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The Eaton UPS and Power Management

Fundamentals Handbook
March 2013
2 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Questions to consider 5
Top UPS design considerations 6
Other UPS design considerations 8
How to size a UPS 9
UPS cost justification worksheet 10
UPS form factors 11
Input plugs and output receptacles 12
UPS startup 14
The difference between VA and watts 15
Decentralized or central UPS? 16
What is three-phase power? 18
Increase server energy efficiencies by using high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs 19
Worldwide voltage map 20
Worldwide voltages 21
The nine power problems 22
UPS topologies 23
UPS battery overview 24
Factors affecting battery life 26
UPS software overview 27
Service overview 28
Frequently asked questions 30
Electric transmission distribution system 32
Eaton's Blackout Tracker 34
Overview of 2012 national power outage data 36
Case study example one 38
Case study example two 40
Commonly used acronyms 42
Glossary of power terms 44

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 3

T here's a lot
to s ee i n t his
h andbook.

Welcome to the Eaton UPS and Power Why a UPS?
Management Fundamentals Handbook.
In general, a UPS protects IT equipment and
From plug and receptacle charts and facts other electrical loads from problems that
about power problems to an overview of plague our electrical supply, performing the
various UPS topologies and factors affecting following three basic functions:
battery life, youll find a wealth of pertinent 1. Preventing hardware damage typically
resources designed to help you develop the caused by surges and spikes. Many UPS
optimum solution. We have also included models continually condition incoming
valuable, real-world case studies that power as well.
showcase exactly how Eaton can help you

to develop the best power protection 2. Preventing data loss and corruption.
solution. Without a UPS, devices that are
subjected to a hard system shutdown
This handbook is your one-stop source for can lose data completely or have it
essential information ... whether you need corrupted. In conjunction with power
power protection for small, medium or large management software, a UPS can
data centers; health care facilities; or other facilitate a graceful system shutdown.
environments in which ensuring uptime and
safeguarding data are critical. 3. Providing availability for networks and
other applications while preventing
downtime. In some cases, they provide
enough battery runtime to ride through
brief outages; in other cases, they
provide hours of runtime to ride through
extended power outages. UPSs are also
paired with generators to provide enough
time for them to power up.

4 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

O ur data c enter
i s a total zoo.
G ood t imes.

Questions to
When it comes to backup power, here are
some basic questions to ask yourself.


1. How often do you refresh and maintain
your IT hardware (including servers)?
What about your UPS equipment?
2. If you have a converged data-voice
network, have you protected all critical Accessories
1. How is power getting from the UPS to
3. If you have virtualized your servers, have
your equipment?
you considered the impact on your UPS
equipment? 2. Do you have a need for enclosures,
communications, seismic mounting, floor
4. What would happen if the power went
stands or rail kits?
out at your facility right now?
3. Is a maintenance bypass switch needed?
5. Have you thought about the impact of
damaged or corrupted data?
6. How much energy do your UPS units
consume? How efficient are they? 1. Is there a need to have orderly scheduled
7. What is the air speed velocity of an
unladen swallow? An African swallow. 2. Do you want to remotely monitor the
UPS-specific 3. Would you like to remotely notify others
of UPS events?
1. What size UPS do you need? (kVA or
amperage) 4. How will your UPS software manage
virtual servers during an extended power
2. What voltage is currently available at
your site?
3. What voltage do you need? Service
4. What runtime do you want? 1. Do you need immediate factory
5. Are there any clearances or size response?
constraints? 2. What kind of parts and labor coverage do
6. Do you have bypass requirements? you need?
7.  What types of input and output 3. Do you want any type of preventive
connections are required? maintenance?
8. Is there a generator on site? 4. Whens the last time you checked the
batteries in your existing UPS units?
9. Does the UPS need to be scalable?
10. Do you need redundancy?

