12" (Work With...)
option. At the WRKOBJPDM screen, the action of this option depends on the
file type. Placing a 12 on the line next to an item on this display will:

If the item is of type *FILE, go to the WRKMBRPDM display for that file
(there are different types of WRKMBRPDM displays for source and data
files.)
If the item is of type *OUTQ, go to the "Work With Output Queue"
display, allowing the user to work with spooled files.
If the item is of type *PGM, present a display allowing the user to call
the program, change its attributes, etc. (programs may also be called
from the WRKOBJPDM screen by using the 16 option.)

When this method of changing levels is used, pressing <Enter> or <F12>


(cancel) with no options on the screen returns to the previous level.

Work with Members

The WRKMBRPDM display is the bottom level of PDM. When working with a
source physical file at this level, option 2 runs the STRSEU command to begin
editing a member and 14 calls the compiler for a program of that type (if
specific compiler options are needed, for instance the *DEBUG option to
include debugging information in the program, remember that the prompting
facility may be invoked on any PDM option.) When working with a physical
data file, the "2=change" option is no longer valid. However, the "18" option
may be invoked to modify the file using DFU (Data File Utility).

Type "12" against "SRCFILE" to work with it. The following "Work with
Members using PDM" screen appears:

Work with Members Using PDM

File . . . . . . SRCFILE___
Library . . . . YOURLIB___ Position to . . . . __________

Type options, press Enter.

2=Edit 3=Copy 4=Delete 5=Display 6=Print


7=Rename 8=Display description 9=Save 13=Change text ...

Opt Member Type Text


(No members in file)

Parameters or command

===> ________________________________________________________________

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F6=Create


F9=Retrieve F10=Command entry F23=More options F24=More keys
Presently, there are no members in "SRCFILE". Let's create a member. To do
that, press <F6> (Create). This will automatically invoke the SEU editor. Enter
the name of the new source member and for its source type, enter "TXT" (i.e.
the source member will contain only plain text). Press <Enter> .

Start Source Entry Utility (STRSEU)

Type choices, press Enter.

Source file . . . . . . . . . . > SRCFILE___ Name, *PRV


Library . . . . . . . . . . . > YOURLIB___ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB, *PRV
Source member . . . . . . . . . SRCMBR____ Name, *PRV, *SELECT
Source type . . . . . . . . . . TXT_______ Name, *SAME, BAS, BASP, C...
Text 'description' . . . . . . . Sample_Source_Member____________________

Bottom

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display


F24=More keys

You will now be inside the SEU editor. For now, press <F3> to quit and type
"Y" in the "Change/Create member" field to save the source member. Later
on, in the section on SEU we will use this source member. On return to the
WRKMBRPDM screen, you will notice that "SRCMBR" is now in "SRCFILE".

The "Work with Members using PDM" screen can be accessed directly using
the WRKMBRPDM command. Type this command and press <F4> to prompt
on it. To work with the member that we have just created, enter the names of
the library and file as shown below. If you have many members in your file,
you can use the "Member" and/or "Member Type" fields to narrow down the
number of members to work with.

Work with Members Using PDM (WRKMBRPDM)

Type choices, press Enter.


File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SRCFILE___ *PRV, name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ *PRV, name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, name, *generic...
Member type . . . . . . . . . . *ALL______ *PRV, type, *generic...

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display


F24=More keys
Work with Libraries
Briefly, the WRKLIBPDM command lets you work with a library or libraries.
You will probably use this command least among the three PDM commands.
You can work with the contents of a library by typing 12 against it. This will
bring up the "Work with Objects using PDM" screen for that library.

Table 1: Options in PDM (Some options may not be valid at some levels.)
2: Change Modify an object or edit a source member
3: Copy Duplicate an object
4: Delete Remove an object from storage
5: Display Display the contents of an object
6: Print Copy a source member to an output queue
7: Rename Change an object's name
8: Display Descrip. Show summary information about an object
9: Save Save an object to offline storage
10: Restore Retrieve an object from offline storage
11: Move Move an object to another library
12: Work With Perform operations on the contents of an object
13: Change Text Change the text description line for an object
14: Compile Compile a source physical file member
15: Copy File Copy a *FILE object (has special options)
16: Run Run an object of type *PGM
17: Change Using SDA Change a screen design (in a PF-SRC) using SDA
18: Change Using DFU Use DFU to change a PF-DTA member
25: Find String Find a string of characters in an object

Table 2: Function Keys in PDM


F1: Help Obtain help on an area of PDM
F3: Exit Exit PDM or current operation
F4: Prompt Display prompt screen for options on screen
F5: Refresh Redraw the screen with updated information
F6: Create Create a library, file, or member
F9: Retrieve Recall a previous command to the command line
F10: Command Entry Display an OS/400 command entry screen
F11: Display Toggle Switch to/from brief display mode
F12: Cancel Cancel an operation
F13: Repeat Copy an option number to all lines
F14: Source Type Toggle Switch between date and type display in PF-SRC
F15: Sort Change member list sort criteria
F16: User Options Specify user-defined commands to PDM
F17: Subset Limit the list on the screen to certain types
F18: Change Defaults Change PDM user settings
F21: Print List Print the object list on the screen
F23: More Options Display more PDM option numbers, if available
F24: More Keys Display more function keys, if available
Control Language Command Syntax
The purpose of this section is to provide a more formal presentation of CL
commands. As you would probably know by now, a CL command is a way of
of invoking functions and calling system services. A CL command is made up
of two parts: (1) a command name and (2) parameters.

Command Structure

First, let's consider the command name. A command is made made up of two
components:

1. a VERB and
2. a SUBJECT. The verb consists of three characters and is the "action"
component of the command. Some common verbs and their meanings
are shown below:
o ADD - Add Item
o CHG - Change
o CPY - Copy
o CRT - Create
o DLT - Delete
o DSP - Display item
o END - Stop a program which was started with a STR
o GRT - Grant
o MOV - Move
o RMV - Remove item
o RST - Restore
o RTV - Retrieve
o RVK - Revoke
o SET - Set
o SND - Send
o STR - Start (a program or utility)
o WRK - Work with

The subject component of the command specifies the item that the verb acts
on. Some examples of verb/subject combinations are:

CRTSRCPF - Create Source Physical File


WRKOBJPDM - Work with Objects Using PDM
STRPDM - Start PDM
ADDLIBLE - Add Library List Entry

CL commands can be found in several ways. The command GO CMDxxx can


be used to get a menu of commands related to xxx (where xxx can be a verb
or subject). Another way of finding commands is to press <F4> on any
command line. This will bring up the "Command Grouping Menu" where each
option represents a group of related commands. The first option SLTCMD
("Select Command by Name") can be used to obtain a list of commands using
a wildcard character (e.g. SLTCMD CR* will list all commands starting with
CR).

Parameters

A CL command can have zero, one, or more parameters. A command may


have some parameters that are required and some that are optional. A
system-defined default value (prefixed by "*") is usually assigned to an
optional parameter if the user does not specify a value for it.

So far in this manual, we have been using the <F4> prompt facility for
specifying parameters. Another way of specifying parameters is the free
format or command line method. You may want to use this method if you
remember exactly what parameter information is needed for a command.
Using this method, parameters can be specified in:

1. keyword form,
2. positional form, or
3. a combination of both.

A parameter that is specified in keyword form will have a keyword followed


immediately by a value (or list of values). For example, WRKOBJPDM LIB(YOURLIB)
OBJ(SRCFILE) There must not be any blanks between the keyword and the left
parenthesis. Parameters in keyword form can be specified in any order.

In the positional form, parameters are specified without keywords. The


parameter values must be positionally matched with the keywords in the
parameter set for that command. The above example can be specified in
positional form as follows WRKOBJPDM YOURLIB SRCFILE.

Positional parameters are often limited to the first three or four parameters. If
you do not want to specify a value for one of the parameters, the system-
defined value, *N, can be entered in the position of that parameter. For
example, the following command will display all objects of type *FILE in the
library YOURLIB. WRKOBJPDM YOURLIB *N *FILE *N will map to the default value
for that parameter, which in this case is *ALL. Note that when using the
WRKMBRPDM command, the file name and library name fields are actually
one parameter (a file name plus a library qualifier). If the reference is to a file
in a specific library, the file name must be qualified with a slash, "/", character
in both keyword and positional forms WRKMBRPDM YOURLIB/SRCFILE
SRCMBR WRKMBRPDM FILE(YOURLIB/SRCFILE) MBR(SRCMBR)

If only the file name is specified, as in the following statement WRKMBRPDM


SRCFILE the library qualifier will default to the library list (*LIBL).

A CL command can use a combination of both positional and keyword


parameters, for example WRKMBRPDM YOURLIB/SRCFILE MBRTYPE(TXT). Note that the
"Member" parameter, which is in between the second and third parameters in
the parameter set, is omitted. One restriction of this mixed form of specifying
parameters is that positional parameters cannot follow keyword parameters.
For example, the following is invalid WRKOBJPDM LIB(YOURLIB) SRCFILE.

Using the SEU Editor


Introduction

The IBM AS/400 provides an integrated set of Application Development Tools


(ADT) to design, develop and maintain applications. One such tool is the
Programming Development Manager (PDM) that offers the following:

Integrated application development environment.


List-oriented selection of items for development or maintenance.
Extendable interface to tools through user-defined options.

Another tool is the Source Entry Utility (SEU) that offers a full screen editor
providing syntax checking of source statements. PDM is one tool that may be
used to access the SEU.

In this SEU tutorial, we will use the source member we created in the previous
section.

Starting the Editor

Type STRPDM (Start Program Development Manager) on any command line,


and press <Enter> . The PDM menu is displayed. Choose option 3 to Work
with members. The "Work with members" screen shows up. You can also
reach this screen by typing WRKMBRPDM (Work with members using PDM) on any
command line and pressing <F4> . In either case, supply the necessary
source file (SRCFILE) and library (YOURLIB) information and press Enter.
Type 2 on the "Opt" line to edit the source member "SRCMBR".

Press <Enter> . You are now in the full-screen EDIT mode.


