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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

CHAPTER 8
SALTS

A salt is an ionic
The salt consists of two
substance produced
parts, cation from base
when the hydrogen
and anion from acid.
ion of the acid is
replaced by metal NaCl
ion or an ammonium
ion. NaOH HCl
(Base) (Acid)

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Table of Salts
Complete the table below.

Sulphate salt Chloride salt Nitrate salt Carbonate salt


Metal ion
(SO42-) (Cl-) (NO3-) (CO32-)

K+ K2SO4 KCl KNO3 K2CO3

Na+

Ca2+

Mg2+

Al3+

Zn2+

Fe2+

Sn2+

Pb2+

Cu2+

Ag+

NH4+

Ba2+

Based on the table above, mark the insoluble salt.

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SOLUBLE & INSOLUBLE SALTS

SALT SOLUBLE INSOLUBLE

K+ , Na+ , NH4+ All soluble none

Nitrate salts
All nitrate salts none
(NO3- )
Lead (II) chloride,
PbCl2
Chloride salts
All chloride salts Silver chloride, AgCl
(Cl-)
Mercury chloride,
HgCl

Lead (II) sulphate


Sulphate salts
All sulphate salts Calcium sulphate
(SO42-)
Barium sulphate
Sodium carbonate,
Na2CO3
Carbonate Potassium carbonate, All others carbonate
salts (CO32-) K2CO3 salts
Ammonium carbonate,
(NH4)2CO3
Sodium oxide, Na2O
Oxide salts Potassium oxide, K2O
All oxide salts
(O2-) Calcium oxide, CaO
(slightly soluble)

Sodium hydroxide, NaOH


Potassium hydroxide, KOH
Hydroxide salts
Calcium hydroxide, All hydroxide salts
(OH-)
Ca(OH)2
(slightly soluble)

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Preparation and Purification of Soluble Salts

Soluble salt can be prepared by the following ways:

1. Reaction between acid and alkali - preparation for


sodium, potassium and ammonium salts only.
Eg: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

[write the step of preparation of the salts on the diagram]

Burette Evaporating dish


NaCl solution
HCl solution

NaOH solution

NaCl crystal salt

NaCl salt crystal

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Preparation and Purification of Soluble Salts

Soluble salt can be prepared by the following ways:


1. Reaction between acid and metal oxide
Eg: HNO3(aq) + MgO(s) Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O(l)

2. Reaction between acid and metal


Eg: H2SO4(aq) + Zn (s) ZnSO4(aq) + H2 (g)

3. Reaction between acid and metal carbonate


Eg: HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
[write the step of preparation of the salts on the diagram]

Copper(II) nitrate
Solution + excess
CuO

heat heat

Evaporating Dish
Copper(II) nitrate
solution

Copper(II) nitrate solution


& crystal salt

Cu(NO3)2 crystal salt 152


mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Physical characteristic of
Crystallization
crystals
is a process to crystallize
Fixed geometrical shapes
the soluble salts.
such as a cuboids,
Recrystallization rhombic or prism
process will carried out in Flat surface, straight edges
order to get pure and and sharp angles.
more defined crystal

Same shapes for same


substance but differ in
sizes

Fixes angle between two


neighbouring surfaces.

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Preparation of insoluble salts

An insoluble salt is prepared through precipitation method.

Aqueous solution of two soluble salts are mixed to form


insoluble and soluble salt:
[write the general equation of preparation insoluble salt]

The reaction is called double decomposition.


Two solutions contain ions that make up the insoluble salts.

Eg: Preparation of lead(II) iodide salt by using lead(II)


nitrate solution and potassium iodide solution.
[write the balance chemical equation]

Double Decomposition

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Chemical and Ionic Equation

Chemical and ionic equation can be written for all reaction


That used to prepare salts.

Example: Formation of precipitate Barium Sulphate, BaSO4.

1. Chemical Equation:

BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl (aq)

2. Ionic Equation:

Ionic equation shows the ions take part in the reaction.

