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PROCESS STD 301

FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE Contents - 1


SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISIONHEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.0-1

2.0 SERVICE CLASSIFICATIONS 2.0-1

2.1 Exchangers 2.0-1


2.1.1 Without Phase Change 2.0-1
2.1.2 With Phase Change 2.0-1
2.2 Preheaters 2.0-2
2.3 Vaporizers 2.0-2
2.3.1 Reboilers 2.0-2
2.3.2 Chillers 2.0-3
2.3.3 Evaporators 2.0-3
2.3.4 Steam Generators (Waste Heat Boilers) 2.0-4
2.4 Coolers 2.0-5
2.4.1 Liquid Coolers 2.0-5
2.4.2 Gas Coolers 2.0-5
2.5 Condensers 2.0-6
2.5.1 Hydrocarbon Condensers 2.0-6
2.5.2 Surface Condensers 2.0-7
2.6 Miscellaneous Services 2.0-8
2.6.1 Jacket Water Coolers 2.0-8
2.6.2 Lube Oil Coolers 2.0-9
2.6.3 Tank Suction and Fuel Oil Heaters 2.0-9

3.0 SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGER CONSTRUCTION TYPES 3.0-1

3.1 Nomenclature 3.0-1


3.2 TEMA Exchanger Type Designations 3.0-2
3.2.1 General 3.0-2
3.2.2 TEMA Designations 3.0-2
3.3 Tube Side Classifications 3.0-6
3.3.1 Floating Head Type Rear End Construction 3.0-6
3.3.2 U-tube Type Rear End Construction 3.0-10
3.3.3 Fixed Tubesheets Type Rear End Construction 3.0-10
3.3.4 Front End Stationary Head Construction 3.0-11
3.3.5 Tube Types 3.0-12
3.4 Shell Side Classifications 3.0-15
3.4.1 Full Bundle-Single Pass 3.0-16
3.4.2 Full Bundle-Split Flow 3.0-16
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3.4.3 Full Bundle-Two Pass 3.0-17


3.4.4 Partially Full Bundle 3.0-18
3.5 Reboilers 3.0-19
3.5.1 General 3.0-19
3.5.2 Once-thru Horizontal Thermosyphon 3.0-20
3.5.3 Recirculated Horizontal Thermosyphon 3.0-20
3.5.4 Kettle Type 3.0-22
3.5.5 Vertical Thermosyphon 3.0-22
3.5.6 Pump-thru Type 3.0-23

SECTION 3.0 - APPENDICES (Note 1) 3.0-Appendix-1 - 10

4.0 PROCESS AND EXCHANGER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 4.0-1

4.1 General 4.0-1


4.2 Basic Formula 4.0-2
4.3 Temperatures 4.0-3
4.3.1 Products to Storage 4.0-3
4.3.2 Cooler Temperatures 4.0-4
4.3.3 Economical Temperature Approaches 4.0-11
4.4 Fluid Routing Arrangement 4.0-11
4.5 Shell Arrangements 4.0-13
4.5.1 Number of Shells Required 4.0-13
4.5.2 Series or Parallel Arrangements 4.0-13
4.5.3 Horizontal or Vertical Orientation 4.0-14
4.5.4 Submerged or Elevated Condenser 4.0-14
4.5.5 Stacking or Side by Side 4.0-15
4.6 Tube Arrangements 4.0-15
4.6.1 Tubes-Length, Diameter, Pitch 4.0-15
4.6.2 Tube Passes per Shell 4.0-18
4.7 Effective Exchanger Mean Temperature
Differences (!T) 4.0-19
4.7.1 LMTD, Uncorrected 4.0-20
4.7.2 LMTD, Corrected 4.0-21
4.7.3 Weighted MTD, Uncorrected 4.0-23
4.7.4 Weighted MTD, Corrected 4.0-24
4.7.5 Pinch Point Problem 4.0-26
4.7.6 Series - Parallel MTD 4.0-27
4.8 Pressure Drop 4.0-28
4.8.1 Liquids 4.0-28
4.8.2 Gas 4.0-28
4.8.3 Condensers 4.0-29
4.8.4 Reboilers 4.0-29
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4.9 Heat Transfer Rate, Ud 4.0-31


4.9.1 Typical Fouling Factors 4.0-31
4.9.2 Typical Overall Design Rates 4.0-31
4.9.3 Quick Estimate of Heat Transfer Coefficients 4.0-32

SECTION 4.0 - APPENDICES (Note 1) 4.0-Appendix-1 - 32

5.0 QUICK EXCHANGER RATING METHOD 5.0-1

5.1 Sizing Procedure 5.0-1


5.2 Selection of Exchanger Type 5.0-2
5.3 Sample Problem 5.0-3

6.0 COMPLETION OF EXCHANGER PROCESS


SPECIFICATION SHEET 6.0-1

6.1 General 6.0-1


6.2 Completing the Specification Sheet 6.0-1
6.3 Follow-up on Exchanger Requisitions 6.0-5

7.0 MECHANICAL DESIGN 7.0-1

7.1 TEMA Classes-Mechanical Construction 7.0-1


7.2 Available Exchanger Sizes (Diameter vs. Surface) 7.0-1
7.2.1 General 7.0-1
7.2.2 Exchanger Tube Data 7.0-1
7.2.3 Exchanger Tube Count Tables 7.0-2
7.3 Shell Side Baffle Data 7.0-2
7.3.1 Baffle Types and Arrangements 7.0-3
7.3.2 Spacing and Cut 7.0-3
7.4 Design Conditions for Exchangers 7.0-4
7.4.1 General 7.0-4
7.4.2 Design Pressure 7.0-4
7.4.3 Design Temperature 7.0-4

SECTION 7.0 - APPENDICES (Note 1) 7.0-Appendix-1- 8

8.0 ECONOMICS 8.0-1

8.1 Setting up Exchanger Trains 8.0-1


8.1.1 Heat Availability Diagram 8.0-2
8.1.2 Economic Evaluation 8.0-2
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8.1.3 Establishing Potential Configuration via the


EXTRA Computer Program 8.0-4
8.2 Exchanger Cost Estimate 8.0-4
8.2.1 Pricing Data 8.0-5
8.2.2 Examples 8.0-6

SECTION 8.0 - APPENDICES (Note 1) 8.0 -Appendix-1-7

9.0 NOMENCLATURE 9.0-1

10.0 REFERENCES 10.0-1

NOTE:

1. Appendices appear at the end of each appropriate section. The first page only is
indicated. See List of Figures and Tables to locate individual items.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE FIGURE DESCRIPTION PAGE

3-1 TEMA Exchanger Types AES and AEP 3.0-Appendix-1


3-2 TEMA Exchanger Types BEM, AJW a nd CFU 3.0-Appendix-2
3-3 TEMA Exchanger Types AGS and AHS 3.0-Appendix-3
3-4 TEMA Exchanger Types AFS and AES-Single Tube Pass 3.0-Appendix-4
3-5 TEMA Kettle Type AKT 3.0-Appendix-5
3-6 Summary of TEMA Exchanger Types 3.0-Appendix-6
3-7 Kettle Type Reboilers-Dimensions 3.0-Appendix-7
3-8 Thermosyphon Reboiler Systems 3.0-Appendix-8
3-9 Kettle Reboiler System 3.0-Appendix-9
4-1 Requisition - Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation 4.0-Appendix-1
4-2 Cooling Water Return Temperature vs. Cost 4.0-Appendix-4
4-3 Typical Temperature Driving Force Diagram 4.0-Appendix-5
4-4 Chart for Solving LMTD Formula 4.0-Appendix-6
4-5 MTD Correction Factor-1 Shell Pass 4.0-Appendix-7
4-6 MTD Correction Factor-2 Shell Pass 4.0-Appendix-8
4-7 MTD Correction Factor-3 Shell Pass 4.0-Appendix-9
4-8 MTD Correction Factor-4 Shell Pass 4.0-Appendix-10
7-1 Baffle Types and Arrangements 7.0-Appendix-1
8-1 Heat Availability Diagram 8.0-Appendix-1
8-2 Temperature Driving Force Plot for a Revamped Crude
Preheat Train 8.0-Appendix-2
8-3 Cost Effectiveness Plot for a Revamped Crude Preheat Train 8.0-Appendix-2
8-4 Price Estimate Curves 8.0-Appendix-3

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TABLE DESCRIPTION PAGE

3-1 Design Features of Various Types of Tube-Side Construction 3.0-Appendix-10


4-1 Typical Temperatures of Products to Storage 4.0-Appendix-11
4-2 Suggested Allowable Pressure Drop for Shell Side and
Tube Side of Exchangers 4.0-Appendix-12
4-3 Typical Fouling Resistances 4.0-Appendix-13
4-4 Typical Overall Ud Values 4.0-Appendix-16
4-5 Approximate Heat Transfer Coefficients 4.0-Appendix-31
7-1 The TEMA Standards - 1978, A Comparison of Classes
R, C and B 7.0-Appendix-2
7-2 Heat Exchanger Tube Data 7.0-Appendix-3
7-3 Tube Count Tables 7.0-Appendix-4

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, as indicated by the name, consist essentially of
a bundle of tubes, contained in a shell of somewhat greater diameter. One fluid
flows through the tubes and the other around the tubes through the shell. The
majority of heat exchangers employed in the petroleum refineries and chemical
plants are of this type.

The purpose of this standard is to furnish information on such aspects of shell and
tube heat exchangers as:

A. General construction classifications and their applications.

B. Process considerations in setting exchanger duty requirements.

C. Establishing process conditions of a heat exchanger train.

D. Preparing process specification sheets for individual exchangers, to be


submitted to FW Heat Transfer Equipment Engineering Group for design or
rating.

E. Making preliminary estimates of the surface and dimensions of individual


exchangers. Such information is required for establishing heat exchanger
trains, selecting the best process conditions for process economics studies
and estimating plot plan requirements.

Efficient heat exchangers are essential for economic operation of refineries. They
are also a significant proportion of the capital cost of a plant. For a refinery the
exchangers are 5 to 6% of the total materials cost. For individual units they may
cost even more, for example, on a crude unit the proportion is 10 to 12%.

Since exchangers can be so expensive, it is essential that process engineers


specify them in a economic manner. The process engineer often has a
considerable amount of freedom in selecting the process conditions. He may be
able to vary the temperature levels, heat load, available pressure drop and even
the fluids used. The exact methods of sizing heat exchangers are fairly lengthy
and require a considerable amount of experience to be used correctly. The use of
the quick rating method in this standard saves a lot of time and enables the effect
of the process variables on the size of the exchanger to be judged.

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After the process engineer has selected the process conditions, the exchanger
process data sheet from which the exchanger engineer initiates detailed design
should be prepared. The process specification must be sufficient to ensure that all
the process requirements are met. On the other hand it should avoid
unnecessarily restricting the heat exchanger engineer. For example, if either of the
fluids may be in the tube then the specification should say so, as a more economic
design may be investigated. Consideration should be given to whether a shell and
tube exchanger is the most suitable type for the particular duty. A type to consider
when the area is less than 10M2 (100 ft2) is the double pipe exchanger. Compact
exchangers such as the plate and the spiral exchangers also offer considerable
advantages and are often cheaper when an expensive material is required. For
heat exchangers other than the shell and tube type, refer to Process Standard 303
for information.

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2.0 SERVICE CLASSIFICATIONS

This section deals with general aspects of shell and tube heat exchanger services
most frequently encountered in refineries and chemical plants. Service
classifications by the functions they fulfill in a process are briefly described below.
The basic exchanger design principles for the various service classifications are
fundamentally quite similar, particularly with regard to heat transfer coefficients and
mean temperature difference (M.T.D.), and are covered under Section 4.0. The
various types of shell and tube exchanger construction commonly used for the
different services are covered under Section 3.0. It should be noted that there may
be a certain overlapping among the different service classifications since they are
sometimes not quite readily distinguishable. The classifications given below should
only serve as a general guideline.

2.1 Exchangers
The term exchanger is often used in a restricted sense, being applied
specifically to equipment employed to interchange heat between a hot
process stream and a cold process stream. Steam and cooling water are
utilities and are not considered in the same sense as recoverable process
streams. The hot process stream may be a product stream, a pump around,
or a reactor effluent stream. The cold process stream may be a feed stream
to a process unit, a recycle gas stream or a feed stream to a tower or reactor.

2.1.1 Without Phase Change


These may be liquid-liquid, liquid-gas or gas-gas exchangers. Typical
examples are Heavy Atmospheric Gas Oil/Crude BFW/Low
Exchanger, Temperature Shift Converter Product Gas Exchanger,and
Methanator Feed/Product Exchanger.

2.1.2 With Phase Change

These services may involve vaporization of a cold liquid feed,


condensation of a hot vapor product, two phase fluid heating/cooling,
or a combination of them. Typical examples are Naphtha Stabilizer
Feed/Bottoms Exchanger. Reactor Effluent/Fractionator Feed
Exchanger, Atmospheric Pipestill. Overhead/Cold Crude Exchanger
and Naphtha Hydrotreater Reactor Feed/Effluent Exchanger

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2.2 Preheaters
These exchangers include preheat services involving a process stream
and a utility or non-process stream. For instance, a cold stream, such as
the feed to a tower or a reactor, is heated with either steam, Dowtherm
fluid or circulating hot oil. A Boiler Feed Water Preheater using a hot
process stream, such as FCC Fractionator Pumparound or Bottoms, is
another example.

2.3 Vaporizers

These exchangers involve services where vapor formation is the principal


objective. The heating and cooling medium in these exchangers may be
process streams, utility streams or organic fluids. This class will
sometimes overlap with the Exchangers service class when heat transfer
occurs between two process streams. Vaporizers include the following
categories:

2.3.1 Reboilers
These exchangers operate in conjunction with a tower to vaporize
enough liquid to assure stripping of the bottom product as well as
vaporization of the overhead product and the reflux required for
fractionation. The heating medium is usually placed in the tube
side. There are various types of reboilers, which are different in
operating principles and/or construction. Detailed discussions on
the applications of the various reboiler types follow in Section 3.5.
The common types are briefly described below.

A. Thermosyphon Type

Flow depends on the difference in static head between


the column of liquid flowing from the tower to the reboiler
and the column of liquid/vapor mixture returning from the
exchanger to the tower. Vapor-liquid separation takes
place in the tower, so no vapor disengaging space needs
to be provided in the exchanger shell. Horizontal units are
generally employed but occasionally vertical units may be
considered as described in Section 3.5. In case of a
horizontal unit, a few tubes should be omitted from a full
layout to provide free space at the top and bottom of the
bundle to facilitate flow by improving distribution.

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B. Kettle Type

This type has a large diameter shell for separation of the


vapor and liquid in the shell. Kettle reboilers are mainly
used in reboiling services with high vaporization rates.
Heating medium is always in the tube side.

C. Pump-thru Type

This type employs a pump in the liquid line to the reboiler


to increase the driving force. It is used when high
pressure drop in the reboiler is expected with a reboiler
feed having a tendency toward fouling or plugging.

2.3.2 Chillers
Chillers may be employed to cool a liquid stream or to condense a
vapor stream by vaporization of a refrigerant. The stream to be
cooled or condensed is generally routed through the tubes, while
the low temperature boiling refrigerant vaporizes from a pool of
liquid in the shell. Chiller operation is very similar to that of a
kettle type reboiler even though the objective is entirely different.
Chiller construction also resembles that of a kettle type reboiler in
that vapor disengaging space for the boiling refrigerant is provided
in the shell. Frequently, temperatures are such that it is possible to
use fixed tube sheet construction.

2.3.3 Evaporators
Under this heading are included desalination evaporators and
chemical evaporators. The former are used for the desalination of
sea water; the latter for such service as the concentration of
solutions

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2.3.4 Steam Generators (Waste Heat Boilers)


Excess heat available in process streams above process
requirements is frequently used to generate steam. A
thermosyphon type unit is usually employed for 300 psig or lower
steam. A kettle or forced circulation type unit is generally
employed for producing steam of higher pressure. Kettle units are
usually considered if the number of services at the same steam
system pressure does not exceed 2 or 3 in single process unit.
When a thermosyphon type or forced circulation type unit is used,
a steam disengaging drum is usually employed for vapor-liquid
separation. Points to be considered in designing exchangers in
this service category are discussed below:

A. Location of Steam

The steam is usually generated in the shell because


frequently the hot fluid available have strong fouling
tendencies (as with catalytic cracker waste heat boilers).

B. Position of Shells

Horizontal shells are usually used now for this service.

C. Circulation Rate in Thermosyphon Type

The recirculation ratio is a function of the system


pressure, allowable liquid volume fraction at outlet,
allowable system pressure drop and required safety
factor.

1. A water-steam ratio between 5 to 1 and 10 to 1


by weight (at the outlet) is usually specified. This
is intended to reduce any possibility of dry tubes.

2. Circulation of water to and from the steam


disengaging drum depends mostly on the static
head resulting from the difference in densities of
the water leg and the water-steam mixture in the
other leg.

D. Typical Applications

A few of the commonly encountered waste heat boiler


services are:

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1. Installations to recover heat from the pumparound


streams such as heavy cycle oil and bottom slurry
from the primary fractionation tower of a catalytic
cracker.

2. Installations to recover heat from the effluent of


the shift conversion reactor in a hydrogen plant.

2.4 Coolers
This class is comprised, in general, of units in which hot process streams
are cooled with water. All or most of the heat is transferred as sensible
heat. In general, this heat is at too low a temperature level to be
recovered economically and consequently, is discarded to cooling water.

2.4.1 Liquid Coolers


The majority of these units are product coolers. These liquid
products can be classified as low, medium and high vapor
pressure products. The primary consideration in the product outlet
temperatures from these coolers is safety. The outlet
temperatures will generally depend on the vapor pressure
classifications of the products and the types of storage tanks
allowed for use in the refineries and chemical plants. Refer to
Process Standard 102 Section 6.1 for flammable liquid
classifications and product storage requirements. The product
outlet temperature must also be sufficiently low to avoid
vaporization of any water in storage tanks and to minimize the
danger of burns. Product cooler outlet temperatures are
considered in greater details in section 4.3 with a list of typical
outlet temperatures.

2.4.2 Gas Coolers (Inter & Aftercooler)


Probably the most frequently encountered gas coolers are the
intercoolers and aftercoolers employed with compressors.

Frequently, sufficient condensation occurs in the gas coolers to


represent a significant part of the heat duty. This condensation
also results in some increase in heat transfer coefficient above the
values for gas coolers transferring sensible heat only.

Interstage coolers are employed to avoid exceeding the maximum


temperature at the compressor outlet stage.

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Aftercoolers are usually used to cool the compressor final stage


discharge to the temperature required at the downstream
equipment, such as feeding an absorber tower. They are also
used with air compressors to remove moisture.

In the case of the compressors operating at relatively low


pressure, the pressure drops allowed for the inter and aftercoolers
become important. Increasing the pressure drop increases the
compression ratio and the load on the compressor, but at the
same time may result in some reduction in the heat transfer
surface of the coolers. In general, a pressure drop of 2 to 5 psi
should be allowed, depending on the compressor pressure levels.
2.5 Condensers
In these exchangers hot vapor streams are being water cooled with most
(or all) of the heat transferred being latent. Of course, if condensation
occurs over a temperature range, as is usually the case in refinery service,
a certain amount of sensible heat must also be removed.

Discussion of common condenser services (and types) follows:

2.5.1 Hydrocarbon Condensers


These constitute the largest class of refinery condensers. They
are most frequently used to condense distillation column
overhead.
A. Partial
Most condensers are partial, since overhead vapors
generally contain non-condensablegases. Here, non-
condensablemeans any gas not actually condensed at
the outlet pressure and temperature of the condenser.

