Coordinate System In Directional Drilling

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Coordinate System In Directional Drilling

© All Rights Reserved

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Planning Site Supervisors

& Azimuth Corrections

Module 8

Directional Drilling

Section 2

Coordinate Systems

& Azimuth Corrections

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Contents

Introduction

The Well Plan / Maps of Well Trajectory

Geographic Coordinates

Projection Maps

Coordinate Systems

UTM Coordinates

Lambert Coordinates

Legal Coordinates

Local Coordinates

Magnetic Declination

Grid Convergence

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Introduction

Well Planning is the first step in the construction of any directional well

from a surface location to a given down hole target.

Geologist and the Directional Driller assigned to the project.

down hole targets for well path control. Besides that, all relevant

information from offset wells and possible limitations or restrictions

that may affect the well trajectory design or execution

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps

position of both the origin and the target on the earth surface and

in the subsurface, respectively, as well as the desired well path,

among other geological & boundaries information.

represented on a MAP and located by means of their distances to

the reference axis of a grid system superimposed over the Earth

map, by using a given System of Coordinates.

turn is an oblate spheroid (a squashed sphere..!)

C. Alvarez

8.2. Well Planning & Azimuth Corrections

Maps of Well Trajectory

C. Alvarez

8.2. Well Planning & Azimuth Corrections

Maps of Well Trajectory

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Systems of Coordinates

The System of Coordinates is a mathematical development

that allows the location of a given point in the Earth on the flat map.

spheroid surface will result in distortion. The grade of distortion

depend on the selected projection map and the relative position of

a given area in the projection.

Cartography called Geodetics

systems of Coordinates developed for locating points of Earth on

C. Alvarez

them is analyzed

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Several Coordinates systems have been proposed to locate a

given position of the Earths surface on a grid map given the

distances of its projection on the map to the Reference Lines

selected, called Latitude and Longitude. The more known

Coordinate Systems are:

2. Universal Transverse Mercator, UTM (Transverse

Cylindrical Projector)

3. Lambert Conical Projection

4. Legal Coordinates

5. Local Coordinates

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Geographical Coordinates

System based on imaginary lines of Latitude and Longitude

drawn on the Earths surface intersecting among them at square angles

to form a grid pattern that allows the location of any position on Earth by

given its distances to the reference lines also known as the pair

(Latitude, Longitude), or Geographical Coordinates

Latitude lines are circles around the Earth globe running parallel

to the Equator, simply known as Parallel lines. They are equally

distanced every grade from the Equator to the North and South poles

Longitude lines are also circles around the Earth globe passing

through both North and South poles and running perpendicular to the

parallels. They are better known as Meridian lines.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Geographical Coordinates

360 Meridians passing through both poles

Parallels: imaginary lines around the globe Meridians are drawn every 1 to cover the sphere

180 Parallel lines drawn every 1 starting at Equator The Reference Meridian passes by Greenwich

90 Parallels to the North and 90 Parallels lines to the South Longitude at Greenwich Meridian = 0

Equator is the Reference Line with Latitude = 0

Every Parallel & Meridian line represents 1 grade. Every grade is further

C. Alvarez

divided into 60 minutes and every minute in 60 seconds

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Geographical Coordinates

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Geographical Coordinates - Limitations

Geographical Coordinates are not accurate enough in reason that

the real distances from one latitude or longitude grade to another depend

on the position of the points under consideration on the Earths surface.

Besides that, the Earth itself is not a perfect sphere but an oblate

spheroid. This means that relative distances in a given well or between

wells cannot be exactly known by using the geographical coordinate

system

For that reason, other systems have been developed to increase

the required grade of accuracy in directional drilling measurements. They

are based on Projection Maps that will be discussed in the following

slides:

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

longitude position on the surface of a sphere into another

method of positioning which can be plotted onto a flat map

with some degree of controlled error and known accuracy.

