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DCAF Backgrounder

Defence Attachs 07/2007

What is a defence attach (DA)? What is a defence attach?


A defence attach (DA) is a member of the armed forces
What are the origins of the who serves in an embassy as a representative of his/her
position, and how has it countrys defence establishment abroad and in this
evolved? capacity enjoys diplomatic status and immunity. DA is a
generic term that covers personnel from all branches of
What are the main roles of the the armed services, although some larger countries may
appoint an attach to represent an individual service
DA today? branch, such as an air force or naval attach.

How do different countries The DA is usually responsible for all aspects of bilateral
approach the DA position? military and defence relations. Some countries also
deploy attachs to work on other security issues, such as
migration or police and justice matters.
How have countries gone about
reforming the DA system? Members of a countrys armed forces may also serve
as part of a military mission to a regional organisation
Where is more information such as NATO, the EU, ECOWAS or the UN. These persons
available? are usually designated military advisors or heads of
mission. Such assignments are mainly multilateral in
nature, whereas the DA system centres on the bilateral
relationship between military establishments. It is
on this category that this backgrounder focuses. This
backgrounder also looks mainly at Western European
approaches to the DA position.

The Diplomatic Status of the DA

The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 18


April 1961 provides immunity to persons according to

D CA F their rank in a diplomatic mission. It defines the legal


status of the DA in article 7:

Subject to the provisions of articles 5, 8, 9 and 11, the


sending State may freely appoint the members of the
Geneva Centre for the staff of the mission. In the case of military, naval or air
Democratic Control attachs, the receiving State may require their names to
be submitted beforehand, for its approval.
of Armed Forces
Hence, under the Convention, DAs are considered
as members of the diplomatic staff enjoying full
This document is part of the DCAF Backgrounder immunity.
series, which provides practitioners with
concise introductions to a variety of issues in
the field of security sector governance and
reform.
Defence Attachs

What are the origins of the position, deployments are made. The challenge is to adjust
and how has it evolved? the defence attach system to contemporary
requirements while at the same time observing
The DA emerged during the seventeenth century budgetary constraints, which can be considerable.
at the time of the Thirty Years War when the Duke
of Richelieu dispatched military officers abroad
to liaise with allied powers, monitor military
Defence Diplomacy
developments and gather intelligence. In the
eighteenth century, the practice of assigning DAs The main feature of defence diplomacy is the
to embassies was initiated. By the nineteenth combined use of diplomatic and military tools.
century, most countries were using DAs, a trend Defence diplomacy activities include:
encouraged by the emergence of national
defence establishments and the building of providing military advice and assistance to
countries reforming their defence sectors;
colonial empires.
establishing mixed civilian and military
The twentieth century brought dramatic missions in conflict and post-conflict theatres;
changes in the number and background of DAs.
As the century unfolded, the need for attachs developing new arms control, disarmament
was reinforced by the growing number of and security- and confidence-building
states, the increasingly complex nature of their measures, also mainly in response to the
weapons systems and the enhanced importance demands of conflict and post-conflict
theatres.
of intelligence gathering. In 1961, the rights and
responsibilities of diplomats were codified in Defence Diplomacy emerged in large part owing
the Vienna Convention, and DAs were given the to the requirements of the countries of the
same status. Western Balkans and Central and Eastern Europe,
but later came to play an important role in other
Changes in the security environment since the regions as well.
end of the Cold War have made the DAs role
The UK was an early champion of defence
considerably more challenging and given him/
diplomacy, first mentioning the concept in its
her a key role in national defence diplomacy. In Strategic Defence Review of 1998 and addressing
addition to more traditional tasks, the DA may the role of the attach in this regard. After the
now have to contend with issues as diverse as attacks of 11 September 2001, the UK revisited its
Strategic Defence Review and developed what
defence reform and security sector reform in it termed the New Chapter. This highlights the
democratising countries, importance of Defence Diplomacy in addressing
the causes of conflict and terrorism as well as
complex peace support and civil emergency the benefits deriving from the broad approach
operations, and that is at its core. Through their role as Defence
Diplomats, UK defence attachs are important
terrorism. players in their countrys counterterrorism
policy.
The attachs range of relationships and task load
have broadened accordingly, and the demands
on his/her technical expertise and political skills What are the main roles of the DA
have grown. There is every reason to expect that today?
these trends will continue in the future.
The main roles of the DA are as follows. He/she
Against this background, many countries are
in the process of reviewing their DA systems, 1) is an advocate for his/her countrys military and
rethinking such matters as how the position is security interests,
managed, how the defence attach is trained
2) represents his/her countrys military authorities
for his/her duties as well as where and how
and liaises with those of the host country,