B. Total

1. Isothermal

When the vapors of a pure compound are


cooled, condensation begins at the saturation
temperature and continues isothermally to
completion. This, of course, assumes that
pressure drop in the exchanger is small so that
its effect on the dew point temperature is
negligible. Any further cooling would result in
sensible heat removal with a decrease in
temperature and in receiver operating pressure.
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2. Over a Temperature Range


When tower overhead vapors consist of a mixture
of condensables (mixture of heavy hydrocarbons
with low quantities of lighter components, which
can be absorbed in the condensed phase), total
condensation will occur over a temperature range
between the dew point and the bubble point of
the mixture. Further cooling would merely reduce
the liquid sensible heat, with a consequent
reduction in temperature. Such a decrease in
temperature would give a corresponding
reduction in distillate drum pressure.
C. Hydrocarbons with Steam
Frequently steam will be present with the hydrocarbons in
tower overhead vapors. Even though the steam quantity
may be relatively small, any steam condensing will have
some effect on the condenser design.

Both the shape of the temperature-enthalpy curves and


heat transfer coefficients are affected by condensing
steam. The delta T/delta H ratio is decreased (curve
flattened) in the range where the bulk of the steam is
condensed. The heat transfer coefficient generally
increases with the presence of condensing steam.

2.5.2 Surface Condensers


Surface condensers refer herein to those exchangers used to
condense steam, generally to effect low back pressure or to
produce a vacuum.
A. Pure Steam
These exchangers are usually used to condense exhaust
steam from the turbine outlets to produce a vacuum.
These surface condensers usually have large duties and
surface area. A very small steam side pressure drop is
usually required for efficient operation.

The principal parts of surface condensers, in addition to


the shell and cooler boxes or channels, are a large
exhaust steam inlet port, shell-side air-removal outlets,
and a hot well equipped with condensate and air outlets.

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Most surface condensers are horizontal and arranged for


2-pass flow on the water side. Frequently surface
condenser water boxes (or channels) are constructed so
that operation can proceed at somewhat reduced capacity
while half of the unit is shut down for cleaning.

It should be noted that surface condensers are usually


proprietary designs available as a complete package
including air removal equipment such as steam jet
ejectors, together with their inter and aftercondensers.
Refer to Process Standard 704 for these auxiliary
equipment.

B. Steam with a Small Amount of Hydrocarbons

Tubular condensers are normally used in the vacuum


tower overhead. These surface condensers involve
condensing steam with small amount of condensable
hydrocarbons as well as non-condensables. Design heat
transfer coefficients are generally lower than those with
pure steam because of the presence of the hydrocarbons.

2.6 Miscellaneous Services

2.6.1 Jacket Water Coolers


Exchangers are required to cool the jacket water, which removes
heat from internal combustion engines (occasionally used to drive
compressors). Atmospheric coolers (also called atmospheric
sections) described in Process Std 303 are frequently used for
this purpose. However, ordinary shell and tube coolers are also
sometimes employed.

Jacket water is continuously recirculated, being successively


heated and cooled in a closed circuit. The jacket water is usually
cooled through a short temperature range of approximately 20F.,
say from 140F to 120F.

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2.6.2 Lube Oil Coolers


Coolers are frequently required to cool the lube oil for gas engines
and compressors. These are usually rather small units wherein
the lube oil is cooled through a small temperature range, say from
150 to 130F in compressor lube oil coolers.

Frequently, small, relatively inexpensive exchangers assembled


from standardized stock parts are used in this service. Usually
they are constructed with threaded connections; inexpensive
bonnets are generally employed for the channel, floating tube
sheet and shell cover. Lube oil coolers are generally vendor items
supplied as a package with the compressors.

2.6.3 Tank Suction and Fuel Oil Heaters


The oils involved here are viscous when cold, and heating is
required to reduce their viscosity. Because of low oil-side heat
transfer coefficient due to high viscosity, extended surface is often
employed.

A. Tank Suction Heaters

These units are bolted to the flange of a tank manhole;


the greater part of the shell is within the tank, with the
shell outlet and the channel outside of the tank. The end
of the shell (in the tank) is open (no shell cover) and
serves as the shell inlet. The shell outlet is piped to the
pump suction. The bundle is of U-tube construction. One
of the chief objectives of the design is to attain the lowest
possible pressure drop through the shell, since flow to
pump suction is by gravity only.

The principal purpose of this arrangement is to lower the


viscosity of the oil so that desirable flow characteristics
can be obtained.

B. Pressure Heaters

If the oil heater is located on the discharge side of a


pump, it is of conventional shell and tube construction. A
rather high pressure drop, say 15-20 psi, is then desirable
to attain satisfactory oil-side transfer coefficients.The use
of extended surface is desirable.

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3.0 SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGER CONSTRUCTION TYPES


3.1 Nomenclature
Typical TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association) AES and
AEP type exchangers and a list of the names of the principal exchanger
parts is shown in Figure 3-1 in Section 3.0-Appendix to illustrate this. The
most important parts and some frequently used terms in design are
defined below:

Shell Cylinder in which tubes are contained

Tubesheet The ends of the tubes fit into a common


sheet and are expanded against or welded
to the shell to form a pressure tight seal,
separating fluid in the shell and that in the
tube

Stationary Tubesheet A tubesheet fixed or welded to the shell

Floating Tubesheet A tubesheet which can move to allow for


expansion or contraction of the tubes
relative to the shell

Channel Inlet and outlet chambers for the fluids


flowing through the tubes

Pass Partition A partition plate in the channel which makes


the fluid in the tubes flow through one set of
tubes and back through another set

Baffles Partitions in the shell to direct the flow and


to provide support for the tubes

U-Tube The tubes are bent in a U shape. Only one


tubesheet is required

Shell Side Refers to fluid in the shell i.e., outside the


tubes

Tube Side Refers to fluid in the tubes

Temperature Cross Outlet temperature of fluid being cooled is


lower than outlet temperature of fluid being
heated

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3.2 TEMA Exchanger Type Designations


TEMA Standards (Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers
Association, Sixth Edition, 1978) is the basic document of specifications for
most of the shell and tube heat exchangers used in the process industries.
This section will acquaint the process engineers with the basic features of
the various TEMA exchanger designations widely used in the petroleum
and chemical industries. The various types of shell side and tube side
construction used in the TEMA designations will be further discussed in
details in Section 3.3 and 3.4.

3.2.1 General
Figure 3-6 shows the designation of the various front end
stationary heads, shells and rear heads as recommended by
TEMA.

Reference to Figures 3-1 to 3-5 will show that these have the
TEMA designations indicated. Thus Figure 3-1 shows an AES
type. This means that the exchanger has a stationary head and
removable channel and cover, a one pass shell and the rear head
is a floating head with a split ring backing device.

The nominal size of an exchanger is described by the nominal


diameter and nominal length. The nominal diameter is the inside
diameter of the shell in inches. The nominal length is the tube
length in inches.

As an example, a U-tube exchanger with a one pass shell and


bonnet channel with a shell internal diameter of 23 inches and
tubes of straight length 20 feet, would be described as:

Type BEU

Size 23-240

3.2.2 TEMA Designations

The more common TEMA exchanger designations are shown in


Figure 3-1 and 3-5. Their basic construction and applications to
different services are briefly explained below. Detailed discussion
of the shell side and tube side construction types and their
advantages and disadvantages follows in Section 3.3 and 3.4.

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A. TEMA AES Type


It signifies a multi-tube pass floating head unit with a
single shell pass. Basically, it uses the split and backing
ring type of construction which requires the shell cover
and floating head cover to be dismantled for bundle
removal.

A great many exchangers are AES type units, since this


construction may be employed for most services. (It is
occasionally used for horizontal reboilers in cases where
the boiling fluid is to be pumped through the equipment.)

A modification of the AES Type unit is the AEU Type


where U-tubes are substituted for straight tubes with
floating head.

B. TEMA AJS Type


This type of construction is similar to that of the AES Type
unit except that it uses divided flow type shell construction
with two shell-side inlet nozzles and one outlet nozzle, or
vice versa. This type can also be made with U-tubes, at
which time it is designated as AJU type unit. When single
tube pass unit is employed, the rear end can be made an
externally sealed floating head instead of the split ring
type floating head. This is designated as AJW type unit.

This method of construction is used when the shell-side


fluid flow rate is so large that the permissible pressure
drop is exceeded with maximum baffle spacing.

C. TEMA AES - Single Tube Pass Type


This is a single shell-pass, single tube-pass type of unit
which is used primarily for vertical thermosyphon
reboilers.

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C. TEMA AES - Single Tube Pass Type (contd)


It is also suitable when severe temperature crosses are
involved, in order to obtain a true countercurrent MTD.
The basic AES - Single Tube Pass unit has a packing
gland which is unsatisfactory for shell-side high
temperature or high pressure service; this is sometimes
modified by using a mechanical expansion joint which is
leak-proof, but expensive. The size of the expansion joint
is dependent on the tube side nozzle connection through
the shell cover.

D. TEMA AGS and AHS Types


These types are used for horizontal thermosyphon
reboilers only. They indicate shells of split and double
split flow types with removable longitudinal baffles and
floating head construction. The split flow shell, TEMA
AGS, with single inlet and outlet nozzle is normally used if
the tube length is eight feet or less, and the ratio of length
to shell diameter is 5 to 1 or less.

This type of unit can also be made with U-tubes.

E. TEMA AKT (Kettle) Type


This type of construction is recommended for reboilers
when no other disengaging drum is to be used. It is
characterized by an integral shell cover welded to the
shell, and a bonnet type channel. This is the full-bolted
type which has straight tubes and a floating head attached
to the floating tube sheet with studs.

In units of shell I.D. up to 42", the tube bundle employed


is D-shaped and occupies about 65% of the cross-
sectional area of the shell. The balance of the area
serves for vapor disengaging

F. Chiller

The designation chiller is used for units which chill the


tube side fluid by vaporizing a refrigerant in the shell.

This type of exchanger is frequently identical with the AES


type unit except that the tube bundle is only about 75%
full to provide suitable vapor disengaging space.
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When the shell side fluid is relatively clean, a fixed tube


sheet unit with tubes on triangular pitch may be employed.
This represents an economical type of construction.

G. TEMA AFS Type


This is a two-pass (shell side) unit with longitudinal baffle
welded to the shell. The floating tube sheet is divided,
which permits removing the bundle after removal of the
floating head cover.

An alternate AFS type design may allow the longitudinal


baffle to be removable with the bundles. (Lamiflex
construction may be used between the longitudinal baffle
and the shell.)

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3.3 Tube Side Classifications


The more common types of tube side construction according to TEMA
classifications can be found in Figure 3-6.

Table 3-1 lists the design features of the various types of tube side
construction. The common rear end constructions include the floating
head, the U-tube and the fixed tube sheet. The principal differences and
relative advantages and disadvantages of the various types of tube side
construction are discussed below:

3.3.1 Floating Head Type Rear End Construction


Floating head bundles are most often employed. With this type of
construction, front end of the tube bundle is fixed with the tubes
rolled into a fixed tubesheet. The other, orfloating end of the
bundle (floating tubesheet with cover) is free to move with
changes in tube length due to thermal expansion or contraction.
The tube bundle has a floating-head support-plate which rests on
the bottom of the shell. Additional support is provided by the tube
bundle baffles (segmental support plates are provided for this
purpose if the baffling would otherwise be inadequate).

The advantages are that the floating tubesheet/tubes can expand


or contract relative to the shell, and the bundle can be removed
from the shell for cleaning or repairing. Both the tube side and
shell side can be mechanically cleaned, making this type of
exchanger applicable to a wide range of services.

The disadvantages are that floating head construction is relatively


expensive, and there is a greater possibility of leakage between
shell side and tube side through the bolted floating head cover.

Floating head construction is generally used when dirty or high


fouling fluids are present in both shell and tube sides.

The above construction provides for differences in thermal


expansion between shell and tubes resulting from differences in
the coefficients of expansion of different metals, as well as from
temperature differences. If both bundle ends were fixed,
excessive shell and tube stresses would frequently result.

A Multipass Tubes

Most shell and tube exchangers are multipass, that is,


constructed with two or more tube passes.
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Floating head construction types commonly used with


multipass tube bundles are discussed below.

1. Split Ring

This type of floating head rear-end closure is shown


as S-type in TEMA designations. Figure 3-1
illustrates this type in a TEMA AES exchanger.

Split Ring refers to one type of closure used in


fastening the floating head cover to the floating
tubesheet. Bolts pass through bolt holes in the
periphery of the floating head cover, outside the
periphery of the floating tubesheet (a space ring is
located outside this bolt circle), and then through the
split ring which bears against the back of the
floating tubesheet. This ring is split into two halves
(semi-circles) for ease of removal.

The S-type is the most commonly used floating


head.

For this type of exchangers, the floating head cover


must be removed in order to withdraw the tube
bundle from the shell; to remove the floating head
cover, however, the shell cover must have first been
removed. The advantage of the split ring closure is
that the tubes can be located relatively close to the
outer edge of the floating tubesheet. Consequently,
there is little free space between the tube bundle
and the shell, with little bypassing of the bundle by
the shell side fluid. This results in greater thermal
efficiency.

2. Full Bolted

A less common floating head type multipass unit is


the pull-thruunit. This type of floating head rear
end closure is shown as T-type in TEMA
designations. Figure 3-5 illustrates this type in a
TEMA AKT exchanger.

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With this type of floating head closure, the bolts


pass through the floating tubesheet so that the
outside diameter of the floating tubesheet and cover
are the same. The bundle can be pulled through the
shell without removing the floating head cover (or, of
course, the shell cover). A disadvantage of this
construction is the larger free space between the
outside of the bundle and the shell, which tends to
result in bypassing of the bundle by the shell side
fluid and reduces thermal efficiency. Also, the pull-
thru type requires a larger diameter shell than the
ordinary type (for the same surface).

This can sometimes be the most expensive type of


the floating head types if thermal efficiency reduction
is substantial, but the bundle can be withdrawn
without dismantling the floating head. This is an
advantage if regular cleaning of the shell side is
required.

B. Single Pass Tubes

With single pass tube side construction, the tube side inlet
and outlet are necessarily at opposite ends of the
exchanger. The fact that one of these connections,
normally the outlet, must be at the floating end, introduces
complications. The most common types of construction
employed in these circumstances to provide for differential
thermal expansion are discussed below.

1. Packed Joints for Shell Side Closure

This type of construction is not often recommended


on exchangers with oil in the shell because of the
danger of leakage. Leakage not only constitutes a
fire hazard but also a cleanliness problem.

If the shell fluid is clean and nonflammable, this type


of construction may be used if the shell pressure is
not excessive.

a. With tube side outlet nozzle passing through


shell cover.

The TEMA AES-Single Tube Pass type


exchanger in Figure 3-4 illustrates this.
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b. Outside packed floating head

This type has the packed joint between the


floating head itself and the shell. The packed
joint consists of a gland comprising the
packing in a stuffing box at the end of the shell.
This type is cheaper than (1) above, but less
desirable due to the larger diameter of the
packed joint.
This type of floating head rear-end closure is
shown as P-type in TEMA designations. It is
only suitable if small amounts of leakage
between the two fluids can be tolerated.
Leakage occurs because of corrosion on the
sliding parts of the outside packing.
2. Expansion Joints

At elevated pressures, an expansion joint may be


employed to prevent leakage. The expansion ring
(Zallea or equal) is on a sleeve pipe on the shell
cover. A flange on the sleeve pipe is bolted to a
flange welded to the floating head cover outlet
nozzle pipe in such a way that the shell cover can
be backed off sufficiently to unbolt the floating
head cover. The tube covers can then be removed
to permit withdrawal of the tube bundle from the
shell (at the opposite end).

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3.3.2 U-tube Type Rear End Construction


The tubes are bent into a U shape so that only one tubesheet is
required. An example is shown in Figure 3-2 as the TEMA CFU
type exchanger.

Here the tubes resemble hairpins, with both tube ends rolled into
the fixed tubesheet and with the Uat the opposite end of the
shell.

The advantages are that the U-tube construction is relatively


cheap due to single tubesheet. Bundle is removable so that shell
side can be mechanically cleaned.

Tubes can expand or contract relative to the shell so that it can


cope with high temperature differences.

The disadvantages is that although the U-bundle exchanger is


cheaper than the floating head, and sometimes even cheaper than
the fixed tubesheet, the Us are difficult to clean. As a result,
U -tubes are only used when the tube side fluid is sufficiently
clean so that there is little fouling inside the tube. If the tube side
fluid is dirty, the tube ID should be greater then 3/4" to permit
mechanical cleaning. Because there are fewer tube/tubesheet
joints than other types, the U tube bundle is often used in high
pressure or hydrogen service. The most common use of U-tube
bundles is when steam is the heating medium in kettles and in-
column reboilers.

3.3.3 Fixed Tubesheets Type Rear End Construction


An example of this type of construction is shown in Figure 3-2 as
the TEMA BEM type exchanger.

Here both front and rear tubesheets are fixedor welded to the
shell.

An expansion joint may be required in the shell to avoid excessive


stresses resulting from differential expansion of the shell and
tubes. If the mean temperature difference between the shell and
the tube exceeds 50F, stress calculations (by Heat Transfer
Equipment Engineering Group) are advisable to see if an
expansion joint is required.

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With fixed tubesheet construction, tubes are non-removable.


Consequently, this construction should only be employed with
exceptionally clean shell side fluids (i.e., steam). Since the outer
sides of the tubes are not accessible for cleaning in any case,
tubes are frequently located on triangular pitch when fixed
tubesheet construction is employed.

A fixed tubesheet unit (even when Admiralty tubes are used)


should have steel tubesheets because it is impossible to weld
brass tubesheets to a steel shell.

Fixed tubesheet construction is the only type which allows the use
of an odd number of tube passes (besides single pass) with a
single pass shell. For example, a three pass tube layout may be
employed.

The advantages are that fixed tubesheets type has simple


construction and is therefore relatively cheap. It can be designed
for pure countercurrent flow. This is very useful if there is a
temperature cross.

Its disadvantages are that without a shell expansion joint this type
is limited to a maximum mean temperature difference of 50F
between the shell and the tubes (See Section 4.7 for method of
calculating the mean temperature difference). This limit is due to
both tubesheets being fixed to the shell. At higher differential, the
problem can be overcome by fitting an expansion bellows to the
shell, but some clients will not accept this.

The shell side cannot be mechanically cleaned. Chemical


cleaning is generally used on water service, natural gas coolers
and similar services.

A common use of fixed tubesheets construction is natural gas


coolers with temperature cross.

3.3.4 Front End Stationary Head Construction


Differences in channel construction in the front end stationary
head are of somewhat less importance than differences in rear
endor shell construction. However, some of the common types
are discussed briefly below. Figure 3-6 shows the various types of
front end stationary head in TEMA designations.

A. Separate Channel with Removable Cover

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Here the cover can be removed for cleaning the inside of


the tubes without unbolting the channel connections. This
is the A type in TEMA designation.

B. Integral Channel Cover (bonnet)

These channels are usually of the bonnet type. Of


course, this type of construction is relatively inexpensive.
However, it would only be employed with a clean fluid in
the tubes, since it is necessary to unbolt the channel
connections to remove the bonnet to clean the tubes on
the inside. This construction is frequently used for
reboilers or any exchanger with integral shell cover. This
is theBtype in TEMA designation.

C. Combined Channel and Fixed Tubesheet

Channels are occasionally constructed integral with the


fixed tubesheet. Cost reduction is usually not sufficient to
justify decreased accessibility of tubes. The arrangement
is used in high pressure design (over 900 psig). Several
varieties of design are available. These are labeled C,
N, and Dtypes in TEMA designation.

3.3.5 Tube Types


Familiar tube types are: bare, bayonet and finned tubes. Bare
tubes require no discussion. Finned tubes and bayonet type tubes
are discussed below.

A. Finned Tubes

Use of tubes with fins on the outside is desirable when the


fluid routed through the shell has a low heat transfer
coefficient relative to the fluid in the tubes.

The use of fins increases the area available for heat


transfer through the shell side fluid film and through the
layer of shell side dirt (by ratios in the order of 4:1).

The general practice is to express the overall resistance


(reciprocal of the overall heat transfer coefficient) on the
basis of the extended surface; all the component
resistances are also expressed on the outside
areabasis. Consequently, tube side fluid film and dirt

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resistances are in effect increased by the ratio of outside


to inside surface.

