Sie sind auf Seite 1von 58

Enhancing the Power of SF6

(Sulfur Hexafluoride) Analysis

Technical Report
Enhancing the Power of SF6
(Sulfur Hexafluoride) Analysis

1002068

Interim Report, November 2003

EPRI Project Manager


G. van der Zel

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA
800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES
THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN
ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH
INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE
ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM:

(A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I)


WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR
SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR
INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S
CIRCUMSTANCE; OR

(B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER


(INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE
HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR
SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD,
PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT.

ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT

Powertech Labs Inc.

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this report should be directed to EPRI Orders and Conferences, 1355 Willow
Way, Suite 278, Concord, CA 94520, (800) 313-3774, press 2 or internally x5379, (925) 609-9169,
(925) 609-1310 (fax).

Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power
Research Institute, Inc. EPRI. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric Power
Research Institute, Inc.

Copyright 2003 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
CITATIONS

This report was prepared by

Powertech Labs Inc.


12388 88th Avenue
Surrey, BC, Canada V3W 7R7

Principal Investigator
I. Wylie

This report describes research sponsored by EPRI.

The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner:

Enhancing the Power of SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) Analysis, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2003.
1002068.

iii
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

As gas-insulated electrical equipment ages, the need for simple diagnostic procedures to assess
the quality of in-service sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is important for preventing failures, extending
equipment life, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing personnel safety. In addition,
environmental concerns about SF6 require improved handling practices, which includes accurate
field assessment of SF6 gas. Complete on-site chemical analysis of in-service SF6 has been
demonstrated using a portable gas chromatograph and the Powertech Labs Inc./EPRI
decomposition products detector (DPD). Together, these two analyzers offer the ability to
completely assess, in real time, in-service gas according to criteria set by CIGRE (Conference
Internationale des Grandes Reseaux Electriques a Haute Tension) for recycled gas and the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for new gas. With the instruments
development phases recently completed, this reports aim is to help EPRI members properly
apply SF6 analysis and use the most recently gathered research to aid in the proper interpretation
of its results.

Results & Findings


Field testing at substations using the portable SF6 gas analyzers found problems with existing SF6
handling practices and provided diagnostic insight into the operation of certain SF6 circuit
breakers (these breakers are high-power switches that direct the flow of power on the grid and
clear faults when they occur) The analyzers were able to completely assess and establish criteria
for SF6 gas contained in all types of energized gas-insulated apparatus with minimal gas loss.

Challenges & Objectives


The projects design included developing methods, procedures, and products to help operations
personnel accurately determine concentrations of impurities and decomposition products in SF6
to insure reliable operation of equipment after commissioning or maintenance. The projects
objectives were to establish reliable field methods to assess whether SF6 gas was acceptable for
use as new or reclaimed gas and to assess continued use of in-service gas in high-voltage
equipment; to develop procedures for assessing in-service and used SF6 gas for purity,
contaminants, and decomposition products; and, to field test both SF6 analyzers with the goal of
improving interpretation of analysis results.

Applications, Values & Use


These analyzers can be used with all types of SF6 -filled electrical equipment, handling apparatus,
and cylinders. Due to their ability to quickly assess the chemical quality of gas, the analyzers can
help reduce down time, decrease unnecessary handling, increase SF6 recycling opportunities and
increase personnel safety.

v
EPRI Perspective
This completed phase of research provides EPRI members with the tools and procedures to
accurately assess SF6 gas. These tools and procedures, when implemented, will help members
maintain high safety standards when handing SF6, improve equipment maintenance, and increase
use of recycled SF6, resulting in lower operating costs and reduced SF6 consumption.

Approach
The project teams goal was to provide guidelines for using the two SF6 analyzers in the field.
Information from three key sources formed the basis for the guidelines: (1) knowledge gained
from the analyzers already completed development phase; (2) previous laboratory work
confirming the devices proper use; and, (3) this studys field work verifying the value of the
measurements in actual substations.

Keywords
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
Chemical analysis
Decomposition products
Gas chromatograph
Detector
Decomposition byproduct detector (DPD)

vi
ABSTRACT

Detailed analysis of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas for contaminants and decomposition products
can be used for enhancing health and safety, improving SF6 recycling efforts and determining the
condition of in-service equipment. Yet despite its potential benefits it has not matured into a
routine technique similar to dissolved gas-in-oil analysis. Ideally, SF6 analysis should be done
quickly to minimize SF6 loss - and on-site to minimize depletion of decomposition products and
contamination during sampling, storage and shipping. This technical report discusses the
challenges and obstacles to developing equipment and diagnostic techniques for on-site field
assessment of SF6 gas. Field tests are presented showing that a customized micro gas
chromatograph can measure contaminants, decomposition products and moisture at the levels
recommended by CIGRE and IEC for SF6 in in-service equipment. For the detection of low
ppmv (parts per million by volume) levels of SF6 decomposition products, as required for new
gas criteria and personnel safety, a decomposition products detector was developed and field-
tested at several utilities. This instrument is portable and designed for quick and accurate
measurement of the predominant SF6 decomposition products in the field. Using these analyzers,
complete field assessment of in-service SF6 is possible with only a few grams of gas. This report
provides the guidance for the application of these two devices in the field and presents the
latest results of on-going field tests focused on improving the interpretation of SF6 Analysis
results.

vii
CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 1-1

2 DESCRIPTION AND CAPABILITIES OF ANALYZERS .......................................... 2-1


Customized Portable Gas Chromatograph .............................................................. 2-1
SF6 Decomposition Products Detector ..................................................................... 2-5

3 RECOMMENDATIONS ON SAMPLING FREQUENCY ........................................... 3-1

4 SAMPLING PROCEDURES USING PORTABLE SF6 ANALYZERS....................... 4-1

5 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS ........................................................................... 5-1


Interpretation of Contaminant Detection .................................................................. 5-2

6 REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 6-1

A FIELD TRIALS ........................................................................................................ A-1

B CASE HISTORIES .................................................................................................. B-1


Rupture Disc Failure of Circuit Breaker....................................................................B-1
Identified Faulty Gas Cart as Source of Air Contamination......................................B-1
Previously Undetected Contaminant........................................................................B-2
Elevated Carbon Tetrafluoride Levels......................................................................B-2
Decomposition Products Cross Contamination........................................................B-2
Investigation of Partial Discharge in Bus..................................................................B-3

C RAW DATA ............................................................................................................. C-1

ix
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1 Customized Portable Gas Chromatograph............................................................. 2-1


Figure 2-2 SF6 Decomposition Products Detector ................................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-3 SF6 Decomposition Products Detector Response................................................... 2-6
Figure 3-1 Bus with Long Filling/Sampling Lines (Thin tubing running next-to the GIS
bus) ................................................................................................................................. 3-3
Figure 4-1 Comparison of Field and Laboratory Analyses....................................................... 4-2
Figure 5-1 Simplified Reaction Scheme in SF6 Equipment ...................................................... 5-1
Figure A-1 Sample Distribution .............................................................................................. A-1
Figure A-2 Air Content Distribution......................................................................................... A-2
Figure A-3 Moisture Content Distribution................................................................................ A-3

xi
LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1 Purity Criteria and Detection Limits ......................................................................... 2-3


Table 2-2 Variability of Results between Micro GC and Laboratory GC .................................. 2-4
Table 2-3 Detection Limits Of GC and Expected Levels of Contaminants ............................... 2-4
Table 5-1 Recommended Actions on Contaminant Detection ................................................. 5-3

xiii
1
INTRODUCTION

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has been used extensively by electrical utilities for over thirty years
and much of the original equipment (including circuit breakers, disconnect switches, gas
insulated bus bars and distribution equipment) is nearing the end of its design life. The need for
simple diagnostic procedures is becoming more evident to prevent failures, extend life, reduce
maintenance costs and increase personnel safety. In previous work, [1] on-site chemical analysis
of in-service SF6 has been demonstrated using a portable gas chromatograph (GC) and the
Powertech Labs Inc./EPRI decomposition products detector (DPD). The aim of the work here is
twofold. Firstly to guide members on the application of these two devices in the field. Secondly
to present the results to-date on work to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of these analyzers by
assessing SF6 gas in different types of equipment and building a database relating analysis results
to equipment condition.