Columns . . . .: 1 80 Edit
SEU==>_______________________________________________________ SRCMBR

FMT ** ...+... 1 ...+... 2 ...+... 3 ...+... 4 ...+... 5...+... 6 ...+.

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


'''''''
'''''''
'''''''
'''''''
'''''''
'''''''
'''''''
****************** End of data ***********************************

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh


F10=Top F11=Bottom F24=More keys

If you press <Enter> without typing anything, the screen readjusts as shown:

Columns . . . .: 1 80 Edit
SEU==> _______________________________________________________ SRCMBR

FMT ** ...+... 1 ...+... 2 ...+... 3 ...+... 4 ...+... 5...+... 6 ...+.

*************** Beginning of data *********************************


****************** End of data ************************************

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh


F10=Top F11=Bottom F24=More keys

Type I (for insert) on the first line as shown and press <Enter> .

Columns . . . .: 1 80 Edit

SEU==> _______________________________________________________ SRCMBR

FMT ** ...+... 1 ...+... 2 ...+... 3 ...+... 4 ...+... 5...+... 6 ...+. I


*************** Beginning of data *********************************
****************** End of data ************************************
Now, you may start typing in the desired text. Below, we show a sample TEXT
document that will be used in the next section for illustrating the use of various
SEU line commands.

Columns . . . .: 1 80 Edit

SEU==> _________________________________________________________ SRCMBR

FMT ** ...+... 1 ...+... 2 ...+... 3 ...+... 4 ...+... 5...+... 6 ...+.


*************** Beginning of data *********************************
0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0002.00
0003.00 Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
****************** End of data ************************************

Notice the sequence numbers of records at the extreme left. The sequence
number field of a record is used to specify the line commands. For more
information on line commands see 'Using SEU line commands'.

To save the current member and exit SEU follow the following procedure
'Exiting the Editor.'

Exiting the Editor

To exit SEU press <F3>. The exit display shows up:

Exit

Type choices, press Enter.

Change/create member . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes, N=No


Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . SRCMBR____ Name
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SRCFILE___ Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ Name
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description_for_the_member._____
Resequence member . . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes, N=No
Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0001.00___ 0000.01 - 9999.99
Increment . . . . . . . . . . . 01.00____ 00.01 - 99.99
Print member . . . . . . . . . . . N Y=Yes, N=No
Return to editing . . . . . . . . . N Y=Yes, N=No
Go to member list . . . . . . . . . N Y=Yes, N=No

F3=Exit F5=Refresh F12=Cancel

If you wish to save the changes you have made, you may simply press <
Enter> .

The default values supplied for most of the options above are self-
explanatory. However, note the following:

If you have decided not to quit the editor, press <F12> to cancel the exit
display. This returns you back to the editing mode.
The default value for 'Change/create member' is Y, if the member is
modified, otherwise N. Type N in this field only if you do not want to
save changes made to your member.
The default value for 'Return to editing' option is N, if your member did
not have any syntax errors. However, if syntax errors do persist, the
system supplies Y in this field and returns back to the editing mode (
unless you explicitly type N and force it to exit ).

Using Line Commands

SEU supports various line commands that guide us in editing an existing


member. For example, command C is used to copy lines, command M for
moving lines and so on. The SEU line commands are entered over the digits
that make up the sequence number of a record. In the following discussion, a
sample TEXT document is used to illustrate the use of the various
commands. Note: If you type a line command, and then you decide to cancel
it, use <F5> to refresh the screen.

To edit a member that has already been created,

Use the command WRKMBRPDM as explained in the previous section,


reach the 'Work with members using PDM' display.
Use the tab keys to position the cursor at the desired member, and type
option 2. The screen for editing that member will show up.
For example, to edit the member SRCMBR created before, type WRKMBRPDM
YOURLIB/SRCFILE on any command line, and press < Enter> . From the "Work
with members using PDM" display, type option 2 in front of member SRCMBR
and press <Enter> . The edit display for this member is shown:

Columns . . . .: 1 71 Edit YOURLIB/SRCFILE

SEU==> _________________________________________________________ SRCMBR


FMT CB
......-A+++B++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
*************** Beginning of data ********************************
0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0002.00
0003.00 Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh


F10=Top F11=Bottom F24=More keys

Inserting a line

To insert a line after a particular record, type I (insert) on the sequence


number field of that record, and press <Enter> .

*************** Beginning of data ********************************

I001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.


0002.00
0003.00 Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh


F10=Top F11=Bottom F24=More keys
The screen adjusts as shown below. Type in the line to be inserted and press
<Enter> .

Columns . . . .: 1 71 Edit YOURLIB/SRCFILE


SEU==> ________________________________________________________ SRCMBR
FMT CB
......-A+++B+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +
*************** Beginning of data ********************************
0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
''''''' PROGRAM-ID. SAMPLE.
0002.00
0003.00 Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh


F10=Top F11=Bottom F24=More keys

Copying a line

To copy the "Begin First Block" line to the end of the program, type C (copy) in
the sequence number field, and press Enter. Note the message on the top
that indicates a pending Copy line command.

Columns . . . .: 1 71 Edit YOURLIB/SRCFILE


SEU==> _________________________________________________________ SRCMBR
FMT CB
......-A+++B++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
*************** Beginning of data ********************************
0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
C Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

Type A (after) on the last line as shown, and press Enter. This results in the
pending line to be copied after the line you have indicated.

Columns . . . .: 1 71 Edit YOURLIB/SRCFILE


SEU==> __________________________________________________________ SRCMBR
FMT CB
......-A+++B++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
*************** Beginning of data********************************
0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
C Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
A010.00
****************** End of data ************************************

The program looks as shown below, after the copy. To move a single line, use
the command M (move) and follow the procedure as explained above for copy.

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
0003.00 Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
0011.00 Begin First Block.
****************** End of data ***********************************
Deleting a line

To delete a line, type D (delete) in front of it and press <Enter> . The line that
was just copied may be deleted as shown below:

*************** Beginning of data*****************************


0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
0003.00 Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
0006.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
D011.00 Begin First Block.
****************** End of data ***********************************

Block Move

To move a block, type MM at the beginning and the end of the block, and press
<Enter> . Now, the target for the move has to be specified. The Block Move is
illustrated below; the first block of text being moved after the second one.

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
MM Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
MM
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

Type A on the last line to move the block to the end of the program.
*************** Beginning of data ********************************
0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
MM Begin First Block.
0004.00 Text for the first block ...
0005.00 End First Block.
MM
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
A010.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

Here is the member after the move:

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
0011.00 Begin First Block.
0012.00 Text for the first block ...
0013.00 End First Block.
0014.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

Block Copy

Enclose the block to be copied within CC commands, and specify the target.
The block copy resembles the block move explained above. Note below,
that B is specified as the target, to copy the block before the indicated line.

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
CC Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
CC
0011.00 Begin First Block.
0012.00 Text for the first block ...
0013.00 End First Block.
B
****************** End of data ***********************************

Block Delete

To delete a block, enclose it within DD commands and press <Enter> . The


block that was just copied may be deleted as shown:

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
0011.00 Begin First Block.
0012.00 Text for the first block ...
0013.00 End First Block.
DD Begin Second Block.
0013.02 Text for second block ...
0013.03 End Second Block.
DD
0014.00
****************** End of data ***********************************

The source member looks as follows, after our experimentation with the above
line commands:

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


0001.00 THIS IS A TEXT DOCUMENT.
0001.01 It illustrates the use of SEU line commands.
0002.00
0007.00 Begin Second Block.
0008.00 Text for second block ...
0009.00 End Second Block.
0010.00
0011.00 Begin First Block.
0012.00 Text for the first block ...
0013.00 End First Block.
0014.00
****************** End of data ***********************************
To get a complete list of commands for SEU place the cursor on the sequence
number list and press the help key.

SEU Commands

SEU commands are entered in the "SEU==>" field at the top of the screen.

FIND

Search for an occurrence of a character string. If the string contains


embedded blanks, apostrophes, or quotation marks, it should be enclosed in
quotation marks. Several direction parameters are available: N (Next), P
(Previous), F (First), L (Last), and A (All). The scope of the search can be
specified using search parameters: X (excluded records) and NX (non-
excluded records). The syntax of FIND is FIND string [N,P,A,F,L] [X,NX]
[column parameter]. Examples:

F XYZ
F 'hello there'
F *ERR A find all syntax errors
F "'XYZ'"

Use the F16 "Repeat Find" key to find the next occurrence of a string.

CHANGE

Find all occurrences of a character string and replace it with another string.
The syntax is CHANGE fstring cstring [N,P,A,F,L] [X,NX] [column parameter]

TOP

Go to the first page of the work screen.

BOTTOM

Go to the last page of the work screen.

SAVE

Save changes and continue editing. SAVE [ [ [ library/ ] file ] member ]


FILE

Save changes and exit from edit session. FILE [ [ [ library/ ] file ] member
]

CANCEL

Cancel session and exit session.

SET

See the IBM SEU manual for more information.

Function Keys in SEU

When a member is being edited, the Edit display supports a diverse set of
function keys that allow you to perform specific tasks.
_____________________________________________________________________________
_
Key Name Function
_____________________________________________________________________________
_
F1 Help Press the help key for details about the display.
F3 Exit End the current task, returns to previous entry
point.
F4 Prompt Provides assistance for the options selected
in the list or a command on a command line.
PDM will fill in the default values.
F5 Refresh Refresh the current display. Rebuilds display and
shows it again.
F10 Cursor Moves the cursor from the data area to the SEU
command line, and from the SEU command line to
the data area.
F11 Previous Record Places the previous record in the prompt.
F13 Change Session Go to the Change Session Defaults Defaults
display.
F14 Find/Change Options Go the Find/Change Options display.
F15 Browse/Copy Options Go the Browse/Copy Options display.
F16 Repeat Find Perform find or repeat current find.
F17 Repeat Change Perform change or repeat current change
function.
F18 DBCS Conversion Perform DBCS conversion.
F19 Left View the info. to the left of the current display.
F20 Right View the info. to the right of the current display.
F23 Select Prompt Go to the Select Prompt display. SEU returns
to the EDIT Session and displays the prompt
after you make a selection.
F24 More keys View the other function keys available for the
current display.
Summary of Line Commands

The Sequence_number field displays the sequence number of the record and
is used for entering SEU line commands. To use a line command, type the
command over the digits that make up the sequence number.