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 5

Top UPS design

M y IT p ro s ays E aton
h elps h im t rim t he
The following factors outline the key design considerations to take into account when
analyzing your needs. fat. F rankly, I 'm a
l ittle worried.
1. Power environment: single- and three- 3. Power load There are four basic battery runtime
phase The VA or watt rating of your power loads configurations:
Understanding your existing power is one of the most important factors in 1. U
 PS with 10 to 15 minutes of runtime and
infrastructure is a crucial step in the identifying the right UPS. After identifying no generator. You are covered for 90 to 95
qualification and sales process. While you the power environment (if the UPS needs percent of power outages. You can either
may focus on larger, three-phase power to be single- or three-phase), the size of the use UPS shutdown clients to save your
systems, the majority of IT managers are UPS further narrows the selection. In data or stay online as long as possible
dealing primarily with single-phase single-phase deployments especially, it before the system crashes.
equipment, often at the rack level. often makes sense to select a UPS that 2. U
 PS with 10 to 15 minutes of runtime and
exceeds current power requirements but a generator. You have a very reliable setup
Many existing computer rooms and small
offers greater runtimes and allows for and most generators will startup within
to mid-sized data centers have single-phase
future growth. one minute (five minutes maximum). You
loads at the rack level. Ground-up designs
are increasingly moving three-phase power are covered for most situations.
to the point of utilization to gain efficiencies 4. Availability and battery runtime
3. R
 edundant UPSs, generator and two
and reduce costs, creating great opportunity This is where you need to determine your power feeds for dual-corded servers. You
for three-phase solutions in new true runtime requirements. While runtime have a lot of money and/or are really
construction. may seem like a simple thing to quantify, worried about the power failing. It's time
understanding the facts behind the numbers to get a consultative person on-site to
2. Installation environment help contribute to the development of help you figure it out.
end-to-end solutions.
Its imperative to understand how a 4. U
 PS with two or more hours of battery
prospective UPS will be deployed. Since Generally, the amount of runtime required runtime. In some cases, generators may
most environments support several different can significantly affect the solution cost, not be practical and you must rely entirely
solutions, you may need to evaluate these but many Eaton solutions are actually upon batteries.
options. more cost-effective in extended runtime

6 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

I love m aking p lans.
E vil o nes!

5. Scalability You may want to service the UPS yourself. If 7. Manageability 8. Operation and maintenance
thats the case, look for a unit that allows
Its always important to consider your future While a UPS protects the attached load While you may value the ability to service
you to add capacity with power and/or
expansion needs when evaluating solutions. during a power outage, power management your own equipment, the vast majority of IT
battery modules.
Eatons scalable UPS solutions provide a software is required to ensure that all and facility management professionals
competitive advantage by offering a While modular solutionsincluding multiple, work-in-progress is saved and that sensitive prefer the peace of mind that comes with
cost-effective way to increase capacity. paralleled systemsare often a more electronic equipment is gracefully shut full factory support through on-site service
Virtually all Eaton UPSs with a 6 kVA or affordable option initially, they can be a more down if the power outage exceeds the or an advanced UPS exchange agreement.
greater power rating offer some form of expensive solution over the long term due to battery runtime of the UPS. Without To make an informed decision on service
scalability, either through a simple firmware added hardware and installation costs. software, the UPS simply runs until its support, you must accurately assess your
upgrade, the addition of modular hardware Depending on your needs, a larger, batteries are depleted and then drops the own technical and service capabilities. You
components or the paralleling of multiple centralized, non-modular system with load. In addition to this basic functionality of should also look at the various UPS product
UPSs. inherent scalability might ultimately be the UPS software, you should consider the designs to gauge how easy it is to swap out
most cost-effective solution. following monitoring and manageability battery and power modules.
For cost-conscious or budget-constrained
customers, a UPS with inherent scalability capabilities:
often proves to be the best value in the long 6. Power distribution Power event notifications, including 9. Budget
run, allowing you to increase capacity It is important for you to consider how emails, pop-up alerts and text messages Although the latest performance features of
without purchasing additional hardware. A power will be delivered to your critical to pre-designated recipients a UPS may fit nicely with what you are
simple kVA upgrade is all thats needed to equipment. In some cases, you may simply Logging of power events looking for, budget constraints may force
enable a UPS with inherent scalability to plug loads directly into the UPS. In others, you to make trade-off decisions. Be
operate at full capacity. you may need large PDUs to distribute Advanced capabilities in virtual prepared to prioritize your needs for
power. You may also incorporate rack-based environments, including integration into redundancy, scalability, efficiency, software
power strips or ePDU units into your design. VMwares ESXi and vSphere and management, modularity and serviceability.
Microsofts Hyper-V
Dedicated battery monitoring and
advanced service notifications
Remote monitoring by service personnel
from the UPS manufacturer.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 7