In principle, detailed knowledge of the nature and amounts of SF6 contaminants and
decomposition products can provide a useful diagnostic technique for in service equipment. Such
information is also essential to protect the health of maintenance personnel during handling and
to assist with the disposal or recycling of SF6. Traditionally, in order to get a chemical analysis of
in-service gas, utilities had to collect a sample in sample cylinders and ship it to a laboratory for
analysis. Even using thorough vacuum sampling techniques, contamination with air of the
sampled gas was very difficult to prevent and the reactive nature of the decomposition products
resulted in the depletion of low concentrations by the time the gas analysis was done. Field
analysis directly from equipment eliminates these sampling errors and the chemical analyzers
developed specifically for on-site analysis of SF6 gas enables not only more accurate assessment
but also the potential for better diagnostics as lower concentrations of decomposition products
can be detected. On line detection of the key decomposition products could:
Improve the assessment on what the concentrations of contaminants tell about the internal
condition of SF6 insulated equipment.
Search for new decomposition products previously ignored for diagnostic uses. The hope is
that these new decomposition products will be stable and not adsorbed by the adsorbents
present in some switching equipment (an example of a potential indicator is CF4 as an
indicator of Teflon nozzle wear).

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Publication 376 specifies limits and
recommendations for contaminants solely in new SF6 supplied for use in electrical equipment
[2]. The specifications describe the maximum allowable concentration in new gas and methods
for determining the concentrations. The limits for air and CF4 are each given as 0.05% by weight
and this equates to 2517 ppmv (parts per million by volume) air (assuming nitrogen/oxygen ratio

1-1
Introduction

the same as ambient air) and 830 ppmv CF4. The limits specified for moisture are 15 ppmm
(parts per million by mass) that equates to 120 ppmv. For the decomposition products, the
method described is a wet chemical method and is given as 1.0 ppmm hydrolysable fluorides,
expressed as HF (hydrogen fluoride) and this is equivalent to 7.3 ppmv as HF.

The CIGRE SF6 Recycling Guide [3] gives specifications on the maximum allowable limits of
contaminants for in-service equipment and recycled gas. These limits and the limits given by
IEC are summarized in Table 2-1.

For normal assessment to in-service criteria as set by CIGRE [3], the GC alone is all that is
required. For personnel safety and assessment to new gas criteria (CIGRE [3] and IEC 376 [2])
the DPD in combination with the GC is required as lower levels of decomposition products need
to be detected.

1-2
2
DESCRIPTION AND CAPABILITIES OF ANALYZERS

Laboratory methods for the assessment of SF6 gas are available from IEC, ASTM or other
publications. Unlike laboratory equipment, field instruments traditionally have lacked the
sophistication and reliability necessary for comprehensive analysis. Instead they have been
designed as specific single component analyzers. They include hygrometers, oxygen analyzers,
%SF6 analyzers and decomposition product indicators.

Customized Portable Gas Chromatograph

Traditionally, gas chromatography suitable for complete SF6 analysis was only possible in the
laboratory. Recently, strides in the development of gas chromatography have produced devices
that can be easily transported to the field. The gas chromatograph shown in Figure 2-1 has
previously been demonstrated by previous EPRI research [1] to measure contaminants,
decomposition products and moisture in SF6 in the field at the levels recommended by CIGRE for
in-service equipment.

Figure 2-1
Customized Portable Gas Chromatograph

2-1
Description and Capabilities of Analyzers

In a previously EPRI sponsored project [4] existing and emerging technologies suited for
comprehensive field assessment were evaluated. The results indicated that a customized portable
gas chromatograph was capable of analyzing in-service SF6 to CIGRE criteria with a single
analysis. Details of the research have been reported [1]. Briefly, the portable unit consists of a
customized portable gas chromatograph [5], equipped with a built in sampling pump, and an in
line frit. The GC was tailored for this application. Based on Powertech Labs Inc. established
procedure for SF6 analysis, similar chromatographic columns were chosen, a method and
procedure was then developed. Extensive lab testing was conducted with all contaminants to
insure sensitivity and linearity of response over a large concentration range. Collaboration with
the manufacturer is continuing to improve the performance and to insure availability of
components, especially chromatographic columns.

Configuration and calibration of this instrument for analysis of SF6 impurities, decomposition
products and moisture require some specialized modification and proper sampling procedures.
The GC can sample directly from GIS equipment and SF6 cylinders at system pressure. Field
operation is relatively straightforward but requires some basic knowledge of gas
chromatography. The software prints or displays a simple report giving the results in ppmv or
%v of each component detected.

The entire analysis can be done in about five minutes and uses one to two grams of gas
depending on the amount of purging required. In comparison, routine moisture measurements
using hygrometers can consume up to fifteen liters of gas - which equates to approximately one
hundred grams of gas. Routine sampling of SF6 using a 150-cc cylinder requires flushing of the
cylinder and sampling lines and consumes approximately 15 grams of SF6 for each gas
compartment.

This customized portable gas chromatograph can easily measure the impurities oxygen, (O2),
nitrogen (N2) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) with detection limits of less than fifty parts per
million by volume (ppmv). It can also determine the concentrations of the common gaseous
decomposition products thionyl fluoride (SOF2), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbonyl sulfide (COS)
and sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) to a level of 10 ppmv each and 50 ppmv for SO2 (the relatively
high 50ppmv detection limit of SO2 is due to its greater adsorption on sampling lines). It is also
capable of detecting moisture to 20 ppmv (at 100 kPa) which is well within the CIGRE criteria
of 4000 ppmv (at 100 kPa) for in-service equipment.

The unit is equipped with two channels (two chromatographic columns with micro thermal
conductivity detectors), carrier gas supply and operates from 120V power supply. The software
monitors the two channels separately, performs calculations and produces a report giving the
concentrations of all components detected. One analysis was required to get all the necessary
results for evaluation of SF6. Sample volumes required by the GC for the actual analysis are in
the order of microlitres (10-6 liters), the major losses of SF6 arising in the volume of the sampling
lines and the purging required to get a representative sample. The customized unit was tested in
the laboratory using calibration mixture of all gases mentioned above.

2-2
Description and Capabilities of Analyzers

The detection and control of moisture is a major component of effective maintenance practices
for SF6 gas insulated electrical equipment. The moisture level needs to be maintained sufficiently
low that no condensation occurs over the entire operating range of temperatures. Also, the
presence of moisture enables the formation of decomposition products when SF6 breaks down
due to arcing, partial discharge or over heating. Traditional moisture measurements are carried
out with hygrometers, which require large volumes of gas, and careful sampling procedures
using well-conditioned sampling lines in order to get accurate results. The GC is able to detect
moisture and the lower detection limit is estimated from field trials to be about 20 ppmv.

The detection limits of the analyzers for various contaminants are listed in Table 2-1.

By using a high pressure sampling manifold attached to the inlet of the micro gas chromatograph
(maximum pressure of 500 psig), allowed direct sampling from GIS equipment and from SF6
cylinders and pressurized tanks containing up to 35% air (any higher air content results in a gas
mix with a pressure greater than 500 psig and a regulator would then be required). Most
sampling and analysis could thus be done without the need of a pressure regulator. A frit is in-
line at the sample gas inlet to remove particulates and, to a certain extent, oil. As the analysis is
non-destructive, provisions can be made for collecting the 100 cc of gas that is vented for
sampling and purging of sample lines.