The projected map can be referred to a grid system

superimposed that allows location of real points on the

projected image, as can be seen in the next slides

Y Cartesian Coordinates

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Imagine a light inside the

transparent Earth Globe projecting the

image of Earth surface on a flat screen.

surface used for projecting the Earth

spherical surface.

a flat plane directly above the North pole

which is located in the center of the

projection.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

1. Cylindrical Projection

2. Conical Projection

3. Planar Projection

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Mercator Projections

A. Standard Mercator Map

Earth surface is projected on a tangent

vertical cylinder producing an image that is

distorted toward both poles and close to the

real shape near the Equator.

Grid system is composed of Meridian and

Parallel lines drawn on the Earth surface as

explained above. On the projection the

Meridians are equidistant between them but

not the parallels which seem closer toward

the poles.

The scale is more exact for those areas

close to the Reference Lines (Equator and

C. Alvarez

Greenwich)

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Mercator Projections

B. Transverse Mercator Map, UTM

Earth surface is projected on a tangent

horizontal cylinder producing an image that is

more accurate near the poles and distorted

as approaches to the Equator.

Grid system is composed of Meridian and

Parallel lines drawn on the Earth surface as

explained above. On the projection Meridians

and parallels are not equidistant.

The scale is more exact along the areas

closer to the tangent meridian and to the

Equator

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Mercator Projections

2. Central Line for Longitude Reference: Greenwich

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Mercator Projections

Properties:

Standard Mercator causes

distortion towards the poles

Transverse Mercator minimizes

distortion towards the poles

UTM is preferred in ~ 60 countries

Used in countries/areas that run

primarily North - South

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

C. Lambert Projection.

axis aligned with the N-S axis of Earth.

Less distortion is found when moving from Equator toward both

poles.

Parallels are equidistant while the meridian lines converge to the

pole

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

C. Lambert Projection.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

C. Lambert Projection.

Projection of the earth on to a cone. The cone axis coincides

with the geographic poles axis of the earth.

Introduced by Johann Heinrich Lambert 1772

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

C. Lambert Projection.

Used in countries / areas that run

primarily from East West

Uses feet instead of meters

Lambert Zone Number must be

specified for proper location of a

given point on Earth surface

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

C. Lambert Projection.

earth along standard parallels

Scale exact along standard

parallel

Scale constant E W

Scale changes N S

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

C. Lambert Projection for USA mapping

Has been used to map all

mainland USA states

Standard parallels at 33N

and 45N

Scale error of 0.5% and 1%

between 30.5N and 47.5N

Maximum error of 2.5% in

Florida

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

D. Planar Projection

Earth surface is projected onto a tangent plan passing by

the North pole

Is accurate for areas at or near the center (North Pole)

Distortion increases when moving to the edges of map

Commonly used to map North and South poles areas

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Conical Projections

D. Planar Projection = Azimuthal Projection

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

accurate location of a given point on the Earth surface in reason not

only to the distortion resulting from the projection itself, but also in

reason of the irregular shape of the Earth.

To solve this new problem, several models of Ellipsoids have

been proposed to represent the shape of Earth.

There is not a unique ellipsoid used for map projections but

there is a number of them applied to different regions of the Earth.

Ellipsoids adjusted to Earth surface are part of a mathematical

development called Geodetic Datum

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

The Ellipsoid of Reference should have a surface close to sea level that

mathematically fits well to the real surface of Earth in a given region.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

For map projections, a constant ellipsoidal shape and size is used for

different region

Different reference ellipsoids are used for different regions of the Earth

Over 50 ellipsoids in use today

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

A geodetic datum is a mathematical surface that closely fits the mean sea

level surface throughout the area of interest. It consists of :

An Ellipsoid of Reference

Orientation of the ellipsoid

Length unit

Region of the earth

Official Name

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Examples of Datum Geodetic

The table below show some of the most commonly used Geodeic

Datum for mapping and reference of well trajectories in Directional

Drilling operations, covering almost all oil & gas regions:

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Projection Models and Grid Systems

more commonly used are:

1. UTM Grid System

Divides world into 60 equal longitudinal zones

Each zone is 6 deg wide

Distortion increases north & south of the equator

2. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection

Parallels of latitude that are unequally spaced arcs of

concentric circles

Distortion increases toward the edges

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

derived from the transversal projection of the Earth globe onto the

surface of a horizontal cylinder tangent to the Earth in a given meridian.