Other UPS design considerations

The following design guidelines should be 4. Verify that the floor is strong enough to 7. Hardwired connections. 9. Using a UPS and a generator together.
reviewed and followed prior to ordering the support the UPS and battery cabinets.
Hardwired outputs are generally useful if A UPS provides backup power and actively
appropriate UPS solution.
The UPS and its battery cabinets can be you want the UPS output to be distributed conditions and regulates voltage. Similarly,
heavy, so make sure the site has the proper via electrical panels. Using an electrical an auxillary generator provides backup
1. Check to see if theres an adequate floor loading capacity. distribution panel allows for flexibility with power, but typically takes 10-15 seconds to
electrical supply near the UPS. receptacles types. If theres no other UPS start up, depending on its type. For long-
Compare UPS fuse ratings (amps) and 5. Confirm that the UPS will have that fits your receptacle and power require- term backup servers and IT equipment, this
breaker types and whether any electrical adequate ventilation. ments, you may need to hardwire it. isnt an optimal situation, so during that
work may be needed (i.e., cabling to the Hardwired UPS models typically require the downtime the UPS kicks in. Basically, the
Eaton UPS models use internal fans to cool use of a certified electrician to wire them to UPS bridges the power gap between loss of
UPS terminal block input).
them. You shouldnt install the UPS in a the electrical distribution panel, which could power and generator coming online.
sealed container or small, sealed room. be a more costly option.
2. Find out the dimensions of the UPS When choosing your UPS solution, its
and include any battery cabinets. important to keep power ratings in mind;
6. Always be sure which wall receptacle 8. Installing small UPS models behind
Make sure your installation site has enough is required to plug in the UPS. you cannot size a generator in a 1:1 match
larger UPS models. to the UPS and expect successful results.
space available.
Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500 If youre installing a smaller UPS behind a There are two reasons for this: first, UPSs
VA plug into a standard 15-amp wall outlet. larger UPS, you must consider the total arent 100 percent efficient and second,
3. Ensure the UPS can be placed in its All others require a larger receptacle, which generators need to account for step loads.
final position. potential power of the smaller UPS as well
must be installed by an electrician. Things as other loads that will be powered by the In addition, very small generators dont often
Will the UPS components fit through doors? go more smoothly if you arent waiting for larger UPS. For example, if youre plugging a provide enough kinetic energy to provide a
Are there any stairs? Please consult Eatons this to be done after all of the equipment 1500 VA UPS into a 10,000 VA UPS, you smooth transition. As a rule of thumb, for 20
website for detailed UPS dimensions and has arrived. Most small and rackmounted must consider the load of the smaller UPS kVA and above, auxiliary generators should
specifications: computers run on normal 120 volt, 15-amp rather than just the load thats plugged into be sized 1.5 times the size of the output
electrical service. Some computers have it. In addition, the larger UPS must be at rating of the UPS in kW, while for 20 kVA
power cords that require a higher voltage of least five times larger than the smaller UPS. and below, they should be two times larger.
208V or 240V, in which case youll need a This design guideline must be followed due Its also important to note that gas-powered
3000 VA or larger UPS. to charging capacity that may be required by generators should be sized a bit larger.
the smaller UPS; any anomalies associated
with the building power, and to avoid 10. Building codes.
overheating or potential over loading of the Verify that the final UPS solution meets local
larger UPS which may result in failure of the building codes.
all UPS models in the string.

8 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

How to size a UPS
You have decided that you need a UPS. UPS sizing worksheet
Whats next? Well, you have to pick the
right one! 1 2 2 2 3 3
Alternative #1: Equipment Amps x Volts = VA x Quantity = VA Subtotal
x = x =
Alternative #2:
Call our knowledgeable inside sales team: x = x =
x = x =
Alternative #3:
Do it the old fashioned way. Completing x = x =
these steps is also very useful for the first x = x =
two alternatives.
1 L
 ist all equipment to be protected by the x = x =
UPS. (Remember to include monitors,
x = x =
external hard drives, routers, etc.)
2 L
 ist the amps and volts for each device. x = x =
These ratings can typically be found on
the label on the back of the equipment. x = x =
Multiply amps by volts to determine
x = x =
VoltAmps (VA). Some devices may list
their power requirements in watts. To x = x =
convert watts to VA, divide the watts by
power factor. For servers, the power x = x =
factor is often 0.9.
4 Total
3 Multiply the VA by the number of pieces
of equipment to get the VA subtotals. 5 x1.2
4 Add the VA subtotals together.
6 Grand Total
5 Multiply the total by 1.2 to get the grand
total. This step accounts for future
6 Use the grand total to select a UPS.
When choosing a UPS, be sure that the
total VA requirement of supported
equipment does not exceed the VA
rating of the UPS. I c hat w ith t he i nside
Alternative #4: s ales t eam a ll t he
Eatons UPS Tool for iPhone , iPad and

iPod touch helps you find the best UPS

t ime. T hey're cool.
solution without being tied to your desk:

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 9

UPS cost
This worksheet helps you determine the estimated dollar savings that a UPS can deliver.
Simply fill in the information to calculate the costs of one hour of downtime. Actual dollar
amounts will vary from company to company, location to location, and industry to industry.

