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VERIFICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPLICATIONS

TRANSFORMER GENERAL DATA:


KVA: 30000 Rated Power
Z%: 10 Impedance in %
Vp (V): 34500 Primary Voltage in Volts
Vs (V): 6300 Secondary Voltage in Volts
Tap min (%): -5 Minimum Tap in %
Tap max (%): 5 Maximum Tap in %

TRANSFORMER PRIMARY SIDE:


CTp Ratio: 600 5 CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
VAprim: 50 CT Rated Power
Class: 5P20 Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTp (): 0.648 CT Resistance in ohms
LCTp (m): 800 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)
Cross Section
16 Cable cross section (in mm2)
(mm2):

TRANSFORMER SECONDARY SIDE:


CTs Ratio: 3000 5 CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
VAsec: 15 CT Rated Power
Class: 5P20 Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTs (): 1.13 CT Resistance in ohms

LCTs (m): 20 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)


Cross Section
6 Cable cross section (in mm2)
(mm2):

PROTECTION RELAY DATA:


RELAY: ABB REF-542 Relay model (For information only)
RELAY
0.1 Relay Burden in VA
BURDEN (VA):

MAXIMUM EXTERNAL FAULT. CURRENT THROUGH:


Current seen by:
Shortcircuit at:
HV Side LV Side
PRIMARY SIDE (A): 3000 8000
SECONDARY SIDE (A): 800 15000

1) UNIT VALUES

Primary Current Full Load


Ip = KVA/(3*Vp/1000) Ip_pu = Ip/CTp
Ip = 502.04 A Ip_pu = 4.1837

Secondary Current Full Load


Is = KVA/(3*Vs/1000) Is_pu = Is/CTs
Is = 2749.29 A Is_pu = 4.5821

Primary Current Maximum Fault Current through


Ifp = Max [Ifault prim, Ifault sec] Ifp_pu = Ifp/CTp
Ifp = 3000 A Ifp_pu = 25.0000

Secondary Current Maximum Fault Current through


Ifs = Max [Ifault prim, Ifault sec] Ifs_pu = Ifs/CTp
Ifs = 15000 A Ifs_pu = 25.0000

2) BURDEN CALCULATIONS

Primary Lead Resistance


RPkm
1.15 [Obtained from cooper cable data table]
(ohms/Km):
Rp_VA @ Ip_pu2 * Rp
Rp () = 2 * LCTp * RPkm/1000 Rp () = 1.84 32.206
FLC = (VA) =

Secondary Lead Resistance


RSkm
3.08 [Obtained from cooper cable data table]
(ohms/Km):
Rs_VA @ Is_pu2 * Rs
Rs () = 2 * LCTs * RSkm/1000 Rs () = 0.1232 2.587
FLC = (VA) =

Relay Resistance
Rrelay () = VArelay/(ICT_sec2) Rrelay () = 0.004
(ICT_sec2): 1A or 5 A

Total External Resistance Burden

Bprimary () = Rp + Rrelay Bprimary () = 1.844


Bsecondary () = Rs + Rrelay Bsecondary () = 0.1272
3) CALCULATION OF CT BURDEN AND DRIVING VOLTAGES

3a) FULL LOAD OPERATION

Driving Voltage. Primary side


Vsp (V) = (Bprimary + RCTp) * Ip_pu Vsp (V) = 10.426
Voltage accross CT terminals during
Full Load operation on primary and
Driving Voltage. Secondary side secondary sides
Vss (V) = (Bsecondary + RCTs) * Is_pu Vss (V) = 5.761

3b) EXTERNAL FAULT OPERATION

Driving Voltage. Primary side


Voltage accross CT terminals for
Vsfp (V) = (Bprimary + RCTp) * Ifp_pu Vsfp (V) = 62.300 maximum through current on primary
side

Driving Voltage. Secondary side


Voltage accross CT terminals for
Vsfs (V) = (Bsecondary + RCTs) * Ifs_pu Vsfs (V) = 31.430 maximum through current on
secondary side

3c) CT VOLTAGE AND BURDEN LIMITS

Primary side
Accuracy: 5
Type: P P: Protection; C: Metering
Limit Factor: 20

Zbprim Max () =VAprim/ICT_sec


2
Zbprim () = 2.000 Maximum CT voltage accros
terminals to guarantee rated accuracy
Vacr_prim (V) = Limit Factor * Zbprim * ICT_sec Vacr_prim (V) = 200.0 (error)

Secondary side
Accuracy: 5
Type: P P: Protection; C: Metering
Limit Factor: 20

Zbsec Max () = VAsec/ICT_sec


2
Zbsec () = 0.600 Maximum CT voltage accros
terminals to guarantee rated accuracy
Vacr_sec (V) = Limit Factor * Zbsec * ICT_sec Vacr_sec (V) = 60.0 (error)

RESULTS: BURDEN AND VOLTAGE COMPARISON

Primary side
CT Limit Zb () Bprimary ()
2 1.844 OK. Primary Burden is lower than CT limit

Vacr_prim Limit(V) Vsfp (V)