The following is a list of all the valid commands:

A=After Move or copy records after this record.


An=After with repeat n times Move or copy records after this record and
repeat these records n times.
B=Before Move or copy records before this record.
Bn=Before with repeat n times Move or copy records before this record
and repeat these records n times.
C=Copy Line Copy this line to a specified target.
Cn=Copy n lines Copy this line plus the next n-1 lines to the specified
target.
CC=Block Copy Copy all lines between the boundaries formed by the
two CC commands
CR=Copy records and retain command Copy this record to the specified
targets and keep this command on the display.
CRn=Copy n records and retain command. Copy n records to the
specified targets and keep this command on the display.
CCR=Copy block records and retain command Copy the block of
records defined by a pair of CCR commands to the specified targets
and keep this command on the display.
D=Delete Delete the current line.
Dn=Delete n lines Delete the current line and the next n-1 lines.
DD=Block Delete Delete all lines between the two DD boundaries.
F=Display format line
Display a format line.
I=Insert a line Insert a blank line after the current record.
In=Insert n lines Insert n blank lines after this record.
IP=Insert line and prompt Insert a blank line and display the line in a
prompt.
L=Shift data 1 char left Shift data in this record one character position to
the left without losing data.
Ln=Shift data n chars left Shift data in this record n character positions
to the left without losing data.
LL=Shift block 1 char to the left Shift data defined by the boundary
between and including the two LL line commands one character position
to the left without losing data.
LLn=Shift block n chars to the left Shift data defined by the boundary
between and including the LLn and LL line commands n character
positions to the left.
M=Move a line Move a line to a specified target.
Mn=Move n lines Move the current line and the following n-1 lines to a
specified target.
MM=Block Move Move all records between and including the
boundaries defined by the MM line commands to a specified target.
O=Overlay Overlay the current line with the first line defined by the
move, copy, or copy repeated line command.
On=Overlay n lines Overlay this line and the following n-1 lines with the
first n lines defined by the move, copy, or copy repeated line command.
OO=Block overlay Overlay all the records between and including the
boundaries defined by two OO line commands with the lines defined by
the move, copy, or copy repeated line command.
P=Display prompt Type P to display this line in a prompt.
R=Shift data 1 char right Shift data in the current record one character
position to the right without losing data.
Rn=Shift data n chars right Shift data in the current record n character
positions to the right without losing data.
RR=Block shift 1 char to the right Shift data defined by the boundary
between and including the two RR line commands one character
position to the right without losing data.
RRn=Block shift n chars to the right Shift data defined by the boundary
between and including the RRn and RR line commands n character
positions to the right, without losing data.
RP=Repeat line Repeat the current line once before the following line.
RPn=Repeat line n times Repeat the current line n times before the
following line.
RPP=Block repeat Repeat all lines defined by the boundary between
the two RPP line commands.
RPPn=Block repeat Repeat all lines defined by the boundary between
the two RPP line commands n times.
SF=Show first record Show the first record of the exclude group.
SFn=Show first n records Show the first n records of the exclude group.
SL=Show last record Show the last record of the exclude group
SLn=Show last n records Show the last n records of the exclude group.
W=Display member from column 1 Display the member beginning in
column 1.
Wn=Display member from column n Display the member beginning in
column n.
X=Exclude Exclude the current record from the display.
Xn=Exclude plus Exclude the the current record and the next n-1
records.
XX=Block Exclude Exclude all lines between the boundaries formed by
the two XX line commands.
+ (plus sign)=Roll member forward 1 line Roll the member forward one
line.
+n=Roll member forward n lines Roll the member forward n lines.
- (minus sign)=Roll member backward 1 line Roll the member backward
one line.
-n=Roll member backward n lines Roll the member backward n lines.
n=Absolute Positioning Position the line identified by the sequence
number(n) as the first record on the display.

Steps in Developing a Program


In this section, we are going to use a simple Control Language (CL) program
to illustrate the steps in developing, compiling, and running a program on the
AS/400. We will also demonstrate how to find compilation errors when they
occur, and how to obtain information about certain compilation and runtime
errors. The intention here is not to teach CL programming.

The CL program is very simple; all it does is make the library that you have
created (in my case, YOURLIB) the current library while retaining the existing
current library on the library list. First, let's create a source physical (PF-SRC)
file called QCLSRC (the IBM-supplied name for a CL source physical file).
The command line form of issuing CL commands will be used in this section
(you may want to use the <F4>prompt facility to assist you if you are not
familiar with the commands). The following creates a PF-SRC file in the library
ALIBRARY. ALIBRARY represents the library that has the same name as
your user profile or your other library, that is the one you created in an earlier
section.
CRTSRCPF FILE(ALIBRARY/QCLSRC)

Once the PF-SRC file has been created, work with the file by typing:
WRKMBRPDM FILE(ALIBRARY/QCLSRC)

Then create a source member called TEST in QCLSRC by pressing <F6> .


This will start the SEU editor. Enter TEST for the name of the source member,
CLP for the source type (to see what source types are available, put the
cursor on the "Source type" field and press <F4> ), and a brief description of
the source member. Once you have entered all the necessary information,
press <Enter> . You will enter a SEU editing session. Type in the following
program:

*************** Beginning of data ********************************


0002.00 PGM
0003.00 DCL VAR(&OLDCURLIB) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(10)
0004.00 RTVJOBA CURLIB(&OLDCURLIB)
0005.00 CHGCURLIB CURLIB(&YOURLIB) /* intentional error */
0006.00 ADDLIBLE LIB(&OLDCURLIB)
0007.00 ENDPGM
****************** End of data ***********************************

You can use the SEU line command, IP (insert line and prompt), to help you in
selecting a CL command. Also, note that CL programs are "free format" in that
components of CL statements do not have to be placed in particular columns
on the screen (some source types, such as RPG, are "fixed-format"; the IP
line command can help enormously in coding such programs).

A CL program begins with the PGM command, which is optional if the CL


program does not receive any parameters. (Aside: If a CL program has a
parameter named &MYVAR, the PGM statement is coded as: PGM
PARM(&MYVAR). The ampersand symbol, "&", denotes that &MYVAR is a
variable. In this case, &MYVAR will be used to hold the parameter's value.
Moreover, the variable &MYVAR has to be declared using the DCL
command.) For more information, the reader is referred to the IBM "CL
Programmer's Guide" or the online education modules: "AS/400 Control
Language Programming" in the "Tutorial Support System" course, and the
modules "Creating a Control Language Program" and "How to Use Error
Handling Facilities" in the "Facilities and Implementation" course.

The second statement declares a CL variable called &OLDCURLIB. This


variable will be used to save the name of the existing current library. The
variable will be used to hold a character string with a maximum length of 10.
Note that SEU provides syntax checking for CL programs. Remove the
parameters of DCL so that the statement contains only "DCL", and press
<Enter> . SEU will highlight that statement, indicating that there is a syntax
error. SEU will not let you exit an editing session that has syntax errors unless
you explicitly specify that you want to exit in the exit screen. Put the
parameters back on the DCL statement.
The RTVJOBA command, on the third statement, is used to retrieve the name
of the job's existing current library, saving it in the variable &OLDCURLIB. The
reason for this step will be explained shortly.

The CHGCURLIB command, on the fourth statement, is used to make


YOURLIB the new current library (where "YOURLIB" is any existing library
that you have access to). Notice that we have intentionally introduced an error
in this statement. We have mistakenly prefixed YOURLIB with "&", that is we
really want CHGCURLIB CURLIB(YOURLIB) instead of CHGCURLIB CURLIB(&YOURLIB).

A name with "&" as its prefix denotes that it is a CL variable. This is an error
because if we intended &YOURLIB to be a variable, it must be declared in a
DCL statement. Note that SEU cannot detect this kind of error. This error will
be detected during compilation.

The ADDLIBLE command, on the fifth statement, adds the name of the former
current library (which we saved in the variable &OLDCURLIB in the RTVJOBA
statement) to the library list. This step is needed if we want this library to stay
on the library list. This is because when the CHGCURLIB command is
executed, the "old" current library will not be retained on the library list. Hence,
the need to use RTVJOBA to save the name of that library, and to add it back
on the library list using ADDLIBLE. The last statement, ENDPGM, indicates
the end of the CL program. Now, exit and save the program as it is (i.e. with
the error).

Compiling a Program

In the "Work with Members using PDM" screen, enter option 14 to compile the
member that contain the CL source program. Option 14, in this case, will
invoke the CRTCLPGM (Create CL Program) command. Option 14 will invoke
a different "create program" command for a different source type (e.g. if the
source type is CBL, it will invoke the CRTCBLPGM command). If you prompt
on the option (ie. press <F4> when you use option 14), you will see the
following screen:

Create CL Program (CRTCLPGM)


Type choices, press Enter.
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . > TEST Name, *PGMID
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > ALIBRARY Name, *CURLIB
Source file . . . . . . . . . . > QCLSRC Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > ALIBRARY Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Source member . . . . . . . . . > TEST Name, *PGM
Generation severity level . . . 29 0-29
Text 'description' . . . . . . . *SRCMBRTXT

Additional Parameters

Replace program . . . . . . . . > *YES *NO, *YES


Bottom

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F10=Additional parameters F12=Cancel


F13=How to use this display F24=More keys

The "Program" field specifies the name of the *PGM object that will be created
if the compilation is successful. This name defaults to name of the source
member. The "Library" field specifies the library that will contain the *PGM
object. The default is the library that contains the source member. You can
change these default values. Unless you want to rename the *PGM object or
put it in another library, accept the defaults.