As a result, the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the Earths Equator.

tangent to the cylinder

projection described are widely used for maps in areas having more

North South extension and less East West extension.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Characteristics:

Length is defined in meters

UTM Grid Reference must include:

Zone Number

Hemisphere (N or S)

Scale factor

Function of position in zone

Central Meridian has 0.9996 Scale Factor

Lines of true scale (1:1) lie ~180 km

either side of central meridian

Grid Distance

Scale Factor (F) =

C. Alvarez True Distance

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

UTM Zones

Then each zone is 6 wide

Earth Projection onto a Due to the high distortion toward the poles,

horizontal Cylinder zones go from 84 N to 80 S

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

UTM Zones

system are numbered from 1

to 60, starting at the left side of

the map (Long 180 West).

Meridian) is then located in the

zone number 31.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

UTM Zones

Each zone has its own central meridian which in turn the N-S

Reference Line for the zone.

There is a transverse projection for each zone with the

tangent cylinder in contact with the central meridian of the

specific zone.

As a result, each zone is 6 wide and the whole globe has 60

zones to cover the 360 of the sphere

Projection of polar areas result with high distortion and are

consequently discarded from the UTM model

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

UTM Zones

UTM Zone

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

UTM Zones

between the central meridian of the zone and the Equator of Earth

On each zone the distortion increases when going away of the origin

in any direction

The UTM Coordinates are given by:

The number of UTM zone

Coordinate East or West, commonly called Easting

Coordinate North or South, commonly called Northing

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Central Meridian runs North South

Rectangular Grid system superimposed

on zone for mapping purposes

Allows UTM coordinates of points to be

defined as Northing and Easting

3 3

Grid Sectors are divided into squares of

100 x 100 kilometers and then further

divided into squares of 10 x 10

kilometers

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Meridian is assigned a false Easting of

500,000m

At the Equator the zone is ~600,000m

wide

Range of Eastings are:

~200,000m ~800,000m

Range of Eastings is maximum at

Equator and narrows towards the poles

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Northing Points North of Equator

Range from zero at the equator

increasing to the north

Northing Points South of Equator

Just for SH:Range from

10,000,000m at the equator

decreasing to the south

Just for NH:Range from Zero at the

equator increasing to the North

avoids negative numbers similar to

Eastings

UTM zone is cropped at 84N and 80S

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Easting)

Location A is on Zone 13.

It is 704,250 meters to the East of the reference

line. It is also valid to say that point A is to the East

of central meridian of the zone

Then, the E-W Coordinate for point A or Easting

is 704,250 m, East

It is 400,000 meters to the East of reference line,

which means that is to the left side of the central

meridian which Easting is 500,000 as known.

Then, the E-W coordinate or Easting for location

B is 400,000 m, E

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Northing)

A is 6,391,520 meters

The point is located above the Equator

5,005,000 meters N

Point B is located above the Equator

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Northing)

of a point located in the South hemisphere, the

value of 10,000,000 meters is assigned as UTM

Coordinate to the Equator

The UTM South Coordinate for a point in the

South Hemisphere is calculated by subtracting its

distance in meters to the Equator from 10,000,000

The UTM Coordinate for the point C located to

the South, is 10,000,000 5,000,100 = 4,999,900

meters to the South

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Lambert Coordinates System

surface. The systems works well in those areas with little

distortion.