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Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
Defence Attachs

3) provides a security-policy and military network a prequisite for the position. Social competence,
capable of operating even in times of troubled professional competence, and intellectual curiosity
or reduced bilateral relations, are highly valued.

4) acts as a military and/or security advisor to his/ After the field of DA candidates has been
her ambassador and embassy staff, narrowed, the final phase of selection begins. In
Switzerland, the DA is appointed by a selection
5) observes conditions in the host country with commission consisting of representatives from
a bearing on security and reports on them to eight different government departments. Among
home country authorities, these is a representative from the Foreign Ministry,
whose input carries significant weight in the
6) oversees and manages activities in the area final decision. In other countries, such as Austria,
of military outreach, defence diplomacy France, and the UK, the Foreign Affairs Office
and security cooperation, both in bilateral wields little or no influence, as the decision lies
exchanges and through multilateral with the Ministry of Defence. The appointment
programmes such as NATOs Partnership for may also be subject to the approval of Strategic
Peace, and/or Military Intelligence, joint staff, and/or the
relevant ambassador at the embassy where the
7) promotes, in some instances, the home
DA will serve.
country armaments industry and
Locally, the DA is subordinate to the countrys
8) may play a role in spearheading emergency
ambassador and fills the second-, third-, or fourth-
response and relief efforts when crises arise.
ranked position. In countries such as Austria, the
ambassador may directly assign tasks to the DA.
How do different countries approach the This is not typical, however, as most attachs
DA position? receive their orders from the Defence Ministry.
The attach reports back to the home country DA
The scope and structure of each countrys office as well as to Military Intelligence at regular
DA system varies as a function of its security intervals. The DA may recalled at any time if he/
priorities and available resources. A given she is judged no longer suitable for the position.
country embassy may have no attach, a single
DA responsible for all military relations, or several What kind of training do DAs receive?
attachs representing different branches of the
DA training generally consists of three main
armed forces. The latter is usually the case of the
components:
United States representation. Its DA system is the
largest in the world, with hundreds of attachs specialised language training, which ranges
operating in 135 embassies. Switzerland, on the from several months to a year. The necessary
other hand, employs a total of 17 attachs that level of proficiency in the local language
conduct bilateral relations with 72 countries. depends on the country of deployment,
as conducting effective relations with the
How are DAs selected, supervised and managed in
recipient countrys military may require as little
different countries?
as survival-level skills (combined with advanced
When a DA post opens, recruitment takes place English) or as much as near-native fluency;
through open recruitment or through the
training relevant to his/her job functions, such
nomination of candidates by their specific branch
as defence and security policy, intelligence,
of service. The military rank of a typical candidate
protocol, the structure of the armed forces, arms
varies by country, ranging from lieutenant colonel
control, arms export controls and specialized
or junior colonel to major general. Qualified
computer training;
candidates often possess relevant language skills
and country knowledge, but neither is necessarily

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Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
Defence Attachs