Table 2-1
Purity Criteria and Detection Limits

Contaminant Purity Criteria Detection Limits

IEC 376*[2] CIGRE[3] CIGRE[3] GC DPD

new gas recycled gas in-service gas

Air 2517 ppmv 2%v 3%v < 50 ppmv not detected

CF4 830 ppmv incl. with air incl. with air < 50 ppmv not detected

H2O 1600 ppmv at 4000 ppmv at


120 ppmv 20 ppmv not detected
100 kPa 100 kPa

SOF2, SO2, 10 ppmv for


SOF4, SF4, WF6 SOF2, COS; 1 ppmv for
50 ppmv total or 100 ppmv SOF2 and
7.3 ppmv
50 ppmv for SO2
12 ppmv SOF2 + SO2
as HF
SO2
SO2F2 not
2000 ppmv 100 ppmv
determined

* converted from parts per million by mass

2-3
Description and Capabilities of Analyzers

Calibration was consistent and repeatable over many hundreds of analyses and the linear range of
the detector was from approximately 10 ppmv to percent levels for the impurities (O2, N2 and
CF4) and from 10 ppmv to 500 ppmv for the decomposition products SOF2 & COS. SO2 was
found to have a linear range from approximately 50 ppmv to 1000 ppmv. For the impurities, the
wide linear range allows for easy and accurate calibration, including SF6 blended with CF4 or
N2) using the same calibration gas. Table 2-2 shows the comparison of results between the micro
gas chromatograph and the laboratory gas chromatograph.
Table 2-2
Variability of Results between Micro GC and Laboratory GC

Component Percent Variability

SF6 0.4

O2 0.4

N2 0.6

SOF2 1.3

The detection limits for all components are listed in Table 2-3. One channel analyzed for O2, N2,
CF4 and SF6, the other channel analyzed for CO2, SOF2, SO2F2, COS and SO2 and moisture.
Table 2-3
Detection Limits Of GC and Expected Levels of Contaminants

Component Detection Expected Levels Comment


Limit
(ppmv)
(ppmv)

SF6 <50 50-100% Usually >95% in the field

CF4 <50 0-4,000 Can be up to 50% for SF6/CF4 blends

O2 <50 0-20,000

N2 <50 0-100,000 Can be up to 50% for SF6/N2 blends

H2O <20 0-2,000

SOF2 10 0-200 Dominant decomposition product

SO2F2 10 0-200

COS 10 0-100 Generally low levels

SO2 Approx. 50 0-200 Difficult to detect below 50 ppmv

due to adsorption in lines and columns

2-4
Description and Capabilities of Analyzers

SF6 Decomposition Products Detector

The Powertech Labs Inc.-EPRI decomposition products detector (DPD) can detect the most
predominant SF6 decomposition product, thionyl fluoride (SOF2) and SO2 to a concentration of
one ppmv. It has a limited response to carbonyl sulfide (COS) and does not respond to sulfuryl
fluoride (SO2F2). See Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2
SF6 Decomposition Products Detector

The DPD consists of a flow controller, flow meter, a catalytic reaction tube, and LCD readout of
concentration. The sample gas is metered into the DPD at a controlled flow rate and the response
time is less than one minute.

The DPD is now commercially available and comes with a one year limited warranty. The
purchase also consists of a three year performance verification program calibration, which
includes two annual calibrations. Also, any improvements to the detector will be incorporated
during this program.

The major application of the DPD is to provide a quick and accurate measurement of SF6
decomposition products in field situations. It is advantageous to test the gas at the source due to
the unstable nature of low levels of decomposition products and to detect faults quickly without
having to wait for lab analysis. Therefore, the instrument was designed to be portable, rugged
and easy to operate. The detector is able to handle sampling from energized equipment at system
pressure. With this detector, rapid screening of SF6 is possible to quickly locate problems and
minimize outages. Personnel safety can also be rapidly assessed before maintenance begins so

2-5
Description and Capabilities of Analyzers

that appropriate procedures and precautions can be implemented. Planned future improvements
will include a sampling pump for analysis for SF6 decomposition products from the air.

Figure 2-3 displays the response of the DPD to the four decomposition products SOF2, SO2, COS
and SO2F2. As can be seen from the graph, SOF2 and SO2 respond very well while COS and
SO2F2 have limited response.
10
Detector Response (ppmv)

8
ideal response

4
Thionyl Fluoride
Sulphur Dioxide
2 Carbonyl Sulphide
Sulphuryl Fluoride

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Calculated Concentration (ppmv)

Figure 2-3
SF6 Decomposition Products Detector Response

2-6
3
RECOMMENDATIONS ON SAMPLING FREQUENCY

The first source for direction on frequency of SF6 gas sampling should come from the
manufacturers guidelines for specific equipment. Many of these manuals contain information on
where to sample and how often. The recommendations included in this report are meant as a
supplemental guide for utilities to use when preparing their own maintenance practices and
procedures.

The reasons for chemical analysis of SF6 from in-service equipment include condition
assessment and equipment diagnostics. These comprise:
Acceptance and compliance with manufacturer specifications
Verification of filling procedures
Quality control for continued use or reclamation
Assess condition of faulted gas for personnel safety

New equipment often comes partially charged with SF6 and requires filling to operating pressures
once installed. In colder climates, SF6 is blended with either nitrogen or CF4 to reduce the
temperature at which the insulating gas will liquefy. Field personnel are required to charge the
equipment with gas that meets specific criteria and verification of filling procedures is critical to
insure proper operation and validation of warranty.

Any time gas is handled, for example, removal into a gas cart for maintenance of equipment,
impurities may be introduced. This arises from the fact that air and moisture will often be
introduced into dead volumes in fittings. Poorly purged connecting line and hoses and poorly
maintained gas carts may also introduce contaminants. Although the gas cart is very effective in
removing moisture and decomposition products with on board filters, the removal of air is very
difficult. Any time gas is handled and put back into service, it should be checked for
contaminants and decomposition products. Even when following well established procedures
unexpected contamination can be introduced by factors beyond your control. For example,
during the field testing of the analyzers a situation was discovered where new gas was used to
top up a bus that unexpectedly resulted in introducing a significant amount of air. The problem
was traced to a failed compressor crankcase pressure control valve (see this case study in
Appendix B).

Before maintenance begins on any equipment, checking the quality of the gas, especially for
decomposition products, is always prudent for personnel safety. Personnel can then take
appropriate safety precautions, such as using respirators and body suits if high levels of

3-1
Recommendations on Sampling Frequency

decomposition products are detected. In most cases where gaseous decomposition products are
detected, there will be solid decomposition products as well. This is often seen as a fine white
powder deposit in the equipment. Guidelines on personal protective equipment and cleaning the
solid decomposition products can be found in the EPRI publication Practical Guide to SF6
Handling Practices[6].

The monitoring frequency of critical equipment is recommended on an annual basis, especially


as it approaches the end of its design life. Any suspect equipment should be checked as soon as
possible using these portable analyzers first as a screening tool (especially the DPD for
decomposition products) and perhaps following up with other methods such as acoustic emission
or UHF (Ultra High Frequency) measurements. If gas is added to top up because of leaking,
verification of content is recommended. This is especially true for blends. It is recommended that
the gas be checked two to three days after filling to allow for adequate mixing. Thought must
also be given to the fact that the gas may not mix readily in long filling lines (see Figure 3-1
note long, thin filling lines) for even longer periods. When sampling, always bear in mind that
the gas to be analyzed should come from the compartment of interest. In the case of some circuit
breakers and other equipment, there is only a small hole through which the gas has to go through
flanges to different compartments and more time may be required for adequate mixing. With
energized equipment, there is usually enough of a temperature gradient between different parts
that stratification of the gas is unlikely. This is not true, however, of gas that approaches the
critical point, i.e. the temperature at which SF6 will liquefy under given pressure and blend
situations. If the gas is suspected to be near the critical point, measurements become unreliable
because of potential stratification or condensation of the SF6.

Sufficient purging will be required with long sampling lines and the amount of purging will
depend on length, size and even composition of the sampling lines. As the GC samples at
approximately 100 cc/minute, a rough calculation can be done to estimate the amount of gas that
needs to be purged to get a representative sample. In some cases, it may be impractical to do an
analysis and an investigation into possibly moving the sampling point closer to the equipment
itself may be required. To confirm adequate purging, repeat analyses on the GC should be done
after purging until two consecutive analyses show results that have less than one percent
variability.

3-2
Recommendations on Sampling Frequency

Figure 3-1
Bus with Long Filling/Sampling Lines (Thin tubing running next-to the GIS bus)

3-3
4
SAMPLING PROCEDURES USING PORTABLE SF6
ANALYZERS

The advantages to analyzing the gas directly from in-service equipment includes the elimination
of sampling errors, reducing the depletion of reactive decomposition products during storage and
shipping, rapid analysis and immediate results which results in a quicker response to detected
problems. Another advantage is the amount of gas required. The GC and DPD require only a few
grams of gas while sampling with 150 cc cylinders for laboratory analysis requires
approximately 20 grams of gas for purging and sampling and conventional hygrometers can
require 150 grams of gas and half an hour for an accurate reading.

