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Quartz School

8.2. Well for Well


Planning Site Supervisors
& Azimuth Corrections

Module 8
Directional Drilling

Section 2
Coordinate Systems
& Azimuth Corrections

C. Alvarez
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Contents

 Introduction
 The Well Plan / Maps of Well Trajectory
 Geographic Coordinates
 Projection Maps
 Coordinate Systems
 UTM Coordinates
 Lambert Coordinates
 Legal Coordinates
 Local Coordinates
 Magnetic Declination
 Grid Convergence

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Introduction

Well Planning is the first step in the construction of any directional well
from a surface location to a given down hole target.

Well planner must work coordinated with the Drilling Engineer,


Geologist and the Directional Driller assigned to the project.

The operator generally provides surface coordinates and one or more


down hole targets for well path control. Besides that, all relevant
information from offset wells and possible limitations or restrictions
that may affect the well trajectory design or execution

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps

To design a well plan it is necessary to know the exact


position of both the origin and the target on the earth surface and
in the subsurface, respectively, as well as the desired well path,
among other geological & boundaries information.

Surface and subsurface locations of well must be


represented on a MAP and located by means of their distances to
the reference axis of a grid system superimposed over the Earth
map, by using a given System of Coordinates.

One map is a flat projection of the Earths surface which in


turn is an oblate spheroid (a squashed sphere..!)
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8.2. Well Planning & Azimuth Corrections
Maps of Well Trajectory

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8.2. Well Planning & Azimuth Corrections
Maps of Well Trajectory

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Systems of Coordinates
The System of Coordinates is a mathematical development
that allows the location of a given point in the Earth on the flat map.

It is obvious that any projection on a plane of the Earths


spheroid surface will result in distortion. The grade of distortion
depend on the selected projection map and the relative position of
a given area in the projection.

The solution to this problem is found in a special branch of


Cartography called Geodetics

In the next slides the problem of making Maps and the


systems of Coordinates developed for locating points of Earth on
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them is analyzed
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

Coordinates for point A are: Latitude 6 40' 30 N & Longitude 17 58' 45 E

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections

Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems


Several Coordinates systems have been proposed to locate a
given position of the Earths surface on a grid map given the
distances of its projection on the map to the Reference Lines
selected, called Latitude and Longitude. The more known
Coordinate Systems are:

1. Geographical Coordinates (N-S & E-W axis)


2. Universal Transverse Mercator, UTM (Transverse
Cylindrical Projector)
3. Lambert Conical Projection
4. Legal Coordinates
5. Local Coordinates

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Geographical Coordinates
System based on imaginary lines of Latitude and Longitude
drawn on the Earths surface intersecting among them at square angles
to form a grid pattern that allows the location of any position on Earth by
given its distances to the reference lines also known as the pair
(Latitude, Longitude), or Geographical Coordinates
Latitude lines are circles around the Earth globe running parallel
to the Equator, simply known as Parallel lines. They are equally
distanced every grade from the Equator to the North and South poles
Longitude lines are also circles around the Earth globe passing
through both North and South poles and running perpendicular to the
parallels. They are better known as Meridian lines.
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Geographical Coordinates

Meridians: imaginary lines around the globe


360 Meridians passing through both poles
Parallels: imaginary lines around the globe Meridians are drawn every 1 to cover the sphere
180 Parallel lines drawn every 1 starting at Equator The Reference Meridian passes by Greenwich
90 Parallels to the North and 90 Parallels lines to the South Longitude at Greenwich Meridian = 0
Equator is the Reference Line with Latitude = 0

Every Parallel & Meridian line represents 1 grade. Every grade is further
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divided into 60 minutes and every minute in 60 seconds
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Geographical Coordinates

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Geographical Coordinates - Limitations
Geographical Coordinates are not accurate enough in reason that
the real distances from one latitude or longitude grade to another depend
on the position of the points under consideration on the Earths surface.
Besides that, the Earth itself is not a perfect sphere but an oblate
spheroid. This means that relative distances in a given well or between
wells cannot be exactly known by using the geographical coordinate
system
For that reason, other systems have been developed to increase
the required grade of accuracy in directional drilling measurements. They
are based on Projection Maps that will be discussed in the following
slides:
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

A mathematical formula that convert the latitude-


longitude position on the surface of a sphere into another
method of positioning which can be plotted onto a flat map
with some degree of controlled error and known accuracy.
The projected map can be referred to a grid system
superimposed that allows location of real points on the
projected image, as can be seen in the next slides

The most common grid map positioning method is the X,


Y Cartesian Coordinates
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Imagine a light inside the
transparent Earth Globe projecting the
image of Earth surface on a flat screen.