As to the resistance of the tube itself, it is frequently


obtained on the basis of the inside area and multiplied by
the above outside to inside surface ratio. The tube
resistance is composed of that of the tube wall, plus that
of the fins. Part of the heat is transferred through the
extended surface of the fin and then passed on through
the restricted area at the base of the fin, resulting in a
relatively high resistance for the fin alone. If the outside
fluid film and dirt resistances are low, much of the heat will
be diverted through the wall of the tube rather than flowing
through the fin resulting in low fin efficiency.

When the outside resistance is high, however, the metal


resistance of the fin becomes relatively insignificant, and
most of the heat is transferred via the fin rather than
directly through the tube wall. Under these
circumstances, fin efficiency is high, and the use of
extended surface thoroughly justified.

The economics for the use of low fin tubing is dependent


on the tube material. Finned tubes are used when the film
coefficient of the tube side material is significantly higher
than the film coefficient on the shell side. For carbon steel
units if the ratio of coefficients is 4:1 or higher then the
use of finned tubing may prove more economical. For
more expensive tube material the ratio may drop to 2:1 or
higher.

Finning is not recommended for condensing steam duties


as the surface tension of condensate is such that a liquid
film forms in the fins and masks the heat transfer.
However for condensing hydrocarbons this surface
tension effect is not noticeable and in fact the finning
promotes drainage of the liquid.

Calculation of fin resistance is somewhat complicated, but


exchanger manufacturers usually have charts from which
values are readily obtained.

The fins generally used in shell and tube exchangers are


of two types, G-finand K-fin, which are discussed
below.

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1. G-fin Tubes

Longitudinal fins running the length of the tubes


project radially therefrom. The fins may be
embedded in the pipe mechanically (G.R.
construction) or may be in the form of U-shaped
channels continuously welded to the tube (Brown).

The design is well suited to services where the fluid


outside the tubes travels longitudinally with little
cross-flow and low pressure drop, i.e., tank suction
heaters. This type of fin can also be used in vertical
condensers. Special layouts must be used for G-fin
tubes, with tube pitches based on the outside fin
diameter.
2. K-fin Tubes
These tubes have helical fins and are particularly
suited to services wherein the fluid in the shell
travels transversely across the tubes.

Some manufacturers furnish tubes with the helical


fins mechanically attached to the tube wall. One
tube manufacturer, the Wolverine Company, makes
tubes with extruded fins, so that fins and tubes are
integral.

K-fin tubes are available in a wide range of


diameters, as well as fin widths and spacings. A
typical cooler might have 1" O.D., 16 BWG copper
tubes with eight 1-13/16" O.D. copper fins per inch.
These tubes would normally be located on triangular
pitch (2-1/32" base, 1-7/8" alt). Sometimes
serrated fins are used to promote turbulence and
obtain higher heat transfer coefficients.

K-fin units are often advantageously used in the


heating and cooling of air. They may also be
employed for condensing vapors, particularly when
operating at high vacuum where only low pressure
drops in the order of 2 mm of Hg are permissible.
Frequently inlet boxes extending almost the length
of the shell are employed to distribute the fluid
effectively for cross-flow.

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B. Bayonet Tubes

A bayonet consists of a pair of concentric tubes, the outer


of which has one end sealed. Both the inner and outer
tubes extend from separate tubesheets. The surface of
the outer tube is the principal heat transfer surface.

Bayonet exchangers are excellently adapted to services


where little pressure drop is permissible in the shell. Low
pressure drops can be attained since absence of shell
side support plates results in fluid cross-flow. Support
plates are not needed because the bayonets, constructed
with 1" diameter inner pipe and 2" outer pipe, are
sufficiently strong to be self-supporting.

Bayonet tubes are suitable for use in vacuum condensers


and tank suction heaters.

3.4 Shell Side Classifications


A variety of shell side constructions are commonly employed, differing in
such respects as the number of shell passes (either one or two pass), the
number and arrangement of the inlet and outlet nozzles, and the use of
baffles. Also, some constructions provide space for vapor disengaging in
the shell itself. The more common types of shell side construction
according to the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)
classifications can be found in Figure 3-6, which also shows their
corresponding TEMA shell type designation.

The majority of exchangers are of full bundle type with the bundle
essentially filling the shell (no provision for vapor disengaging in the
exchanger).

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Of course it is frequently desirable to provide an inlet baffle beneath the


inlet nozzle with sufficient free area above it to avoid restricting the flow of
the incoming fluid. This usually requires theeliminationof a few tubes at
the top of the bundle. In some cases tubes are also omitted at the bottom
so the bundle can be rotated in case of tube wear or erosion. In this case,
an impingement baffle is also provided at the bottom. However, one
manufacturer, Alco, will provide a bell type nozzle with the impingement
plate located in the nozzle itself, so that a full bundle with no tubes omitted
may be employed. Another manufacturer, Braun, provides a shell with
sections of enlarged diameter at each end. These sections or belts serve
to distribute and collect fluid at the shell inlet and outlet nozzles
respectively. Here again, no tubes need be omitted.

3.4.1 Full Bundle - Single Pass


Most shells are of the single pass type, with the inlet at one end
and the outlet at the other. (If the exchanger consists of only one
shell, and if the tubes are multipass - 2 or more passes - it
generally makes no difference with regard to operation, at which
end of the exchanger the inlet nozzle is located.)
3.4.2 Full Bundle - Split Flow
Split flow shells may or may not employ an internal longitudinal
baffle.

A. Divided Flow - No Longitudinal Baffle

This type is usually employed to obtain a moderate


pressure drop when the shell fluid flow rate is large.
Either one inlet and two outlets, or one outlet and two
inlets may be used. In either case, the single connection
is located at the middle of the shell with the two
connections at the ends. With either arrangement, the
pressure drop corresponds to half the fluid quantity
flowing along half the shell length. Consequently, the
pressure drop is only about 1/8 as much as for a
conventional single pass shell.
B. Split Flow - With Longitudinal Baffle
This type is built with a single longitudinal baffle, has the
inlet and outlet (one of each) located at the middle of the
shell. The fluid splits to flow around the baffle, converging
at the outlet.

The resulting pressure drop is the same as for a


conventional single pass shell, since half the fluid flows
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through half the cross-sectional area, along a path


approximately equal to the tube length.

Frequently a similar construction, the double split flow, is


employed, differing only in that there are two separate
longitudinal baffles, also two inlets and outlets. This
results in a greater degree of cross-flow and a lesser
degree of longitudinal flow than would be obtained with
the single longitudinal baffle design.

Exchangers of the split and double split flow types are


generally employed in horizontal thermosyphon reboiler
service. With 16 ft. tubes, the two baffle type is normally
employed, while with 8 ft. tubes the single baffle
construction is preferable.

3.4.3 Full Bundle - Two-Pass


Some exchangers are built with internal longitudinal baffles for
two-pass flow. The inlet and outlet of such a unit are at the same
end of the shell. The fluid entering the shell flows to the opposite
end through one-half of the shell cross-sectional area, returning
through the other half. The baffle must prevent any of the fluid
from bypassing heat transfer surface by leaking past the sides of
the baffle.

The purpose of this type of construction is to permit a cross in the


temperatures of the fluids (temperature cross is discussed in
Section 4.7) while employing an exchanger consisting of only one
shell.

Several types of two-pass shell construction are employed as


discussed below.

A. Longitudinal Baffle Welded to Shell

This type requires the use of a splitfloating tube sheet


to permit removal of the tube bundle. The construction
is relatively expensive and results in a bundle with fewer
tubes than can be included in a single-pass shell. This
type is rarely used and should only be considered in
special circumstances.

The advantage of a welded longitudinal baffle is that the


problem of bypassing due to fluid leakage is eliminated.

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B. Removable Longitudinal Baffle (integral with tube


bundle).

A number of constructions of this type are possible.


Designs involving the use of packing between the baffle
edge and the shell have been employed but are liable to
fluid leakage past the packing. So-called Lamiflex
seals are preferable. Possibility of damage to the seals
may be a problem if frequent tube bundle removal is
needed. This will result in a reduction of heat transfer
efficiency in the exchanger.

3.4.4 Partially Full Bundle


A number of services require the disengaging of vapor in the
shell of the heat exchanger itself. This is true of some reboilers
(kettle type), chillers, etc. Ordinarily a round bundle with a full
O.T.L. (outer tube limit) is employed. The shell, also round, is
designed to provide sufficient space above the surface of the
liquid for vapor disengaging. The tube bundle rests (via support
plates) on the bottom of the shell.

Sometimes, instead of the eccentric circle relationship between


bundle and shell described above, a D type of bundle is
employed. Here, bundle and shell have diameters corresponding
to those of an ordinary shell and tube exchanger with a full
bundle. Then tubes are omitted from the top of the bundle to
provide the necessary vapor disengaging space. The D shape
of the resulting bundle gives it its name.

Some of the principal types of exchangers having partially full


bundles, or, expressed another way, oversized shells, are
discussed below.

A. Kettle Type Reboiler

A weir in the shell maintains the level of the boiling liquid


above the top of the tube bundle. Space is provided in
the shell above the surface of the liquid to disengage
entrained liquid from the vapor, and baffles are provided
below the outlet vapor nozzles to further minimize liquid
entrainment. Liquid storage space is provided beyond the
weir. See Fig. 3-7 for sketch giving essential dimensions
for the shell of a kettle type reboiler.

Tube bundles may be of either the U or floating head


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type. Either a large bonnet type channel may be used, or


a small channel corresponding to the bundle size. In the
latter case an eccentric conical section is required
between shell and channel. As this type is used mainly
for pool boiling duties, pressure drop is essentially
negligible.

B. Bundle in Tank Reboilers

Where liquid holdup requirements are too great to be


incorporated beyond the weir of a kettle type reboiler (the
shell should not be extended much over 10' beyond the
weir), a special bundle in tank construction may be used.
Here, the bundle is thrust through a manhole into a tank
of the required capacity. The bundle rests in a shell,
open at the top for vapor disengaging and with a weir at
the end. Liquid overflows the weir and drops a few inches
to the surface of the pool of holdup liquid in the tank itself.

3.5 Reboilers
3.5.1 General
Natural circulation reboilers can be divided into 4 basic types.
They are:

A. Once-thru horizontal thermosyphon - (see Figure 3-8).

B. Recirculated horizontal thermosyphon - (see Figure 3-8).

C. Kettle - (see Figure 3-9).

D. Vertical thermosyphon - (see Figure 3-8).

Foster Wheeler usually specifies once-thru horizontal


thermosyphon units for reboiler service with clean boiling fluids
and low vaporization. Choice of type is primarily a matter of
operational tradition, plant plot space, and percent of vaporization.
In most cases, horizontal thermosyphon units give the least
expensive overall installation. However, circumstances vary and
in some cases, kettle units may be an economical selection. In
addition, some process licensors/designers may not accept
vertical thermosyphon reboilers for certain processes.

3.5.2 Once-thru Horizontal Thermosyphon

This is the preferred type for most applications, as it saves


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headroom, hence, lower column skirts. With this type, only the
liquid from the bottom tray (trapout) flows to the reboiler. That is,
the reboiler feed consists entirely of the portion of trapout liquid to
be vaporized and the bottom product. As indicated before, this
type is most frequently employed in clean service with low
vaporization. TEMA G and H type shells are normally used for
this service.

3.5.3 Recirculated Horizontal Thermosyphon

The TEMA Tentative Standard states that, in the case of a


thermosyphon reboiler, not more than 80% of the feed should be
vaporized, that vapor binding of the heating surface would occur
beyond this point. Thus at vapor bottoms weight flow ratio in
excess of 4:1, a recirculated reboiler should be used instead of a
once-thru unit. TEMA G and H type shells are also normally used
for this service. Alternatively, kettle type units may be considered
for reboiler services of high vapor-to-liquid ratio.

In recirculated reboilers, the reboiler feed is a mixture of trapout


liquid from the tower bottom tray and recirculating liquid from the
reboiler outlet. Generally, there are two alternate arrangements
for a recirculation type horizontal thermosyphon reboiler as
follows:

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A. Combined Bottoms Outlet

Here the tower bottom is arranged so that a single outlet


is used to withdraw the combined bottoms product and
reboiler feed. The feed to the reboiler has the same
composition as the bottoms product in this arrangement.A
slightly higher reboiler outlet temperature is required than
with a once-thru type, since the feed to the reboiler has
the same composition as the product from the once-thru
type. The temperature range for such a unit is small
because of the high flow rate.

For a given reboiler circuit (added in), the extent of


recirculation depends on both friction loss and driving
force. Friction loss increases with recirculation, while the
driving force (differential head between the feed and
return legs to/from the reboilers) decreases. That flow
which results in equality of the two forces is the
recirculation rate. Refer to Process Standard 203 for
procedures on hydraulic calculations in reboiler
systems.An outlet liquid/vapor weight ratio of 4 or 5:1 is
considered satisfactory. If a large differential height
between the high and low liquid levels in the tower bottom
exists in the design, a higher actual recirculation rate will
result since the design recirculation rate is usually
calculated based upon the towers low liquid level.
Excessive piping and exchanger vibration, is calculated
based on this high liquid level in tower.

B. Separate Bottoms Outlets

In this arrangement, a vertical baffle is installed in the


tower bottom, separating the bottoms product and the
reboiler feed. The reboiler feed has a slightly different
composition than that of the bottoms product. The
principal difference with this arrangement is that it is not
necessary to heat to a temperature higher than the bubble
point of the bottoms, since the bottoms product is of the
same composition as the returned liquid from the reboiler.
Thus, the principal disadvantage of the recirculating type
units is eliminated, while at the same time the advantages
of increased liquid/vapor ratio can be realized.

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3.5.4 Kettle Type


This type is used where the reboiler cannot be mounted
sufficiently below the liquid level in the column to provide a large
recirculation rate. A variation of this type is the stabbed-in
reboiler. In this case, the reboiler bundle is inserted into the base
of the tower from the side and boils the holdup liquid. Because of
the necessarily large flange on the side of the tower, stabbed-in
type reboiler is only used on small towers of diameter less than 6
ft.

Kettle reboiler has a large diameter shell for separation of vapor


and liquid. A weir is also provided to maintain the liquid level
above the top of the tube bundle. Holdup volume for the overflow
is provided beyond the weir. Disengaged vapor returns to the
bottom of the tower.

In case large holdup volume is required, the shell may be


extended approximately 10 feet beyond the weir. If the volume is
still inadequate, a special bundle in drum construction may be
employed.
3.5.5 Vertical Thermosyphon
This type is used when the available plot space is limited and is
often supported directly off the column. It is not unusual to have
several vertical thermosyphons supported around the
circumference of a column all connected in parallel. The HTRI
(Heat Transfer Research Institute) Design Manual indicates that
contrary to earlier belief this type generally has a lower heat
transfer coefficient than kettles or horizontal thermosyphons. Most
frequently these are fixed tubesheet units with the process fluid in
the single pass tubes and steam on the shell side. When a mean
temperature difference between the shell and tube sides is more
than 50F, single-pass floating head design is used in vertical
thermosyphon, to accommodate the differences in thermal
expansion between them. In this case a packed joint at the
floating end is usually employed, which may not be acceptable to
some applications. Therefore, use of these units is limited and
should be avoided if possible. Tube length of a vertical unit may
be reduced to as little as 10 feet to avoid excessive tower
elevation. In cases of extreme fouling, high viscosity or low
vacuum, forced circulation (pump-thru) type instead of
thermosyphon can be used in a vertical reboiler system.

3.5.6 Pump-thru Type


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Occasionally it is considered necessary to employ a pump to


assure morepositive circulation than that afforded by a
thermosyphon reboiler. An example would be the case of a
reboiler feed with a pronounced tendency toward fouling or
plugging.

The two common types in use are similar to the recirculated


horizontal thermosyphon and vertical thermosyphon types as
described above, but with pumps in the boiling liquid line to the
exchangers

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Figure 3-9 Kettle Reboiler System

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Floating
Floating Head Floating Head Floating Head Head
Type of Fixed Pull-Through Outside Packed Split Outside
Design U-tube Tubesheet Bundle Lantern-Ring Backing Ring Packed
Stuffing Box

Relative Cost
Increases From
(A) Least Expen-
sive through
(E) Most
Expensive A B C C D E

Provision for
Differential individual tubes expansion joint
Expansion free to expand in shell floating head floating head floating head floating head

Removable
Bundle yes no yes yes yes yes

Replacement
Bundle Possible yes not practical yes yes yes yes

Individual Tubes only those in


Replaceable outside row yes yes yes yes yes

Tube Interiors difficult to


Cleanable do mechanically yes, yes, yes, yes, yes,
can do mechanically mechanically mechanically mechanically mechanically
chemically or chemically or chemically or chemically or chemically or chemically

Tube Exteriors
With Triangular chemically
Pitch Cleanable chemically only chemically only chemically only chemically only chemically only only

Tube Exteriors yes, yes, yes, yes, yes,


With Square mechanically mechanically mechanically mechanically mechanically
Pitch Cleanable or chemically chemically only or chemically or chemically or chemically or chemically

Double
Tubesheet
Feasible yes yes no no no yes

no no
practical practical
limitation (for limitation (for
single pass, single pass,
any practical floating head floating head
Number of even no practical requires packed limited to single requires packed no practical
Tube Passes number possible limitations joint) or 2 pass joint) limitation

Internal Gaskets
Eliminated yes yes no yes no yes

1.0 Table 3-1 Design Features of Various Types of Tube Side Construction

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4.0 PROCESS AND EXCHANGER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4.1 General
This section describes information needed for completing heat exchanger
process specifications. A standard Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Requisition Form* has been filled out and is included as Figure 4-1 in the
Appendix. The data shown on this form is that required by the Foster
Wheeler Heat Transfer Equipment Engineering Group for designing or
rating an exchanger.

Fundamental process variables such as temperature, !T, and !P are


considered here; design principles apply generally to the exchanger
services discussed in Section 2.0.

It is frequently necessary to estimate exchanger surface in order to


determine the number of shells required, the economical extent of heat
transfer and plot plan requirements. Consequently, heat transfer
coefficients for typical services as well as methods for approximating heat
transfer rates are presented on the following pages.

* All TEMA members use this standard specification form, differing


only in the name appearing at the top.

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4.2 Basic Formula


The following fundamental relationship is the basis of all shell and tube
heat exchanger surface calculations:
Q
Ao =
U d !T
A0 = Required effective heat exchanger surface, based on tube O.D.
and tube length between the inner faces of the tube sheets.

Q = Total heat to be transferred, Btu/Hr.

Ud = Design overall (service) heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr-ft2-F),


based on outside tube area.

!T = The proper (effective) mean temperature difference applicable


to the particular service, F. It is usually the corrected and/or
weighted temperature difference between the fluids.

For exchangers where the flow of the hot and cold fluids is true counter or
concurrent, !T is equal to the log mean temperature difference (LMTD).

In most commercial exchangers, the use of shell baffles and multiple tube
passes causes the flow to be partially counter and partially concurrent.
Since the concurrent flow results in a lower !T a correction factor (F), must
be applied to the countercurrent LMTD, i.e., !T (effective) = LMTD x F (F
"# 1.0). The correction factor is also a function of the number of exchanger
shells connected in series.

The overall coefficient is calculated from the individual film coefficients,


fouling factors and tube wall resistance.

1/Ud=(1/h0 + r0) (1/Ef) + 1/(hiAi/A0) + ri/(Ai/A0) + rw

Where h0 = shellside fluid film coefficient based on outside


tube area, Btu/(hr-ft2-F)

hI = tubeside fluid film coefficient based on inside tube


area, Btu/(hr-ft2-F)

r0 = shellside fluid fouling resistance, (hr-ft2-F)/Btu

ri = tubeside fluid fouling resistance, (hr-ft2-F)/Btu

rw = tube metal resistance (Note 2), (hr-ft2-F)/Btu


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Ao = outside tube area, ft2

Ai = inside tube area, ft2

Ef = fin efficiency (when applicable)

Note (1) the ratio Ai/Ao = ID of tube/OD of tube for plain tubes only.