In many cases, the sampling point is far removed from the gas compartment of interest and often
the tubing leading to the sample point is combined with other phases. If possible, the gas sample
should be taken as close to the gas compartment as possible and independent of other phases or
compartments. During normal operation, these common lines provide a path for contaminants to
mix between phases and when sampling for decomposition products, it may be unclear if one or
all the phases may be the source of any decomposition products. In one example, gas testing of a
bus with common lines going to all phases showed equal concentrations of decomposition
products in all three phases - which was likely due to a problem in only one phase and the
decomposition products diffused to the other phases (See Appendix B Case Histories).

The following graph compares the results of laboratory and field analysis using the portable GC.
These samples were collected at approximately the same time, one set using sample cylinders
and sent into the lab for analysis, the other collected on site using the portable GC. Each point
represents one piece of equipment and the axes are portable GC results and laboratory results. If
the results were identical, each point would fall on the line. In every case, the points fall below
the line indicating higher oxygen content for samples collected using sample cylinders. Some
extreme outliers (high levels of air in sample cylinders) were omitted for clarity. A similar plot
of nitrogen content showed identical results but the same plot with CF4 showed the points falling
on the line. This demonstrates the difficulty in removing all the air from sample cylinders, even
when using vacuum sampling techniques.

4-1
Sampling Procedures Using Portable SF6 Analyzers

Correlation for Oxygen


2

Portable GC Analysis (%v O2)


1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Laboratory Analysis (%v O2)

Figure 4-1
Comparison of Field and Laboratory Analyses

Equipment diagnostics using SF6 chemical analysis has relied on the detection of decomposition
products. Usual laboratory analysis relied on careful sampling techniques, timely transport to the
lab and chemical specific detectors on instruments (typically gas chromatographs) that have the
sensitivity to detect low ppmv levels of the predominant decomposition products. Namely SOF2
and SO2. SO2 has an added disadvantage of adsorption problems, which makes it even harder to
detect using sampling cylinders. The reactive nature of these decomposition products renders
them short lived and in order to obtain diagnostic information, the detection of low ppmv levels
is critical.

As with traditional sampling with sample cylinders, the techniques used to obtain a
representative sample of the gas from the compartment of interest is important. The choice of
sampling point, material used in sampling lines and conditions of sampling lines are all
significant. The on-line analysis of SF6 eliminates the problems associated with traditional
sampling methods, however, in order to get a viable result for diagnostic purposes requires the
sampling must still be conducted with care. In gathering the samples described in this report,
many aspects became apparent that might affect results. Often, the sampling points used were the
filling ports for the gas zone. These were often common to all three phases and involved long
lines, which would require significant venting for purging. Often the material of these lines was
copper to which decomposition products are quite reactive. These lines can become partially
desensitized to decomposition products over time but to detect any developing faults, bypassing
these lines in order to get a representative sample may be required.

4-2
Sampling Procedures Using Portable SF6 Analyzers

The micro GC has a high pressure sampling manifold that allows direct sampling from
equipment containing gas up to 500 psig. Using small diameter sampling lines to this manifold
minimized the gas required for analysis. The sampling procedure varied depending on the
situation. Sampling points varied considerably. Some enabled direct sampling from the gas zone
of interest, while others involved long lengths of tubing and these were sometimes combined
with other phases. Each situation has to be evaluated individually. It is necessary to get a
representative sample of the gas zone for diagnostic purposes and for proper assessment of the
gas.

These problems were especially noticeable when attempting to get an accurate reading of the
moisture content. Using a calibrated hygrometer, the detection limit for moisture was established
at 20 ppmv. The problem arose from interferences such as the long sampling lines described
above and also the materials of construction used in these sampling lines. The low moisture
levels are sensitive to absorption and desorption from sampling lines and even permeation of
atmospheric moisture through non-metallic sampling lines. Moisture analysis from high pressure
sources (such as liquid SF6) was affected by the cooling effect of the SF6 as its pressure was
reduced to atmospheric pressure at the sampling manifold. In almost all the samples collected in
this work, thick walled one eighth inch Teflon lines were used. This sampling line was sealed on
both ends with quick connect style fittings and it was found that as long as this line was kept
sealed and cleaned, accurate results for moisture and decomposition products could be obtained.
Teflon should be used, as it does not react with decomposition products. Stainless steel is best
but is often impractical to use because of its rigidity.

Each utility will have to review its own practices regarding the protection signals from the
density monitor when sampling. Often the only sampling point is where the density monitor is
attached - and removing it will create a low-density alarm at the control centre. In all the samples
collected, there was no measurable decrease in pressure on equipment pressure gauges.
However, with some equipment, the only access to the gas was through the density
meter/pressure gauge and in these instances, the removal of the low density alarm protection was
required. Care must always be taken to constantly inspect the adaptor being used to connect to
the equipment is in good shape and any O rings are seated correctly.

Testing of 500 kV current transformers where the conductors were relatively close to the ground
with the accompanying electrical fields had no deleterious effects on the instruments and still
produced accurate readings. This field check was important since these instruments will often be
used in high field areas in substations.

4-3
5
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

The GC gives a report on the SF6, O2, N2, CF4, moisture content and the concentration of any
decomposition products if they are in high enough concentrations. The DPD gives a cumulative
response to detectable decomposition products. These values can be compared to specific
criteria (see Table 1-1) and manufacturers or utility guidelines. The action required will depend
on the circumstance and specific utility practices. These actions are described below.

Figure 5-1 gives a simplified reaction scheme for SF6 equipment. With elapsed time going from
left to right, components commonly found in SF6 insulated equipment are listed on the left and
under various types of stress, initial and intermediate products are formed. These products can
further react with contaminants and reactants to form the more stable products, which are found
on the right.

Reactants/
Reactants/
Component
Component Stress
Stress Initial
Initial&&Intermediate
IntermediateProducts
Products Products
Products
Contaminants
Contaminants

Pure SF6 With Impurities GASES


SF
SF
6
6 SF4, SF2 NN2
SOF2, SO2F2 HH 2
Arcing (gas) F2, S2F2 2OO OO2
IMPURITIES SOF4, SO2, COS 2
IMPURITIES S2F10 2
(O
(O2,H 2O,CF4) CF
2,H2O,CF4) CF4 4
OO2 HH2OO
CONTACTS
CONTACTS CuF2, AlF3 CF4, SiF4, 2 2
Arcing (solids)
SF6, AgF
HF
HF
W,
W,Cu,
Cu,Ag
Ag
(CH3)2SiF2
SOF
SOF2
SiO
SiO2 2
2
ENCLOSURE SO
SO2F2F
2
ENCLOSURE 2
Al
Al SF4, F2 SO2F2, SOF2 SO
Corona/Sparking
Metals SO2 2
S2F10 SO2
Metals COS
GASKETS COS
GASKETS
&&SEALANTS
SEALANTS
PTFE Metal
Metal SOLIDS
PTFE Thermal
Silicone SF4, SF2, COS, SOF2 Oxides
Oxides
Silicone
Epoxy
Epoxy WO
WO 3
3
CuF
CuF
OTHER
OTHER N2, O2,
2
2
Environmental AlF
AlF
SiO
SiO2,2,AlAl
2OO
3 H 2O
3
3
2 3

Elapsed Time

Figure 5-1
Simplified Reaction Scheme in SF6 Equipment

Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is very reactive and, although formed as a product will further react so
this is displayed as arrows in both directions. This is also true to a lesser extent for SOF2 as it is

5-1
Interpretation of Results

relatively more reactive than the other gaseous decomposition products and will form SO2 in
reaction with moisture according to the reaction:

SOF2 + H2O SO2 + 2HF

The powder deposits often found inside breakers are the solids, tungsten oxide (WO3), copper
fluoride (CuF2) and aluminum fluoride (AlF3). CuF2 and AlF3 will further react with moisture (on
the skin and in mucous membranes) forming HF, which is extremely corrosive and so it is
always imperative that adequate personal protective equipment (respirators, gloves etc.) be worn.
Tungsten hexafluoride (WF6), which is very reactive, may also form but at temperatures below
17.5C. and pressures above atmospheric, it will be a liquid.