Exercise

1. Change each of the following word equations to a balanced


chemical equation.

a) Sulphuric acid + zinc zinc sulphate + hydrogen gas.

b) Silver nitrate + potassium iodide silver iodide + potassium


nitrate

c) Nitric acid + chromium(III) hydroxide chromium(III) nitrate


+ water

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

2. Complete the following equations.

a) HCl (aq) + NiO (s)

b) HNO3 (aq) + Ca(OH)2 (aq)

c) H2SO4 (aq) + MgCO3 (s)

3. Write an ionic equation for each reaction between the following


pairs of substances.

a) Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 and barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2 solution

b) Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl solution and silver nitrate, AgNO3


solution.

c) Lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 solution and copper(II) sulphate,


CuSO4 solution.

d) Iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3 and hydrochloric acid, HCl.

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Constructing Ionic Equation using the Continuous Variation Method

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Continuous variation method can be used to construct ionic


equation for the formation of insoluble salts.

Fixed volume of a reactant A is react with varying volumes


of a reactant B to determine the mole ratio of reactant A
that react completely with reactant B.

If x mol of reactant A with y mole of reactant B, than the


empirical formula for insoluble salt is A x B y.

Example:

2Fe3+ (aq) + 3CO32- (aq) Fe2(CO3)3 (s)

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Example

1. 6.0 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 Xn+ solution reacts completely with 4.0
cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 Ym- solution to form a salt XmYn. Write the
ionic equation and hence determine the empirical formula of
the salt reaction.

2. 18.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 solution of Px+ ions reacts completely
with 9.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 solution of Qy- ions to form a salt
PyQx. Write the ionic equation and hence determine the
empirical formula of the salt in this reaction.

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Solving Problem Involving Calculation of Quantities of Reactants or


Product in Stoichiometric Reactions

Since the quantities of chemicals involved in a reaction are in term


of moles, the quantities of chemicals (volume, mass and number of
particles) must be converted to moles in calculation regarding
quantities of reactant and products.

Exercise

1. Calculate the number of moles of aluminium sulphate


produced by the reaction of 0.2 mole of sulphuric acid with
excess aluminium oxide. [0.067 mole]

2. 2.0 g of sodium hydroxide reacts with excess sulphuric acid.


What is the mass of sodium sulphate produces
[RAM: H,1 ; O,16 ; Na,23 ; S,32] [ 3.55 g]

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3. What the volume of carbon dioxide gas evolved at s.t.p when


2.1 g of magnesium carbonate reacts with excess nitric acid.
[ RAM: C,12;O,16;Mg,24; s.t.p = 22.4 dm3] [ 560 cm3]

4. What is the mass of magnesium required to react with 20 cm3 of


2.0 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid to produce 120 cm3 of hydrogen
at temperature? [RAM: Mg,24 ; 1 mol = 24 dm3 at room temp.]
[ 0.12 g]

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Qualitative Analysis of Salts


General procedure of qualitative analysis
Observations on the physical Tests for cations and Confirmatory tests for
Action of heat on salts
properties of salts anions cations and anions

Colour & Solubility of the Salt

GREEN PALE GREEN BROWN YELLOW/BROWN


[depend on concentration]
Iron(II) Sulphate, FeSO4
Iron(III) Sulphate, Fe2(SO4)3
Iron(II) Nitrate, Fe(NO3)2
Iron(III) Nitrate, Fe(NO3)3
Iron(II) Chloride, FeCl2
Iron(III) Chloride, FeCl3

REDDISH-BROWN INSOLUBLE GREEN INSOLUBLE


Iron(III) Oxide, Fe2O3 Copper(II) Carbonate, CuCO3

BLUE BLUE BLACK INSOLUBLE


Copper(II) Sulphate, CuSO4 Copper(II) Oxide, CuO
Copper(II) Nitrate, Cu(NO3)2
Copper(II) Chloride, CuCl2
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Colour & Solubility of the Salt

WHITE COLOURLESS WHITE INSOLUBLE


Potassium Oxide, K2O Magnesium Oxide, MgO
Sodium Oxide, Na2O Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3
Calcium Oxide, CaO

WHITE [cold] YELLOW [cold]

INSOLUBLE INSOLUBLE

YELLOW [hot] BROWN [hot]

Zinc Oxide, ZnO Lead(II) Oxide, PbO

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Gas test
Oxygen gas hydrogen gas

Wooden splinter

Hydrogen gas, H2
Oxygen gas, O2

Carbon dioxide gas sulphur dioxide gas

Carbon dioxide Sulphur dioxide

HCl acid HCl acid

Sodium Sulphite, Na2SO3

Sodium Carbonate,
Na2CO3

chlorine gas
ammonia gas
Glass rod dipped into
Red litmus paper concentrated HCl acid
White fumes

Chlorine gas, Cl2


Ammonia gas, NH3

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

EFFECT OF HEAT ON SALTS

Carbonate salts

Sodium carbonate & potassium carbonate are very stable. They do


not decompose on heating.