On pressing <Enter> , you will see a message at the bottom of the screen
saying that the compilation job has been submitted to QBATCH, which is the
job queue for batch jobs. If there are no compilation errors, you will receive a
message saying that the job completed normally. Since there is an error in the
above program, a message will return saying that the job has ended
abnormally, meaning there are compilation errors. Press <Enter>to continue.

Finding Compilation Errors

To find out the cause of the compilation error, type WRKSPLF to see what's in
your output queue. There should be a spooled file with the same name as
your source member (the compiler listing) and a job log (QPJOBLOG). Type 5
against QPJOBLOG to display it. There should be a message stating that the
program was not created because of compilation error. The message will refer
you to the compiler listing of the program. Press <Enter> to exit this display.
Type 5 to display the contents of the compiler listing of the program. A
segment of that listing is presented here:

200- PGM
300- DCL VAR(&OLDCURLIB) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(10)
400- RTVJOBA CURLIB(&OLDCURLIB)
500- CHGCURLIB CURLIB(&YOURLIB)
* CPD0727 40 Variable '&YOURLIB ' is referred to but not declared.
600- ADDLIBLE LIB(&OLDCURLIB)
700- ENDPGM
* * * * * E N D O F S O U R C E * * * *
*

5738SS1 V2R1M1 920306 Control Language YOURLIB/TEST

Cross Reference
Declared Variables
Name Defined Type Length References
&OLDCURLIB 300 *CHAR 10 400 600

* CPD0791 00 No labels used in program.

* * * * * E N D O F C R O S S R E F E R E N C E
*
5738SS1 V2R1M1 920306 Control Language YOURLIB/TEST

Message Summary
Severity
Total 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 90-
99
2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

Program TEST not created in library YOURLIB. Maximum error severity 40.

There are two errors in the listing (errors are marked with "*" in column 1): the
first with a severity of 40 and the second with severity of 0. The second error
is only an information message; it is not the cause of the compilation failure.
The meaning of first error is evident; it is the cause of the failure. You can use
the DSPMSGD (Display Message Description) command to get more
information about a compilation error. For example, to get more details about
the error CPD0727 DSPMSGD RANGE(CPD0727) MSGF(QCPFMSG) where QCPFMSG is
the system message file and CPD0727 is the message ID. Let's go back to
the source member and fix the problem.

Using SEU to Find Compilation Errors

You may want to use SEU to view your compiler listing instead of the way
discussed above, especially if the compiler listing is too lengthy to scan by
eye. SEU provides special support for locating compilation errors. To view a
spooled file while you are in SEU, press <F15> (Browse/Copy). Enter 2 in the
selection field. Place the cursor on the "Browse/copy spool file" field and press
<F4>. Select the appropriate spool file. On return to the editing session, you
should see a split screen with the member you are editing on top and the
spooled file on the bottom. To find compilation errors, in the bottom screen
type FIND *ERR on the SEU command line (or simply, F *ERR). An
advantage of using SEU for this purpose is that you can see both the source
member and the compiler listing on the same screen, and make the
corrections to the source member on the spot.

Using SEU, edit the source member to remove the ampersand, "&", from
YOURLIB. The program should compile normally after this change. To make
the situation more interesting, let's introduce another type of error. In the
ADDLIBLE statement, specify some library name that you do not own or one
that you are not authorized to use. In our example, we specify a nonexistent
library called DOGNAP, that is ADDLIBLE DOGNAP. The rest of the source remain
the same as before (except for removing the ampersand character). Compile
the source member (you will probably be asked if you want to delete the
existing *PGM object. Respond with a "Y"). The program should compile
normally. The *PGM object will be created in the library that contains your
source file unless you specified otherwise.

Running a Program

Use the WRKOBJPDM command to work with the library that contain the
*PGM object that was created. Type 16 against the *PGM object to
run/execute it. Alternatively, you can run the program by using the CALL
command (in fact, option 16 invokes the CALL command). If the library that
contains the *PGM object is in your library list, type CALL TEST on a command
line. If the library is not in your library list, you can still run the program by
qualifying it with the library name CALL ALIBRARY/TEST The example program
used here does not take any input parameters. But if you created a program
that requires an input parameter(s), you can pass the parameter value(s) by
prompting on either the option 16 or the CALL command. If your program
takes more than one input parameter, type '+' on the "Parameters" field and
press <Enter> . This will bring another screen that allows you to enter multiple
parameters. You can also us pass parameters using the command line
method. For example, CALL MYPROG PARM(parameter1 parameter2 ...)

Diagnosing Runtime Errors

In any case, when you run the program, you will get a runtime or object error
message similar to the one below:

Display Program Messages

Job 287471/T03/DSP02 started on 07/20/92 at 13:48:44 in subsystem QINTER


CPF2110 received by TEST at 600. (C D I R)

Type reply, press Enter.

Reply . . . ________________________________________________________

F3=Exit F12=Cancel

To find out the cause of the error, place the cursor on the message id (in this
case CPF2110) and press <F1>. You see a screen similar to the one below.
The message text, in this case, indicated clearly what the problem is, i.e. the
library DOGNAP was not found. Sometimes you can obtain additional
messages by pressing <F10> to display messages in the job log.

Additional Message Information

Message ID . . . . . . : CPA0701 Severity . . . . . .: 99


Message type . . . . . : INQUIRY
Date sent . . . . . . . : 07/20/92 Time sent . . . . .: 14:00:05
From program . . . . . : QCLXERR Instruction . . . .: 0000

To program . . . . . . : *EXT Instruction . . . .: 0000


Message . . . . : CPF2110 received by TEST at 600. (C D I R)
Cause . . . . . : Control language (CL) program TEST inlibrary YOURLIB
detected an error at statement number 600. Message text for CPF2110 is:
Library DOGNAP not found.
Recovery . . . : This inquiry message can be avoided bychanging the

program. Monitor for the error (MONMSG command) and perform error
recovery within the program. To continue, choose a reply value.

Possible choices for replying to message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :


C -- Cancel the CL program.
D -- Dump the CL program variables and cancel the CL program.
I -- Ignore the failing command.

More...

Press Enter to continue.

F3=Exit F10=Display messages in job log F12=Cancel

Again, the DSPMSGD ("Display Message Description") command can be


used to obtain more information about the error. For example, DSPMSGD
where QCPFMSG is the system message file
RANGE(CPF2110) MSGF(QCPFMSG)
and CPF2110 is the message ID.

Press <Enter> to cancel the program. Go back to the source member, fix the
error, and recompile. The next time you run the program, it should run without
any problems. Type DSPLIBL to check whether the library has been added
and whether it has been made the current library.

Creating an Initial Program

An initial program is similar to the AUTOEXEC.BAT file in MS-DOS. It is


executed when the user logs on. The initial program has to reside in your
default library (i.e. the library with the same name as your user profile) and it
has to be named INITIALPGM. For instance, you can make the above CL
program your initial program. Rename the source member to INITIALPGM
and recompile it. If you created the source member in a another library, when
you recompile it using the option 14, press < F4>to prompt on it. Specify your
default library as the library where the *PGM object is to be stored.

Understanding Object Authorities


Introduction

To maintain security of data and/or program objects the AS/400 offers a


variety of options available to limit access to object. These authorities must be
set to secure object to the level of security required. Likewise, if objects are to
be shared or used between users, the object authorities must be relaxed
correctly to maintain object integrity. This section is designed to help users
maintain correct authorities and to understand the authorities on the objects
that they own.

Authorities and their meanings


Object Authorities

Object authority is used to control access to an object including the ability to


see an object description, control read and write access to an object, or
control an object's existence.

*OBJMGT
provides the authority to specify the security (grant/revoke object
authority), move or rename the object, and add members to database
file.

*OBJEXIST

provides the authority to control the object existence and ownership.


The user with this authority can delete, save, and transfer ownership of
the object.

*OBJOPR

provides the authority to look at the description of an object and use the
object as determined by the data authority that the user has to the
object.
Data Authorities

Data authority is the authority to access data contained in an object, for


example records in a database file. This includes the ability to view, update,
add, or delete records.

*READ

provides the authority to get the contents or an entry in an object or to


run a program.

*ADD

provides the authority to add entries to an object.

*UPD

provides the authority to change the entries in an object.

*DLT

provides the authority to remove entries from an object.


Combinations of Object and Data Authorities

These are keywords, each representing predefined combination of object and


data authorities. They reduce the time required to assign specific authorities to
users.

*ALL

allows the user to perform all authorized operations (object and data) on
the object.

*CHANGE

provides *OBJOPR authority and all data authority.

*USE

provides *OBJOPR authority and data read authority.

*EXCLUDE

authority prevents the user from accessing the object even if *PUBLIC is
authorized.

In addition to these, users can create customized combinations of object and


data authorities.

Changing authorities with EDTOBJAUT

We use an example here to illustrate the use of some of the types of


authorities discussed above. In this example, we want to allow a certain user
to copy a member from the file "SRCFILE" which is stored in the library
"YOURLIB". First of all, we need to allow the user to have access to the library
"YOURLIB". To do that, we use the "Edit Object Authority", EDTOBJAUT,
command to edit the authority on "YOURLIB". (Note that your default library,
i.e. the library that has the same name as your user profile, is normally owned
by your security officer so you cannot change its authorities). Type
EDTOBJAUT on a command line and press <F4>. Fill in the blanks for object,
library, and object type (*LIB) and press <Enter> .

Edit Object Authority (EDTOBJAUT)


Type choices, press Enter.
Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . > YOURLIB Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . *LIBL Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Object type . . . . . . . . . . > *LIB *ALRTBL, *AUTL, *CFGL...

To see the detail screen as shown below, press <F11>. Note that the owner of
"YOURLIB" has *ALL authority on the object.

Edit Object Authority

Object . . . . . . . : YOURLIB Object type . . . . : *LIB

Library . . . . . : QSYS Owner . . . . . . . : JOHNDOE

Type changes to current authorities, press Enter.