Interpretation of Contaminant Detection

When interpreting the detection of decomposition products, the situation depends on the
equipment. In compartments such as a bus or other non-switching equipment, the presence of
any decomposition products would be of a concern. In compartments where switching is
involved, decomposition products may be formed under normal conditions (i.e. arc interruption).
In the case of circuit breakers with an internal desiccant, the presence of decomposition products
may indicate a normal operation but the concentration should decrease over a period of a few
days as the desiccant absorbs these normal levels of decomposition products. If there is no
further switching and the levels do not decrease, this may indicate that the desiccant is spent or
that there is an ongoing internal problem (discharges or overheating). If there is no further
switching and the levels increase, this would be even greater cause for concern.

An elevated level of CF4 can be an indication of Teflon nozzle wear in breakers. A sudden and
rapid increase may indicate accelerated wear and closer monitoring or internal inspection may be
required. Teflon nozzle breakers used in reactor and capacitor switching were monitored as part
of this study and showed increasing levels of CF4. Further monitoring of these breakers (see case
study in Appendix B) is intended to develop diagnostics as to when the situation becomes
critical. The number of operations (or perhaps the I2t) may be taken into account for better
interpretation in this future study.

The DPD is more sensitive to the predominant decomposition products and this should always be
used to determine their presence. The DPD can detect one ppmv of SOF2 (the most predominant
SF6 decomposition product) and one ppmv SO2. It is extremely unlikely that there would be other
decomposition products present if either of these two are not detected. SOF2 over time will
degrade to SO2 and the presence of SO2 without SOF2 indicates an older fault that is not
continuous. The presence of SOF2 only indicates a more recent event. The presence of both could
mean an ongoing problem. The DPD gives a readout which is a composite result and is unable to
distinguish between SOF2 and SO2. The GC can distinguish the individual decomposition
products, but lacks the sensitivity of the DPD. Accurate determination of incipient faults requires
low ppmv detection. If decomposition products are detected with the DPD and not the GC, it is
suggested that more sampling should be done to track the possible growth of the problem.

5-2
Interpretation of Results

Table 5-1 summarizes recommended actions to be taken with various levels of contaminants
detected.
Table 5-1
Recommended Actions on Contaminant Detection

Contaminant Allowable Limit Source or cause Recommended Action

CIGRE (in-
service gas) [3]

Air 3%v Inadequate handling If air contamination exceeds


procedures tolerable levels, the gas should be
replaced with SF6 that meets the
requirements. Removal of air from
SF6 is difficult on site. In most
cases the contaminated gas would
need to be sent to the
manufacturer or a central
processing center for recycling or
disposal.

CF4 Included with air It is a contaminant in new Monitor increase. If the increase is
SF6 but can be generated excessive, consider inspection of
(3%v) in service through burning the Teflon nozzles.
of Teflon nozzles.

Decomposition 100 ppmv Arcing, partial discharge, Bus, VT, CT any detectable
Products overheating levels are a concern and require
further investigation

Circuit breaker monitor for


change in concentration over time
and correlate with switching.
Any continual increase in by-
products unrelated to switching
require further investigation

Moisture 4000 ppmv at 100 Inadequate handling If the moisture level exceeds
kPa procedures tolerable levels, the gas can be
dried using filters found in most
gas carts

5-3
6
REFERENCES

1. Dominelli, D., Wylie, I., EPRI Publication TR-1000131 - SF6 Gas Condition Assessment
and Decontamination, 2000

2. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Publication 376, Specification and


Acceptance of new Sulphur Hexafluoride, 1971

3. CIGRE Working Group 23-10, SF6 Recycling Guide, Electra 173 (1997) pp. 43-69

4. Dominelli, N., Wylie, I., Analysis of SF6 Gas as a Diagnostic Technique for GIS, EPRI
Substation Equipment Diagnostic Conference IV, 1996

5. Agilent Technologies Inc. (www.agilent.com)

6. Damsky, B., EPRI Publication TR-113933 Practical Guide to SF6 Handling Practices,
1999

7. CIGRE Working Group 23.03, Handling of SF6 and its Decomposition Products in Gas
Insulated Switchgear - Report by the International Conference on Large High Voltage
Electrical Systems

8. Dominelli, N., Wylie, I., Quantitative Field Detection of SF6 Decomposition Products,
Doble Conference 10-7.1, 1993

9. Dominelli, N., Wylie, I., Analysis of SF6 Gas as a Diagnostic Technique for GIS, EPRI
Substation Equipment Diagnostic Conference IV, 1996

10. IEEE Standards Board, IEEE Guide for Moisture Measurement and Control in SF6 Gas-
Insulated Equipment, 1994

11. Dominelli, N., Analysis of Gaseous SF6 Decomposition Products, Canadian Electrical
Association, Final Report 231-7-446, April, 1987

12. Dominelli, N. and Wylie, I., SF6 Gas Condition Assessment and Decontamination, EPRI
Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference IX, 2001

6-1
A
FIELD TRIALS

Field trials were conducted at two utilities. The first was at a 230 kV GIS which involved
sampling from over seventy gas zones including circuit breakers, disconnect switches, ground
switches, bus and current transformers. The sampling at the second utility involved a few circuit
breakers at one substation. Also included in the database are samples conducted under an EPRI
tailored collaboration project to enhance the database. Almost all types of SF6 equipment were
analyzed for gas quality. The small amount of gas required by the analyzers for the analysis
allowed the field assessment of SF6 gas from equipment not previously analyzed. Appendix C
contains the raw data. This data is the start of a database that will grow over time and in future
years, members will be able to use this data to benchmark itself against other utilities. The
limited data on decomposition products prevented an adequate cause-effect relationship.

The following figures summarize the sample distribution, distribution of equipment tested, the
distribution of air and moisture content and the decomposition products detected. There were
very few zones where decomposition products were detected and therefore difficult to presently
establish a correlation between decomposition products detected and equipment condition. This
database will continually evolve and as more samples are added, leading to improved diagnostic
conclusions.

cylinder
27%

Circiut Breaker
41%

gas cart
2%
VT
3%
line
6%
CT switch Bus
1% 13% 7%

Figure A-1
Sample Distribution

A-1
Field Trials

Most of the samples taken were from circuit breakers, followed by cylinders. A switch refers to
either a ground or disconnect switch, VT is voltage transformer and CT is a current transformer.
Very few decomposition products were detected and where detected, are described in the case
histories in Appendix B.

70
60
Number of Equipment

50
circuit breaker
40 bus
30 switch
cylinder
20
10
0
0-0.1 0.1-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-10 >10
Air Content Range (%v)

Figure A-2
Air Content Distribution

The air content distribution showed that most of the circuit breakers had an air content of
between 0.1%v to 0.5%v. Most of the cylinders showed an air content of between 1.0%v and
10%v. The majority of these cylinders tested contained gas consolidated from many more
cylinders. They were being tested for suitability for reuse. The unusable gas was shipped out for
recycling and the reusable gas put back into stores. Most of the bus tested had an air content
between 1000 and 5000 ppmv.

The moisture content distribution showed that most circuit breakers had less than detectable
moisture content. This was expected due to the presence of desiccant. It is interesting to note that
a majority of switches tested had a moisture content range of 100 to 500 ppmv. These switches
generally did not contain any desiccant. The distribution of moisture content amongst the bus
showed measurable, but still within CIGRE criteria, levels.

A-2
Field Trials

70

60

Number of Equipment
50
circuit breaker
40 bus
30 switch
cylinder
20

10

0
<20 20-100 100-500 >500
Moisture Content Range (%v)

Figure A-3
Moisture Content Distribution

A-3
B
CASE HISTORIES

Rupture Disc Failure of Circuit Breaker

A rupture disc failure on the low pressure side of a dual pressure ITE 230 kV circuit breaker
raised concerns about the condition of the gas on the high pressure side, as it was unclear
whether the compressor operated after the rupture disc failure. Remarkably, the breaker was not
tripped and remained closed even though the low pressure side had free water present. Analysis
of the gas from the high pressure side confirmed that the compressor had operated as the purity
was found to be 84.67%v SF6. Therefore, this gas was not reused and new gas was used to fill the
breaker after repairs. The contaminated gas was collected for recycling. A spot check on the gas
cart that was to be used to recover this contaminated gas revealed a higher than expected air
content. Further investigation determined that this gas cart was used when servicing another
breaker at a different substation. The gas in this breaker was tested at a later date and found to
have a purity of 97.42%v compared to 99+ %v purity in all the other breakers at that substation.