200 62.3 OK. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit

Secondary side
CT Limit Zb () Bsecondary ()
0.6 0.1272 OK. secondary Burden is lower than CT limit

Vacr_sec Limit (V) Vsfp (V)


60 31.43 OK. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit

CALCULATED BY: LUIS FERNANDEZ FERNANDEZ


DATE: MAR. 22, 2007

REV. 00
VERIFICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPLICATION

GENERATOR GENERAL DATA:


KVA: 30000 Rated Power in KVA
VOLTAGE (V): 11000 Rated Voltage in Volts

GENERATOR LINE SIDE:


CTL Ratio: 2000 5 CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
VALine: 50 CT Rated Power
Class: 5P20 Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTL (): 0.8 CT Resistance in ohms

LCTL (m): 400 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)
Cross Section
10 Cable cross section (in mm2)
(mm2):

GENERATOR NEUTRAL SIDE:


CTN Ratio: 2000 5 CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
VANeutral: 50 CT Rated Power
Class: 5P20 Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTN (): 0.8 CT Resistance in ohms

LCTN (m): 400 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)
Cross Section
10 Cable cross section (in mm2)
(mm2):

PROTECTION RELAY DATA:


RELAY: ABB REF-542 Relay model (For information only)
RELAY BURDEN
0.1 Relay Burden in VA
(VA):

MAXIMUM EXTERNAL FAULT. CURRENT THROUGH:


External Shortcircuit (A) 8000 Maximum Generator contribution to external shortcircuits

1) UNIT VALUES

Generator Full Load Current


Igen = KVA/(3*Vp/1000) IL_pu = Igen/CTL IN_pu = Igen/CTN
Igen = 1574.59 A IL_pu = 3.9365 IN_pu = 3.9365

Maximum through Fault Current for external shortcircuits


Ies = Ext. Shortcircuit IesL_pu = Ies/CTL IesN_pu = Ies/CTN
Ies = 8000 A IesL_pu = 20.0000 IesN_pu = 20.0000

2) BURDEN CALCULATIONS

Line Lead Resistance


RLkm
1.83 [Obtained from cooper cable data table]
(ohms/Km):
RL_VA @ IL_pu2 * RL
RL () = 2 * LCTL * RLkm/1000 RL () = 1.464 22.686
FLC = (VA) =

Secondary Lead Resistance


RNkm
1.83 [Obtained from cooper cable data table]
(ohms/Km):
RN_VA @ N_pu2 * RN
RN () = 2 * LCTN * RNkm/1000 RN () = 1.464 22.686
FLC = (VA) =

Relay Resistance
Rrelay () = VArelay/(ICT_sec2) Rrelay () = 0.004

(ICT_sec2): 1A or 5 A

Line CT Resistance
RCTL () = 0.8

Neutral CT Resistance
RCTN () = 0.8

Total External Resistance Burden

BLine () = RL + Rrelay BLine () = 1.468

BNeutral () = Rs + Rrelay BNeutral () = 1.468


3) CALCULATION OF CT BURDEN AND DRIVING VOLTAGES

3a) FULL LOAD OPERATION

Driving Voltage. Line side


VsL (V) = (BLine + RCTL) * IL_pu VsL (V) = 8.928
Voltage accross CT terminals during
Full Load operation on Line and
Driving Voltage. Neutral side Neutral sides
VsN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IN_pu VsN (V) = 8.928

3b) EXTERNAL FAULT OPERATION

Driving Voltage. Primary side


VsfL (V) = VsfL (V) = Voltage accross CT terminals for
(BLine + RCTL) * IfL_pu 45.360 maximum through current on line side

Driving Voltage. Secondary side


Voltage accross CT terminals for
VsfN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IfN_pu VsfN (V) = 45.360 maximum through current on neutral
side

3c) CT VOLTAGE AND BURDEN LIMITS

Line side
Accuracy: 5
Type: P P: Protection; C: Metering
Limit Factor: 20

ZbLine Max () = VALine/ICT_sec2 ZbLine () = 2.000 Maximum CT voltage accros


terminals to guarantee rated accuracy
Vacr_Line (V) = Limit Factor * ZbLine * ICT_sec Vacr_Line (V) = 200.0 (error)

Neutral side
Accuracy: 5
Type: P P: Protection; C: Metering
Limit Factor: 20

ZbNeutral Max () = VANeutral/ICT_sec2 ZbNeutral () = 2.000 Maximum CT voltage accros


terminals to guarantee rated accuracy
Vacr_Neutral (V) = Limit Factor * ZbNeutral * ICT_sec Vacr_Neutral (V) = 200.0 (error)

RESULTS: BURDEN AND VOLTAGE COMPARISON

Line side
CT Limit Zb () BLine ()
2 1.468 OK. Line Burden is lower than CT limit

Vacr_Line Limit(V) VsfL (V)


200 45.36 OK. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit

Neutral side
CT Limit Zb () BNeutral ()
2 1.468 OK. Neutral Burden is lower than CT limit

Vacr_Neutral Limit (V) VsfN (V)