Object secured by authorization list . . . . . . . . . . . .: *NONE

Object ----Object----- ----------Data-----------

User Authority Opr Mgt Exist Read Add Update Delete


JOHNDOE *ALL X X X X X X X
*PUBLIC *EXCLUDE _ _ _ _ _ _ _

F3=Exit F5=Refresh F6=Add new users F10=Grant with reference object


F11=Nondisplay detail F12=Cancel F17=Top F18=Bottom

Press <F6> to add a user to the list of users authorized to this object. Type in
the name of the user and *USE for the object authority. Press <Enter> to
return to the previous screen. Notice that *USE gives the user *OBJOPR and
*READ authorities on "YOURLIB". (Note: If you want to edit a specific
authority, type "X" in the position relating to that authority to grant authority or
a space to delete that authority.)

Next, we need to allow the user access to the file "SRCFILE". Use
EDTOBJAUT to edit the authority on the file "SRCFILE". Type EDTOBJAUT
OBJ(YOURLIB/SRCFILE) OBJTYPE(*FILE) or use the prompt to fill in the parameters.
Press <F6> to add the user to the authorization list with *USE authority. This
will allow them to do perform various operations on "SRCFILE" including
copying members from the file. To allow them to copy the entire file (i.e.
"SRCFILE"), *OBJMGT must be granted. To do that, type "X" under "Mgt" in
the detail screen for that user. Note that the object authority changes from
*USE to USER DEF (meaning a customized authority).

Changing Authorities with GRTOBJAUT and RVKOBJAUT

To use GRTOBJAUT and RVKOBJAUT type the command and prompt <F4>.
Fill in the library name, object name, object type along with the user you are
granting authorities and the respective authority being granted. At any time
press <F1> for more help.

Sending and Receiving Network Files


Users can send and receive network files to and from each other. The "Send
Network File" (SNDNETF) command can be used to send a member of a
physical database file (PF-DTA or PF-SRC) to another user. In the example
shown below, the member "SNDMBR" of the physical database file
"SNDFILE" (which is contained in the library "SNDLIB") is to be sent to the
user "RCV". "MKTAS400" is the address of the AS/400 at Minnesota State
University, Mankato. When the network file arrives at its destination, a
message is sent to both the sender and receiver.

Send Network File (SNDNETF)

Type choices, press Enter.


File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > SNDFILE___ Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > SNDLIB____ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
User ID: _
User ID . . . . . . . . . . . > RCV_______ Character value
Address . . . . . . . . . . . > MKTAS400__ Character value
+ for more values _
Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . > SNDMBR____ Name, *FIRST

Additional Parameters
To file type . . . . . . . . . . *FROMFILE_ *FROMFILE, *DATA

VM/MVS class . . . . . . . . . . A A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I
Send priority . . . . . . . . . *NORMAL__ *NORMAL, *HIGH

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display


F24=More keys

The receiver will have to run the "Work with Network Files" (WRKNETF)
command to inspect their network files.
Work with Network Files (WRKNETF)

User . . . . . . . . . . . . : RCV_______
User ID/Address . . . . . . : RCV_______ MKTAS400

Type options, press Enter.

1=Receive network file 3=Submit job 4=Delete network file


5=Display physical file member
File -------From-------
----Arrival----
Opt File Member Number User ID Address Date Time
__ SNDFILE SNDMBR 1 SENDER MKTAS400 08/26/92 16:37

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F9=Retrieve F11=Display type/records


F12=Cancel

Type 1 in the "Opt" blank in front of the network file to receive and press
<F4>to prompt. The following screen will show up.

Receive Network File (RCVNETF)

Type choices, press Enter.


From file . . . . . . . . . . . > 'SNDFILE'__ Character value
To data base file . . . . . . . *FROMFILE__ Name, *FROMFILE
Library . . . . . . . . . . . *LIBL____ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Member to be received . . . . . > 'SNDMBR'__ Character value, *ONLY
To member . . . . . . . . . . . *FROMMBR____ Name, *FROMMBR, *FIRST

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F10=Additional parameters F12=Cancel


F13=How to use this display F24=More keys

Fill in the "To data base file", "Library", and "To member" blanks with the
appropriate receiving file, library and member names and press <Enter>. Note
that the receiving file must already exist before trying to receive members.

Printing Procedure
When programs on the AS/400 produce output intended to be printed the
material does not go directly to the printer. Instead the output is bundled
together with other output in an object called an "output queue" (*OUTQ).
These sub objects are called "spooled files." To send these spooled files to a
printer, first you must work with your output queue; then, change the attributes
of the desired spooled file, specifying the correct print device name.

There are several ways by which spooled files are generated. Here are some:

From the WRKMBRPDM display, option 6 in front of the desired


member will generate a spooled file that is your program member.
Pressing the Print Screen key (<Shift><Print Screen>on the PS/2
running PC-Support or <Ctrl>p on the ASCII connections) will generate
a spooled file of the current display. Note that if you do a print screen,
you will have to press the <Reset>key to clear the message at the
bottom of the screen in order to continue your session.
The system automatically generates spooled files in some cases like
presenting job log, information on processed records for a database file
and abnormal job end conditions.

Moving a Spooled File to a Writer

To get a physical copy of a spooled file on your output queue, two facts must
be true. First, the spooled file must be placed on a started writer and second,
the spooled file must have a status of released. To work with your spooled
files on your output queue type WRKSPLF and press <Enter>. This screen allows
you to do many things with your spooled files.

Note: If this is the first time that you are using the WRKSPLF command, you
should change the "assistance level" for this screen. To do this press
<F21>and change the assistance level from "basic" to intermediate". This will
gives you more features on the screen. Try pressing the <F10>or <F11>keys
to obtain different views of your spooled files.

Typing 2 in the option field of spooled file in the WRKSPLF screen will change
the spooled file's attributes. The attributes that you will be interested in are the
"Print device" and "Save file".

By changing the attribute "Print device" from "*OUTQ" to a valid printer (use
the WRKWTR command to find out which printers are available), you will
move your spooled file from your output queue to a printer writer. The printer
writer names at MSU are:
Printer Name Width/Paper Printer Type Location
PRT01 132 Col. 11" Line Printer Morris Hall
VAXPRTS2 132 Col. 11" Line Printer MSU ACC
PS/2 printers 132/80 8.5" Dot Matrix MSU ACC Lab Rooms
If "Save file" is changed from "*NO" to "*YES" the spooled file will not be
deleted after the file has been printed.

Typing 3 in the option field of spooled file in the WRKSPLF screen will keep
the spooled file from printing if placed on a printer writer and change the
status to *HLD.

Typing 4 in the option field of spooled file in the WRKSPLF screen will delete
the spooled file from your output queue. Spooled files should be deleted as
soon as they are not needed to reduce clutter in your output queue.

Typing 5 in the option field of spooled file in the WRKSPLF screen will allow
you to view your spooled file.

Typing 6 in the option field of spooled file in the WRKSPLF screen will will
release a file that is held to become available to print and will change its
status to *RDY.

If you printed to VAXPRTS2, your printouts can be picked up in the ACC


printer area at any time. VAXPRTS2 is a printer that is connected to VAX1.
The printer will never say it is started although it actually is. Normally you will
not be authorized to print to writer PRT01. This printer is the system printer.

Printing to a PS/2 Printer

To see which PS/2 printers are available for printing from the AS/400,
type WRKWTR ("Work with Writers"). The name of the printer is: "PC0" (i.e. "P" +
"C" + zero) + the number of the PS/2 to which the printer is connected + "S2"
(e.g. PC0614S2). Make sure that the printer you want to print to has been
started. For the printer to be started, the PS/2 workstation that is connected to
the printer must be signed on to the AS/400. Also, make sure that the printer
is ready for printing. Press <Alt><Esc>on the computer that is attached to the
printer to display the status of the printer; make sure it says "Ready". If not,
select the "stop" option and then select "start". Also make sure the printer's
status is "ONLINE".

Step by Step Printing Example

Type WRKSPLF { or OQ } Press <Enter>.

This will allow you to work with your spooled files.

Use the <Field EXIT>key or <Tab>to move to the desired spool file.
This will move us to the correct spool file option field.

Type 5 in the option field.

This will mark the spool file for displaying.

Press <Enter> .

This will display the spool file.

Press <Enter>.

This will bring you back to the work with spool file screen.

Press 2 <Enter>.

This will permit you to change the spool file attributes.

Type in the name of the printer <Enter>.

This will move the file to the printer writer.

Press the <F5>key.

This will refresh the screen to show you the current status of your
spooled files.

If the STS (status) is RDY or WTR the printer will print your spooled file. If the
status is HLD then release it by typing a 6 in the option field of the spooled file
and press <Enter>.

More Printing Help

For more help on printing type STRSCHIDX <Enter>then type SPOOLED


QUEUES <Enter>.

Common Problems
Note that the command keys used in this section are those of the PS/2
running PC Support.

Stopping Infinite Loops/Ending a Previous Request


If you have issued a command and it is taking too long finish it may be an
infinite, endless, loop. To stop your infinite loop:

Press <Left Ctrl> (this will reset any keyboard errors)


Press <Alt><Print Screen>(this sequence is call "System Request")
Type 2. (This is the option on System Request to end a previous
request.)
Press <Enter> . Note: You can also press <Alt><Print Screen>and
press <Enter>to display a menu of system requests, and then select the
appropriate command.

Ending Disconnected Jobs with Infinite Loops

If for some reason you have been disconnect from the system while executing
an infinite loop request the job may continue to execute. This will cause the
system to run very slowly. To end the disconnected job:

On a command line, type the "Work with Active Jobs" command:


WRKACTJOB and press <Enter> . The locally-defined alias for
WRKACTJOB, AJ, can also be used.
On the "Work with Active Jobs" display, type option 4 (End) against the
job that is causing the loop and press <F4>to prompt on the option. In
the "How to end" field, type in *IMMED i.e. to end the job immediately.
Press <Enter>.

Out of Storage Quota Errors

Depending on the specific class that requires use of the AS/400 there is a
maximum storage quota allocated to your user profile. You can see this
information by typing: DSPUSRPRFusername. Because OS/400 retains every
version of a *PGM object that results from a compilation, your storage can be
used up very quickly. When you have exceeded (or nearly exceeded) your
storage quota and you try to start, for example, SEU, you may get an error
message "Error found on SEU command". To deal with this problem, you
must clear the *PGM objects from library QRPLOBJ. To do this type WRKOBJPDM
QRPLOBJ. You may get an authority problem do to the fact that you do not own
all of the object in that library. The command will clear your objects out
regaurdless of the error.