Identified Faulty Gas Cart as Source of Air Contamination

Gas testing at a GIS substation of a circuit breaker that tripped following a cable failure revealed
no decomposition products and excellent quality gas. Desiccant bags present in the contact
compartment are usually very efficient in removing not only moisture, but also low levels of
decomposition products generated as result of normal operation. Because these analyzers require
small volumes of gas, the voltage transformers could be checked for gas quality (if traditional
sample cylinders and hygrometers were used, too much gas would have been required from this
small volume). The pressure was checked before and after the gas testing and indicated no
pressure drop (too small to be measured). Other gas zones, including circuit breakers, bus and
voltage transformers at this GIS were checked as the time for each analysis is about five minutes.
Two bus zones that were just topped up with new SF6 gas were found to have purities of
94.39%v and 94.22%v. This was unexpected as new gas was just put into the gas cart. A test of
the residual new gas in the cylinder used indicated a purity of 99.93%v. Analysis of the gas in
the gas cart holding tank revealed a purity of 88.52%v SF6. Further investigation found that a
failed pressure relief valve on the compressor crankcase in the gas cart was the source of the air
contamination. Using this gas cart with this problem was contaminating new gas. This reinforces
the necessity of confirming gas quality after filling of equipment even though all handling
procedures are followed.

B-1
Case Histories

Previously Undetected Contaminant

An extraneous peak was periodically noticed on some of the chromatograms generated by the
gas chromatograph indicated a previously unidentified gaseous component in the SF6. This was
identified in the laboratory as methane and the concentrations detected were in the range of 10
ppmv. As the sensitivity of this portable instrument is very good, this methane is likely not to
have been detected previously with traditional laboratory testing with sample cylinders.
Examination of the sources of SF6 gas where methane was detected showed that it came from gas
that had been inside older circuit breakers from new. Some of these circuit breakers had been in
service for twenty-five or thirty years with the same gas. The source of the methane is likely due
to deterioration of some organic material (composites or greases, for example) within the circuit
breakers. To-date no further examination was conducted to determine if the presence of these
methane concentrations was significant to the operation of the equipment or indicated significant
wear on some component. When the breaker is opened for servicing or inspection an
examination will attempt to link the methane with any abnormal internal condition.

Elevated Carbon Tetrafluoride Levels

The testing of SF6 in circuit breakers used in reactor switching indicated elevated levels of the
carbon tetrafluoride (CF4). New SF6 usually has low levels of CF4 from the production process -
but these breakers had greatly elevated levels. These breakers are operated approximately 300
times per year and contain Teflon nozzles. CF4 is a known breakdown product of Teflon and the
elevated concentrations indicate Teflon nozzle wear. A failure of one phase in this type of
breaker had 4000 ppmv CF4. This phase also had significant amounts of decomposition products
(140 ppmv thionyl fluoride, SOF2). The other phase of this breaker had 1160 ppmv CF4. IEC 376
criteria call for a maximum of 830 ppmv for new gas. In practice, the CF4 concentration is less
than 150 ppmv. This breaker was rebuilt (the Teflon nozzle showed extensive wear with many
pinholes) and put back into service and the SF6 quality has been monitored since. A definite
increase in the CF4 concentration has been noticed since it was put back into operation. This was
confirmed in an identical breaker where new gas was installed (A rise from 145 ppmv to 250
ppmv was seen over one year and approximately 300 operations). The level at which the CF4
concentration, or perhaps the rate of increase of CF4 concentration becomes critical has yet to be
determined but initial indications are that levels greater than 2500 ppmv may indicate a concern.

Decomposition Products Cross Contamination

A thirty year old bus that had been de-energized for two weeks, connecting a transformer and
circuit breaker at a 230 kV generating station was analyzed with the DPD and decomposition
products were detected in all three phases. The concentrations were identical in each phase and
although each phase was sampled independently, they were normally connected through a
common filling line. In the year previous, UHF analysis had indicated loose particles in A phase
so it is likely that the decomposition products diffused through the common filling lines to the
other phases. This bus will be monitored closely once it is put back on line to determine if there
is an increase in decomposition products in one phase or all three phases.

B-2
Case Histories

Investigation of Partial Discharge in Bus

A very large bus containing a large amount of gas showed a concentration of approximately one
ppmv with the DPD. This 500 kV bus was over eighty feet long and although only one ppmv
was detected, the volume of gas involved indicated there might be a significant problem. Further
investigation with a UHF analyzer located the problem to a certain area. This bus will be closely
monitored for any changes. This particular case highlights the complimentary nature of the DPD
and an UHF analyzer, the DPD was able to quickly assess equipment, identify where a problem
may be and the UHF was able to narrow down the location.

B-3
C
RAW DATA

C-1
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments
10-Jul-03 1 Bus A < 99.81 910 690 240 70 < < < < Zone 18A
10-Jul-03 1 Bus B < 99.87 600 430 180 60 < < < < Zone 18B
10-Jul-03 1 Bus C < 99.78 950 670 430 160 < < < < Zone 18C
10-Jul-03 1 Bus A < 99.84 690 500 390 < < < < < Zone 22A
10-Jul-03 1 Bus B < 99.84 720 510 380 < < < < < Zone 22B
10-Jul-03 1 Bus C < 99.86 610 440 350 < < < < < Zone 22C
10-Jul-03 1 Bus M < 99.48 2930 1970 140 150 < < < < Zone 14
10-Jul-03 1 Bus M < 99.55 2900 1600 20 < < < < < Zone 16
10-Jul-03 1 Bus M < 99.76 1290 880 150 50 < < < < Zone 26
10-Jul-03 1 CB A < 99.80 1180 670 100 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 6A
10-Jul-03 1 CB B < 99.80 1150 650 160 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 6B
10-Jul-03 1 CB C < 99.78 1310 730 200 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 6C
10-Jul-03 1 CB A < 99.71 1670 1170 100 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 8A
10-Jul-03 1 CB B < 99.69 1820 1190 90 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 8B
10-Jul-03 1 CB C < 99.68 1930 1220 100 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 8C
10-Jul-03 1 CB A < 99.51 2340 1540 180 810 < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 10A
10-Jul-03 1 CB B < 99.39 3500 2110 200 290 < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 10B
10-Jul-03 1 CB C < 99.63 2180 1290 190 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 10C
10-Jul-03 1 CB A < 99.68 1660 1010 560 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 27-Oct-81 230000 Zone 12A
10-Jul-03 1 CB B < 99.74 1340 870 390 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 27-Oct-81 230000 Zone 12B
10-Jul-03 1 CB C < 99.62 2290 1140 380 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 27-Oct-81 230000 Zone 12C
10-Jul-03 1 CB A < 99.70 1630 1020 400 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 2A
10-Jul-03 1 CB B < 99.68 1740 1110 400 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 2B
10-Jul-03 1 CB C < 99.73 1410 940 310 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 2C
10-Jul-03 1 CB A < 92.98 54200 15600 440 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 4A
10-Jul-03 1 CB B < 94.59 41550 12220 370 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 4B
10-Jul-03 1 CB C < 94.61 41590 11930 370 < < < < < BBC ELKSN2 1-Oct-77 230000 Zone 4C
10-Jul-03 1 CT A < 56.59 433620 180 280 < < < < <
10-Jul-03 1 CT B < 57.83 421490 170 20 < < < < <
10-Jul-03 1 CT C < 56.16 438210 180 10 < < < < <
23-Oct-02 1 switch A < 71.92 277900 2820 25 -- < < < < ABB Pothead connection
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 98.36 9770 6080 290 230 < < < < BBC Zone 5A