cultural training to acclimatise the DA to the acquainted with the situation on the ground, the
country of assignment; in some countries need to feed lessons learned back into the system
- France, Switzerland - this can include the and the need to ensure that the DA does not go
spouse and other family members. native. While there is the possibility of extensions
and second tours, these are not the norm in DA
After settling into the post, the DA usually has deployment. The position is usually not seen
opportunities for further language training. as a career path in itself, but rather as a one-off
Additional learning opportunities also emerge opportunity in a military career.
through periodic meetings with defence staff in
the home country and through attendance at
yearly defence attach conferences.
How have countries gone about
reforming their DA system?
Traditionally, training for DAs tended to be
Two main approaches can be identified. First, there
carried out on a strictly national basis. However,
are countries whose DA systems have remained
some multilateral training programmes have
largely unreformed since the end of the Cold War.
become available in recent years. One example
This includes countries that tend to continue to
is the annual Defence Attach Training Module
use the system first and foremost for intelligence-
conducted by the Geneva Centre for Security
gathering. Second, there are countries whose
Policy. The four-day session brings together
focus has predominantly been on reviewing and
DAs from more than twenty countries (more
reshaping their DA systems. Most NATO and EU
information can be found at www.gcsp.ch/e/
countries are in this category. Some countries,
training/Short%20courses/DA%20Module/
like Austria, have taken a gradualist approach,
index.htm).
relying on an ongoing review process; others, like
Switzerland, have attempted to overhaul the DA
The DAs Role in Lebanon during Israels system in one go.
Military Operations in 2006
The main shifts that can be identified in the reform
In crisis environments or emergency situations, efforts of this second group are the following:
DAs may be directly involved in operational
management tasks such as non-combatant from bilateral attachs to multilateral
evacuation. During the Israeli military campaign military advisors: some countries have
of summer 2006, the French DA in Lebanon reduced bilateral posts and increased
was the interface between the French Embassy, multilateral positions in the regional military
the authorities of other Western countries,
the Lebanese Army and French military staff
missions of the EU, UN, or NATO or at their
as he implemented security and evacuation headquarters, as a great deal of cooperation
plans for the civilian community. In efforts to and information exchange takes place in
locate isolated individuals and bring them to these contexts. These multilateral officers
safe gathering points, the attach exercised perform many of the same duties as bilateral
direct command over French troops and other DAs, but are flag officers falling under a
assets. He was also in charge of establishing separate division within the Ministry of
logistical supply points for the United Nations
Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and the
Defence;
French Embassy in Beirut in coordination with
Lebanese staff. from the developed world to the
developing world: some countries have
moved from traditional deployments in
How long do DAs tend to be deployed? neighbouring countries to deployment in
countries that have assumed new strategic
A DAs deployment typically lasts three years. importance. For example, strong links
As in the case of civilian diplomats, this aims to between the militaries of EU and NATO
strike a balance between the need to become countries have greatly reduced members
need to exchange bilateral attachs. Western
European countries are thus establishing
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Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
Defence Attachs
Austria France Germany Switzerland United Kingdom

Which office(s) MoD and MoD and Joint MoD, but A commission Director of
appoint(s) the General Staff Staff accredited by representing 8 Defence
DA? Ministry of different Diplomacy
Foreign Affairs governmental (a military
departments officer) and the
head of Policy
and Defence
Relations (PDR)
in the MoD
(a civilian)

Which office(s) Chief of Deputy Chief of All reporting Operational PDR directorate
does the DA Defence, Joint Staff for goes first reports go to for professional
report to within Directorate for International through the the Defence issues;
the MoD? Security Policy Relations and ambassador, Attach Office; Department of
and Defence, Military then to other intelligence Defence
Attach Division Intelligence offices information goes Diplomacy for
Agency (DRM) to the Strategic administrative
Intelligence issues; reports
Office go to the MoD

What is the Lieutenant Lieutenant Senior Career officer, No typical


career situation Colonel to Colonel to Major Lieutenant or reserve background, but
of an applicant Brigadier General with Colonel to officer officers must be
before the first General from Joint Staff Brigadier employed by the well-rounded
defence MoD position or experience General MoD; reserve and experienced
attach staff position in and/or officer from
deployment? the higher in-country and private industry
command intelligence
structure experience

How long is the 4 years, with 3 years 3 years 3 years, with an Accompanied
DA's the option of option of a 4th tours are 3 years
deployment? two more; year while
extension if unaccompanied
replacement (a small number
cannot be found of countries,
or in case of such as Iraq) are
emergency 1.5 to 2 years;
1-year
extensions
possible with
approval

What kind of No standard Language Language course 11 months of Standard


education and training proficiency followed by 5- pre-deployment package for all
training does programme as of course; 3-month to 6-month training attachs to
the DA receive? yet; a new course on defence attach encompassing familiarise them
course will security policy; course all aspects of with security
combine one 1-week course training, issues; language
year of language on social including some training ranges
training with six protocol for training for from survival
months of spouses spouses skills to
security policy specialist level,
depending on
country of
deployment