The resulting image depends the type of


surface used for projecting the Earth
spherical surface.

In this case, the image was projected on


a flat plane directly above the North pole
which is located in the center of the
projection.

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems

1. Cylindrical Projection

2. Conical Projection

3. Planar Projection

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Mercator Projections
A. Standard Mercator Map
 Earth surface is projected on a tangent
vertical cylinder producing an image that is
distorted toward both poles and close to the
real shape near the Equator.
 Grid system is composed of Meridian and
Parallel lines drawn on the Earth surface as
explained above. On the projection the
Meridians are equidistant between them but
not the parallels which seem closer toward
the poles.
 The scale is more exact for those areas
close to the Reference Lines (Equator and
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Greenwich)
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Mercator Projections
B. Transverse Mercator Map, UTM
 Earth surface is projected on a tangent
horizontal cylinder producing an image that is
more accurate near the poles and distorted
as approaches to the Equator.
 Grid system is composed of Meridian and
Parallel lines drawn on the Earth surface as
explained above. On the projection Meridians
and parallels are not equidistant.
 The scale is more exact along the areas
closer to the tangent meridian and to the
Equator

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Mercator Projections

1. Central Line (for Latitude Reference): Ecuador


2. Central Line for Longitude Reference: Greenwich
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Mercator Projections

Properties:
Standard Mercator causes
distortion towards the poles
Transverse Mercator minimizes
distortion towards the poles
UTM is preferred in ~ 60 countries
Used in countries/areas that run
primarily North - South

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
C. Lambert Projection.

 Earth surface is projected on a tangent or secant cone with its


axis aligned with the N-S axis of Earth.
 Less distortion is found when moving from Equator toward both
poles.
 Parallels are equidistant while the meridian lines converge to the
pole

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
C. Lambert Projection.

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
C. Lambert Projection.
Projection of the earth on to a cone. The cone axis coincides
with the geographic poles axis of the earth.
Introduced by Johann Heinrich Lambert 1772

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
C. Lambert Projection.

Projects globe onto a cone


Used in countries / areas that run
primarily from East West
Uses feet instead of meters
Lambert Zone Number must be
specified for proper location of a
given point on Earth surface

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
C. Lambert Projection.

Lambert cone penetrates the


earth along standard parallels
Scale exact along standard
parallel
Scale constant E W
Scale changes N S

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
C. Lambert Projection for USA mapping
Has been used to map all
mainland USA states
Standard parallels at 33N
and 45N
Scale error of 0.5% and 1%
between 30.5N and 47.5N
Maximum error of 2.5% in
Florida

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
D. Planar Projection

 Also known as Azimuthal Projection


 Earth surface is projected onto a tangent plan passing by
the North pole
 Is accurate for areas at or near the center (North Pole)
 Distortion increases when moving to the edges of map
 Commonly used to map North and South poles areas

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Conical Projections
D. Planar Projection = Azimuthal Projection

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

The three projections discussed still present difficulties for the


accurate location of a given point on the Earth surface in reason not
only to the distortion resulting from the projection itself, but also in
reason of the irregular shape of the Earth.
To solve this new problem, several models of Ellipsoids have
been proposed to represent the shape of Earth.
There is not a unique ellipsoid used for map projections but
there is a number of them applied to different regions of the Earth.
Ellipsoids adjusted to Earth surface are part of a mathematical
development called Geodetic Datum
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

The Ellipsoid of Reference should have a surface close to sea level that
mathematically fits well to the real surface of Earth in a given region.
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

The Earth is not an exact ellipsoid

For map projections, a constant ellipsoidal shape and size is used for
different region

Different reference ellipsoids are used for different regions of the Earth
Over 50 ellipsoids in use today

Approximately 15 ellipsoids cover 98% of the oil country areas of interest

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic

A geodetic datum is a mathematical surface that closely fits the mean sea
level surface throughout the area of interest. It consists of :
An Ellipsoid of Reference
Orientation of the ellipsoid
Length unit
Region of the earth
Official Name

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Examples of Datum Geodetic
The table below show some of the most commonly used Geodeic
Datum for mapping and reference of well trajectories in Directional
Drilling operations, covering almost all oil & gas regions:

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Projection Models and Grid Systems

The two projection models and its associated Grid Systems


more commonly used are:
1. UTM Grid System
Divides world into 60 equal longitudinal zones
Each zone is 6 deg wide
Distortion increases north & south of the equator
2. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
Parallels of latitude that are unequally spaced arcs of
concentric circles
Distortion increases toward the edges

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Widely used in Oil & Gas Industry, this Coordinates System is


derived from the transversal projection of the Earth globe onto the
surface of a horizontal cylinder tangent to the Earth in a given meridian.
As a result, the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the Earths Equator.