C-2
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 98.24 10500 6530 300 320 < < < < BBC Zone 5B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 98.20 10700 6700 310 320 < < < < BBC Zone 5C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 98.56 7970 5760 320 320 < < < < BBC Zone 7A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 98.52 8300 5930 320 280 < < < < BBC Zone 7B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 98.53 8290 5700 310 430 < < < < BBC Zone 7C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 98.66 7420 5590 130 300 < < < < BBC Zone 9A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 98.59 7800 5800 230 240 < < < < BBC Zone 9B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 98.65 7470 5560 200 260 < < < < BBC Zone 9C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 99.11 4950 3530 310 60 < < < < BBC Zone 11A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 99.11 4960 3520 310 60 < < < < BBC Zone 11B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 99.11 4960 3530 310 60 < < < < BBC Zone 11C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 98.47 8420 6240 250 370 < < < < BBC Zone 3A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 98.38 9110 6560 250 280 < < < < BBC Zone 3B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 99.05 5730 3360 130 330 < < < < BBC Zone 3C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 99.27 3840 2770 110 570 < < < < BBC Zone 17A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 97.94 11410 8440 220 530 < < < < BBC Zone 17B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 98.22 9820 7330 220 470 < < < < BBC Zone 17C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 99.13 5250 3180 30 240 < < < < BBC Zone 16A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 99.16 5100 3100 30 200 < < < < BBC Zone 16B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 99.16 5070 3100 30 200 < < < < BBC Zone 16C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 97.78 12540 8650 710 320 < < < < BBC Zone 20A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 99.76 1250 870 40 250 < < < < BBC Zone 20B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 98.02 11080 8130 120 510 < < < < BBC Zone 20C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 99.46 2970 2140 130 140 < < < < BBC Zone 25A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 99.44 3030 2170 130 290 < < < < BBC Zone 25B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 99.44 3050 2190 130 240 < < < < BBC Zone 25C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 99.40 3340 2250 60 330 < < < < BBC Zone 13A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 99.30 3980 2650 80 340 < < < < BBC Zone 13B
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 99.26 4130 2720 80 420 < < < < BBC Zone 13C
10-Jul-03 1 switch A < 98.17 10120 7290 380 490 < < < < BBC Zone 21A
10-Jul-03 1 switch B < 98.03 10970 7940 400 400 < < < < BBC Zone 21B

C-3
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments
10-Jul-03 1 switch C < 97.96 11270 8250 400 510 < < < < BBC Zone 21C
10-Jul-03 1 cart M < 99.42 3530 2050 200 < < < < <
10-Jul-03 1 line A < 99.38 3560 2320 20 280 < < < < BBC Zone 1A
10-Jul-03 1 line B < 99.39 3540 2310 20 250 < < < < BBC Zone 1B
10-Jul-03 1 line C < 99.36 3730 2340 30 350 < < < < BBC Zone 1C
10-Jul-03 1 line A < 99.19 4610 2850 50 600 < < < < BBC Zone 24A
10-Jul-03 1 line B < 98.99 5670 4410 10 < < < < < BBC Zone 24B
10-Jul-03 1 line C < 99.39 3300 2500 40 280 < < < < BBC Zone 24C
15-Apr-03 2 CB M < 99.58 3200 880 110 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 1-Jun-76 230000 1-Jun-76
15-Apr-03 2 CB M < 99.44 4570 900 110 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 1-May-76 230000 1-May-76
30-Nov-
15-Apr-03 2 CB M < 99.56 3540 720 120 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 76 230000 30-Nov-76
30-Nov-
15-Apr-03 2 CB M < 99.35 5200 1220 110 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 76 230000 30-Nov-76
30-Nov-
15-Apr-03 2 CB M < 99.56 3420 810 130 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 76 230000 30-Nov-76
15-Apr-03 2 CB M < 98.38 12600 3560 90 < < < < < WCL 242SF40 1-Jul-73 230000 1-Jul-73
13-May-
15-Apr-03 2 CB M < 97.42 20550 5160 100 < < < < < ITE 242GA50-30C 80 230000 13-May-80
15-Apr-03 2 CB M -- 99.76 1700 620 130 < < < < < ITE 242GA50-30C 17-Jun-80 230000 17-Jun-80
10-Jan-03 4 CB M < 99.61 3270 590 40 < < < < < WCL 242SF40 1-May-74 230000 1-May-74
10-Jan-03 4 CB M < 99.73 2130 540 50 < < < < < WCL 242SF40 1-May-74 230000 1-May-74
10-Jan-03 4 CB M < 99.12 6880 1880 30 < < < < < WCL 242SF40 1-May-74 230000 1-May-74
10-Jan-03 4 CB M < 99.38 4910 1220 40 < < < < < WCL 242SF40 25-Jun-76 230000 25-Jun-76
10-Jan-03 4 CB M < 98.02 15440 4300 40 < < < < < WCL 242SF40 1-May-74 230000 1-May-74
10-Jan-03 4 cart M -- 99.75 1480 1020 10 < < < < <
HPL 15-Sep-
27-Feb-02 5 CB A >20 99.47 1130 200 4000 < 140 < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 92 60000 15-Sep-92 this phase failed
HPL 15-Sep-
27-Feb-02 5 CB C 3 99.66 1720 510 1160 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 92 60000 15-Sep-92
HPL
1-Mar-02 5 CB A trace 99.81 1080 120 690 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 20-Jan-93 60000 20-Jan-93
HPL gas changed approx. one
1-Mar-02 5 CB C < 99.85 850 490 145 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 20-Jan-93 60000 20-Jan-93 month previous
8-Mar-02 5 CB A < 99.69 1470 400 1260 < < < < < ABB HPL 245/31A2 31-Oct-90 230000 31-Oct-90
8-Mar-02 5 CB B < 99.74 1260 340 1050 < < < < < ABB HPL 245/31A2 31-Oct-90 230000 31-Oct-90
8-Mar-02 5 CB C < 99.74 1340 380 840 < < < < < ABB HPL 245/31A2 31-Oct-90 230000 31-Oct-90

C-4
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments
16-Aug-
10-Dec-02 5 CB M < 99.29 4250 880 30 1910 < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 75 230000 16-Aug-75
11-Sep-
10-Dec-02 5 CB M < 99.43 4740 880 40 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 75 230000 11-Sep-75
10-Dec-02 5 CB M < 96.30 29630 7280 50 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 2-Apr-76 230000 2-Apr-76
16-Aug-
23-Dec-02 5 CB M < 99.21 4160 890 25 3560 < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 75 230000 16-Aug-75
HPL 15-Sep- approx. 300 operations in last
23-Jan-03 5 CB A 2 99.77 1380 530 350 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 92 60000 15-Sep-92 year
HPL 15-Sep- approx. 300 operations in last
23-Jan-03 5 CB C trace 99.73 1340 420 910 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 92 60000 15-Sep-92 year
HPL
23-Jan-03 5 CB A < 99.53 3740 100 810 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 20-Jan-93 60000 20-Jan-93
HPL
23-Jan-03 5 CB C < 99.87 1010 40 250 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 20-Jan-93 60000 20-Jan-93
7-Feb-03 5 CB A < 99.71 1400 160 1290 < < < < < ABB HPL 245/31A2 31-Oct-90 230000 31-Oct-90
7-Feb-03 5 CB B < 99.73 1340 180 1140 < < < < < ABB HPL 245/31A2 31-Oct-90 230000 31-Oct-90
7-Feb-03 5 CB C < 99.76 1310 180 870 < < < < < ABB HPL 245/31A2 31-Oct-90 230000 31-Oct-90
HPL
1-May-03 5 CB A < 99.58 3290 100 780 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 20-Jan-93 60000 20-Jan-93
HPL
1-May-03 5 CB C -- 99.88 930 40 250 < < < < < ABB 2/72.5/40A1 20-Jan-93 60000 20-Jan-93
21-Nov-02 6 CB M < 99.43 4540 1020 100 < < < < < WCL SF6 1-May-74 230000 1-May-74
21-Nov-02 6 CB M < 99.50 4140 750 70 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 4-Sep-81 230000 4-Sep-81
21-Nov-02 6 CB M < 99.77 1740 430 100 < < < < < WCL SF6 1-May-74 230000 1-May-74
21-Nov-02 6 CB M < 84.67 123700 28030 110 1520 < < < < ITE 242GA50-30C 27-Jul-81 230000 27-Jul-81
21-Nov-02 6 CB M < 99.08 7590 1500 150 < < < < < ITE 242GA50-30C 27-Jul-81 230000 27-Jul-81
21-Nov-02 6 CB M < 99.45 4460 840 180 < < < < < ITE 242GA50-30C 27-Jul-81 230000 27-Jul-81
151 operations total last
26-Aug-03 7 CB M < 68.54 313400 890 50 < < < < < BBC ELF SL 6-2 45A 1985 345000 1985 operation 7/7/2003
169 operations total last
26-Aug-03 7 CB M < 54.28 455700 1270 220 < < < < < BBC ELF SL 6-2 45A 1985 345000 1985 operation 8/16/2003
220 operations total last
26-Aug-03 7 CB M < 65.61 342800 990 70 < < < < < BBC ELF SL 6-2 45A 1985 345000 1985 operation 7/7/2003
26-Aug-03 7 cyl. MM < 98.78 9650 2300 270 < < < < <
26-Aug-03 7 cart M < 99.7 2290 680 10 < < < < < DILO
20-Nov-02 8 Bus A < 94.22 40940 16710 109 < < < < <
20-Nov-02 8 Bus A < 94.39 39580 16400 121 < < < < <
23-Nov-02 8 Bus A < 99.85 950 530 < 50 < < < <