Note (2) rw = wall resistance usually is small enough to be ignored

rw = l/12K where

l = wall thickness, in

K = thermal conductivity, Btu/(hr-ftF)

The effective heat exchanger surface is defined as follows:

Ao = $doLN

Where do = outside tube diameter, ft.

L = effective tube length = overall length, ft.

N = number of tubes

For U-tubes overall length = straight length.

The bend area of U-tubes is taken into account by the


exchanger designer for certain cases such as reboilers.

The proper mean temperature difference determined as


described in Section 4.7 shall be used in the basic formula
above.

4.3 Temperatures
Criteria for establishing the heat exchanger operating temperatures
arediscussed below:

4.3.1 Products to Storage

These temperatures must be sufficiently low from the standpoint of


safety (avoidance of fire hazard) and economy (little vaporization
loss in tankage). A number of variables are involved, making it
difficult to arrive at an optimum temperature value. The typical
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battery limit temperatures listed in Table 4-1 should provide


guidance.

4.3.2 Cooler Temperatures


A. Oil Inlet

As a result of energy conservation high process inlet


temperatures (400F) to water coolers are not likely to be
encountered. If required, however, high inlet
temperatures can:

1. Accelerate fouling in the tubes due to higher water


film temperature.

2. Increase the thickness of admirality or brass


materials due to reduced allowable stress values at
higher metal temperatures.

B. Overhead Condenser Outlet Temperatures

Here, an extensive economic study is required to


establish an optimum value. General practice, however,
is to cool to a temperature approximately 20F above the
cooling water inlet temperature.

C. Cooling Water Outlet Temperatures

1. Maximum values

a. Salt Water

A value of 110F is usually regarded as


maximum. Scaling would usually be too
severe at higher temperatures.

b. Fresh Water

120F is usually considered a maximum value


for fresh water, i.e., cooling tower water. This
maximum value is principally a function of the
water quality. If the water is at all hard,
excessive scaling would result at higher film
temperatures.

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c. Box Coolers

A maximum of 140F is used. This applies to


both fresh and salt water.

d. Reuse of Cooling Water (Cascade System)

Reuse of cooling water always deserves


consideration. Sometimes, i.e. with
condensers (particularly surface condensers),
large amounts of water are employed and the
water outlet temperature is relatively low, say
100F. In such cases this water may
frequently be reused in other coolers where a
relatively high water inlet temperature may be
acceptable or desirable because of a high pour
point liquid or other factors. Water is often
reused in box coolers.

2. Actual Values

Utilize the maximum water outlet temperature, t2


from step 1 above unless this exceeds the process
outlet temperature, T2.

With low values of T2 such as 100 110F., brief


economic studies are sometimes justified to
establish t2.

One simple procedure is:

Assume three cases, approximately as follows:

t2 = T2; t2 = T2 +! t; t2 = T2 - !t

where !t may be set between 10 to 20F

With an estimated Ud value, calculate the amount of


surface corresponding to each calculated t2 value.
Obtain the appropriate unit surface costs from the
Estimating Department (alternatively, if preliminary
feasibility studies are involved, the pricing data
provided in Section 8.2 may be used) to determine
the respective exchanger investment costs.

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Obtain an appropriate cooling tower cost from the


Estimating Department (the 1983 installed cost
including pumps, cooling tower and piping in a U.S.
Gulf Coast location is approximately 75 to 85 $/GPM
of capacity) to determine the investment cost for
each case. Then determine the cooling water
operating cost, based upon the cooling water
requirement in each case. The cooling water cost
(/1000 gals) is usually given in the Basic
Engineering Data (BED) sheets for a project (the
1983 cooling water cost in a U.S. Gulf Coast
location is about 6/1000 gals). The total cooling
tower cost is the sum of its investment and operating
costs. Based on the cooling water requirement,
compare the combined exchanger and total cooling
tower cost for each case in order to arrive at the
minimum value corresponding to an optimum t2. If
necessary, a plot of t2 versus the combined
investment and operating cost may be employed for
this purpose.

If a cooler is to consist of only one shell with a single


shell pass, t2 may equal but not exceed T2. In other
words, a temperature cross must be avoided. This
point is discussed further in Section 4.7 on
!Tsand MTDs.

An example problem is given below to illustrate the


above procedure to determine the cooling water
outlet temperature.

Problem: Coker kerosene product cooling from


239F to 110F,

Cooling duty = 8.5 million Btu/hr,


Cooling water
inlet temperature = 90F
Minimum design
pressure of oil side = 300 psig

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Solution: Assume three cases with cooling water


outlet temperature, t2, as:

case 1 (t2)1 = 110F

case 2 (t2)2 = 110F + 10F = 120F

case 3 (t2)3 = 110F 10F = 100F

a. Calculate Exchanger Cost

From Table 4-4, a typical overall Ud value for a


coker kerosene cooler is 64. The
corresponding corrected LMTD values (see
Section 4.7.2) for case 1, 2 and 3 are 46.8,
51.6 and 58.3, respectively.

Therefore, the required amount of exchanger


surface for the three cases studied are:

case 1 One shell, total surface = 2,838 ft2

case 2 Two shells, total surface = 2,574 ft2

case 3 One shell, total surface = 2,278 ft2

The unit surface costs can be estimated from


Figure 8-4 for this purpose. Note that in case
2, since two shells are required, the unit
surface cost should be estimated based upon
two shells. Therefore, the unit surface cost
should be estimated based upon two shells of
1,287 ft2 each.

Assume the water cooler will be of TEMA AES


type construction with inch carbon steel tube
in 1" square pitch (see Section 4.6 for tube
arrangements). From Figure 8-4 (a), the
installed exchanger cost for each case can
then be calculated as follows:

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Exchanger Cost = $/ft2 x CPI cost factor x


surface area x installation factor.

If CPI cost factor for 1983 is 1.35 and


installation factor for U.S. Gulf Coast location
is 4.0, the exchanger costs are:

case 1 = $9.5 x 1.35 x 2,838 x 4.0 =


$145,600

case 2 = $13.5 x 1.35 x 1,287 x 4.0 x 2 =


$187,650

case 3 = $10.5 x 1.35 x 2,278 x 4.0 =


$129,150

b. Calculate Cooling Water Cost

The cooling water requirements for each case


can be calculated as follows:

C.W. GPM = Exchanger duty/[!t C.W. x 500]

case 1 = 8,500,000/[(110-90) x 500] = 850


GPM

case 2 = 8,500,000/[(120-90) x 500] = 567


GPM

case 3 = 8,500,000/[(100-90) x
500]=1,700 GPM

Then the cooling water cost can be estimated


as follows:

C.W. cost = cooling tower cost + cooling water


operating cost using an installed cooling tower
cost of $75/GPM capacity and assuming a 2
year (8,000 operating hrs/year) payout
criterion, the cooling water cost for each case
studied becomes:

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case 1 = $75/GPM x 850 GPM +


($0.06/1,000 gals) x 850 GPM x
60 min/hr x 16,000 hr.

= $63,750 + $48,960

= $112,710

case 2 = $75/GPM x 567 GPM +


(0.06/1,000 gals) x 567 GPM x
60 min/hr x 16,000 hr.

= $42,525 + $32,660

= $75,185

case 3 = $75/GPM x 1,700 GPM +


($0.06/1,000 gals) x 1,700 GPM
x 60 min/hr x 16,000 hr.

= $127,500 + $97,920

= $225,420

c. Compare combined cost to obtain optimum


cooling water outlet temperature.

The total combined exchanger and cooling


water costs of the three cases can now be
determined.

case 1 combined cost = $145,600 +


$112,710 = $258,310

case 2 combined cost = $187,650 + $75,185


= $262,835

case 3 combined cost = $129,150 +


$225,420 = $354,570

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The above result has shown that among the


three cases, case 1 will give a cooling water
outlet temperature, t2, corresponding to the
minimum cost, based upon the selected
economic criteria in the problem.

In order to obtain a more general conclusion,


several more cases corresponding to other
values of temperature for t2, were studied. A
plot of t2 versus the combined investment and
operating cost for all the cases is shown in
Figure 4-2.

It is observed that in general the combined


cost decreases with increasing cooling water
outlet temperature when the number of
exchanger shells remains constant. When the
cooling water outlet temperature, t2, exceeds
the oil outlet temperature, T2, two shells will be
required due to a temperature cross. At this
point, the combined cost goes up. Therefore,
it is concluded that the maximum allowable
cooling water return temperature (usually given
in a project) should be employed when the
number of shells remains constant. When the
number of shells required increases due to
temperature cross or other reasons, a plot
similar to that shown in Figure 4-2 may be
employed to determine the optimum cooling
water outlet temperature. In the example
problem above, if the maximum allowable
return temperature is 120F or less, the
optimum t2 should be 110F. If the maximum
allowable return temperature is higher than
120F, the optimum t2 should be set at the
maximum allowable return temperature.

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4.3.3 Economical Temperature Approaches


This discussion will be brief since the subject will be covered more
fully in Section 8.0.

A temperature approach (smaller of the two terminal temperature


differences) in the range of 20 to 40F minimum is frequently
employed when specifying oil" exchangers. Actually, the proper
value can only be determined by an economic study for each
case. In general, for hydrocarbons with a viscosity of greater than
5 cps at the exchanger outlet temperature, a 20F minimum
temperature approach is usually employed; while for those of less
than 5 cps, a 10 to 150F minimum temperature approach may be
employed. For reactor effluent exchangers, a minimum
temperature approach of 30 to 40F is recommended due to the
potential for variation in the temperature of the effluent stream.

When a number of streams are employed to supply heat to a feed


stream, for example in a crude unit or a catalytic cracker, use of a
heat picture is very valuable. (Section 8.0). Here the
temperature of each stream is plotted as ordinate against heat
content above a convenient datum (see Figure 4-3 as an
example). Such a picture is particularly valuable when a heat
exchanger trainmust be designed for multiple operating cases.
The picture also illustrates the effect on subsequent exchangers of
reducing the approach between the feed and any other stream.
Refer to Section 8.0 for more details on setting up heat exchanger
trains.

When a refrigerant is the coolant a temperature approach of 10 -


15F is usually employed. This close approach is justified by the
increased compressor costs that would result at lower refrigerant
temperatures and pressures. A 3-5F approach can be obtained
with special sintered surface tubing.

4.4 Fluid Routing Arrangements


The rules included here are for guidance only and should not be
considered inflexible.

a. Routing Fluids

The general order of priority to establish the tubeside fluid is listed


below:

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1. Cooling water

2. A corrosive fluid or a fluid likely to deposit coke, sediment or


other solids such as catalyst.

3. The higher fouling fluid.

4. The less viscous of the two fluids, where large differences


exist.

5. The fluid under higher pressure, where large differences


exist.

6. The hotter fluid.

Condensing vapors are usually located on the shell side.


Also, if the temperature change of a fluid in one shell of an
exchanger is very large, for example, several hundred
degrees, it is often better to pass this fluid through the shell,
since otherwise multiple shells may be required to avoid
excessive temperature stresses on the floating head and
tubesheets.

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4.5 Shell Arrangements

4.5.1 Number of Shells Required


The total number of shells necessary for an exchanger is
frequently determined from temperature correction considerations.
For example, when there is a temperature cross between two
fluids, two or more shells (with multi-pass bundles) are required.
Otherwise the number of shells depends on the total surface
required and on the maximum allowable bundle size specified by
the client.

The bundle size (shell I.D.) is usually limited to a maximum of 48-


60 inches due to maintenance considerations. The limiting value
is usually given in the BED sheets. Removal of larger units would
be difficult for most refineries. Although larger units may
sometimes be employed in special circumstances, they will usually
require prior approval from clients before being considered. If the
maximum bundle size is exceeded multiple smaller exchangers
may be arranged in series or parallel. Refer to Section 5.3 for an
example of how to estimate the shell I.D. (bundle size).
4.5.2 Series or Parallel Arrangements
Where possible, all shells (or as many as possible) should be
connected for series flow because of the advantage in the MTD
correction factor and a more economical piping arrangement.

A reason for arranging shells in parallel is to avoid exceeding


allowable pressure drop values. Parallel arrangements are
frequently required with vapors (seldom with liquids) as in
overhead condensers. It is desirable to limit the number of parallel
streams in order to avoid distribution problems. The following
methods are used to reduce the number of parallel streams to a
minimum without exceeding the allowable pressure drop when the
fluid is on the shellside:

a. Use of wide pitch for baffles or support plates.

b. Use of double segmental baffles.

c. Use of split flow shells (TEMA G, J or H type).

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4.5.3 Horizontal or Vertical Orientation


Most exchangers are horizontal. Vertical units may be used or
considered for the following services:

a. Steam generators or waste heat boilers.

b. Catalytic cracker feed-slurry exchangers.

c. Thermosyphon reboilers. (Maximum tube length is 12 ft.)

d. Feed - effluent exchangers.

e. Severe space limitations.


4.5.4 Submerged or Elevated Condenser

The placing of condensers at a minimum height above grade


(called submerged when lower than distillate drum) (1) simplifies
maintenance and reduces the amount of structural steel required.
On the other hand, use of a submerged condenser causes an
increase in tower pressure (due to the static head of liquid in the
line connecting the condenser with the drum) and consequently
higher tower temperatures. The increase in temperature may
mean little at high pressure, but may be very significant in low
pressure operations.

In general, condensers are located at grade at operating


pressures above approximately 50 psig and elevated at lower
pressures. One exception to the pressure guideline is the main
fractionator condenser in catalytic cracking units, which
occasionally have been located at grade. Although the overhead
pressure is low (5 to 10 psig), the volume of uncondensed vapor is
large. This results in a low mixture density, producing only a small
increase in tower pressure due to static head.

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4.5.5 Stacking or Side by Side


When an exchanger service consists of a number of shell and
tube units in series, the shells are usually stacked. In general,
stacking results in savings in piping as well as plot space.

In the absence of customer specifications, Foster Wheeler


practice is to stack shells a maximum of two high although for
shells under 24" diameter, 3 high is usually acceptable. Shells
operating in parallel are normally placed side by side and seldom,
if ever, stacked.

4.6 Tube Arrangements


Tube sizes and bundle configurations are established by the heat transfer
engineering group in accordance with the client as well as specific service
requirements.

4.6.1 Tubes - Length, Diameter, Pitch


a. Length

20 foot tubes are used most frequently. The reasons are:


lower exchanger costs; most refineries stock only 20 foot
tubes for replacement; 20 foot tubes can economically be cut
into lengths of 10 feet or smaller. Use of 20 foot tubes is
generally economical, even in small exchangers.

Use of longer tubes i.e. 24 ft. may reduce exchanger costs,


but more plot space is required.

b. Diameter and Gauge (Minimum Wall Thickness Tubes Used)

1. Water Service

Normally " O.D., 16 BWG for admiralty or other


copper based tubes and " O.D., 14 BWG for steel
tubes.

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2. Oil Service - Steel Tubes

Corrosion
Severity of O.D. Fouling
BWG Allowance,
Service Inches Factor
Inches

Slightly fouling, 14 <0.005 <0.05


non-corrosive

Slightly fouling, 12 <0.005 >0.05


corrosive

Fouling, non- 1 12 >0.005 <0.05


corrosive

Fouling, 1 10 >0.005 >0.05


corrosive

Extremely 1 10 >0.01 >0.05


fouling,
corrosive

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c. Pitch - Distance Between Tube Centers

TEMA standards cover tube spacing. Minimum


recommended spacing is:

1.25 x tube O.D.

1. Triangular

Triangular pitch is used when the shell side fluid is


clean (steam) or where chemical cleaning has provided
satisfactory results.

Equilateral triangular pitch provides the maximum


surface for a given bundle size and therefore is more
economical than square or rotated square pitch (i.e.
lowest cost per ft2).

2. Square in line

Whenever mechanical cleaning of the outside of the


tubes is required, square pitch should be used. The
open lanes between the tubes provide the accessibility
for mechanical cleaning i.e. high pressure water
blasting. This pattern is typical of refinery services.

Square tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D. or tube


O.D. + ", whichever is greater.

3. Square at 45 Degrees

This arrangement provides lanes for cleaning


accessibility, yet gives a more turbulent shell side flow
than does 90 in-line square pitch. This turbulence is
particularly desirable when the shell fluid is a heavy,
viscous liquid tending toward laminar flow. This type of
tube pitch may be obtained as follows:

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a) Rotated bundle

Here channel partitions, as well as, tube rows are


rotated 45 degrees with respect to both baffle cut
and grade. The only disadvantage of this
construction is that the 45 degree channel
partitions may sometimes make it impossible to
employ normally located (radial) channel nozzles.

b) Diamond pitch (Recommended Method)

Here channel partitions are horizontal and baffle


cuts vertical. The tube rows are at 45 degrees
with respect to the channel partitions. The
principal disadvantage of this construction is that
fewer tubes can be included for a given bundle
size. The more partitions required, the more
tubes are lost compared with other types of
square pitch with the same number of partitions.

c) Tube rows may be vertical with the shell baffles


cut on a 45 degree bias. The disadvantage of
this construction is the tendency for such baffles
to cause an accumulation of dirt and sludge in the
bottom of the shell, and consequently they are
seldom used.

4.6.2 Tube Passes per Shell


The number of tube passes per shell depends upon the allowable
pressure drop as well as the economics of increased pumping
costs vs. reduction in surface area. More tube passes per shell
increases the tubeside velocity and therefore creates a higher
pressure drop. However, this is offset by the increased tubeside
film coefficient and results in a reduction in surface area.

The desired minimum liquid velocity is 3 ft/sec with 5 ft/sec being


the design goal. Too low a velocity accompanied by a reduction in
turbulence can result in increased fouling due to the deposition of
entrained sediment on the tubewall.

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Bundles are usually constructed with an even number of tube


passes with the exception of single-pass construction. Ordinarily,
no more than eight or ten passes are employed, since the cost per
square foot tends to increase. Units, however with 16 or 20
passes have been built.

Tube bundles of adjacent exchangers may be designed for


interchange ability when suitable from the standpoint of surface,
design pressure, baffle pitch, etc. All bundles involved must be
built for the same number of tube passes as the one actually
requiring the most passes.

For example, if the bundle of a two-pass exchanger is built for 4


passes, it will then give either 2 or 4 passes when used with the
corresponding channel and floating head. Most such
combinations are feasible. However, a 6-pass bundle cannot
readily be used with a normal 4-pass exchanger.
Interchangeability is expensive and normally not used.

4.7 Effective Exchanger Mean Temperature Difference (!T)


!T is the symbol used to represent the effective driving force between
hot and cold fluids to be employed in the basic heat transfer formula,
Q
Ao = .
U d !T

In most cases, the log mean temperature difference (abbreviation,


either LMTD or just MTD) gives the correct !T value when corrected as
necessary for deviation from true countercurrent flow. In some cases,
however, a weightedMTD must be employed.

Formulas for different!T values and the various flow arrangements to


which they apply are discussed below:

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4.7.1 LMTD, Uncorrected

T2 ! t2

! t,=T 2-t,

! t1 - ! t2
! T = LMTD =
* ! t1 '
ln (( %%
) ! t2 &

Notes

1. This formula involves the assumption of a constant heat transfer


coefficient and constant heat capacity throughout the exchanger.

2. If a change of state occurs, a weighted MTD is used, as


discussed in subsequent sections. If either T or t is constant, both
countercurrent flow and parallel flow result in the same LMTD.
Neither a temperature cross nor equal outlets are possible.

3. If !t1 =! t2 then !T = !t1 = !t2.

Figure 4-4 provides a graphical solution of the above LMTD formula.

The uncorrected log mean temperature difference applies to cases of


true countercurrent and of parallel (concurrent) flow (the number of
exchanger shells make no difference).

True countercurrent flow is usually only encountered in exchangers


consisting of sections or double pipes (discussed in Process Standard
303). Countercurrent flow is also approximated in shell and tube
exchangers with the number of tube passes equal to the number of
shell passes (i.e., 1 tube pass and 1 shell pass), but such exchangers
are used rather infrequently. Parallel flow is uneconomical and hardly
ever used.