the central point of map separated by equidistant radii

intersecting the latitude lines

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Lambert Coordinates System

The scale works well inside two

standard lines of latitude. The pole in the

same hemisphere of the Standard

Parallel is one point; the other pole

represents the infinitum

Lambert Coordinates are used in

countries or regions where distances

East West are predominant

In the USA the system has been used

with a maximum error of 5%.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

LEGAL Coordinates System

Legal Coordinates of a Directional Plan are based on a Legal Coordinate

system defined by a national or regional authority with the objective that all

local or regional coordinates have a unique National Geodetic Datum

The system divides the region or country in zones and can assign different

coordinates systems to the different zones, depending on their N-S or E-W

extension

In the USA some zones with predominant N-S extension use the UTM

system while other rectangular zones with predominant E-W extension use

the Lambert Coordinates system

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

LOCAL Coordinates System

related to a Legal Coordinates system and also referred to an

specific Geodetic Datum

axis of the Legal Coordinates system of reference

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

LOCAL Coordinates System

The coordinates in a LOCAL system are derived from distances

measured to a point of origin located in the corresponding

Legal Coordinates System of reference

The origin or reference point in the LOCAL system has its own

coordinates in the LEGAL system (x, y)

Geodetic Datum, called Vertical Reference Datum, such as

Ground Level, Mean Sea Level, Mud Line, etc.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

LOCAL Coordinates System

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Example of Well Plan Proposal with Coordinates System used

Report Date: November 13, 2004 Survey / DLS Computation Method: Minimum Curvature / Lubinski

Client: Pemex Exploracion y Produccion Vertical Section Azimuth: 16.260

Field: Canon Field Vertical Section Origin: N 0.000 ft, E 0.000 ft

Structure / Slot: Canon 10 / Canon 10 TVD Reference Datum: RKB

Well: Canon 10 TVD Reference Elevation: 133.1 ft relative to MSL

Borehole: Canon 10 Sea Bed / Ground Level Elevation: 118.110 ft relative to MSL

UWI/API#: Magnetic Declination: 5.977

Survey Name / Date: Canon 10 Plan / November 12, 2004 Total Field Strength: 46224.017 nT

Tort / AHD / DDI / ERD ratio: 40.000 / 1575.89 ft / 4.811 / 0.160 Magnetic Dip: 55.296

Grid Coordinate System: NAD27 UTM Zone 14N Declination Date: April 25, 2002

Location Lat/Long: N 26 8 28.039, W 98 28 19.018 Magnetic Declination Model: BGGM 2004

Location Grid N/E Y/X: N 2891256.240 m, E 552784.190 m North Reference: True North

Grid Convergence Angle: +0.23265583 Total Corr Mag North -> True North: +5.977

Grid Scale Factor: 0.99963440 Local Coordinates Referenced To: Well Head

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Summary:

one Coordinates System

2. There are available five well known Coordinates Systems:

Geographic Coordinates, UTM, Lambert, Legal and Local

3. There are three Projection Methods widely used of the

Earth onto plane surfaces: Mercators Cylinder, Lamberts

Conical, and Planar.

4. Each projection has areas with low and high distortion

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Summary:

5. The use of a Geodetic Datum allows higher accuracy to the

allocation of a given point on the Earth.

6. The UTM system is widely used in zones with predominant N-S

extensions

7. Lamberts Conical system of Coordinates is preferred in zones

with predominant E-W extensions

8. Legal Coordinates are developed for regional control of maps,

have their own Geodetic Datum and can use different projection /

coordinates systems, depending on the extension predominant

9. Local system is the one used for well planning and is referred to

a Legal system

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Magnetic Declination

Magnetic North and True North Locations

True North Location

Magnetic North Location:

Latitude: 75.5N

Longitude: 100.5W X

X

Location of Magnetic North

changes over time

Location of Magnetic North is

updated often

Can be displayed on maps or

computer databases

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Magnetic Declination

Magnetic North and True North Locations

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Magnetic Declination

Magnetic Survey Corrections

1. The Geographic North of the Earth is also called True North or Grid North

2. All Projection Maps are constructed referred to the Geographic North (axis of

the Earth ellipsoid = True North = Map North)

3. Magnetic North is the axis of the magnetic field of Earth or Compass North

4. Surveys taken with magnetic measuring devices are referred to the Magnetic

North of Earth

5. The separation between the two axis is measured by an angle called

declination magnetic

6. To have the right direction of a well at a given survey station, the azimuth

recorded with magnetic instruments must be corrected and referred to the

True North by adding or subtracting the magnetic declination

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Magnetic Declination

Definition:

1. The angle between True North and Magnetic North as TN

measured going from True North to Magnetic North. MN

Declination is to the East and is positive EAST

3. If on the contrary, the movement from one North to

the other is counterclockwise, the Magnetic

Declination is negative

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Grid Convergence

Definition:

1. The angle between True North and Grid North as GN

measured going from True North to Grid North. TN

the East and is positive

WEST

3. If on the contrary, the movement from one North to

the other is counterclockwise, the Convergence is

negative

4. Convergence is subtracted from the Corrected

Magnetic Azimuth

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Total Correction (Declination and Convergence)

TN

MA

MN

-10

The total correction converts

GN the magnetic azimuth into Grid

Azimuth in two steps:

+6 -4

Apply Declination correction to

the magnetic azimuth

Apply Convergence correction

to the corrected azimuth

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Grid North & Convergence

1. Grid North lines are parallel

2. True North lines converge on the

Central Meridian

3. Grid North and True North are

only identical along UTM zone

Central Meridian and the equator

4. Grid Convergence:

1. Angle from True North (TN)

to Grid North(GN).

2. +ve to the East

3. -ve to the West

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Grid Convergence

Properties:

1. Varies as the sine of the Latitude;

1. At the equator Grid Convergence = 0

2. Theoretically at 90deg latitude North Grid Convergence = 90

2. Also varies with Longitudinal displacement from CM

1. At the CM Grid Convergence = 0

2. At the edge of the Zone, Grid Convergence = SinLat x ?

3. Standard formula;

1. Grid Convergence = Sin Latitude x (Longitude CM)

2. This will give an accurate answer by calculator

4.

C. Alvarez

What is the biggest Grid Convergence you can have?

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

UTM Convergence & Hemispheres

True North at any point aligns with the

longitudinal line through that point

In the Northern Hemisphere True

North points inwards to the Central

Meridian

In the Southern Hemisphere True

North points outward from the central

Meridian

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

UTM Zone Exercise

1 2 Southern Hemisphere

Northing 9,500,000m

Easting 600,000m

3 4

Is the convergence +ve or -ve?

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Correction to Grid Azimuth

North

2. Correcting for Grid Con will correct True North to Grid North

3. Measured from True North to Grid North

4. Declination West = -ve

5. Declination East = +ve

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Grid Convergence - Exercise

TN Az. = 90

TN Az. = 195

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Magnetic Declination - Exercise

D

D

h

ut

h

ut

im

ATN AMN

Az

im

Az

le

AMN e

ho

ATN hol

re

r e

Bo

Bo

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Magnetic Declination Practical

Mag Dec. = 2.5E

MWD Az. = 90

MWD Az. = 195

Gyro Az. = 265

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Total Correction:

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Compass Quadrant Direction

The four quadrants are normally expressed as NE, SE, SW and NW.

Originate the reading from north or south; then move toward the east or west in a

positive or increasing angle.

The graphic shows an example quadrant direction of S30E.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Azimuth Direction

The azimuth system uses directions ranging from 0 to 360. The direction is

reported from 0 in a positive or clockwise direction.

A direction of 0 or 360 refers to north; 90 refers to east; 180 refers to south;

and 270 refers to west.

The graphic shows an example azimuth direction of 150 AZM.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Compass Quadrant and Azimuth Relationships

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Polar and Rectangular Coordinates

by a distance and a direction relative

to North (azimuth).

The rectangular coordinates of a point

are given in feet or meters with a

direction of North/South and

East/West.

C. Alvarez

- 8.5a Bottom Hole Assemblies for DDHochgeladen vonKhanh Pham Minh
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- Oil DrillingHochgeladen vonFranck Iparraguirre
- 02 BOPE - Description & SelectionHochgeladen vonKhanh Pham Minh
- 01 Well Head ComponentsHochgeladen vonKhanh Pham Minh
- 173521947-Well-testing.pdfHochgeladen vontahermoh

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