C-5
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments
23-Nov-02 8 Bus A < 99.85 810 640 < 60 < < < <
23-Nov-02 8 Bus B < 99.65 1880 1580 < 40 < < < <
23-Nov-02 8 Bus B < 99.36 3430 2870 < 90 < < < <
17-Dec-02 8 Bus C < 99.92 500 260 < < < < < <
17-Dec-02 8 Bus C < 99.83 1120 570 < < < < < <
12-Jul-02 8 CB M < 98.72 8480 4020 270 -- < < < < BBC ELKSN2 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
12-Jul-02 8 CB M < 98.76 8280 3980 130 -- < < < < BBC ELKSN2 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
12-Jul-02 8 CB M < 99.68 2130 920 150 -- < < < < BBC ELKSN2 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
12-Jul-02 8 CB M < 99.69 2020 880 180 -- < < < < BBC ELKSN2 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
20-Nov-02 8 cyl. M < 99.93 475 204 < < < < < <
12-Jul-02 8 cart M < .44 993300 2210 < -- < < < <
20-Nov-02 8 cart M < 88.52 70240 44350 < < < < < <
22-Nov-02 8 line A < 99.95 140 280 < 80 < < < <
22-Nov-02 8 line B < 99.96 230 130 < 40 < < < <
22-Nov-02 8 line C < 99.94 320 180 < 50 < < < <
23-Nov-02 8 line A < 99.84 1270 280 < 20 < < < <
23-Nov-02 8 line B < 99.98 150 40 < < < < < <
23-Nov-02 8 line C < 99.99 80 40 < < < < < <
22-Nov-02 8 VT A < 99.93 450 160 < 40 < < < < BBC ELKPI24 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
22-Nov-02 8 VT B < 99.94 360 140 < 60 < < < < BBC ELKPI24 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
22-Nov-02 8 VT C < 99.94 390 140 < 60 < < < < BBC ELKPI24 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
23-Nov-02 8 VT A < 99.93 440 200 < 50 < < < < BBC ELKPI24 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
23-Nov-02 8 VT B < 99.88 870 320 < 50 < < < < BBC ELKPI24 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
23-Nov-02 8 VT C 99.90 630 240 < 60 < < < < BBC ELKPI24 6-Oct-78 230000 6-Oct-78
31-Mar-03 9 CB M 99.71 930 500 120 1330 < < < < MGN FA2 2-Jul-81 230000 2-Jul-81
31-Mar-03 9 CB M 99.71 1090 642 260 910 < < < < MGN FA2 2-Jul-81 230000 2-Jul-81
31-Mar-03 9 CB M < 99.11 3140 3680 1140 920 < < < < MGN FA2 2-Jul-81 230000 2-Jul-81
10-Jul-03 10 CB M < 99.84 520 350 240 470 < < < <
10-Jul-03 10 CB M < 99.77 210 130 150 1800 < < < <
10-Jul-03 10 CB M < 99.86 130 70 60 1100 < < < <
19-Nov-
10-Jul-03 10 CB M < 99.56 3930 400 130 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 76 230000

C-6
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments

10-Jul-03 10 CB M < 99.56 3660 560 160 < < < < < ITE 242GA40-30C 1-Dec-77 230000
24-Apr-02 stores cyl. M < 99.95 310 150 20 < < < < <
22-May-
02 stores cyl. M < 99.96 290 130 < 5 < < < <
22-May-
02 stores cyl. M < 99.90 720 310 < 6 < < < <
22-May-
02 stores cyl. M < 99.96 270 130 < 3 < < < <
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 93.62 60620 3160 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 92.87 70960 360 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 92.46 74740 420 < 250 < < < < Consolidated cylinder
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 92.66 72690 290 < 390 < < < < Consolidated cylinder
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 99.55 4390 50 < 40 < < < < Consolidated cylinder
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 93.58 61370 2750 < 30 < < < < Consolidated cylinder
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 93.20 64400 3640 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
16-Dec-02 stores cyl. M < 94.05 59250 290 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.90 30 20 60 900 < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 65.71 342500 370 40 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.60 11220 2670 100 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.44 12240 3210 160 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.52 2980 1680 120 < < < < <
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 63.33 288200 78400 40 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.30 4180 2590 200 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.41 3490 2180 190 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 94.43 45530 10040 170 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.81 1230 630 60 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.14 7110 1410 80 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.78 1250 810 150 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 46.95 507000 19520 400 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 96.94 24850 5600 160 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 33.24 517300150200 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.89 980 110 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.99 110 30 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder

C-7
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.96 8510 1750 90 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.41 3070 2390 400 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.15 15300 3100 120 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.08 15870 3160 110 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.82 1130 580 50 < < < < <
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 57.03 407600 21900 170 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.80 8190 3610 170 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.52 12330 2350 110 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 57.10 426700 1960 320 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.85 8560 2800 180 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.28 4310 2700 200 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.50 12470 2390 110 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.65 10780 2600 110 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 97.64 18750 4530 90 200 < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 53.51 464500 120 230 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 83.68 161800 1370 30 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 58.24 415000 2540 10 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 99.11 7400 1440 90 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 98.48 10460 4500 190 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 94.74 42620 9790 186 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 94.94 48340 1960 110 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
28-Jan-03 stores cyl. M < 94.04 48830 10620 170 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 97.72 10160 3640 900 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 99.05 7000 2160 330 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 99.77 1480 670 150 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 99.15 4200 2810 1450 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 85.84 111600 29590 420 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 92.60 38990 5820 29230 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 98.63 10640 2930 120 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 99.73 1370 870 430 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 99.85 680 250 560 < < < < <
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 38.88 577400 33800 70 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder

C-8
Raw Data

Sub DPD SF6 N2 O2 CF4 H20 SOF2 SO2F2 COS SO2 MFR Energize
Date Stn. Type Phase Result (%v) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv) (ppmv)MFR. MFR. Model Date Voltage Date Comments
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 98.92 8930 1790 80 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 62.63 355000 18320 280 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 47.12 527500 990 220 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 98.81 10010 1850 20 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 99.43 4700 1020 < < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 99.02 7060 2390 350 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M < 97.54 19560 4710 350 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder
25-Feb-03 stores cyl. M 97.47 20070 4720 470 < < < < < Consolidated cylinder

C-9
Program: About EPRI
Transmission Substations EPRI creates science and technology solutions for
the global energy and energy services industry. U.S.
electric utilities established the Electric Power
Research Institute in 1973 as a nonprofit research
consortium for the benefit of utility members, their
customers, and society. Now known simply as EPRI,
the company provides a wide range of innovative
products and services to more than 1000 energy-
related organizations in 40 countries. EPRIs
multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers
draws on a worldwide network of technical and
business expertise to help solve todays toughest
energy and environmental problems.
EPRI. Electrify the World

2003 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Inc. All rights


reserved. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered
service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
EPRI. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric
Power Research Institute, Inc.

Printed on recycled paper in the United States of America

1002068

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA
800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com