The projection has good accuracy along the central meridian


tangent to the cylinder

For that reason Coordinates UTM developed from the


projection described are widely used for maps in areas having more
North South extension and less East West extension.

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Characteristics:

The world is divided into 60 UTM Zones


Length is defined in meters
UTM Grid Reference must include:
Zone Number
Hemisphere (N or S)
Scale factor
Function of position in zone
Central Meridian has 0.9996 Scale Factor
Lines of true scale (1:1) lie ~180 km
either side of central meridian

Grid Distance
Scale Factor (F) =
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

World is divide in 60 zones of projection


Then each zone is 6 wide
Earth Projection onto a Due to the high distortion toward the poles,
horizontal Cylinder zones go from 84 N to 80 S

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

Projection zones of UTM


system are numbered from 1
to 60, starting at the left side of
the map (Long 180 West).

Greenwich Meridian (Central


Meridian) is then located in the
zone number 31.

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

 Each zone has its own central meridian which in turn the N-S
Reference Line for the zone.
 There is a transverse projection for each zone with the
tangent cylinder in contact with the central meridian of the
specific zone.
 As a result, each zone is 6 wide and the whole globe has 60
zones to cover the 360 of the sphere
 Projection of polar areas result with high distortion and are
consequently discarded from the UTM model
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

UTM Zone

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

 The origin of Coordinates for each UTM zone is the intersection


between the central meridian of the zone and the Equator of Earth
 On each zone the distortion increases when going away of the origin
in any direction
 The UTM Coordinates are given by:
 The number of UTM zone
 Coordinate East or West, commonly called Easting
 Coordinate North or South, commonly called Northing

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

Equator runs East West


Central Meridian runs North South
Rectangular Grid system superimposed
on zone for mapping purposes
Allows UTM coordinates of points to be
defined as Northing and Easting
3 3
Grid Sectors are divided into squares of
100 x 100 kilometers and then further
divided into squares of 10 x 10
kilometers

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System

To avoid negative Eastings the Central


Meridian is assigned a false Easting of
500,000m
At the Equator the zone is ~600,000m
wide
Range of Eastings are:
~200,000m ~800,000m
Range of Eastings is maximum at
Equator and narrows towards the poles

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
Northing Points North of Equator
Range from zero at the equator
increasing to the north
Northing Points South of Equator
Just for SH:Range from
10,000,000m at the equator
decreasing to the south
Just for NH:Range from Zero at the
equator increasing to the North
avoids negative numbers similar to
Eastings
UTM zone is cropped at 84N and 80S
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Easting)
 Location A is on Zone 13.
It is 704,250 meters to the East of the reference
line. It is also valid to say that point A is to the East
of central meridian of the zone
Then, the E-W Coordinate for point A or Easting
is 704,250 m, East

 Location B is also on Zone 13.


It is 400,000 meters to the East of reference line,
which means that is to the left side of the central
meridian which Easting is 500,000 as known.
Then, the E-W coordinate or Easting for location
B is 400,000 m, E
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Northing)

Location A is inside zone 13.

The UTM North South Coordinate for point


A is 6,391,520 meters
The point is located above the Equator

Location B is also in zone 13

The UTM North South Coordinate for B is:

5,005,000 meters N
Point B is located above the Equator
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Northing)

 To avoid negative values for North Coordinate


of a point located in the South hemisphere, the
value of 10,000,000 meters is assigned as UTM
Coordinate to the Equator
 The UTM South Coordinate for a point in the
South Hemisphere is calculated by subtracting its
distance in meters to the Equator from 10,000,000
 The UTM Coordinate for the point C located to
the South, is 10,000,000 5,000,100 = 4,999,900
meters to the South
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Lambert Coordinates System

 Is derived from the Conical Projection of Earth onto a plane


surface. The systems works well in those areas with little
distortion.

 Latitude lines are arcs of concentric circles not evenly spaced.

 Longitude lines are represented by straight lines converging in


the central point of map separated by equidistant radii
intersecting the latitude lines

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Lambert Coordinates System
 The scale works well inside two
standard lines of latitude. The pole in the
same hemisphere of the Standard
Parallel is one point; the other pole
represents the infinitum
 Lambert Coordinates are used in
countries or regions where distances
East West are predominant
In the USA the system has been used
with a maximum error of 5%.