1. Number of critical loads:

Critical loads = any equipment running or supporting your
applications (servers, routers, PCs, network devices, etc.)
2. Number of employees using critical loads:
3. Employees average hourly earnings:
4. Estimated cost of lost business per hour of downtime
($1,000, $5,000, $10,000)
5. Cost of service calls per hour:
6. Cost of recreating or salvaging data (if applicable):
7. Cost of replacing hardware (if applicable):
8. Cost of reinstalling software (if applicable):

9. Lost employee time (line 2 x 3):
10. Lost business (line 4):
11. Service (line 5):
12. Recreating or salvaging data (line 6):
13. Replaced hardware and software (line 7 + 8):

14. Estimated total cost per hour of downtime: $

This is only one hour. Imagine if your systems were down all day!

10 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

UPS form factors
With applications spanning from desktops to large data centers, UPSs come in a variety
of form factors.

1 2 1. Desktop and tower UPS 4. Two-in-one rackmount/tower UPS

a. The Eaton 3S UPS also fits easily The Eaton 5PX UPS can be mounted in
on top of or under a desk. a rack or installed as a tower model.
b. The Eaton 9130 tower UPS fits under
a desk or in a network closet. 5. Scalable UPS
a. The Eaton BladeUPS is a scalable,
2. Wall-mount UPS redundant rackmount UPS.
The Eaton 5115 rackmount UPS includes b. The Eaton 9170+ is also a scalable,
b hardware to mount it to a wall. redundant UPS.

3. Rackmount UPS 6. Large tower UPS

3 4
The Eaton 9130 rackmount UPS occupies The Eaton 9390 UPS is designed to be a
only 2U of rack space (fits both 2- and central backup for multiple loads, including
4-post racks). data centers.

5 6 A s olution f or
a ny s ituation.
I couldn't h ave
d esigned i t b etter.


EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 11

Input plugs and W hen i t comes to
e lectrIcal p ower,
t here's n o r oom f or

output receptacles m onkey b usiness!

When you receive a UPS, you should be Input plug and output receptacle chart
able to plug it in right away. If a UPS cant
be plugged into the wall socket, or their 5-15R 5-15P 5-20R 5-20P
equipment can't be plugged into it,
youve got a problem.
Any UPS with a rating of 1500 VA or below
can be plugged into a standard household
receptacle/socket. UPS models with ratings
higher than 1500 VA use input plugs that
L5-30R L5-30P 6-15R 6-15P
cant be plugged directly into a standard
receptacle. Many higher rated UPSs (above
1500 VA) may also be hardwired directly into Know your North American receptacles
the electrical distribution panel at the instal-
lation location by a licensed electrician. In North American markets, most facilities
utilize plugs and receptacles conforming to
Many UPS models offer a fixed set of input standards established by the National
L6-20R L6-20P L5-20R L5-20P
and output receptacles. Other UPS models Electrical Manufacturers Association
can be configured with a custom set of (NEMA), which uses a smart code to define
input and output connections. what each part number represents. If you
For reference weve included the following know the part number of your connector,
chart to help you visually confirm input and you can find its voltage and amperage
output plug/receptacle options: ratings. Always check with your local
IEC-320-C13 (female) IEC-320-C14 (male) IEC-320-C19 (female) IEC-320-C20 (male)
electrician to verify proper wiring and

How big can I go?

L14-30R L14-30P IEC-309, 16A IEC-309, 32A

L 6 - 30 R
* 5-15P can plug into 5-20R L Locking Amperage R Receptacle
matches breaker P Plug
R = Receptacle, P = Plug, L = Locking rating feeding the
For the number before the hyphen: plug/receptacle
5 = 125V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded)
6 = 250V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded) Value Max Voltage Wires in connector
5: 125V L1, N, G
14 = 125/250V, three-pole, four-wire (grounded) L6-30R L6-30P Terminal Block (Hardwired) 6: 250V L1, L2, G
The number after the hyphen indicates the amperage. 14: 125/250V L1, L2, N, G
For example, the L5-30R is a 30A receptacle. 15: 250V L1, L2, L3, G
21: 250V/125V L1, L2, L3, N, G