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An uncorrected LMTD is also used for cases where the temperature of


either fluid is constant throughout the exchanger, i.e. condensing steam.

a. Countercurrent Flow

In this type of flow, two fluids enter at opposite ends of an


exchanger and continue to flow in opposite directions at all points
throughout the exchanger. This arrangement gives the highest
possible LMTD values.

Another advantage is that t2 may exceed T2 even with one shell. In


other words, a temperature cross is permissible. This cross is
usually very small. It is limited by the Foster Wheeler Heat
Transfer Engineering Group by an F factor of 0.80 (see Section
4.7.2).

b. Parallel (concurrent) Flow

Here, the two fluids in question enter at the same end of an


exchanger and continue their parallel flow throughout. The LMTD
values obtained are lower than in countercurrent flow. Neither a
temperature cross nor equal outlets are possible. As mentioned
before, this arrangement is uneconomical and rarely used. This
arrangement is sometimes used to cool a high pour point liquid
with cooling water.

4.7.2 LMTD, Corrected


* '
( %
( ! t1 - ! t 2 %
!T = LMTD corr = F ( %
* ! '
( ln (( t 1 %% %
( %
) ) ! t2 & &
Most shell and tube exchangers are of multi-pass construction,
with two or more tube passes per shell pass. The flow in such an
exchanger may be considered as partly countercurrent and partly
parallel. For this mixed flow, !T is obtained by applying a
correction factor, F, to the calculated LMTD for a countercurrent
flow arrangement.

F values may be obtained from TEMA charts. Separate charts are


presented in Figure 4-5 through 4-8 in the appendix for
convenience for exchangers with 1, 2, 3 and 4 shell passes. It
makes no difference, when using the charts, how many tube
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passes are employed, provided that the number of tube passes is


at least twice the number of shell passes. F is plotted as a
function of P, with R values as parameters, where P and R are
defined as follows:

R= Heat Capacity Rate Ratio = wc/WC

P= Temperature Efficiency = !t of cold stream/! inlet fluid


temperatures
- t 2 - t1
R= T1 T2 and P=
t 2 - t1 T 1 - t1
Where: lower case indicates cold fluid (t1, t2, w1, c)

upper case indicates hot fluid (T1, T2, W, C)

A sufficient number of shell passes should always be used to give


an F value of at least 0.80. Below 0.80 the correction factor falls
off rapidly, resulting in an uneconomical and inflexible exchanger
design.

A countercurrent flow heat exchanger piping arrangement should


be used wherever possible to take advantage of a nearly constant
driving force throughout the length of the exchanger.

It should be noted that when t2 = T2, the F value for a single shell
pass exchanger is usually 0.80 (never less, sometimes slightly
greater). If there is a constant temperature on one or both sides
of the exchanger, i.e. isothermal condensation or vaporization
(steam) then F=1.0.

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4.7.3 Weighted MTD, Uncorrected


Where the temperature vs. enthalpy relation is non-linear, as may
be the case where evaporation or condensation occurs or where
the fluid is near its critical point, a weighted temperature difference
must be used. The calculation of the weighted mean temperature
difference is relatively simple when the exchanger is true
countercurrent. The temperature vs. enthalpy curve for the
exchanger is split into sections, as required. Zones of the
exchanger for which the temperature vs. enthalpy curves are
approximately straight lines are obtained (see sketch below). The
use of more zones results in greater accuracy although 2 or 3
zones are usually sufficient. The log mean temperature difference
is calculated for each zone. These values are then weighted with
regard to the duty of each zone.

LMTD1 is based on T1, T2, t1, t2 and duty Q1

LMTD2 is based on T2, T3, t2, t3 and duty Q2

LMTD2 is based on T3, T4, t3, t4 and duty Q3

Q1 + Q 2 + Q 3
!T = weighted LMTD =
Q1 Q2 Q3
+ +
LMTD1 LMTD 2 LMTD3
For cases where sharp changes in the curve occur as at the onset
of condensation etc., it is convenient to select this point as the
terminus of a zone.

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4.7.4 Weighted MTD, Corrected


If the equipment is not arranged for true countercurrent flow, an
additional correction factor (for multi-pass) must be applied. For
an accurate calculation, the weighting should be carried out over
individual exchanger shells only. The corrected log mean
temperature difference should be calculated for each shell and
then the weighting technique is applied to these values. The
terminal temperatures of the individual shells can be fixed using
the step-wise technique illustrated below.

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Temp An approximation to the number of shells required can be


determined graphically by stepping off vertically and
1 horizontally down the temperature vs. enthalpy curve for
the unit. 3 shells are required in the illustration. The
2
horizontal line represents equal outlet temperatures,
3
F=0.80. Due to bundle pulling requirements the number
of shells may also depend on the total surface required.
Duty (See Section 7.2.3).

The intermediate exchanger temperatures can now be


found by assuming 3 shells and stepping off vertical and
angled lines. Hence in the illustration lines AB, CD and
EF must be parallel. Points BC and DE are then the
intermediate temperatures of the shells.

The log mean temperature differences of the shells can


then be calculated. Provided the curve approximates a straight
line within the limits of the individual shell, the terminal
temperatures found above may be used to obtain the temperature
correction factor in the normal way for each shell.

If the curves, however, do not approximate straight lines within the


limits of the shell then a weighted mean temperature difference
must be calculated as described in Section 4.7.3 for the shell and
an overall temperature correction factor must be calculated
separately.

This involves assuming an equivalent temperature, as illustrated in


the sketch below, which represents the temperature duty curve for
the particular shell in question.

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Select an equivalent temperature Te such that


area A = area B. Now using Te, T2, t1, t2
e

calculate the temperature correction factor (F)


and apply this to the weighted mean
temperature difference for the shell to obtain
the corrected log mean temperature difference
for the shell, which will then be used in the
weighting technique applied to the exchanger
service.

4.7.5 Pinch Point Problem

When the temperature vs. enthalpy relationship line is curved it is


essential to plot the temperature/heat load graph to ensure the
feasibility of the exchanger. This is because it is possible to select
apparently satisfactory inlet and outlet temperatures, and then find
on plotting the graphs the heat curves cross over and back again
at some intermediate points as shown below in the sketch on the
left.
T

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These conditions result in infeasible solutions requiring


readjustment of conditions. The diagram on the right shows a
possible solution achieved by increasing the cold flow i.e. by
reducing the outlet temperature. Even if the exchanger is feasible,
the pinch !T may be very small so that the exchanger is quite
uneconomic, and some adjustment to the conditions is required.
Normally a !T of 30F is advisable at the pinch point.

4.7.6 Series - Parallel MTD


If one stream of an exchanger flows through several shells in
series while the other fluid flows through several in parallel, a
correction factor is required, even if each unit is a true
countercurrent type. The method of obtaining the corrected MTD
is given below:

A = series stream inlet temperature

B = series stream outlet temperature

t = parallel stream inlet temperature

to = parallel stream outlet temperature (after re-mixing)

n = number of parallel streams

X = (B-t)/(A-t)

R = (A-B)/ n(t0-t)

Where is defined by:

1 - X n x 2.3R 0 * R - 1 ' * 1 '1/n 1 -


= log . ( %( % + +
(R - 1) /. ) R & ) X & R +,

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Then!T true uncorrected = (A-t)

If the equipment is multi-pass design (other than true


countercurrent), a further correction factor to the above is required
as follows:

(1) X = as above

(2) R = as above

* 1 '
(3) P=( % (1 - X 1/n )
) R &

(4) Use R and P in conjunction with Figures 4-5 through 4-8 to


obtain the final corrected !T.

4.8 Pressure Drop


An economic study for optimum pressure drop would be made in almost
every case, if time permitted. For a given reduction in pressure drop, the
reduction in pumping cost would be divided by the increase in investment
(increase in exchanger cost minus the reduction in pump cost) to give the
approximate annual return on investment.

In practice, allowable values for pressure drop are usually estimated by the
process design engineer rather than calculated. Pressure drop
considerations for various fluids are discussed below:

4.8.1 Liquids
Table 4-2 gives suggested pressure drop values for both the shell
and tube sides of exchangers.

4.8.2 Gas
Pressure drop often depend on compressor considerations.
Largely because of the high investment and operating costs for
compressors as compared to pumps, optimum values are much
lower for gases than for liquids.

In general, the optimum pressure drop increases with operating


pressure. Approximate values are suggested below:

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Operating Pressure, Pressure Drop,


Psig. Psi
0 -10 approx. 0.5 - 1.0
above 10 2-5

4.8.3 Condensers
a. Overhead Condensers for Towers operating above
Atmospheric Pressure.

1. Partial Condensation

Allowable values (for the shell side) usually range


from 2 to 5 psi. Values tend to approach the upper
limit only at high operating pressures, low heat
transfer coefficients, or low !Ts.

Because most condenser heat transfer coefficients


are reasonably high, increased pressure drop
usually has little effect in decreasing the surface.
On the other hand, large pressure drops increase
tower operating pressures and adversely affect
tower design, increasing costs in a number of ways.

2. Total Condensation

In a condenser where total isothermal condensation


takes place, the pressure drop is usually low or
negligible.

b. Surface Condensers (vacuum service)

An approximate value of 3 - 5 mm Hg is typical for


condensers operating at about 30 mm Hg Abs. Estimated
values should be used with caution as the justification for
an economic study is greater than at higher pressures.

4.8.4 Reboilers
a. Kettle Type

Shell side pressure drops are generally termed


negligible.

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b. Thermosyphon Type
In the case of recirculating type reboilers, the ratio of the
recirculated liquid to the vapor formed is normally about
4:1. It may be considerably higher, ie., 10:1, in order to
avoid an excessively high bottom product temperature.
1. Horizontal units (once-thru and recirculating)
For these units, TSE (thermosyphon effect) is
specified. This means the exchanger manufacturer
is to calculate and guarantee the pressure drop in
his exchanger for the specified flow quantities. The
pressure drop is normally low, i.e. 0.25 - 0.5 psi, due
to unbaffled exchanger construction. High heat
transfer coefficients are obtained due to
vaporization, even at the velocities corresponding to
these low pressure drop values. Eventually the
hydraulics of the reboiler circuit must be checked to
assure sufficient static head is available to
overcome the pressure drops in the reboiler and the
piping. Refer to Process Standard 203 for reboiler
hydraulics.
2. Vertical Units
Occasionally a vertical unit is employed, with
vaporization occurring in the tubes. Such a unit will
generally be of the recirculating type. The location
of the top of the reboiler, with respect to the bottom
of the tower and the lower liquid level therein, is
generally fixed by the reboiler-tower connection.
The principal factor which can then be varied to
balance driving force (static head) against friction
losses is the tube length. As the tube length is
decreased, the number of tubes in parallel increases
and a balance is obtained.

A tube length of approximately 10 ft. is frequently


employed under these circumstances.

If the tower must be elevated to provide NPSH for a


bottoms pump, 16 ft. tubes will usually be used by
the Heat Transfer Equipment Engineering Group
following the advice of the process engineer.

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SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
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4.9 Heat Transfer Rate, Ud


Q
The symbol Ud in the basic heat transfer formula, Ao =
!T U d

represents the design (overall) coefficient of heat transfer of an exchanger.


The total resistance to heat transfer of the exchanger is the sum of the
individual resistances as defined in Section 4.2.

Ud is the coefficient anticipated after an exchanger has operated for


sufficient length of time with deposition of dirt equivalent to the combined
design fouling resistance. The clean transfer rate to be expected with little
or no dirt is related to Ud as below:

1
U clean = where rtotal fouling = ro + ri (Ao/Ai)
1
- r total fouling
Ud

4.9.1 Typical Fouling Factors

Typical fouling factors as recommended in the TEMA standards for various


types of water and for the various process streams in many different plants
are listed in Table 4-3.

4.9.2 Typical Overall Design Rates


Typical overall rates for various services are used in preliminary surface
calculations for estimating plot plan requirements, as well as, the number
of shells per exchanger.

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SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
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Typical rates are indicated in Table 4-4 for many of the services
encountered in the following plants: crude units, catalytic cracker
fractionation sections, catalytic cracker vapor recovery units, HF
alkylation units with vapor recovery, coker units, hydrotreaters and
catalytic reformers - naphtha and gas oil feeds, amine
regeneration units - MEA, DEA & MDEA, shale oil upgrading
fractionating sections and some miscellaneous services and
applications not necessarily associated with a particular type of
plant. Note that these typical overall design rates are based upon
using bare tube bundles.

4.9.3 Quick Estimate of Heat Transfer Coefficients


In general, the typical overall design Ud values listed in Table 4-4
shall be used for simplified estimates. These Ud values are
obtained from similar units that have been designed in detail.
When the overall Ud required is not available from Table 4-4 or
from other similar units available for reference, use the data in
Table 4-5 to obtain individual film coefficients to calculate the
overall heat transfer coefficients. Because of the generalized
nature of the data the values given should not be used for precise
comparisons with detailed exchanger designs.

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-1
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FIGURE 4-1
REQUISITION

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-3
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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-4
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PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
Cost

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-5
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PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-6
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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-7
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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-8
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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-9
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PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-10
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PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-11
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

TABLE 4-1

TYPICAL TEMPERATURES OF PRODUCTS TO STORAGE

Battery Limit Conditions:

Temperature Pressure Typical TBP


0
F Psig Product Name API Cut Range, F
100 250 C3 LPG - -
100 85 C4 LPG - -
100 75 Light Naphtha 60-80 C5 - 180
100 75 Heavy Naphtha 45-55 180 - 380
110 50-75 Kerosene 35-40 380 - 520
110 50-85 Jet Fuel 40-45 380 - 450
130 60 Light Diesel Oil 35-40 400 - 560
130 60 Heavy Diesel Oil 30-35 560 - 710
125 150 Light Atmospheric/Coker 25-35 360 - 650
Gas Oil
175 150 Heavy Atmospheric/Coker 20-25 650 - 900
Gas Oil
200 50 Atmospheric Residue 10-20 680+
150-180 60 Clarified Oil (FCC Bottoms) 0-10 760+
130-180 75 Light Vacuum Gas Oil 15-20 700 - 850
150-200 75 Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil 10-15 850 - 1020
300-350 75 Vacuum Residue 5-10 1020+

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TABLE 4-2

SUGGESTED ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROPS FOR SHELL


SIDE AND TUBE SIDE OF EXCHANGERS

Total Pressure Drop, Psi


- Shells in Series -
One Two Three
Shell Shells Shells
Viscosity, Cps. at
average temperature, F.:
to 1.0 5 - 10 5 - 10 10 - 15
1.0 - 5.0 10 15 15 - 20
5 - 10 15 15 - 20 20
above 10 20 20 - 30 30

Notes:

(1) Under the following circumstances, !Ps approaching the higher recommended
values should be employed: when !T is small, say 50 or less; when the temperature
range is large, i.e., above 200F.

(2) Calculated tube side pressure drop values are subject to greater variation than shell
side values, due to the nature of tube bundle construction.

(3) It must be realized that little can be gained by specifying increased pressure drop for
one fluid in an exchanger when the other fluid has a significantly lower film
coefficient.

(4) For gravity flow, the pressure drop is usually limited to 1 - 2 psi.

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-13
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-3

TYPICAL FOULING RESISTANCES

The following tables present typical fouling resistances referred to the surface on which
they occur. In the absence of specific data for setting proper resistances, the values
tabulated below may be used.

FOULING RESISTANCES FOR WATER


0 0
Temperature of Heating Medium Up to 240 F 240F 400 F
0 0
Temperature of Water 125 F or Less Over 125 F
Water Velocity Water Velocity
Ft./Sec. Ft./Sec.
Types of Water 3 Ft. Over 3 Ft. Over
And Less 3 Ft. And Less 3 Ft.
Sea Water .0005 .0005 .001 .001
Brackish Water .002 .001 .003 .002
Cooling Tower and Artificial Spray Pond:
Treated Makeup .001 .001 .002 .002
Untreated .003 .003 .005 .004
City or Well Water (Such as Great Lakes) .001 .001 .002 .002
Great Lakes .001 .001 .002 .002
River Water:
Minimum .002 .001 .003 .002
Mississippi .003 .002 .004 .003
Delaware, Schuylkill .003 .002 .004 .003
East River and New York Bay .003 .002 .004 .003
Chicago Sanitary Canal .008 .006 .010 .008
Muddy or Silty .003 .002 .004 .003
Hard (Over 15 grains/gal.) .003 .003 .005 .005
Engine Jacket .001 .001 .001 .001
Distilled .0005 .0005 .0005 .0005
Treated Boiler Feedwater .001 .0005 .001 .001
Boiler Blowdown .002 .002 .002 .002
0 0
*Ratings in columns 3 and 4 are based on a temperature of the heating medium of 240 F-400 F. If the heating
0
medium temperature is over 400 F. and the cooling medium is known to scale, these ratings should be modified
accordingly.

FOULING RESISTANCES FOR INDUSTRIAL FLUIDS


OILS
Fuel Oil .................................................................................................................... . .005
Transformer Oil........................................................................................................ . .001
Engine Lube Oil ....................................................................................................... . .001
Quench Oil............................................................................................................... . .004

GASES AND VAPORS


Manufactured Gas ................................................................................................... . .01
Engine Exhaust Gas................................................................................................ . .01
Steam (non-oil bearing) ........................................................................................... . .0005
Exhaust Steam (oil bearing) .................................................................................... . .001
Refrigerant Vapors (oil bearing) .............................................................................. . .002
Compressed Air....................................................................................................... . .002
Industrial Organic Heat Transfer Media................................................................... . .001

LIQUIDS
Refrigerant Liquids .................................................................................................. . .001
Hydraulic Fluid......................................................................................................... . .001
Industrial Organic Heat Transfer Media................................................................... . .001
Molten Heat Transfer Salts...................................................................................... . .0005

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-14
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-3 (Cont'd)
TYPICAL FOULING RESISTANCES
FOULING RESISTANCES FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSING STREAMS
GASES AND VAPORS
Acid Gas......................................................................................... . .001
Solvent Vapors ............................................................................... . .001
Stable Overhead Products ............................................................. . .001

LIQUIDS
MEA & DEA Solutions.................................................................... . .002
DEG & TEG Solutions .................................................................... . .002
Stable Side Draw and Bottom Product........................................... . .001
Caustic Solutions ........................................................................... . .002
Vegetable Oils ................................................................................ . .003

FOULING RESISTANCES FOR NATURAL GAS-GASOLINE PROCESSING STREAMS


GASES AND VAPORS
Natural Gas .................................................................................... . .001
Overhead Products ........................................................................ . .001

LIQUIDS
Lean Oil .......................................................................................... . .002
Rich Oil........................................................................................... . .001
Natural Gasoline & Liquefied Petroleum Gases............................. . .001

FOULING RESISTANCES FOR OIL REFINERY STREAMS


CRUDE & VACUUM UNIT GASES AND VAPORS
Atmospheric Tower Overhead Vapors ........................................... . .001
Light Naphthas ............................................................................... . .001
Vacuum Overhead Vapors ............................................................. . .002

Crude Oil
0 - 1990F 2000- 2990F
Velocity Ft./Sec. Velocity Ft./Sec.
Under 2-4 4 Ft. Under 2-4 4 Ft.
2 ft. Ft. And Over 2 Ft. Ft. And Over
Dry .003 .002 .002 .003 .002 .002
Salt* .003 .002 .002 .005 .004 .004

3000 - 4990F 5000F and Over


Velocity Ft./Sec. Velocity Ft./Sec.
Under 2-4 4 Ft. Under 2-4 4 Ft.
2 ft. Ft. And Over 2 Ft. Ft. And Over
Dry .004 .003 .002 .005 .004 .003
Salt* .006 .005 .004 .007 .006 .005
*Normally desalted below this temperature range. (Asterisk to apply to 200-2990F, 300-4990F., 5000F. and over.)
Gasoline ................................................................................................................................. . .001
Naphtha & Light Distillates....................................................................................................... . .001
Kerosene ................................................................................................................................. . .001
Light Gas Oil ............................................................................................................................ . .002
Heavy Gas Oil.......................................................................................................................... . .003
Heavy Fuel Oils ....................................................................................................................... . .005
Asphalt & Residuum ................................................................................................................ . .010

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-15
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-3 (Contd)

TYPICAL FOULING RESISTANCES

CRACKING & COKING UNIT STREAMS


Overhead Vapors ........................................................................................ . .002
Light Cycle Oil ............................................................................................. . .002
Heavy Cycle Oil........................................................................................... . .003
Light Coker Gas Oil ..................................................................................... . .003
Heavy Coker Gas Oil................................................................................... . .004
Bottoms Slurry Oil (4 ft./sec. minimum).................................................... . .003
Light Liquid Products................................................................................... . .002

CATALYTIC REFORMING, HYDROCRACKING &


HYDRODESULFURIZATION STREAMS
Reformer Charge......................................................................................... . .002
Reformer Effluent ........................................................................................ . .001
Hydrocracker Charge & Effluent**............................................................... . .002
Recycle Gas ................................................................................................ . .001
Hydrodesulfurization Charge & Effluent** ................................................... . .002
Overhead Vapors ........................................................................................ . .001
Liquid Product over 500 A.P.I. ..................................................................... . .001
Liquid Product 300-500A.P.I......................................................................... . .002

**Depending on charge characteristics and storage history, charge resistance may be many times this value.

LIGHT ENDS PROCESSING STREAMS


Overhead Vapors & Gases ......................................................................... . .001
Liquid Products............................................................................................ . .001
Absorption Oils ............................................................................................ . .002
Alkylation Trace Acid Streams .................................................................... . .002
Reboiler Streams......................................................................................... . .003

LUBE OIL PROCESSING STREAMS


Feed Stock .................................................................................................. . .002
Solvent Feed Mix......................................................................................... . .002
Solvent ....................................................................................................... . .001
Extract* . .................................................................................................... .003
Raffinate ...................................................................................................... . .001
Asphalt ....................................................................................................... . .005
Wax Slurries*............................................................................................... . .003
Refined Lube Oil.......................................................................................... . .001

*Precautions must be taken to prevent wax deposition on cold tube walls.