Heating
Carbonate Salt Metal Oxide + Carbon dioxide

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ white ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Calcium carbonate

2. Magnesium carbonate

3. Aluminium carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ yellow hot ]
[ white cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Zinc carbonate

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Heating
Carbonate Salt Metal Oxide + Carbon dioxide

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ brown ] [ brown ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Iron(III) carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ green ] [ black ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Copper(II) carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ brown hot ]
[ yellow cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Lead(II) carbonate

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Heating
Carbonate Salt Metal + Carbon dioxide + Oxygen gas

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Mercury(II) carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ shiny grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Silver carbonate

Heating

Carbonate salts residue


[ white ] [ golden yellow ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Aurum(II) carbonate

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

nitrate salts

Heating
Nitrate Salt Metal Oxide + Oxygen gas + Nitrogen dioxide

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ white ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Calcium nitrate

2. Magnesium nitrate

3. Aluminium nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ yellow hot ]
[ white cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Zinc nitrate

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Heating
Nitrate Salt Metal Oxide + Oxygen gas + Nitrogen dioxide

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ brown ] [ brown ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Iron(III) nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ blue ] [ black ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Copper(II) nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ brown hot ]
[ yellow cold ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Lead(II) nitrate

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Nitrate Salt Heating Metal + Nitrogen dioxide + Oxygen gas

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Mercury(II) nitrate

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ shiny grey ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Silver nitrate

Nitrate Salt Heating Metal nitrite + Oxygen gas

Heating

nitrate salts residue


[ white ] [ white ]

Salts Chemical Equation


1. Potassium nitrate

2. Sodium nitrate

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

TEST FOR ANIONS


Salt needed to be
dissolved into water
first to produce
Unknown aqueous salt solution aqueous salt
solution.

[ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ]

OBSERVATION OBSERVATION OBSERVATION OBSERVATION


[ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ]

Ionic Equation Ionic Equation Ionic Equation Ionic Equation

CONCLUSION CONCLUSION CONCLUSION CONCLUSION


[ state the anion ] [ state the anion ] [ state the anion ] [ state the anion ]

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

TEST FOR CATIONS


Salt needed to be
dissolved into water
(soluble salts) or in
dilute acid then
Unknown aqueous salt solution filtered (insoluble
salts) first to produce
aqueous salt solution.
Add NaOH drop by drop

No precipitate White precipitate Coloured precipitate

Green

Brown
Add NaOH drop by drop until excess

Dissolve in excess NaOH Insoluble in excess NaOH


Blue

* All coloured ions insoluble in excess NaOH

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

TEST FOR CATIONS


Salt needed to be
dissolved into water
(soluble salts) or in
dilute acid then
Unknown aqueous salt solution filtered (insoluble
salts) first to produce
aqueous salt solution.
Add NH3 drop by drop

No precipitate White precipitate Coloured precipitate

Green

Brown
Add NH3 drop by drop until excess

Dissolve in excess NH3 Insoluble in excess NH3


Blue

Dissolved in excess NH3

Dark blue solution

* Fe2+ & Fe3+ ions insoluble in excess NH3

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Confirmatory Test for Cation

Cation Procedure Observation

Fe 2+

Fe 3+

Pb 2+

NH4 +

Exercise

1. Identify the aqueous solutions based on the test and observation given.

Type Observation Answer


a. Potassium thiocyanate,
Blood red solution formed.
KSCN, solution is added.
b. Potassium iodide, KI, solution Yellow precipitate is
is added. formed.
c. Ammonia solution, NH3, is Blue precipitate dissolve to
added until excess. form dark blue solution.
d. A little hydrochloric acid is Effervescene occur and
added. lime water turn into chalky.
e. A sulphuric acid, iron(II)
sulphate solution and
Brown ring formed.
concentrated sulphuric acid
is added.
f. Ammonia solution is added White precipitate
until excess. dissolved.

K2 CO3 ZnCl2 PbCl2 CuSO4 NaNO3 FeCl3

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