12 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

1. Fixed 4. Additional receptacles
Smaller UPS models like the Eaton Eaton ePDU products mount easily into
9130 UPS provide a fixed set of output racks and provide additional receptacles

2. Customized
UPS models like the Eaton 9355 can be
customized with a variety of output
A common question from IT managers is, I have a receptacle at my facility; what is the
biggest UPS can I connect to it? If youre looking at UPSs 6 kVA or lower, its a pretty 3. Hardwired
straight forward question to answer as shown below: Large UPS models like the Eaton 9390 are
hardwired to incoming utility power though
some models leverage output receptacles

Typical largest UPS

Local outlet
rating per outlet

5-15R 1500VA 120V


5-20R 2200VA 120V

1 2

L5-30R 3000VA 120V

L6-20R 3000VA 208V


L6-30R 6000VA 208V

IEC C13 2200VA 230V


IEC C19 3000VA 230V

3 4

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 13

I t hink I 'll g o
w ith a ssisted
s tartup.

Self-startup Assisted startup
UPSs equipped with a standard input plug You may not feel comfortable installing
(units 1500 VA and below) that fits into electrical equipmentjustifiably so. UPS
standard wall sockets are very easy to installation deals with electrical power and

install. Units 2000 VA and above require a batteriesboth of which can be dangerous
different wall socket that may not already if not handled properly. In addition, UPS
exist in the location where the UPS will be batteries can be very heavy and some units
installed. In these cases, an electrician can require a hardwired connection. As a result,
install the proper wall socket, after which UPS manufacturers usually offer a startup
you should have little problem with UPS service for an additional fee. You can also
installation. hire a systems integrator, electrician or
third-party service organization for UPS

Manufacturer-required startup
Many three-phase UPS models (typically
>40 kVA) must be started up by the UPS
manufacturer to ensure theyre properly
installed and calibrated. In general,
electricians and contractors dont have the
required in-depth knowledge of the UPS.
Manufacturer-trained field technicians
provide an overview of the equipment and a
tutorial of how to operate the UPS.

14 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

VA i s f or w eaklings.
I m easure m y
s trength i n watts.

The difference
between VA
and watts
The engineering answer: To correctly size a Apparent power (measured in VA or volt- Using one of the following formulas, a The answer for the rest of us:
UPS, its important to understand the amps) is a mathematical combination of calculation can be made to determine the

relationship between watts and VA. real power and reactive power. missing quantity:
However, we must first have a brief Watts = VA * Power Factor or VA = Watts /
discussion about power terminology. Real

Apparent Power (VA) Power Factor
power (measured in watts) is the portion of Real power
Reactive Since many types of equipment are rated in Apparent
power flow that results in the consumption
Power power (VA); (watts);
of energy. The energy consumed is related watts, its important to consider the PF
VAR when sizing a UPS. If you don't take PF into Full capacity Actual usable
to the resistance in an electrical circuit. An
account, you may under size your UPS. As power
example of consumed energy is the filament
in a light bulb. an example, a piece of equipment thats
Real Power (Watts) rated at 525 watts and has a power factor
Reactive power (measured in VAR or volt- of 0.7 results in a 750 VA load.
amps reactive) is the portion of power flow The geometric relationship between
due to stored energy. Stored energy is apparent power, reactive power and real 750 VA = 525 Watts / 0.7 PF Converting amps to VA
related to the presence of inductance and/or power is illustrated in the power triangle Sizing the UPS to operate at 75 percent Single phase: Multiply amps by voltage (120
capacitance in an electrical circuit. An below: capacity results in a UPS with a 1000 VA volts in the U.S.). 10A x 120V = 1200 VA.
example of stored energy is a charged flash Mathematically, real power (watts) is related rating (750 VA / 0.75 = 1000 VA). Three phase: Amps x volts x 1.732 = VA.
bulb in a camera. to apparent power (VA) using a numerical
ratio referred to as the power factor (PF),
which is expressed in decimal format and
always carries a value between 0 and 1.0.
For many newer types of IT equipment,
such as computer servers, the typical PF
is 0.9 or greater. For legacy personal
computers (PCs), this value can be
View the Professor 0.60 0.75.
Wattson video on
VA vs Watts:

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 15

Decentralized Decentralized or central UPS?
Is a single, larger UPS better, or is it best to
have multiple, smaller UPSs? Naturally, the
less than or equal to six kVA. In a central
UPS configuration (see Figure 1), a larger
UPS supports multiple devices. A centralized

or central UPS?
answer is that it depends on a number of UPS is typically hardwired into an electrical
factors. In a decentralized (also known as panelboard. The following tables include a
distributed) UPS configuration (see Figure number of factors to consider when making
2), multiple UPSs support a handful of a decision between a decentralized and
devices or perhaps only a single piece of central UPS. In the end it's often best to
equipment. Decentralized UPSs typically use simply go with the strategy that you are
plug and play connections and are usually comfortable with.