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-16
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

CRUDE UNITS

Preheat Exchangers: Ud Notes


1st Exchanger (Cold Crude)
- Overhead Vapor/Crude 25 - 30 Crude in Shell
- Sidestream or Pumparound 55 - 60 Crude in Shell
(35-550 API)/Crude
e.g. Kerosene, Top Pumparound
Overhead Vapor/Hot Crude 35 - 40 Crude in Tube
Light Atmos. Sidestream or Pumparound 50 - 70
(30-450API)/Crude
e.g. Kerosene, Light Gas Oil,
Top and Lower Pumparound
Heavy Oil Sidestream or Pumparound 45 - 65
(20-350 API)/Crude
e.g. Heavy Atmos. Gas Oil, Lower
Pumparound, Visbreaker Gas Oil,
Vacuum Gas Oil
Atmos. Bottoms (10-200 API)/Crude 30 - 40
Heavy Residue (5-100API)/Crude 20 - 30
e.g. Visbreaker Bottoms,
Vacuum Bottoms

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SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

CRUDE UNITS

Crude Distillation Ud Notes


Overhead Condenser 90 Bare Tubes
Overhead Condenser 50 Fintubes (Wolverine)
Coolers:
Light Oils (45-500 API) 90 - 100
Medium Oils (25-350API) 65 - 85
Vacuum Tower Oil (200API) 45 - 65
Red. Crude & Pumpout (150 API) 30 - 35
Red. Crude-Coil In Box Cooler 20
(150API)
Vac. Pitch-Coil In Box Cooler 15
(13.80 API)
Gland Oil (230 API) 50
Desalter Effluent Water 140

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-18
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

CATALYTIC CRACKER

Fractionation Ud Notes
Preheat:
Fresh Feed-Cracked Naphtha 65 Feed in Shell
Fresh Feed-LCO 53 Feed in Shell
Fresh Feed-HCO 50 Feed in Shell
Fresh Feed-Clar. Oil )
Fresh Feed-Slurry ) 48 - 58 Feed in Shell
Fresh Feed-Bottoms )
Overhead Trim Condenser 55 - 65
H.P. Steam Generator-Btms. P.A. 85 - 90 Kettle
Bottoms-BFW Preheat 55 - 60 Contain 2 Wt.%
Catalyst Fines
Box Cooler-Bottoms 15 - 30
Clarified Oil Cooler 50
Sidestream Coolers 75 - 85

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-19
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

CATALYTIC CRACKER (Contd)

Fractionation Ud Notes
Slurry Settler Purge Cooler 70
Flue Gas Waste Heat Boiler 15
Rich Oil-LCO Exchanger 55
LCO Trim Cooler 71 - 75
H.P. Steam Generator- HCO P.A. 82 - 92 Kettle
BPA-LCO Reboiler 55
LCO-BFW Preheat 90 - 105

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-20
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

VAPOR (LIGHT ENDS) RECOVERY UNITS

Catalytic Crackers & Crude Overhead Ud Notes


Compressor Interstage Cooler 45 - 50
Compressor Afterstage Cooler 45 - 50
Absorber Intercooler 105 - 115
Absorber-Deethanizer Reboiler 75 (Oil Heated Kettle)
Deethanizer (Stripper) Reboiler 92 - 105 Steam Heating
65 - 75 LCO as Heating Medium
Absorber-Stripper Feed Condenser 60 - 85
Debutanizer Overhead Condenser 80 -100
Debutanizer Thermosyphon Reboiler 115 - 125 Steam Heating
45 - 55 HCO as Heating Medium
Debutanizer Feed/Bottoms Exchanger 70 - 80
Debutanizer Bottoms (Gasoline) Cooler 85 - 110
Depropanizer Overhead Condenser 90 - 115
Depropanizer Thermosyphon Reboiler 100 - 125 Steam Heating
Depropanizer Feed/Bottoms Exchanger 100 - 105

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-21
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

VAPOR (LIGHT ENDS) RECOVERY UNITS

Catalytic Crackers & Crude Overhead Ud Notes


Butane Cooler 90 - 115
Propane Cooler 90 - 115
Lean Oil (Naphtha) Cooler 80 - 95
Lean Sponge Oil Cooler 50 - 55
Rich/Lean Sponge Oil Exchanger 50 - 55
C3/C4 Product Cooler 105 - 110
Naphtha Splitter Reboiler 105 - 115 Steam Heating
35 - 45 Heavy Coker Gas Oil as
Heating Medium

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-22
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

VAPOR (LIGHT ENDS) RECOVERY UNITS

HF Alkylation Fractionation Ud Notes


Acid Cooler 137
Acid Superheater 37 Steam Heating
Acid Vaporizer 50 Steam Heating
Recycle Isobutane/De-isobutanizer
Feed Exchanger
Recycle Isobutane Condenser
Recycle Isobutane Subcooler 140
De-isobutanizer Feed/Bottoms
Exchanger
Alkylate Cooler 98
De-isobutanizer Condenser 98
Rerun Condenser 58
Rerun Reboiler 58
Depropanizer Feed/Bottoms Exchanger 80
Depropanizer Reboiler 125 Steam Heating
Depropanizer -Stripper Overhead 78
Condenser
Propane Stripper Reboiler 130 Steam Heating
Propane Condenser 86
Depropanizer Feed-Recycle IC4 78
Exchanger

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-23
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

VAPOR (LIGHT ENDS) RECOVERY UNITS

Coker Unit Overhead Ud Notes


Absorber Stripper Feed Trim Condenser 66
Absorber Stripper Upper Reboiler 88 - 92 M. P. Steam Heating
Absorber Stripper Lower Reboiler 62 - 75 Debutanizer Bottoms
Naphtha Heating
Lean Oil (Naphtha) Trim Cooler 77 - 84
Lean Sponge Oil (Light Coker G.O.) 64
Trim Cooler
Debutanizer Feed/Bottoms Exchanger 72
Debutanizer Overhead Condenser 88 - 91
Heavy Coker G.O. P.A. - Debutanizer 40 - 55
Reboiler
Debutanizer Upper Reboiler 96 H. P. Steam Heating
Light Coker Naphtha Cooler 88
Heavy Coker Naphtha Cooler 50 - 70
Naphtha Splitter Reboiler 105 - 113 M. P. Steam Heating

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-24
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

COKER UNITS

Fractionation Ud Notes
Fresh Feed-Stripped Heavy Coker Gas 20 Vacuum Residue Feed in
Oil Shell Side
5 Vacuum Residue Feed in
Tube Side
8 Reduced Crude Feed in
Tube Side
Fresh Feed-Heavy Coker Gas Oil P.A. 33 Preheated Vacuum Resi-
due Feed in Shell Side
6.5 Preheated Vacuum Resi-
due Feed in Tube Side
9.5 Preheated Reduced
Crude Feed in Tube Side
Fresh Feed-Stripped Light Coker Gas 20 Vacuum Residue Feed in
Oil Shell Side
Lean Sponge Oil (Light Coker G.O.) - 52
Rich Oil
Lean Sponge Oil (Coker Kerosene) - 61
Rich Oil
Lean Sponge Oil (Coker Kerosene) 64
Cooler
Stripped Heavy Coker Gas Oil - 55 - 67
BFW Preheat
Heavy Coker Gas Oil P.A. - M.P. Steam 81 - 85 Kettle
Generator
Fractionator Overhead Trim Cooler 70 TEMA JShell

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-25
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

HYDROTREATERS & CATALYTIC REFORMERS

Hydrotreaters Ud Notes
Naphtha Feed:
Reactor Effluent-Feed 46 - 56 Combined Feed (H2+HC)
Reactor Effluent-Stripper Reboiler 67
Reactor Effluent Trim Cooler 91 - 106
Reactor Feed-Dowtherm A Preheater 56
Reactor Feed-Stripper Bottoms 62
Stripper Feed-Bottoms 75 - 82
Stripper Reboiler-Dowtherm A 85
Gas Oil Feed:
Cold Feed-Fractionator Overhead 24
Reactor Feed-Hot High Pressure 41 Hydrotreater
Separator Vapor
Reactor Feed-Effluent 36 Preheat Services
Reactor Feed-Light Diesel Oil 55
Reactor Feed-Fractionator Bottoms 80
Reactor Effluent Waste Heat Boiler 87 Kettle Type
(H.P.)
High Pressure Vapor Condenser 76 Water Cooling

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PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-26
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

HYDROTREATERS & CATALYTIC REFORMERS

Hydrotreaters Ud Notes
Fractionator Overhead Trim Cooler 43
Light Diesel Oil Stripper Overhead 58
Condenser
Light Diesel Oil Product Cooler 83
Heavy Diesel Oil Stripper Overhead 58
Condenser
Heavy Diesel Oil Product Cooler 67
Fractionator Bottoms-Diesel 47
Stripper Reboiler
Cold Fractionator Feed-Bottoms 32
Hot Fractionator Feed-Bottoms 42
Fractionator Bottoms Waste Heat 74 Kettle Type
Boiler (L.P.)
Catalytic Reformers
Platformer Reactor Effluent-Feed 60 Combined Feed (H2+HC),
large cooling/heating
range
Powerformer Reactor Effluent-Cold Feed 72 Combined Feed (H2+HC)
-Hot Feed 101 Combined Feed (H2+HC)
Reactor Effluent-Stabilizer Reboiler 82
Reactor Effluent-Separator Liquid 53
(Cold Stabilizer Feed)
Reactor Effluent-Recycle Gas 50

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-27
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

HYDROTREATERS & CATALYTIC REFORMERS

Catalytic Reformers Ud Notes


Reactor Effluent Condenser 92 Water Cooling
Stabilizer Feed-Bottoms 81 - 99
Stabilizer Overhead Condenser 90
Stabilizer Overhead Condenser 57 Salt Water with Fintubes
Stabilizer Bottoms Cooler 69 - 75
Stabilizer Bottoms Trim Cooler 126
Separator Offgas Compressor Interstage 140
Cooler
Regeneration Gas Waste Heat Boiler 58 Kettle Type
(M.P.)
Reactor Depressuring Cooling-Waste 66 Kettle Type
Heat Boiler (M.P.)

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FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 4.Appendix-28
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002
TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

AMINE REGENERATION UNIT

MEA Regeneration: Ud Notes


Lean-Rich MEA Exchanger 77
MEA Regenerator Reboiler 165 For small Plants use 110
MEA Reclaimer 86
MEA Overhead Condenser 100
Lean MEA Cooler 119
MDEA Regeneration:
Lean-Rich MDEA Exchanger 92
MDEA Regenerator Reboiler 180
MDEA Reclaimer 81
MDEA Overhead Condenser 80
Lean MDEA Trim Cooler 106
DEA Regeneration:
Lean-Rich DEA Exchanger 100-106
DEA Regenerator Reboiler 151
DEA Overhead Condenser 85 Air Cooling, Ud
Lean DEA Cooler 82 Based on Bare Tube

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TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

SHALE OIL PROCESSING

Shale Oil Upgrading Ud Notes


Pyrolysis Oil Fractionation:
Fractionator Overhead Condenser 75 Low Pressure Drop (1.5 psi) in
Hot Side
Fractionator Pumparound-HP Steam 90 Thermosyphon, TEMA J
Generator Shell
Fractionator Pumparound-MP Steam 100 Thermosyphon, TEMA J
Generator Shell
Fractionator Bottoms-HP Steam 55 Thermosyphon, TEMA
Generator JShell
Naphtha Splitter Feed Preheater 94 HP Steam Heating
Naphtha Splitter Overhead Condenser 80
Heavy Gas Oil-BFW Preheater 95

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TABLE 4-4 (Contd)

TYPICAL OVERALL Ud VALUES

MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS

Ud Notes
Compressor Jacket Water Cooler 200
Compressor Intercoolers (Air & Gas) 15 - 30 Ud increases with operating
pressure and percent
condensed.
Steam-Oil Preheater 90 - 110 May be lower if oil is very
viscous.

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5.0 QUICK EXCHANGER SIZING METHOD


Foster Wheelers Heat Transfer Engineering Group are principally responsible for
the design or rating of heat exchangers, based upon process data. This data is
provided on the exchanger specification sheets (form Number 135-201A) by the
process engineers (see Section 6.1). However, during process studies or
economic evaluations, process engineers frequently have to estimate the
exchanger heat transfer surface area and, sometimes, the number and sizes of
exchanger shells. Such information is generally used to establish the best (most
economical) process configurations, to set exchanger duty requirements and to
estimate plot plan requirements.
The rigorous methods of sizing heat exchangers are fairly lengthy and are
generally out of the scope of work performed by process engineers. Therefore, a
simplified exchanger sizing method is included in this section for use by process
engineers in order to calculate the surface area requirements and shell internal
diameter. The following method should enable the process designer to quickly
judge the effects of process variables on the sizes of exchangers without being
involved in the mechanical details.
5.1 Sizing Procedure
The steps in sizing an exchanger are outlined below:
1 Determine type and See Section 5.2
arrangement
2 Determine h See Section 4.9 or use previous
experience
3 Decide on fouling factors See Section 4.9 or use previous
experience
4 Determine U See Section 4.9 or use previous
experience

5 Calculate LMTD See Section 4.7

6 Calculate area See Section 4.2

7 Calculate shell internal See Section 7.2


diameter

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5.2 Selection of Exchanger Type


The final decision on exchanger type depends on many factors and the
table given below is only a guide. Table 3-1 in Section 3.0 gives the
detailed design features of the various exchanger types.
SHELL SIDE TUBESIDE

CLEAN DIRTY CLEAN DIRTY TYPE OF EXCHANGER

YES - YES - Fixed tubesheet or U-tube with


triangular pitch.

YES - - YES Fixed tubesheet or floating head


with triangular pitch.

- YES YES - U-tube or floating head with square


pitch.

- YES - YES Floating head with square pitch.


NOTES:
1. Dirty Service is taken to mean that mechanical cleaning is required
and usually applies to fluids with a fouling factor greater than 0.002
(ft2-hr-0F)/Btu. Clean service generally applies to fluids with a fouling
factor equal or less than 0.002 (ft2-hr-0F)/Btu. Chemical rather than
mechanical cleaning is usually acceptable for exchangers in clean
service.

2. Refer to Table 4-3 for typical fouling factors (resistances) of various


types of water and common process streams.

3. If the maximum mean temperature difference between the shell side


fluid and the tube side fluid is 500F or less fixed tube sheets are
preferred. Greater temperature differences are permitted for special
designs such as waste heat boilers, or if expansion bellows are used
on the shell. Bellows, however, are not acceptable to many clients.

4. If the tubeside is considered clean, use either a B or C type stationary


head and an M or N type rear head.

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5.3 Sample Problem


In this problem a dirty fluid is being heated with steam. The exchanger is a
square pitch U-tube with steam in the tube. The required performance is
as follows:

Shell Side (Process) Tube Side (Steam)


Tin 0F 100 366
Tout 0F 300 366
Viscosity, cp, in 2.6 -
Viscosity, cp, out 0.53 -
0
API 42.1 -
Fouling Factor 0.002 0.0005
Heat Transferred 20,000,000
(Btu/hr)
From this we need to find the transfer area, number of tubes and exchanger
size.

1. Determine Type

With steam heating use a U-tube exchanger with steam in the tube.
Since shellside fluid is dirty use square pitch.

2. Determine h

Use Heat Transfer Coefficients from Table 4-5.

Condensing steam, hi = 1500

Liquid: Use 400 API + 2000F average temperature.

ho = 140

3. Decide on Fouling Factor

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In this example fouling factors were specified by the process licensor.

4. Calculate Ud
1 1 1
= + ro + rw + + ri
Ud ho Ai Ai
hi
Ao Ao

For plain 3/4" carbon steel tubes using normal thickness of 14 BWG

Ai ID
= = 0.781
Ao OD

1 1 1 .0005
= + 0.002 + +
Ud 140 1500 x 0.781 0.781

= 0.01063

Ud = 94.0

5. Calculate LMTD
For condensing steam with some superheat the saturation
steam temperature should be used.
IN OUT

Take steam temperature = 3660F 3660F


Shellside temperature = 1000F 3000F
2660F 660F
Correction factor F = 1.0 since constant temperature on one
side.

266 - 66 200
LMTD = = = 1441 F
ln (266/66) 1.39

6. Calculate Area
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Q 20.00 x 106
A= = = 1,477 ft 2
U !T 94 x 144

7. Calculate Shell I.D.

Exchanger is 3/4" tubes 1" square pitch with 2 passes on tube side.

From table 7-2, 3/4" - 14 BWG tube has a surface area per linear ft. of
0.1963 ft2. Therefore,

20' tube length - requires 376 tubes

16' tube length - requires 470 tubes

From Table 7-3 it can be found that a 20 ft. bundle length will require
an exchanger shell of 35.0" I.D. and for 16 ft. bundle length, a 39.0"
I.D. exchanger shell.
For a required surface area the use of longer and therefore fewer
tubes requires a smaller shell diameter and is the most economical
design. Also, most refiners have standardized the use of 20 ft. tubes.
The exchanger as designed by the Heat Transfer Equipment
Engineering Group was 31" x 20' containing an area of 1,126 ft2.

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6.0 COMPLETION OF EXCHANGER PROCESS SPECIFICATION SHEET

6.1 General
The objective of the process engineer completing the exchanger
specification sheet is to define the duty and process requirements of the
exchanger. Mechanical detail should be the minimum necessary, so that
the heat exchanger engineer has the maximum flexibility to provide the
most economic design. If however, for process reasons or licensor
specifications, there are definite mechanical requirements, these must be
specified. In certain cases where the service is special or there is a lack of
data, it may be necessary to refer to a previous design that has provided
successful, and this requirement must be made clear. In specifying an
exchanger it is essential to consider the range of operation in order to
select the limiting case. Usually this is fairly obvious, but where it requires
detailed evaluation the alternative cases must also be specified.

The process specification sheet presented in this section for illustration


purpose is the standard form in use in FW Livingston at the present time.
The form is in English units only. If other units must be used, e.g. metric
technical units, or SI units, the specification sheet must be modified to the
particular type of units that are required.