DDS and Data Files on the AS/400


Creating a data file
The following discussion assumes that you already have a source physical file
in your current library. We will continue to use SRCFILE in library YOURLIB
for explanation. The reader must substitute the appropriate names for source
physical file and library, where applicable.

The first step is to to reach the 'Work with members using PDM' display. This
can be done by typing WRKMBRPDM YOURLIB/SRCFILE on any command line.

To create a data file member, you have to start the Source Entry Utility. Press
<F6> from the 'Work with members using PDM' display or type STRSEU on
any command line and press <F4>. The following screen shows up:

Start Source Entry Utility (STRSEU)

Type choices, press Enter.

Source file . . . . . . . . . . *PRV______ Name, *PRV


Library . . . . . . . . . . . __________ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB, *PRV
Source member . . . . . . . . . *PRV______ Name, *PRV, *SELECT
Source type . . . . . . . . . . *SAME_____ Name, *SAME, BAS, BASP,
C...
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . *BLANK____ *BLANK, ' ', 2, 5, 6
Text 'description' . . . . . . . *BLANK_________________________________

The Source type for a data file must be specified as PF, this type denotes
aPhysical File. For example, to create a data file called TESTDATA in the
source file SRCFILE in library YOURLIB, fill in the fields as shown:

Start Source Entry Utility (STRSEU)

Type choices, press Enter.

Source file . . . . . . . . . . SRCFILE___ Name, *PRV


Library . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB, *PRV
Source member . . . . . . . . . TESTDATA__ Name, *PRV, *SELECT
Source type . . . . . . . . . . PF________ Name, *SAME, BAS, BASP,
C...
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . *BLANK____ *BLANK, ' ', 2, 5, 6
Text 'description' . . . . . . . Your_description_for_the_member_...______

The Edit display shows up. It is convenient to use the prompt facility for
defining the DDS source. The prompter helps you to supply the source
information in the correct format. Press <F4> to invoke the prompter and
<F12>to cancel it.

When the prompter is invoked, the screen looks as shown:

Find . . . _____________________________________________________
TESTDATA

FMT PF
.....A..........T.Name++++++RLen++TDpB......Functions++++++++++++++++++
*************** Beginning of data
*************************************
0001.00
****************** End of data
****************************************

Prompt type . . . PF Sequence number . . . 0001.00

Name Data Decimal


Type Name Ref Length Type Positions Use
_ _____ _ ______ _ ___ _

Functions ___________________________

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F10=Top


F11=Bottom F12=Cancel F24=More keys

An explanation of the different fields shown above follows: The fields marked
with * are not commonly used, so for normal applications you may
conveniently ignore them.

Name_Type

Choose one of the following:

Blank

Leave the field blank to indicate a field name.

Type R in column 17 to indicate a record format name.

Type K in column 17 to indicate a key field name.


Name

Type a record format, field, or key field name in this position. The
maximum length allowed is 10 characters, beginning in column 19.

Reference (*)

Type R in this field to use the reference function to copy attributes of a


previously defined named field to the field you are now defining.

Length

Type a value to indicate the number of characters in a character field or


the number of digits in a numeric field. For example, for Character type
the range is 1-32766, for Packed decimal the range is 1-31 digits and so
on.

Data_Type

Choose one of the following:

for character data.

for packed decimal data.

for zoned decimal data.

for zoned binary data.

for floating point data.

for hexadecimal data.


Decimal_Positions

Type a value from 0 through 31 to indicate the number of decimal


positions to the right of the decimal point within a packed decimal, a
zoned decimal, a floating point, or a binary field.

Use (*)

Type B or leave the field blank to indicate a field used for both input and
output.

Functions (*)

Type in keyword entries valid for defining physical files in positions 45


through 80 of this field.

The DDS source for TESTDATA is shown below. RECFMT1 is the record
format name. There are two fields in the data file, FIELD1 and FIELD2.
FIELD1 is of character data type with length 10, and FIELD2 is a packed
decimal of length 5 with 2 decimal positions. The last line of the member
declares FIELD1 to be the key field.

Find . . . __________________________________________________________ TST1

FMT PF
.....A..........T.Name++++++RLen++TDpB......Functions++++++++++++++++++
*************** Beginning of data
*************************************
0000.01
0001.00 R RECFMT1
0002.00 FIELD1 10A
0003.00 FIELD2 5P 2
0004.00 K FIELD1
0005.00
****************** End of data
****************************************

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh


F10=Top F11=Bottom F24=More keys

Press <F3>and hit <Enter>to save the member TESTDATA. For more details
about exiting SEU refer to the section 'How to exit SEU'.
The member TESTDATA that was just created contains only the definition of
the data file and hence our the next step is to actually create the file. This can
be done by compiling the member we have just created. From the 'Work with
members using PDM' display, position the cursor at member TESTDATA, and
choose option 14 (compile). If the compilation is successful, the file
TESTDATA will be created in YOURLIB. Otherwise, look into your spooled file
(WRKSPLF) and identify the problem.

Loading a data file

To load a data file, use the command UPDDTA (Update Data Area).
Type UPDDTA on any command line and press <F4>. The following screen
shows up:

Update Data with Temp Program (UPDDTA)

Type choices, press Enter.

Data base file . . . . . . . . . __________ Name


Library . . . . . . . . . . . *LIBL_____ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . *FIRST______ Name, *FIRST

Bottom

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display


F24=More keys

Supply the values for the data base file to be loaded and the library it is
contained in, and press <Enter>. For example, to populate our file TESTDATA
we would fill in the values as shown:

Update Data with Temp Program (UPDDTA)

Type choices, press Enter.

Data base file . . . . . . . . . TESTDATA__ Name


Library . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB__ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . *FIRST____ Name, *FIRST

Bottom

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display


Enter the values for different fields and press Enter>. To stop the process of
loading the data file, press <F3>and press < Enter>.

Screen Design Using SDA


To aid in the creation of user interfaces on the AS/400, the operating system
includes a utility called SDA (Screen Design Aid). This system allows a
programmer to "paint" screens and menus used by a program from within a
simple editor, defining input and output fields and special text attributes.
These screens may then be called from an application program, allowing the
program to have all the features of the AS/400 user interface without direct
programming of the appearance of the interface.

This section will only cover those aspects of screen design not related to
interfacing with applications. For information on this area, see the manual for
the language of the application source.

Starting SDA

The first steps in creating a set of screens for a program are the same as
those for creating a program source member. A source physical file must be
created (or one already in existence may be used) and a member must be
created in the PF-SRC to hold the screens.

To create the screen design member, issue the command STRSDA (for
STaRt SDA) from a command line. A menu of options will appear which allow
you to create a screen, create a menu, or test a design. Choosing the first
option brings the following screen:

Design Screens

Type choices, press Enter.

Design option . . . . . . _ 1=Select file keywords


2=Select record keywords
3=Select subfile keywords
4=Select subfile control keywords
5=Define screen image (fields)
6=Save DDS source, create object
Record . . . . . . . . . __________ Name, F4 for Record list
Additional records . . . __________ Name
(to be displayed on Work Screen)
Source file . . . . . . . QDDSSRC___ Name
Library . . . . . . . . *LIBL_____ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Member . . . . . . . . . __________ Name, F4 for Member list
Source type . . . . . . . __________ DSPF,
Blank for default

F3=Exit F4=Prompt F12=Cancel

Since no screen design exists yet, it is necessary to first create one using the
"5" option on the "Design option line". Also, a source file must be provided,
and a member specified. If the member does not yet exist, it will be created.
Finally, a record name must be given. Since each member can have several
records, a single screen design member could contain any number of
screens, with each one given a distinct record name. Once the information is
entered, the screen should look like this:

Design Screens

Type choices, press Enter.

Design option . . . . . . 5 1=Select file keywords


2=Select record keywords
3=Select subfile keywords
4=Select subfile control keywords
5=Define screen image (fields)
6=Save DDS source, create object
Record . . . . . . . . . SCREEN1___ Name, F4 for Record list
Additional records . . . __________ Name
(to be displayed
on Work Screen)
Source file . . . . . . . SRCFILE___ Name
Library . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Member . . . . . . . . . SCRNMBR___ Name, F4 for Member list
Source type . . . . . . . __________ DSPF,
Blank for default
F3=Exit F4=Prompt F12=Cancel

The "SOURCE TYPE" field may be left blank. It will default to the proper type
for SDA.

These options will start SDA on a screen named SCREEN1 in the member
SCRNMBR of file SRCFILE in library YOURLIB. Pressing <Enter> will bring
up the main SDA display. This is simply a blank "pasteboard" on which you
may place text and fields.

Using The Work Screen


Use the Work Screen to design the display you are creating. On the Work
Screen you can add fields and constants, place fields you have selected from
a database, move, copy, shift, and remove fields, and add or remove
attributes and colors. You can also perform additional operations, such as
requesting extended field definition.

You can use the following function keys on the Work Screen:
F1=Help

Press <F1> to show the same information as the help key. <F1> is
active on all displays but does not appear in the function key area.

F3=Exit

Press <F3> to have the Design Screens display appear.

F4=Prompt

Press <F4> to have the Work with Fields display appear.

F6=Condition

Press <F6> to have the Condition Work Screen display appear.

F10=Database

Press <F10> to have the Select Data Base Files display appear.

F11=Switch

Press <F11>to display a list of selected database fields on the bottom


row of the Work Screen. Press <F11>to switch back and forth between
the list of selected data base fields and the list of not selected database
fields.

F12=Cancel

Press <F12>to save your work and continue to the Design Screens
display.

F14=Ruler
Press <F14>to place a vertical and horizontal ruler on the Work Screen
where you position the cursor. The ruler does not interfere with your
data. Press <F14>to remove the ruler. Defining fields on the ruler may
cause unpredictable results.