200 45.36 OK. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit

CALCULATED BY: LUIS FERNANDEZ FERNANDEZ

DATE: MAR. 22, 2007

REV. 00
VERIFICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR MOTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPLICATION

MOTOR GENERAL DATA:


KW: 1000 Rated Power in KW (Only for information. Not required for calculations)
VOLTAGE (V): 11000 Rated Voltage in Volts (Only for information. Not required for calculations)
FLA (A) 150 Full Load current in amperes
LRA [Times FLA] 6.5 Locked Rotor curren in multiples of FLA

MOTOR LINE SIDE:


CTL Ratio: 200 5 CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
VALine: 15 CT Rated Power
Class: 5P20 Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTL (): 0.2 CT Resistance in ohms
LCTL (m): 300 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)
Cross Section
16 Cable cross section (in mm2)
(mm2):

MOTOR NEUTRAL SIDE:


CTN Ratio: 200 5 CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
VANeutral: 15 CT Rated Power
Class: 5P20 Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTN (): 0.2 CT Resistance in ohms
LCTN (m): 300 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)
Cross Section
16 Cable cross section (in mm2)
(mm2):

PROTECTION RELAY DATA:


RELAY: ABB REF-542 Relay model (For information only)
RELAY BURDEN
0.1 Relay Burden in VA
(VA):

STARTING CURRENT. CURRENT THROUGH:


External Shortcircuit (A) 975 Maximum current through

1) UNIT VALUES

Motor Full Load Current


FLAL_pu = FLA/CTL FLAN_pu = FLA/CTN
FLA = 150.00 A IL_pu = 3.7500 IN_pu = 3.7500

Motor Starting current


LRAL_pu = LRA/CTL LRAN_pu = LRA/CTN
LRA = 975 A IesL_pu = 24.3750 IesN_pu = 24.3750

2) BURDEN CALCULATIONS

Line Lead Resistance


RLkm
1.15 [Obtained from cooper cable data table]
(ohms/Km):
RL_VA @ IL_pu2 * RL
RL () = 2 * LCTL * RLkm/1000 RL () = 0.69 9.703
FLA = (VA) =

Secondary Lead Resistance


RNkm
1.15 [Obtained from cooper cable data table]
(ohms/Km):
RN_VA @ N_pu2 * RN
RN () = 2 * LCTN * RNkm/1000 RN () = 0.69 9.703
FLA = (VA) =

Relay Resistance
Rrelay () = VArelay/(ICT_sec2) Rrelay () = 0.004

(ICT_sec2): 1A or 5 A

Line CT Resistance
RCTL () = 0.2

Neutral CT Resistance
RCTN () = 0.2

Total External Resistance Burden

BLine () = RL + Rrelay BLine () = 0.694

BNeutral () = Rs + Rrelay BNeutral () = 0.694


3) CALCULATION OF CT BURDEN AND DRIVING VOLTAGES

3a) FULL LOAD OPERATION

Driving Voltage. Line side


VsL (V) = (BLine + RCTL) * IL_pu VsL (V) = 3.353
Voltage accross CT terminals during
Full Load operation on Line and
Driving Voltage. Neutral side Neutral sides
VsN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IN_pu VsN (V) = 3.353

3b) EXTERNAL FAULT OPERATION

Driving Voltage. Primary side


VsfL (V) = VsfL (V) = Voltage accross CT terminals during
(BLine + RCTL) * IfL_pu 21.791 motor starting on line side

Driving Voltage. Secondary side


VsfN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IfN_pu VsfN (V) = Voltage accross CT terminals during
21.791 motor starting on neutral side

3c) CT VOLTAGE AND BURDEN LIMITS

Line side
Accuracy: 5
Type: P P: Protection; C: Metering
Limit Factor: 20

ZbLine Max () = VALine/ICT_sec2 ZbLine () = 0.600 Maximum CT voltage accros


terminals to guarantee rated accuracy
Vacr_Line (V) = Limit Factor * ZbLine * ICT_sec Vacr_Line (V) = 60.0 (error)

Neutral side
Accuracy: 5
Type: P P: Protection; C: Metering
Limit Factor: 20

ZbNeutral Max () = VANeutral/ICT_sec2 ZbNeutral () = 0.600 Maximum CT voltage accros


terminals to guarantee rated accuracy
Vacr_Neutral (V) = Limit Factor * ZbNeutral * ICT_sec Vacr_Neutral (V) = 60.0 (error)

RESULTS: BURDEN AND VOLTAGE COMPARISON

Line side
CT Limit Zb () BLine ()
0.6 0.694 WRONG. Line Burden is higher than CT limit

Vacr_Line Limit(V) VsfL (V)


60 21.79125 OK. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit

Neutral side
CT Limit Zb () BNeutral ()
0.6 0.694 WRONG. Neutral Burden is higher than CT limit

Vacr_Neutral Limit (V) VsfN (V)


60 21.79125 OK. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit

CALCULATED BY: LUIS FERNANDEZ FERNANDEZ

DATE: MAR. 22, 2007