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Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
Defence Attachs

new DA attach posts in the Middle East, of the sending state, but it is impossible for
Africa, and Asia while eliminating posts in one person to deal with the entire range of
neighbouring countries; security sector issues. Moreover, as a DAs
effectiveness correlates directly with his/her
from bilateral accreditation to multiple ability to establish bilateral military relations
accreditation: some countries have with the receiving country, a less-specialised
switched from a system of separate attachs security attach may prove incapable of
stationed in two or three different countries ensuring quality relations with members of
to one in which a single DA conducts bilateral the defence establishment.
relations with both or all three countries. The
attach is based in one country in the region The approach to the DA system has traditionally
and travels frequently to the other country been developed by individual countries, acting
or countries of accreditation. Similarly, two or in isolation. Bringing together different countries
more attachs may be based in one country attachs as well as the officials who manage
in order to conduct bilateral relations with six and train them could offer important benefits. In
or seven countries in the region. While these particular, it could provide a forum for sharing best
approaches make efficient use of scarce practices and exploring new ways to tailor the DAs
resources and can help provide a regional role to contemporary security priorities.
overview, they can limit the DAs country
awareness and range of contacts; Where is more information available?
from in-country deployment to home Publications dealing with the DA system are
county base: a few countries have replaced rare. The only full-length study was published
resident attachs with itinerant attachs that in 1959, a Swiss doctoral thesis entitled Der
conduct bilateral relations with more than Militrattach, seine vlker- und landesrechtliche
one country. The distinction is that while Stellung mit besonderer Bercksichtigung der
the resident attachs are based regionally, Schweizer Verhltnisse.
itinerant DAs operate out of their home
countries. The main advantage of this system DCAF is preparing a policy paper that will offer a
is cost savings. However, the system entails more detailed comparison of the defence attach
numerous disadvantages, including a lack systems of Austria, France, Switzerland, Germany,
of regional awareness and a lack of depth in and the UK. This document will be available online
the network of contacts as well as possible at www.dcaf.ch.
constraints on the DAs availability, as he/she
is required to perform additional duties at
home;

from permanent to temporary: some


countries have moved from permanently
stationing DAs in the recipient countries to
deploying them on a temporary, as-needed
basis when an emergency situation arises.
This approach also reduces the attachs
knowledge of local circumstances and
personalities, and can severely diminish his/
her effectiveness;

from defence attach to security


attach: parliaments in some countries have
requested that the DA position be renamed
security attach. This may more accurately
reflect the broad security-policy approach

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Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
THE DCAF BACKGROUNDER SERIES
on Security Sector Governance and Reform

DCAF Backgrounders provide concise introductions to contemporary issues in security sector governance and reform. The series
is designed for the use of practitioners and policymakers. Your feedback is encouraged. Please send comments and suggestions to
backgrounders@dcaf.ch

Material for this Backgrounder has been contributed by representatives of five countries who met in Geneva on 15 May 2007 to discuss
their national approaches to the DA position. Katie Meline and Oksana Myshlovska assisted with the preparation of this meeting and have
provided editorial assistance with this document. David Law is the editor of the Backgrounder series. Other Backgrounders are available at
www.dcaf.ch/publications/backgrounders

Available Backgrounders Private Military Companies

Child Soldiers Sending Troops Abroad

Contemporary Challenges for the Intelligence States of Emergency


Community
Vetting for the Security Sector
Intelligence Services

Military Ombudsman

Multiethnic Armed Forces Forthcoming Backgrounders

National Security Policy Defence Reform

Parliamentary Committees on Defence and Democratic Control of Armed Forces


Security
Post-Conflict Peacebuilding
Parliamentary Oversight of Intelligence
Services Security and Gender

Parliaments Role in Defence Budgeting Security Sector Reform

Parliaments & Security Sector Procurement Transitional Justice

The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) promotes good governance and reform of the
security sector. The Centre conducts research on good practices, encourages the development of appropriate norms
at the national and international levels, makes policy recommendations and provides in-country advice and assistance
DCA F programmes. DCAFs partners include governments, parliaments, civil society, international organisations and the range
of security sector actors such as police, judiciary, intelligence agencies, border security services and the military.

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