6.2 Completing the Specification Sheet


The data provided by the process engineer falls into two categories,
essential or optional. This is indicated on the attached specification sheet
where essential is shown by Eand optional by O, and the numbers in
brackets refer to the notes which follow.

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Note Data Required Notes


No.
1 Service of Unit Use the exact name as shown on Equipment List.
This avoids confusion.
2 Mounting Indicate by deleting whichever is not applicable. If
either is acceptable write either.
3 Fluid Use the same name as shown on the flowsheet.
Where other data are required, such as
composition, show as footnote or on another
sheet.
4 Noncondensables This consists of those components that do not
condense at all under the conditions in the
exchanger, this will include any fluid above its
critical temperature e.g. methane, nitrogen or
hydrogen.
5 Fouling Resistances Use correct units. It is normal to round off the
fouling factors after conversion e.g. 0.001 in British
Units is usually taken as 0.0002 in SI or metric
units. If the data has been specified by another
organization e.g. a licensor, only slight rounding off
is acceptable. Refer to Table 4-3 in Section 4.9.1
for typical fouling resistances.
6 Specific and Latent Heat For non-linear vaporizing or condensing services,
heat curves should be attached.
7 Tube O.D., BWG, length State preference where appropriate.
and pitch State if required, e.g. client may permit only 20 ft.
tube length. If alternatives are permitted leave
blank or state permitted values. These data are
mostly appropriate only in revamp situations.
8 Connections The connection sizes should be same as the line
sizes to and from the exchangers. It may be
necessary for the exchanger designer to increase
these sizes.

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9. Remarks:

Careful consideration should be given to the remarks. Typical examples are:

2 Design safety factors, where necessary, should be specified on a clean basis


e.g. design for 110% of duty and flows, or add 10% to tube length (this is not
the same safety factor).

2 Fluids may be reversed, i.e. hot fluid may be in either the shell or tube side
if they may lead to a more economical design.

2 Total allowable pressure drop. If a group of exchangers have the same fluid
going through them, then a total allowable pressure drop for the fluid over the
entire group of exchangers can help lead to a more economical design.

2 Mixture compositions where required.

2 Trace contaminants; for example a few ppm of ammonia will mean that copper
or copper bearing materials are unacceptable.

2 Tubesheet to be designed for differential pressure of x psi. This remark is


used where the tubesheet may be designed for a pressure differential
significantly less than the maximum design pressure of tube or shell side. This
may commonly occur on feed/effluent exchangers. It is essential for the
process engineer to ensure that this differential pressure cannot be exceeded
In operation.

2 No leakage permitted. This would normally apply if a fluid is poisonous or


corrosive.

2 Assume straight line vaporization (or condensation).

2 Limiting maximum overall heat transfer coefficients (if applicable).

2 To account for uncertainties in heat and material balance data, the following
notes, if appropriate, may be used:

1. Derate heat transfer coefficient, U, value byx%, to provide excess


surface area e.g., hydrotreaters.

2. Pumparound temperature has been derated xF, e.g., coker P/A


temperature derated by 25F, FCC fractionation (or crude, vacuum
units) P/A derated by 10 to 15F.

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2 Exchanger shall be designed to provide x% extra future capacity by


increasing flow and duty requirements each by x%. The allowable
pressure drop at the increased flow shall be increased by x2"%.

6.3 Follow-up on Exchanger Requisitions

To ensure that the process specifications have been properly followed in the
equipment and associated piping design phase, a follow-up on exchanger
requisitions is required by the process engineers. The primary objective of
the follow-up is to learn whether the final exchanger design/requisitions in the
project stage have resulted in any adverse effect in meeting the hydraulic
requirements. The following items, in particular, shall be checked:

(a) Design pressure drop on S&T sides

(b) Number of shells and arrangement

(c ) Number of nozzles and sizes

(d) Exchanger elevations

Any variation from the process specification found on the final exchanger
requisitions shall be brought to the attention of the responsible project
engineer or exchanger designer and resolved accordingly. It may require a
process check on the hydraulic system involved to determine whether
changes in the exchanger requisitions and/or other items, such as pumps,
control valves, piping are required. In addition, the process engineer is
responsible to carry out a detailed hydraulic recheck on all pumping and
critical hydraulic systems.

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7.0 MECHANICAL DESIGN

7.1 TEMA Classes - Mechanical Construction


TEMA Standards, as stated in Section 3.2, is the basic document of
specifications for most shell and tube heat exchangers. The basic
requirements appear in three sections devoted to the Mechanical
Standards for TEMA Classes R, (Refinery) C (Commercial) and B
(General Process). Since the mechanical design requirements are
identical in many aspects for all three classes of construction, most of the
text in each of the three sections is identical. Table 7-1 in the appendix of
this section will provide a comparison of the differences among the three
classes.

7.2 Available Exchanger Sizes (Diameter vs. Surface)

7.2.1 General
Frequently, during the process design or study phase of a
project, it is necessary to make preliminary estimates of the
surface area and dimensions of individual exchangers. Such
estimates are required to establish the number of shells for
each exchanger service. The result can then be used to
estimate plot plan requirements and to prepare process
economic studies.

7.2.2 Exchanger Tube Data


In general, the required heat transfer area of an exchanger
service is estimated from the basic formula given in Section 4.2.
Then one must select a tube size and tube length for the
service as described in Section 4.6. Knowing the surface per
linear foot of the selected exchanger tube size, the required
number of exchanger tubes can be calculated. Table 7-2 in the
appendix of this section provides tube data (2) for common
exchanger tube sizes.

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7.2.3 Exchanger Tube Count Tables


When the required number of exchanger tubes for an
exchanger service has been determined from Section 7.2.2,
shell diameter can be determined from the tube count tables
(Table 7-3) as presented in the appendix of this section. Note
that the maximum bundle size, which determines the maximum
shell diameter, is usually set by individual refineries according
to their previous practices, i.e., typically maximum shell ID 48"
to 60" for 20 ft. tubes. In a TEMA type AES unit the maximum
surface area per shell should be used. The example given in
Section 5.3 illustrates the use of the tube count tables for
estimating shell dimensions.
MAXIMUM SURFACE AREA PER SHELL

Shell Diameter Tube Diameter Square Pitch Triangular Pitch


Inches Inches ft2 ft2
48" 3/4 5,900 6,700
1 5,000 5,650
54" 3/4 7,600 8,650
1 6,400 7,250
60" 3/4 9,150 10,600
1 7,750 8,750

7.3 Shell Side Baffle Data


It is known that higher heat transfer coefficients result when a liquid is
maintained in a state of turbulence. To induce turbulence outside the tubes it
is customary to employ baffles, which cause the liquid to flow through the
shell at right angles to the axes of the tubes. The center-to-center distance
between baffles is called the baffle pitch or baffle spacing. Since the baffles
may be spaced close together or far apart, the mass velocity is not entirely
dependent upon the shell diameter. The baffles are held securely by means
of baffle spacers, which consist of through-bolts screwed into the tube sheet
and a number of smaller lengths of pipe, which form shoulders between
adjacent baffles.

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7.3.1 Baffle Types and Arrangements


There are several types of baffles (3), which are employed in shell
and tube heat exchangers. The most common are segmental
baffles. They may be arranged for up-and-down flow as
horizontal cut or may be rotated 90 degree to provide side-to-
side flow as vertical cut the latter being desirable when a mixture
of liquid and gas flows through the shell. The other type of baffle
is the double segmental baffle. Figure 7-1 shows these different
types of baffles and arrangements.

7.3.2 Spacing and Cut


Segmental baffles are drilled plates with the height of the open
segment being generally 25 percent of the inside diameter of the
shell. These are known as 25 percent cut baffles.

As mentioned above the 25 percent cut may be horizontal or


vertical cuts. Other percentage baffle cuts are also employed in
industry but are usually investigated only by the exchanger
designers. The baffle pitch (spacing) and not the 25 percent cut of
the baffles usually determines the effective velocity of the shell
fluid.

The extremes of the baffle pitch (spacing) range are:

Maximum spacing = ID of shell, inches

Minimum spacing = ID of shell, or 2 inches, whichever is larger


5
These spacing limitations arise from the fact that at wider spacings
the flow tends to be axial rather than across the bundle and at
closer spacings there is excessive leakage between the baffles
and the shell.

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7.4 Design Conditions for Exchangers

7.4.1 General
The pressure and temperature levels of the process fluids will
undoubtedly have their effects on the mechanical design of a
shell and tube exchanger. Sometimes the design pressure and
temperature requirements imposed on an exchanger may
become an important factor in the selection of the shell side
and tube side construction types for the service. Refer to
Section 3.0 for the features of the various types of shell side
and tube side construction.

7.4.2 Design Pressure


The minimum design pressure is normally set at the maximum
of the following:
a. Maximum pump shut off pressure, when the exchanger
can be blocked off and exposed to pump shutoff.

b. 25 psi or 10% greater than the maximum operating


pressure in PSIG.

c. Where the exchanger is protected by relief valve, a


pressure balance for relieving conditions must be made to
determine the design pressure.

For steam generators the steam side design pressure and PSV
set pressure is set by the design pressure of the plant steam
system. According to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section I, steam generators usually require two PSVs
(see Process Standard 602, Safety, Relieving Devices).

7.4.3 Design Temperature


The minimum design temperature is normally set at 500F above
the maximum operating temperature at the exchanger. In an
exchanger cooling train, each particular service should
generally be analyzed and the minimum design temperature
specified should cover all cases for which the unit is likely to
operate for a significant period of time. If a full bypass is
provided around an exchanger, the downstream service should
be specified for a minimum design temperature equal to the
normal inlet operating temperature of the upstream exchanger.

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This will protect the downstream exchanger from possible


damage when the full bypass around the upstream exchanger
is actuated during an upset. An upset may be caused by,
among other things, instrument failure or operator error.
Contingencies that require the unit to shutdown are not
normally considered for setting design temperatures. However,
in some cases, such as failure of an air cooler with a water trim
cooler downstream, the air cooler downstream piping and the
trim cooler may have to be designed for piping flexibility based
on the normal inlet temperature to the air cooler.
For steam generators the shell side design temperature must
be set at a temperature greater than or equal to the steam
saturation temperature at the design pressure.

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TABLE 7-1
THE TEMA STANDARDS - 1978
A COMPARISON OF CLASSES R, C AND B
Para Topic R C B
graph
1.12 Definition for the generally severe requirements For the generally moderate requirements of for general process service.
of petroleum and related processing commercial and general process applications.
applications.
1.51 Corrosion allowance on carbon steel 1/8 inch 1/16 inch 1/16 inch
2.2 Tube diameters 3/4, 1, 1 1/4, 1 , and 2 inch od R + 1/4, 3/8, and 5/8 R + 5/8
2.5 Tube pitch and minimum cleaning lane 1.25 x tube od. 1/4 inch lane. R+ 5/8 tubes may be located 1.2 x tube od R + lane may be 3/16 inch in 12 inch and smaller
shells for 5/8 and 3/4 tubes.
3.3 Minimum shell diameter 8 inch tabulated 6 inch tabulated 6 inch tabulated
4.42 Longitudinal baffle thickness 1/4 inch minimum 1/8 inch alloy, 1/4 inch CS 1/8 inch alloy,
1/4 inch carbon steel
4.71 Minimum tie rod diameter 3/8 inch 1/4 inch in 6-15 inch shells 1/4 inch 6-15 inch shells.
5.11 Floating head cover cross-over area 1.3 time tube flow area Same as tube flow area Same as tube flow area
0
5.31 Lantern ring construction 375 F maximum. 600 psi maximum (same as TEMA R)
300 psi up to 24 inch dia. shell
150 psi for 25-42 inch shells
75 psi for 43-60 inch shells
6.2 Gasket materials Metal jacketed or solid metal for Metal jacketed or solid metal (same as TEMA C)
(a) internal floating head cover. (a) internal floating head.
(b) 300 psi and up. (b) 300 psi and up.
(c) hydrocarbons. Asbestos permitted for 300 psi and lower
pressures.
6.32 Peripheral gasket contact surface Flatness tolerance specified. No tolerance specified. No tolerance specified.
7.131 Minimum tubesheet thickness with Outside diameter of the tube. 0.75 x tube od for 1 inch and smaller. (same as TEMA C)
expanded tube joints 7/8 inch for 1 1/4 od
1 inch for 1 od
1.25 inch for 2 od

0
7.44 Tube Hole Grooving Two grooves Above 300 psi design pressure: above 350 F (same as TEMA R)
design temp.-2 grooves
7.51 Length of expansion Smaller of 2 inch or tubesheet Smaller of 2 x tube od or 2" (same as TEMA R)
thickness
7.7 Tubesheet pass partition grooves 3/16 inch deep grooves required Over 300 psi 3/16 inch deep grooves required or (same as TEMA C)
other suitable means for retaining gaskets in
place
9.3 Pipe Tap Connections 6000 psi coupling with bar stock plug 3000 psi coupling 3000 psi coupling with bar stock plug
9.32 Pressure Gage Connections required in nozzles 2 inch & up. (shall be specified by purchaser) (same as TEMA R)
9.33 Thermometer Connections required in nozzles 4 inch & up. (shall be specified by purchaser) (same as TEMA R)
9.1 Nozzle construction no reference to flanges same as TEMA R All nozzles larger than one inch must be flanged.
10.1 Minimum bolt size 3/4 inch inch recommended. smaller bolting may be used 5/8 inch

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TABLE 7-2
HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE DATA
2
Wall Surface area per linear ft, ft
Flow area Weight
Tube thick- (Note 2)
per tube, per linear ft.,
2
OD, in. BWG ness, in. ID, in. in Outside Inside lb steel Material Normally used

3/4 10 0.134 0.482 0.182 0.1963 0.1263 0.965

11 0.120 0.510 0.204 0.1335 0.884

12 0.109 0.532 0.223 0.1393 0.817

13 0.095 0.560 0.247 0.1466 0.727

14 0.083 0.584 0.268 0.1529 0.647 Carbon Steel (Note 1)

15 0.072 0.606 0.289 0.1587 0.571

16 0.065 0.620 0.302 0.1623 0.520 Stainless steel, brass

17 0.058 0.634 0.314 0.1660 0.469

18 0.049 0.652 0.334 0.1707 0.401 Titanium

1 8 0.165 0.670 0.355 0.2618 0.1754 1.61

9 0.148 0.704 0.389 0.1843 1.47

10 0.134 0.732 0.421 0.1916 1.36

11 0.120 0.760 0.455 0.1990 1.23

12 0.109 0.782 0.479 0.2048 1.14 Carbon Steel

13 0.095 0.810 0.515 0.2121 1.00

14 0.083 0.834 0.546 0.2183 0.890 Stainless Steel, brass

15 0.072 0.856 0.576 0.2241 0.781

16 0.065 0.870 0.594 0.2277 0.710 Titanium

17 0.058 0.884 0.613 0.2314 0.639

18 0.049 0.902 0.639 0.2361 0.545


Notes: 1. For corrosive services, either thicker gauges of carbon steel or alloy materials are normally used.
2. Commonly available tube lengths are 8', 10', 12', 16' and 20'.

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 7.0-Appendix-4
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

TABLE 7-3

TUBE COUNT TABLES

Note: The Outside Packed Floating Head type closure is not commonly used in most
services. To determine the shell size of a Split Ring Floating Head, TEMA S type,
exchanger (most commonly used), read the shell I.D. which will give the number of
tubes required from the columns under Fixed Tube Sheet and add 2 inch to the read
I.D. to obtain the estimated shell I.D. For TEMA T type Floating Head, add
approximately 5 inches to the TEMA Fixed Tube Sheet type shell I.D. to obtain the
estimated shell I.D.

Outside Diameter Tubes on 15/16 Triangular Pitch


Shell I.D. Fixed Tube Sheet Outside Packed Floating Head U-Tube
(Incles) No. of passes No. of passes No. of passes
1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 2 4 8
17.25 254 236 224 212 229 216 200 188 101 98 92
19.25 330 322 300 272 301 290 268 244 141 130 120
21.25 387 370 348 336 358 346 324 316 163 160 152
23.25 483 472 448 412 450 436 412 384 213 202 190
25.00 565 544 512 480 522 502 472 432 246 238 216
27.00 658 364 608 560 612 598 568 520 294 280 250
29.00 763 740 704 660 719 698 656 616 343 328 308
31.00 875 848 808 756 827 800 768 716 394 382 356
33.00 993 964 932 872 942 918 880 824 450 438 408
35.00 1118 1086 1044 1020 1064 1034 988 956 510 494 484
37.00 1286 1248 1208 1144 1221 1184 1144 1088 587 570 542
39.00 1426 1396 1344 1272 1351 1328 1280 1220 660 640 606
42.00 1641 1602 1548 1488 1569 1538 1480 1420 753 740 706
45.00 1906 1864 1808 1736 1837 1797 1737 1664 887 868 834
48.00 2188 2142 2088 2004 2102 2062 2000 1912 1026 1002 966
51.00 2480 2440 2376 2292 2396 2356 2292 2204 1171 1140 1104
54.00 2769 2716 2652 2568 2672 2626 2564 2480 1304 1282 1225
60.00 3451 3396 3320 3220 3345 3288 3208 3116 1642 1608 1562
64.00 3921 3860 3792 3678 3798 3744 3668 3560 1869 1840 1784
68.00 4492 4366 4284 4160 4305 4244 4148 4032 2114 2086 2020
72.00 5023 4956 4868 4744 4878 4816 4732 4600 2406 2372 2306
76.00 5578 5506 5412 5276 5449 5374 5284 5156 2680 2840 2574
80.00 6179 6100 5996 5868 6031 5964 5868 5720 2968 2930 2862
84.00 6868 6788 6688 6544 6717 6644 6532 6384 3313 2372 3198
90.00 7873 7798 7680 7528 7724 7634 7520 7376 3809 3762 3686
96.00 9019 8926 8812 8632 8849 8762 8644 8472 4368 4320 4238
FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002
PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 7.0-Appendix-5
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

Shell I.D. Fixed Tube Sheet Outside Packed Floating Head U-Tube
(Incles) No. of passes No. of passes No. of passes
1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 2 4 8
108.00 11377 11272 11132 10928 11196 11096 10968 10788 5524 5470 5382
120.00 14186 14068 13924 13720 13982 13888 13732 13516 6913 6846 6748

Outside Diameter Tubes on 1 Triangular Pitch


Shell I.D. Fixed Tube Sheet Outside Packed Floating Head U-Tube
(Incles) No. of passes No. of passes No. of passes
1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 2 4 8
17.25 229 220 208 184 204 192 176 164 94 90 80
19.25 283 272 260 248 260 250 228 217 120 114 110
21.25 350 334 324 300 322 310 292 268 149 142 132
23.25 426 406 392 364 394 382 364 336 183 176 162
25.00 491 476 452 420 450 440 412 384 217 208 192
27.00 576 562 532 500 537 524 492 456 256 248 228
29.00 674 650 620 600 633 610 580 552 299 290 280
31.00 771 746 712 672 727 704 676 628 347 336 314
33.00 875 852 820 768 827 812 776 728 398 386 360
35.00 985 960 928 896 934 914 876 848 448 438 428
37.00 1109 1074 1044 1016 1052 1026 984 952 521 492 484
39.00 1234 1236 1192 1144 1179 1172 1128 1080 583 568 542
42.00 1457 1418 1376 1315 1391 1358 1316 1252 670 656 628
46.00 1657 1650 1604 1540 1589 1588 1540 1476 787 768 742
48.00 1910 1872 1824 1780 1845 1800 1752 1716 910 876 858
51.00 2176 2142 2088 2016 2094 2062 2004 1940 1026 1006 968
54.00 2427 2378 2332 2284 2341 2308 2248 2200 1162 1122 1106
60.00 2985 2996 2928 2844 2903 2894 2828 2744 1441 1420 1376
64.00 3467 3408 3340 3252 3357 3308 3240 3140 1646 1622 1576
68.00 3913 3858 3792 3680 3795 3738 3672 3572 1865 1842 1792
72.00 4383 4330 4256 4148 4268 4208 4144 4024 2104 2072 2014
76.00 4878 4876 4792 4664 4771 4756 4676 4576 2371 2338 2282
80.00 5419 5352 5260 5204 5289 5228 5152 5092 2633 2574 2538
84.00 6031 5972 5884 5760 5902 5832 5748 5920 2909 2876 2808
90.00 6920 6860 6760 6632 6801 6726 6636 6492 3351 3312 3242
96.00 7897 7810 7712 7620 7736 7658 7568 7492 3818 3780 3746
108.00 9991 9888 9776 9704 9872 9740 9628 9548 4884 4804 4762
120.00 12413 12310 12180 12068 12246 12412 12016 11932 6090 5998 5942