F15=Subfile Prompt

Press <F15>to Display a prompt on the bottom row of the Work Screen
that allows you to change the subfile line (SFLLIN) and subfile page
(SFLPAG) sizes that were in effect for the current record being defined.

F17=Print

Press <F17> to Print the current contents of the Work Screen.

Adding Fields

To add a user-defined field, type + followed by I (input), O (output), or B (both)


for alphabetic fields, or followed by 3 (input), 6 (output), or 9 (both) for numeric
fields and press Enter. To add a floating point field, add a numeric field
followed by E (single-precision) or D (double-precision) and press Enter. You
can use uppercase or lowercase letters. You indicate the length of a field by
the number of characters following +, or by the length specified in brackets
after the first character.

The following examples illustrate user-defined fields:

+BBB or +b(3)

Three-character, alphabetic, both (input and output) field.

+66.66 or +6(4,2)

Four-character, numeric, input field with two decimal positions (set by


an edit word).

+3.33E or +3(3,2)e

Single-precision, input, floating-point field with three significant digits


and two decimal positions.

+99.999d or +9(5,3)D
Double-precision, both (input and output), floating-point field with five
significant digits and three decimal positions.

Adding Constants

To add a new constant or change an existing constant:

Type a constant. A blank character ends the constant.


Type constants with single quotation marks to define separate constants
for each character string (word) that is followed by a blank.
Surround a character string with single quotation marks to define a
single constant.
Surround several constants with single quotation marks to redefine
them as one constant.
Use a double quotation mark to end one constant and start a new
constant while taking up only one position.
To add a MSGCON (MeSsaGe CONstant) field, type + followed by M.
To work with a MSGCON field, type ? in front of the field. When you
press Enter, the Define Message Constant display appears. Press <
F12>to return to the Work Screen.
To add system date or time fields, type *DATE or *TIME.
Use the at sign (@) in pairs to delimit a DBCS (Double Byte Character
Set) constant. SDA will replace each pair with a shift in and a shift out
pair when you press <Enter>. You can then type DBCS data between
the delimiters. You cannot use a DBCS insert key on the Work Screen.

The following examples illustrate constant fields:

'xxx"YYY'

Defines two constant fields.

'xxx YYY zzz'

Combines three constant fields into one field.

+MMM or +(M3)

The Define Message Constant display appears.


Adding Fields from a Data Base File

The fields you select from a database file, appear on the bottom row of the
Work Screen. You move fields from the bottom line to your display by typing &
followed by the field number, if you are in multiple mode, and the column
heading position and pressing Enter. The fields begin in the position where
you type &. The following examples illustrate moving fields to your display:
Symbol
Single Field Multiple Field Field
Mode Mode Meaning

& &n Places field. Does not add column heading.

&L &nL Places field. Adds a column heading to the


left of the field.

&R &nR Places field. Adds a column heading to the


right of the field.

&C &nC Places field. Adds a column above the field.


Left-aligns column heading for an alphabetic
field and right-aligns column heading for a
numeric fields.

&P &nP Places the column heading only.

Adding or Removing Attributes and Colors

To add or remove display attributes or colors on the Work Screen, type one of
following commands (in uppercase or lowercase) in the position preceding the
field (the attribute byte of the field):
Command Command
Add Remove Attribute Add Remove Color

H -H High intensity CB -CB Blue

R -R Reverse image CG -CG Green

S -S Column CP -CP Pink


separators

B -B Blink CR -CR Red

N -N Nondisplay CT -CT Turquoise

U -U Underscore CW -CW White

-A Remove all -CA Remove all


attributes colors
You can carry out the above operations by typing * in the position preceding
the field (the attribute byte of the field), pressing < Enter>, and working with
the field keyword displays that appear.

Moving, Copying, and Shifting Fields

Reposition fields on the Work Screen by typing one of the following and
pressing <Enter>:

-, =

Type - in the position preceding the field (the attribute byte of the field)
and type = where you want the field to appear.

-, ==

Type - in the position preceding the field (the attribute byte of the field)
and type == where you want a copy of the field to appear.

-, -, ==

Type - in any position preceding the field, type - in any position after the
last field, and type == where you want a copy of the group of fields to
appear.

<<<, >>>

Type <<< in the position preceding the field (the attribute byte of the
field), or type >>> after the field (over the first attribute byte), to shift the
field left or right as far as the signs extend.

Removing Fields

Remove fields from the Work Screen by typing one of the following and
pressing <Enter>DO NOT use the <Delete>key to delete items on the work
screen:

Blanks

Type a blank in the position preceding the field (the attribute byte of the
field), and over the entire field.
D

Type D in the position preceding the field (the attribute byte of the field).

Additional Features
Extended field definition

Type * in the position preceding the field (the attribute byte of the field) to add
field-level attributes and keywords.

Display field length and description

Type ? in the position preceding the field to display field length and text or
column heading description on the last row of the Work Screen. You can
rename the field by changing the name on the last row.

Display MSGCON field definition

Type ? in the position preceding the field to show the Define Message
Constant display. You can change the message number, file, and library.

Date and time keywords

Type *DATE or *TIME to define special constants on the display where the
system date and time will be automatically substituted.

Subfile Field Definition

You can define fields for a subfile similar to nonsubfile fields with the following
considerations:

You can modify fields on the first record of the subfile. Anything you
type is assumed to be a definition of the first record.
To modify the values of the SFLPAG (number of records on the display)
and SFLLIN (number of spaces between fields), press < F15>to display
the subfile prompt line. <F15>is allowed only for subfile records.
Any field that you define for the subfile will appear the number of times
specified by the SFLPAG keyword.

Compiling And Testing Screens


Once the screen design is complete and <F3>is pressed, PDM returns to the
"Design Screens" menu shown above. Choosing the "6" option on the Design
Option line saves the source file for the screen and compiles it into a screen
file which may be used by a program. IF THIS OPTION IS NOT CHOSEN
AFTER THE SCREEN DESIGN IS COMPLETE, THE MODIFICATIONS WILL
NOT BE SAVED. Note that it isn't necessary to save a file after every
RECORD created; Several screens from a single member can be created
before compilation. However, the file must be compiled before exiting SDA.
Using the "6" option for a screen produces the following display:

Save DDS - Create Display File

Type choices, press Enter.


Save generated DDS source . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes
Source file . . . . . . . . . . . . . SRCFILE___ Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ Name, *LIBL ...
Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCRNMBR___ F4 for list
Replace existing member . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes
Create display file . . . . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes
(CRTDSPF) F4 for prompt
Display file . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCRNFIL___ Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YOURLIB___ Name, *LIBL ...
If create fails, display listing . . . Y Y=Yes
Replace existing file . . . . . . . . Y=Yes
Create file if DDS message severity
(GENLVL) is less than . . . . . . . 20 0, 10, 20, 30
Submit create job in batch . . . . . . . Y Y=Yes
Job description . . . . . . . . . . . QBATCH____ Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QGPL______ Name, *LIBL ...

F3=Exit F12=Cancel

These options will compile all the screen records in member SCRNMBR of file
SRCFILE in library YOURLIB to a *FILE object called SCRNFIL in YOURLIB.
That file may then be used by user programs.

It may be advantageous to test screen designs before using them with


programs. This can be accomplished using the "Test Display Files" option
from the initial SDA menu. The screen test program will request the name of a
screen and display file (created using the compilation procedure above,)
followed by a prompt screen for values for the output fields. SDA displays the
screen with the values supplied.

Debugging Programs on the AS/400


In addition to the utilities provided for creating, editing, and compiling
programs, the AS/400 provides a facility to aid in the debugging of programs
as they are running. Called the EPM (Extended Program Model) debugger,
this tool allows the user to view and change the values of variables and step
through the program by using breakpoints which interrupt program execution
and return control to the debugger.

Starting the debugger

Before using the debugger, the source program must be compiled with the
*DEBUG and *SOURCE options. These will, respectively, include debugging
information in the executable program (so the debugger has access to
variable and routine names) and produce a source output listing from the
compiler. This source output should be printed before starting the debugger,
as the compiler adds its own line numbers to the source which will be
necessary in referencing specific lines while using the debugger. The source
output is also useful as a hardcopy reference while the program is executing,
since the debugger does not list source lines as the program executes.

To specify these options at compilation time, first prompt on the compile


option on the Work with Members Using PDM display (or on the CRT___PGM
command for the language of the source file) by pressing < F4>(PROMPT)
with the "14" (COMPILE) option on the options line of the file you wish to
compile. This will show the initial options screen for the compiler. To enter the
compiler options, it is necessary to prompt for more options by pressing
<F10>, which reveals the following screen:

Create Pascal Program (CRTPASPGM)

Type choices, press Enter.

Program . . . . . . . . . . . . > TEST______ Name


Library . . . . . . . . . . . > YOURLIB___ Name, *CURLIB
Source file . . . . . . . . . . > SRCFILE___ Name
Library . . . . . . . . . . . > YOURLIB___ Name, *LIBL, *CURLIB
Source member . . . . . . . . . > TEST______ Name, *PGM
Text 'description' . . . . . . . *SRCMBRTXT_____________________________

Additional Parameters

Compiler options . . . . . . . . *DEBUG____ *LIST, *NOLIST, *CHECK...


+ for more values *SOURCE___
Language level . . . . . . . . . *EXTENDED__ *EXTENDED, *ANSI83,
*SYSTEM
String temporary threshold . . . 2046____ 256-32767
F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display
F24=More keys

The above example is from a Pascal source member. However, other


languages will have similar prompt displays.

Placing the *DEBUG and *SOURCE options on the "Compiler options" lines
will cause the compiler to produce a source listing and place it in the output
queue and will include debugging information in the output program. Pressing
<Enter>once all options are entered will submit the compilation. After the
member has been compiled (assuming there are no errors in compilation,) the
source listing should be printed and used with the next steps.

Using the debugger

The process of Debugging essentially consists of four phases:

1. Start the Debugger


2. Add breakpoints
3. Call the program to be debugged and
4. End the Debugger

These phases are discussed in detail below:

Phase 1 (Start the Debugger)

The command to start the debugger is:


===> strdbg YOURLIB/TEST

where TEST is the program in library YOURLIB, that you intend to debug.