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
LEGAL Coordinates System
 Legal Coordinates of a Directional Plan are based on a Legal Coordinate
system defined by a national or regional authority with the objective that all
local or regional coordinates have a unique National Geodetic Datum

 The system divides the region or country in zones and can assign different
coordinates systems to the different zones, depending on their N-S or E-W
extension

 In the USA some zones with predominant N-S extension use the UTM
system while other rectangular zones with predominant E-W extension use
the Lambert Coordinates system

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
LOCAL Coordinates System

 In well planning Local Coordinates are always used

 Local Coordinates are derived from a Local System which, in turn, is


related to a Legal Coordinates system and also referred to an
specific Geodetic Datum

 The axis of a Local Coordinates system are parallel to the respective


axis of the Legal Coordinates system of reference

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
LOCAL Coordinates System
 The coordinates in a LOCAL system are derived from distances
measured to a point of origin located in the corresponding
Legal Coordinates System of reference

 The origin or reference point in the LOCAL system has its own
coordinates in the LEGAL system (x, y)

 The origin in the LOCAL system has coordinates (0,0)

 To measure the well depth it is necessary to previously define one


Geodetic Datum, called Vertical Reference Datum, such as
Ground Level, Mean Sea Level, Mud Line, etc.
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
LOCAL Coordinates System

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Example of Well Plan Proposal with Coordinates System used

Canon 10 Plan Proposal


Report Date: November 13, 2004 Survey / DLS Computation Method: Minimum Curvature / Lubinski
Client: Pemex Exploracion y Produccion Vertical Section Azimuth: 16.260
Field: Canon Field Vertical Section Origin: N 0.000 ft, E 0.000 ft
Structure / Slot: Canon 10 / Canon 10 TVD Reference Datum: RKB
Well: Canon 10 TVD Reference Elevation: 133.1 ft relative to MSL
Borehole: Canon 10 Sea Bed / Ground Level Elevation: 118.110 ft relative to MSL
UWI/API#: Magnetic Declination: 5.977
Survey Name / Date: Canon 10 Plan / November 12, 2004 Total Field Strength: 46224.017 nT
Tort / AHD / DDI / ERD ratio: 40.000 / 1575.89 ft / 4.811 / 0.160 Magnetic Dip: 55.296
Grid Coordinate System: NAD27 UTM Zone 14N Declination Date: April 25, 2002
Location Lat/Long: N 26 8 28.039, W 98 28 19.018 Magnetic Declination Model: BGGM 2004
Location Grid N/E Y/X: N 2891256.240 m, E 552784.190 m North Reference: True North
Grid Convergence Angle: +0.23265583 Total Corr Mag North -> True North: +5.977
Grid Scale Factor: 0.99963440 Local Coordinates Referenced To: Well Head

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Summary:

1. To locate a point of the Earth on a Map it is necessary


one Coordinates System
2. There are available five well known Coordinates Systems:
Geographic Coordinates, UTM, Lambert, Legal and Local
3. There are three Projection Methods widely used of the
Earth onto plane surfaces: Mercators Cylinder, Lamberts
Conical, and Planar.
4. Each projection has areas with low and high distortion

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Summary:
5. The use of a Geodetic Datum allows higher accuracy to the
allocation of a given point on the Earth.
6. The UTM system is widely used in zones with predominant N-S
extensions
7. Lamberts Conical system of Coordinates is preferred in zones
with predominant E-W extensions
8. Legal Coordinates are developed for regional control of maps,
have their own Geodetic Datum and can use different projection /
coordinates systems, depending on the extension predominant
9. Local system is the one used for well planning and is referred to
a Legal system
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Magnetic Declination
Magnetic North and True North Locations
True North Location
Magnetic North Location:
Latitude: 75.5N
Longitude: 100.5W X
X
Location of Magnetic North
changes over time
Location of Magnetic North is
updated often
Can be displayed on maps or
computer databases

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Magnetic Declination
Magnetic North and True North Locations

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Magnetic Declination
Magnetic Survey Corrections
1. The Geographic North of the Earth is also called True North or Grid North
2. All Projection Maps are constructed referred to the Geographic North (axis of
the Earth ellipsoid = True North = Map North)
3. Magnetic North is the axis of the magnetic field of Earth or Compass North
4. Surveys taken with magnetic measuring devices are referred to the Magnetic
North of Earth
5. The separation between the two axis is measured by an angle called
declination magnetic
6. To have the right direction of a well at a given survey station, the azimuth
recorded with magnetic instruments must be corrected and referred to the
True North by adding or subtracting the magnetic declination