Outside Diameter Tubes on 1 Square Pitch

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 7.0-Appendix-6
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

Shell I.D. Fixed Tube Sheet Outside Packed Floating Head U-Tube
(Incles) No. of passes No. of passes No. of passes
1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 2 4 8
17.25 203 192 180 176 180 168 160 148 80 82 76
19.25 251 240 228 220 226 216 204 204 103 104 100
21.25 300 294 288 256 276 272 264 228 130 128 114
23.25 368 360 356 324 340 336 324 304 162 160 146
25.00 416 400 392 380 398 376 360 344 190 180 172
27.00 508 472 468 456 468 442 432 420 228 214 212
29.00 592 560 540 532 550 520 508 492 268 256 246
31.00 670 648 628 584 627 610 592 556 296 298 278
33.00 767 740 720 680 719 700 680 648 342 342 322
35.00 870 840 824 776 816 802 784 736 392 390 368
37.00 972 944 928 912 927 900 884 868 444 438 432
39.00 1086 1064 1036 1020 1036 1014 952 968 498 498 484
42.00 1257 1220 1212 1184 1204 1176 1148 1120 579 574 562
45.00 1452 1436 1412 1352 1396 1380 1360 1308 683 678 652
48.00 1666 1634 1608 1576 1602 1574 1540 1516 778 772 762
51.00 1880 1868 1848 1784 1814 1800 1768 1716 890 888 862
54.00 2125 2096 2064 2000 2051 2020 1988 1928 998 988 962
60.00 2608 2596 2568 2496 2532 2512 2468 2412 1246 1244 1208
64.00 2996 2982 2936 2868 2892 2884 2840 2776 1436 1424 1390
68.00 3375 3328 3288 3260 3270 3232 3188 3164 1605 1598 1588
72.00 3826 3752 3720 3676 3714 3648 3608 3560 1842 1806 1790
76.00 4270 4195 4152 4112 4170 4088 4052 4008 2060 2030 2004
80.00 4715 4664 4624 4528 4614 4560 4524 4424 2266 2260 2212
84.00 5223 5168 5120 5028 5109 5056 5000 4916 2512 2498 2454
90.00 5992 5964 5912 5816 5870 5844 5796 5680 2908 2900 2844
96.00 6852 6812 6780 6648 6720 6688 6636 6508 3331 3318 3256
108.00 8682 8618 8552 8412 8543 8476 8412 8288 4214 4198 4134
120.00 10782 10704 10636 10488 10634 10560 10942 10344 5252 5242 5164

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 7.0-Appendix-7
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

1 Outside Diameter on 1.25 Triangular Pitch


Shell I.D. Fixed Tube Sheet Outside Packed Floating Head U-Tube
(Incles) No. of passes No. of passes No. of passes
1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 2 4 8
17.25 143 130 124 104 130 118 112 96 53 50 44
19.25 177 170 160 152 159 152 144 132 69 66 62
21.25 208 216 200 180 192 196 184 168 92 86 76
23.25 254 262 244 220 241 238 224 212 112 104 96
25.00 304 290 276 264 285 272 252 240 126 120 114
27.00 359 350 324 316 341 322 304 292 154 144 138
29.00 422 404 384 372 396 382 364 348 181 174 168
31.00 483 472 452 424 455 444 428 396 213 206 190
33.00 565 544 524 484 576 512 484 456 246 238 220
35.00 611 614 588 556 588 582 564 520 277 268 254
37.00 695 698 676 628 658 664 632 600 321 310 290
39.00 783 784 748 716 748 744 716 672 349 346 326
42.00 905 906 880 832 863 868 832 792 420 408 386
45.00 1069 1038 1008 956 1020 998 964 924 484 472 452
48.00 1219 1182 1152 1124 1168 1136 1104 1076 553 540 530
51.00 1391 1370 1328 1264 1343 1312 1276 1232 644 626 596
54.00 1556 1538 1484 1428 1510 1478 1436 1388 721 704 676
60.00 1914 1876 1832 1788 1849 1812 1772 1744 891 876 856
64.00 2200 2158 2108 2064 2126 2090 2044 2008 1030 1008 992
68.00 2494 2456 2400 2336 2420 2384 2336 2260 1175 1152 112
72.00 2777 2778 2724 2644 2702 2690 2648 2552 1331 1304 1270
76.00 3117 3062 3008 2960 3038 2996 2936 2888 1471 1450 1428
80.00 3471 3418 3364 3276 3388 3346 3284 3200 1646 1620 1582
84.00 3846 3792 3736 3632 3751 3710 3644 3540 1829 1802 1754
90.00 4391 4342 4276 4232 4300 4252 4168 4124 2096 2070 2045
96.00 5047 4964 4912 4804 4942 4892 4812 4700 4216 2382 2328
108.00 6386 6310 6232 6104 6285 6224 6148 6032 3070 3038 2982
120.00 7905 7900 7800 7600 7784 7788 7684 7556 3849 3808 3744

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 7.0-Appendix-8
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

1 Outside Diameter on 1.25 Square Pitch


Shell I.D. Fixed Tube Sheet Outside Packed Floating Head U-Tube
(Incles) No. of passes No. of passes No. of passes
1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 2 4 8
17.25 124 110 104 96 109 100 92 92 49 44 44
19.25 151 144 136 132 136 132 124 104 59 56 52
21.25 166 186 176 160 174 158 164 132 78 74 66
23.25 228 228 220 204 216 208 204 188 96 98 88
25.00 263 252 240 228 242 232 228 216 108 106 106
27.00 319 302 292 288 296 280 276 256 132 132 126
29.00 373 360 348 320 345 336 324 300 158 160 146
31.00 416 400 392 380 390 375 368 356 176 180 170
33.00 486 468 452 440 459 442 424 420 208 208 202
35.00 546 532 520 488 518 208 492 468 241 236 224
37.00 614 606 592 560 584 570 556 537 276 272 260
39.00 688 676 672 640 652 648 636 600 313 308 294
42.00 806 768 752 740 766 732 712 708 353 352 346
45.00 924 912 896 856 884 876 864 824 423 420 395
48.00 1063 1040 1024 980 1027 1000 922 944 484 480 467
51.00 1208 1180 1164 1148 1163 1140 1108 1100 552 550 542
54.00 1350 1320 1308 1288 1300 1278 1256 1236 622 620 608
60.00 1658 1638 1608 1596 1606 1580 1556 1544 775 768 760
64.00 1904 1882 1868 1812 1840 1822 1806 1752 896 892 868
68.00 2157 2120 2092 2068 2092 2060 2040 2012 1008 1008 994
72.00 2424 2408 2388 2312 2352 2340 2312 2256 1153 1144 1115
76.00 2720 2662 2640 2608 2648 2600 2576 2552 1274 1274 1260
80.00 3002 2994 2956 2888 2940 2912 2888 2816 1436 1420 1392
84.00 3317 3280 3244 3216 3245 3204 3188 3144 1576 1576 1558
90.00 3834 3764 3736 3700 3756 3680 3648 3628 1815 1804 1792
96.00 4360 4338 4296 4219 4278 4252 4232 4140 2098 2092 2050
108.00 5524 5486 5448 5412 5444 5404 5253 5328 2666 2646 2632
120.00 6891 6828 6804 6684 6794 6736 6712 6608 3325 3318 3264

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0-1
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

8.0 ECONOMICS

8.1 Settings up Exchanger Trains


In modern refineries, it is quite common in process units to see a train of
inter-related heat exchangers being used for waste heat recovery. For
example, a number of hot process or product streams can be employed to
supply preheat to a cold feed stream, as in a crude distillation unit or a
catalytic cracker, to lower the fuel requirement in the preheat furnace.
Another common application is to recover the waste heat from a hot
reactor effluent stream into various cold streams as in a hydroprocessing
unit or hydrogen plant.

A heat exchanger train is generally quite complex as all the exchangers in


the train are usually inter-related in their process conditions. Changes in
the process conditions of one exchanger in the train may often affect those
of the others. The general objective in designing an exchanger train is to
arrive at an economically justifiable configuration for maximum waste heat
recovery based upon the investment criterion (such as simple payout
period) selected for a particular project.

In this section, discussion on exchanger trains will be specifically directed


toward feed heating trains, although the method of analysis may be
applicable or useful for effluent cooling trains, as well. The use of
graphical methods such as heat availability diagrams and temperature
driving force plots, as discussed below, is particularly valuable when a
heat exchanger train must be designed for two or more operations. Since
a more detailed procedure for setting up a feed preheat train can be found
in Foster Wheelers in-house manual entitled Design Manual for Energy
Conservation Improvements in Existing Crude Preheat Trains, dated April
1983, only a brief discussion on this subject will be presented here.

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0-2
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

8.1.1 Heat Availability Diagram


A heat availability diagram provides information on the maximum
theoretical feed preheat temperature and the associated heat
recovery limits for the system. Figure 8-1 shows an example of a
heat availability diagram for crude and waste heat streams in a
crude preheat exchanger train design analysis. Hot stream
composite curves C through F in Figure 8-1 each corresponds to a
different heat recovery approach temperature as defined by
Challand (4) covering the range between 20 and 600F. From
these curves it is then possible to set a range for the maximum
amount of process waste heat recovery that may be theoretically
achieved within the system. It should be noted that certain areas
within the maximum heat recovery range may be theoretically
feasible though not necessarily economically viable.

8.1.2 Economic Evaluation


To arrive at an economical design for a complex heat exchanger
train for maximum heat recovery, considerations to both process
limitations and economic criteria selected for the project must be
properly included. Reference to Foster Wheelers in-house
Design Manual for Energy Conservation Improvements in Existing
Crude Preheat Trains will provide guidelines in setting up crude
and other feed preheat exchanger trains.

The use of temperature driving force and cost effectiveness plots


(5) can be very useful in evaluating an exchanger train
configuration. Basically, in a temperature driving force plot the
calculated temperatures of the cold feed and each hot stream from
a proposed exchanger train design (configuration) are plotted as
ordinates against their heat contents above a convenient datum.
Figure 8-2 shows such a plot for a revamped crude preheat
exchanger train. The plot is used to illustrate the effect on
subsequent exchangers of reducing the temperature approach
between the feed and any one of the hot streams. A cost
effectiveness plot shows the individual exchanger cost as well as
the total exchanger cost against the achieved feed temperature in
an exchanger train. It compares the incremental cost in heat
recovery of each exchanger.

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0-3
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

Figure 8-3 shows such a plot for a revamped crude preheat train.
By analyzing the results from the plots as mentioned above, the
process engineer can then make changes to the exchanger train
configuration as deemed appropriate and recalculate the
temperature profile in the train for making new temperature driving
force and cost effectiveness plots.

An economic criterion (payout period for example) should also be


selected to establish the justifiable investment cost for the
exchanger train. A specific criterion is usually defined by the client
for each project.

The key steps to follow in making economic evaluation of a


potential exchanger train configurations are outlined below:

1. Construct a heat availability diagram (6, 7, 8) of the cold


feed and hot waste heat streams.

2. Determine the vaporization characteristics of the feed (the


feed usually must not vaporize in the preheat exchanger
train upstream of the final preheat furnace).

3. Based on results from Step 1 and 2 above, establish a


range for the maximum theoretical heat recovery.

4. Set up a proposed exchanger train configuration and


calculate temperature, heat recovery and investment cost
of each exchanger throughout the train using Foster
Wheeler computer simulation program for exchanger
train, EXTRA (described in Section 8.1.3).

5. Calculate the maximum justifiable exchanger investment


cost based on the predicted total heat recovery in the
proposed train configuration.
6. Prepare temperature driving force and cost effectiveness
plots from the results of the EXTRA calculation. Then use
the results of these plots to direct the modifications of the
proposed configuration to obtain maximum heat recovery
within the established maximum justifiable exchanger
investment budget.

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0-4
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

8.1.3 Establishing Potential Configuration via the EXTRA Computer


Program
EXTRA (EXchanger TRAin), P-1913T, is a Foster Wheeler in-
house computer program to calculate rigorously and quickly any
exchanger train configuration which the user chooses to specify in
an interactive manner. The program has been written so that the
rigorous calculation results obtained from each proposed
configuration provides vital information to the user as to how the
configuration may be further improved. Although the EXTRA
program emphasizes its application in crude preheat train
simulation, the program can be adapted to other types of feed
preheat exchanger trains as well.

As it was stated in Section 8.1.2, once a potential exchanger train


configuration is set up, the EXTRA program can then be used to
perform the interactive calculations to provide vital information
such as temperature profile, heat exchanger duties, individual and
total capital cost for new equipment and utility cost. These
information should be analyzed using the temperature driving
force and cost effectiveness plots. Based on the conclusion from
the analysis, use the EXTRA program in an interactive manner to
improve upon the configuration to find the exchanger train network
which will provide the maximum feed preheat for any specified
economic criterion on new capital investment. Refer to the users
manual for details on the usage of the EXTRA program.

8.2 Exchanger Cost Estimate


Capital cost estimates are often required to perform economic studies and
evaluations. The cost information developed can be used to select an
exchanger train configuration for design or to justify the economics of heat
recovery with additional exchangers in a processing unit. Our estimating
department whenever possible, should normally be consulted to obtain the
proper and current cost data for a specific project. However, preliminary
cost estimate on a comparative basis prior to that required from the
estimating department may sometimes be helpful in process feasibility
studies. Pricing data for shell and tube heat exchangers of different
geometry, metallurgy and pressure ranges is presented in this section for
developing such estimated preliminary capital cost data. The pricing
estimate curves presented herein is based upon U.S. manufacturers
information in 1978.

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0-5
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

A cost escalation factor of 1.35 based on the CPI index is then applied to
the value obtained from the curves to arrive at the estimated 1983 pricing.
It should be noted that process engineers are not required to provide
estimated exchanger cost. Cost data developed from this section is
intended only for internal use in process evaluations.

8.2.1 Pricing Data


Generally, utilization of maximum tube length will give the lowest
cost design. Normal tube lengths are 16 foot and 20 foot. Figure
8.4 provides the price estimate curves for the common exchanger
types as indicated. The cost factors as listed below should be
used in conjunction with Figure 8-4 to account for requirements
not specified in the price curves.

1. Multiplier for kettle type reboiler unit over regular


exchanger with same size and type bundle is 1.20.

2. Multiplier for a removable channel cover (TEMA Type A)


over an integral channel cover (TEMA Type B) is 1.07.

3. Multipliers for pull-through floating head (TEMA Type


AET) over a conventional floating head (TEMA Type AES)
exchanger of the same bundle diameter, assuming all
steel construction, are:

a. With integral shell cover 1.10

b. With removable shell cover 1.20


4. The price data from Figure 8-4 assumes carbon steel
shells. Multipliers for alloys over carbon steel as materials
of construction are:
a. Shell side 1.33 for 304 SS and 1.57 for 316 SS

b. Tube side 1.55 for 304 SS and 2.10 for 316 SS

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0-6
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

5. Note that the cost mentioned in this section refers to


exchanger equipment cost only. For final erected cost,
an Installation Factor has to be applied to the estimated
capital cost obtained herein. Installation Factor
depends, among other things, on the location of the
plant site. Consult FW Estimate Department for proper
Installation Factors. The installation factors for 1983
U.S. Gulf Coast location are 3.9 and 3.2 for carbon steel
and alloy exchangers, respectively.
8.2.2 Examples
1. Determine the capital cost of a TEMA AES type
exchanger with 2 shells in series of 2,670 ft2/shell. Tube
layout is assumed to be 1" O.D. tube on 1 1/4" square
pitch. Shell side design pressure is 300 psig and carbon
steel is used for material of construction.

From Figure 8-4 (a) curve No. 2 for 300 psi design,
cost/ft2 - 11.25 x 1.35 = $15.20/ft2. Additive cost factor for
TEMA-A removable channel cover is 1.07.

Estimated capital cost per shell = 15.20 x 1.07 x 2670 =


$43,425

Total exchanger cost = $43,425 x 2 = $86,850

2. Referring to the example given above, suppose a TEMA


AET type with integral shell cover is to be used instead of
the TEMA AES type, with all other design requirements
remaining the same, determine the exchanger capital
cost.

From example 1. above, cost/ft2 = $15.20/ft2. Additive


cost factor for TEMA-A removable channel cover is 1.07.

Additive cost factor for TEMA-T type floating head is 1.10.


Therefore, estimated cost per shell = 15.20 x 1.07 x 1.10
x 2670 = $47,767
Total exchanger cost = $47,767 x 2 = $95,534

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0 Appendix-1
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0 Appendix-2
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0 Appendix-3
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0 Appendix-4
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0 Appendix-5
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0 Appendix-6
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 8.0 Appendix-7
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 9.0 -1
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

9.0 NOMENCLATURE

Ao, Ai = Heat transfer surface, based on tube O.D. or I.D., respectively, ft2.

F = Correction factor applied to counterflow LMTD to obtain proper !T for


mixed flow in a multi tube-pass exchanger.

ho, hi = Shellside fluid film coefficient based on outside or inside tube area,
respectively, Btu/(hr-ft2-0F)

H = Enthalpy, Btu/lb.

K = Thermal conductivity, Btu/(hr-ft-0F).

LMTD = Log Mean Temperature Difference, 0F.

l = Wall thickness, in.

MTD = Mean Temperature Difference, 0F.

t 2 - t1
P = , used with TEMA charts for correction factor F.
T 1 - t1

Q = Total heat to be transferred, Btu/hr.

r o, r i = Shellside or tubeside fluid fouling resistance, respectively,


(hr-ft2-0F)/Btu.

R = T 1 - T 2 , used with TEMA charts for correction factor F.


t 2 - t1

!T = Effective Exchanger Temperature Difference, 0F.

T1 = Hot fluid inlet temperature, 0F.

T2 = Hot fluid outlet temperature, 0F.

t1 = Cold fluid inlet temperature, 0F.

t2 = Cold fluid outlet temperature, 0F.

Ud = Design Overall (Service) Coefficient of Heat Transfer, Btu/(hr-ft2-0F)

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


PROCESS STD 301
FOSTER WHEELER HEAT TRANSFER PAGE 10.0-1
SHELL AND TUBE REV 10
PROCESS PLANTS DIVISION HEAT EXCHANGERS DATE JULY 2002

10.0 REFERENCES

1. Whistler, A.M., Locate Condensers at Ground Level, Petroleum Refiner,


March 1954, p. 173.

2. Kern, D. Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York,
1950, p. 843.

3. Kern, D. Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York,
1950, p. 131.

4. Challand, T. B., R. W. Colbert and C. K. Venkatesh, Computerized Heat


Exchanger Networks, Chemical Engineering Progress, July 1981, p. 65.

5. Feintuch, H. M., V. Peer, and W. H. Wong, It Pays to Modify Existing Crude


Preheat Trains to Conserve More Energy, Fourth Annual Industrial Energy
Conservation Technology Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, Houston,
April 1982, Volume II, p. 772.

6. Umeda, T., J. Itoh and K. Shiroko, Heat Exchanger System Synthesis,


Chemical Engineering Progress, July 1978, p. 70.

7. Elshout, R. V., and E. C. Hohmann, The Heat Exchanger Network Simulator,


Chemical Engineering Progress, March 1979, p. 72.

8. Huang, F., and R. Elshout, Optimizing the Heat Recovery of Crude Units,
Chemical Engineering Progress, July 1976, p. 68.

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002