Phase 2 (Add Breakpoints)

A Breakpoint is a place in a program where the system stops the processing


of that program and gives control to the display station user or to a specified
program. The command ADDBKP is used to set breakpoints. The simplest
form of ADDBKP takes the following form:

where n1, n2 ... n10 are the statement


===> addbkp stmt(n1 n2 ... n10)
numbers where the breakpoint is to occur. You may specify 1 to 10 statement
numbers where the breakpoint should occur. For example, ' addbkp stmt(10
20 30) ' will set the breakpoints at statements 10, 20 and 30. The program
breaks before processing a statement specified as a breakpoint.

Phase 3 (Calling the Program)

Once the breakpoints are set, the next step is to run the program using the
CALL command.
===> call YOURLIB/TEST

You will notice that the program stops execution when the breakpoint is
reached. From the 'Display Break Point' screen, you can check the values of
the program variables as explained below:

Press <F10>(command entry) on the 'Display Breakpoint' screen.


This will take you to the command entry screen. Display the program
variables with DSPPGMVAR command:
===> dsppgmvar VARNAME

where VARNAME is the variable name you intend to display.

Using the above command, you can check for as many variables as you
want to from the command entry screen. To exit the command entry
press <F3>. Control is transferred back to the breakpoint.
Press <Enter>to resume execution of the program. The program will
stop at the next breakpoint if any, or will terminate.

Ending the Debugger

Once you are done with debugging, it is very important that you end the
Debugger, before you issue any other command. The command to do it is:
===> enddbg

APPENDIX A - Terminal Setup


PC-VT 9.0 Terminal Setup Instruction

The following should assist you in setting up PC-VT V9.0 for use with the IBM
AS/400 via a port selector connection.
Confirm that your copy of PC-VT is V9.0. This may be confirmed by starting
PC-VT and noting the version number on the initial screen or by entering the
setup A screen. Versions prior to V9.0 will not support the cursor keys during
an AS/400 session.

1. Start PC-VT and immediately go into the setup by pressing CTRL-F1.


2. Select option 5, 'Go to SETUP B'.
3. You should now change the feature switches, the blocks of 4 characters
at the bottom of the screen, so that they match those given below. This
may be done by placing the cursor above each feature switch you wish
to change and pressing the 6 key to toggle the switch to the correct
value.
4. Feature switch settings:
5. 1 2101 2 0X11 3 0000 4 1110 5 0001 6 0110 7 1X10 8 000X 9 XXXX
0 XXXX
6. You should next set the modem speed to 9600. This may be done with
menu option 7, Select Modem Speed.
7. Next set the data bits to 8 and the stop bits to 2. This may be done with
menu option P, Select Data/Parity Bits.
8. Finally, save the changes you have made to the SETUP so that you will
not have to repeat this setup the next time you use PC-VT. This may be
done by pressing the S key.
9. You may use the <ESC>key to exit the setup mode and return to the
emulator mode from which you may access the port selector.

APPENDIX B - VT-100 to PS/2 (PC Support) Keyboard


Mapping
PS/2 Key Nam Micro-Term Key Sequence Typical use
<F1> <ESC>1 Help
<F2> <ESC>2 Switch View
<F3> <ESC>3 Exit
<F4> <ESC>4 Prompt
<F5> <ESC>5 Refresh Screen
<F6> <ESC>6
<F7> <ESC>7 Roll Down
<F8> <ESC>8 Roll Up
<F9> <ESC>9 Get Previous Cmd
<F10> <ESC>0 Move to top
<F11> <ESC>- List Toggle
<F12> <ESC>+ Cancel
<F13> <ESC>! or <ESC><SHIFT>1 User support
<F14> <ESC>@ or <ESC><SHIFT>2
<F15> <ESC># or <ESC><SHIFT>3
<F16> <ESC>$ or <ESC><SHIFT>4 Main menu
<F17> <ESC>% or <ESC><SHIFT>5
<F18> <ESC>+ or <ESC><SHIFT>6
<F19> <ESC>& or <ESC><SHIFT>7 Scroll left
<F20> <ESC>* or <ESC><SHIFT>8 Scroll right
<F21> <ESC>( or <ESC><SHIFT>9
<F22> <ESC>) or <ESC><SHIFT>0
<F23> <ESC>_ or <ESC><SHIFT>- Scrl Option
<F24> <ESC>= or <ESC><SHIFT>= Scrl Menu
<DEL> <DEL> Delete character
<Shift><Insert> <CTRL>d Duplicate
<Enter> <RETURN> Send screen
<Backspace> <ESC>i
<Right Ctrl> <LINEFEED> or <CTRL>j Field exit
<Home> <ESC>H
<Insert> <ESC><DEL> Insert mode
<Page up> <ESC>u
<Page down> <ESC>d
<Shift><Pt Scn> <CTRL>p Print Screen
<Tab> <TAB> Next field
<Shift><Tab> <ESC><TAB> Previous field
<ESC> <ESC>a or <CTRL>a Attention
<Alt><F7> <ESC>(grave accent) Ins. Special Char
<ESC><CTRL>w Indicator Toggle
<ESC><CTRL>a Refresh screen
<Left Ctrl> <ESC>r or <CTRL>r Reset term. err.
<Alt><Pt Scn> <ESC>s System Request
APPENDIX C - Using On-line Education (EDU)
Introduction

Online education is a facility provided by IBM to assist the user in learning


about the AS/400. This facility is set up for the user to work through any topic
he/she is interested in. This facility is self-paced so the user can work the
modules when it is convenient, using the bookmark utility to keep track of
where the user has left off, so the next time he/she is using education, the
system will automatically return the user to the place where they left off. There
is a quiz at the end of most modules, which gives feedback on how much
information the user retained from that module.

Getting Started

1. From any command line type ==>STREDU <Enter> STREDU is an


abbreviation for Start Education.
2. Select 5, Select course <Enter>
3. There are several courses in online education but the most useful ones
in terms of using the AS/400 are:
o Tutorial Support System
o Facilities and Implementation
o Application Design and Development Tools
Type 1 to select the desired course <Enter>. To display a description
about a course select 8 in front of that particular course.

4. Select 4 to select an audience path for the course <Enter>. You can
select all modules or one of the listed categories. The COMS 175---
Command Language audience path is customized for the CS175 class.
Type 1 to select one of them <Enter>.
5. Next, you can either select 1 to start the first module in the selected
audience path of the course or 3 to select any module < Enter>within
the selected course.
6. Follow the directions and read each screen carefully.
7. To exit in the middle of a module press <F3> where this option is
available. This will give you a choice of exiting the module, exiting and
setting a bookmark, exiting and marking it complete or go to a
topic/subtropic menu for the module.

At the end of most modules, there is a quiz.

This can consist of questions from the module or examples that you walk
through, or a combination of both. For the CS175 class, when you are finished
with the quiz, obtain a screen print of the screen that tells you how many you
answered correctly on the first try. If you forget to get a screen print, you need
to go through the quiz again to get to that screen.

To Obtain a Screen Print Press the <SHIFT>and PRINT SCREEN key


(towards the upper right hand corner of your keyboard) at the same time.
When the screen has been captured you will see a message at the bottom of
your screen, which tells you that it has been sent to the default printer device.

Press the <Reset>(at the bottom left hand corner of the keyboard), to clear
this message and continue your session.

Exit online education by pressing a series of <F3>keys until you have reached
a command line.

To check your screen print type WRKSPLF (work with your spool files). Your most
recent screen print will be located at the bottom of the list and it will be titled
QSYSPRT.

To assign it to a printer, type a 2, change, and press <Enter>. This will change
the status from not assigned to a printer, to assigned to a printer.
At the Printer to use prompt, type the name of the printer you would like to
send your printout to and press <Enter>. To see a list of all started printers,
press <F4>on this line. This will give you a list of all started printers and from
here you can select one by typing a 1 on the line before the desired printer.
Press <Enter> to select this printer. You will return to the screen where you
pressed <F4>. Press <Enter>again to accept this printer.

For more information on printing, see the section "Printing Procedure" in this
manual.

APPENDIX D - How to program on an AS/400


The following outline details the basic steps of program development on the
AS/400. Since there may be multiple ways to complete a task, some more
appropriate than others depending on the situation, various ways of doing
essentially the same thing are shown under each outline heading.

1. Log in.
2. Setup area for source
1. Create a library (optional) - CRTLIB
2. Create a source physical file (optional) - CRTSRCPF
3. Type source into physical file member.
1. Start source entry utility - STRSEU
2. Work in program development manager
STRPDM
WRKLIBPDM
WRKOBJPDM
WRKMBRPDM
3. In PDM: <F6> - create a member.
4. Compile the source member to attain object and compiled. spool file.
o Option 14 from the PDM lines.
o CRT___PGM - where ___ can be CBL, PAS, C, PAS, BAS, etc....
5. Wait for compilation to complete.
6. Display message to see if completed successfully - DSPMSG
7. Check spool file to see if any Fatal errors or warnings.
0. WRKSPLF
1. Choose option 5 - DISPLAY.
2. Page to bottom of file.
3. Note if there are any warnings or errors or fatal errors.
4. If there are errors or fatal errors go to to step III and correct.
5. If there are any warnings determine if they are important and if
deemed so go to step III and correct.
8. Check for dependencies.
o Does program need data files - if so create or attain them.
o Does program need other programs - if so create or attain.
9. Execute the program.
o CALL library/programname
o Option 16 from a WRKOBJPDM screen.
10. If program gives a run-time error.
0. Move cursor to error description - hit <F1> (help)
1. Look for error and statement number.
2. Cross reference statement number with source line number with
spool file - WRKSPLF
3. Correct error.
4. Go to step III.
11. Log off.

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Version 2.06
Copyright Minnesota State University, Mankato 1992,1995

Last modified: Thu Sep 18 00:28:14 CDT 2003 Jeffrey Hundstad