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Magnetic Declination

Definition:
1. The angle between True North and Magnetic North as TN
measured going from True North to Magnetic North. MN

2. If that movement is clockwise, the Magnetic


Declination is to the East and is positive EAST
3. If on the contrary, the movement from one North to
the other is counterclockwise, the Magnetic
Declination is negative

4. Magnetic Declination is added to Magnetic Azimuth


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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Grid Convergence
Definition:
1. The angle between True North and Grid North as GN
measured going from True North to Grid North. TN

2. If that movement is clockwise, the Convergence is to


the East and is positive
WEST
3. If on the contrary, the movement from one North to
the other is counterclockwise, the Convergence is
negative
4. Convergence is subtracted from the Corrected
Magnetic Azimuth
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Total Correction (Declination and Convergence)
TN
MA
MN

-10
The total correction converts
GN the magnetic azimuth into Grid
Azimuth in two steps:
+6 -4
Apply Declination correction to
the magnetic azimuth
Apply Convergence correction
to the corrected azimuth

Total Correction = Magnetic Declination - Grid Convergence

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Grid North & Convergence

Corrections due to Convergence


1. Grid North lines are parallel
2. True North lines converge on the
Central Meridian
3. Grid North and True North are
only identical along UTM zone
Central Meridian and the equator
4. Grid Convergence:
1. Angle from True North (TN)
to Grid North(GN).
2. +ve to the East
3. -ve to the West
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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Grid Convergence
Properties:
1. Varies as the sine of the Latitude;
1. At the equator Grid Convergence = 0
2. Theoretically at 90deg latitude North Grid Convergence = 90
2. Also varies with Longitudinal displacement from CM
1. At the CM Grid Convergence = 0
2. At the edge of the Zone, Grid Convergence = SinLat x ?
3. Standard formula;
1. Grid Convergence = Sin Latitude x (Longitude CM)
2. This will give an accurate answer by calculator
4.
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What is the biggest Grid Convergence you can have?
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
UTM Convergence & Hemispheres

UTM Convergence and Hemispheres:


True North at any point aligns with the
longitudinal line through that point
In the Northern Hemisphere True
North points inwards to the Central
Meridian
In the Southern Hemisphere True
North points outward from the central
Meridian

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
UTM Zone Exercise

Which quadrant contains the following point?


1 2 Southern Hemisphere
Northing 9,500,000m
Easting 600,000m
3 4
Is the convergence +ve or -ve?

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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Correction to Grid Azimuth

Grid Convergence (Grid Con)

1. ONLY use this angle if Surveys are to be referenced to Grid


North
2. Correcting for Grid Con will correct True North to Grid North
3. Measured from True North to Grid North
4. Declination West = -ve
5. Declination East = +ve

Grid Azimuth = True North - Grid Con.


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8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Grid Convergence - Exercise

Whats the North Reference?

Grid Con. = 2.5E


TN Az. = 90

Grid Con. = -1.7


TN Az. = 195

C. Alvarez
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Magnetic Declination - Exercise

West Declination East Declination

True North True North

Magnetic North Magnetic North

D
D
h
ut

h
ut
im

ATN AMN
Az

im
Az
le

AMN e
ho

ATN hol
re

r e
Bo

Bo

True North (ATn) = Magnetic Azimuth(AMn) + Magnetic Declination(D)

C. Alvarez
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Magnetic Declination Practical

North Reference Points Up


Mag Dec. = 2.5E
MWD Az. = 90

Mag Dec. = -1.7


MWD Az. = 195

Mag Dec. = 6.7W


Gyro Az. = 265
C. Alvarez
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Total Correction:

C. Alvarez
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Compass Quadrant Direction

The four quadrants are normally expressed as NE, SE, SW and NW.
Originate the reading from north or south; then move toward the east or west in a
positive or increasing angle.
The graphic shows an example quadrant direction of S30E.
C. Alvarez
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Azimuth Direction

The azimuth system uses directions ranging from 0 to 360. The direction is
reported from 0 in a positive or clockwise direction.
A direction of 0 or 360 refers to north; 90 refers to east; 180 refers to south;
and 270 refers to west.
The graphic shows an example azimuth direction of 150 AZM.
C. Alvarez
8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Compass Quadrant and Azimuth Relationships

C. Alvarez Quartz School. Module 8: Directional Drilling / Section 2


8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Polar and Rectangular Coordinates

The polar coordinate of a point is defined


by a distance and a direction relative
to North (azimuth).
The rectangular coordinates of a point
are given in feet or meters with a
direction of North/South and
East/West.

C. Alvarez