Central UPS
Why youd choose a
Why you wouldnt
central UPS solution

A single UPS can mean single point of

Typically, the sales and service life of failure. You can overcome this
the UPS is longer. concern with an N+1 or N+X UPS for

The single UPS may not be close

A single UPS is easier to monitor,
physically to the equipment it will
service and maintain than lots of
protect. A single electrical distribution
smaller UPSs.
panel may not feed all equipment.

Larger UPSs will be three-phase and/

or 208V, 400V or 480V and often result
There is no space for a large UPS.
in more efficient operation and lower
operating costs.
A central UPS is often housed away
A central UPS generally requires a
from high traffic areas. As a result,
trained service technician or
its less easily disrupted, accidentally
electrician to service, maintain or
damaged or maliciously interfered
A central UPS can be located where
cooling is more tightly controlled. A central UPS may incur higher
Remember, heat is the enemy of the installation and wiring costs.
batteries inside a UPS.
Though a technician may need to
replace the batteries, you only have to
worry about a single UPS. A
distributed UPS configuration may
result in various models that require
different batteries. Do you want to
take the time to replace the batteries
on five to 20 UPSs?

Figure 1

16 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Combining the configurations
Its important to keep in mind that decentralized and
centralized power protection deployment strategies arent
necessarily mutually exclusive. The two strategies can be
T hat o ffice
used in combination to provide redundancy to mission-
critical applications. For example, an entire facility may be
f urniture i s
protected by a large, centralized UPS, but a specific depart-
ment such as a 24x7 call center may have decentralized
looking r eally
UPSs as well to provide redundant protection and possibly
extend runtime for call center equipment.
o ld. I l ike i t.

Decentralized UPS
Why youd choose a
Why you wouldnt
decentralized UPS configuration

No rewiring is required. Use existing If a generator supports the building,

wall sockets. Easy plug and play smaller standby and line-interactive
installation. Can also be redeployed UPSs may not be able to function
easily if IT systems are moved. while its running.

Requires lower capital outlay and

installation costs. Fits within IT
manager purchase limits. Generally
No central panelboard exists or
dont need to approve a large capital
theres no room for the UPS.
expense. Will most likely not require
additional installation costs from

You dont want to monitor or service a

bunch of UPS units. A decentralized
You have no idea how much your
design may require more time and
company will grow and dont want to
focus to keep up with replacing
get locked into a particular UPS.
batteries and maintaining multiple

You want a single UPS that can be

You already have a number of smaller
shut down using emergency power
UPS units that are fairly new and you
off. Also, a decentralized design may
dont want to discard them. (Most
not offer redundancy and other
UPS manufacturers offer a trade-in
capabilities provided by a larger,
central UPS.

Power conditioning is implemented at

the point of use, which mitigates any Adding redundancy, extended runtime
electrical disturbances that may be or maintenance bypass functionality
coupled into the distribution wiring of to multiple UPSs can be costly.
a centralized system.
Diverse applications within a building
may require varying levels of power
protection and functionality. For
example, extended runtime can be Multiple audible alarms/alerts may be
configured for specific applications, irritating.
eliminating the need to add additional
battery modules for less critical Figure 2

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 17

What is
three-phase 90 180 270 360

power? Figure 1. Three-phase power

Three-phase power, the most efficient Single-phase or three-phase power? 90 180 270 360
way to distribute power over long
distances, allows for large industrial Single-phase Three-phase
equipment to operate more efficiently. Its advantages advantages
characterized by three single-phase The standard for Can help balance the Figure 2. Single-phase power
waves that are offset in their phase angle locations where three- loads on the utility
by 120 degrees, or one-third of the sine phase power is power of the building.
wave period as illustrated in Figure 1. unavailable.

Three-phase voltage can be measured from Usually easier to Usually easier to

distribute power in low distribute power in
each phase to neutral or from one phase to
any other. The voltage relation between
kVA and low-density
higher kVA and high-
density rack D id s omeone s ay
phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase is a
factor of the square root of three (e.g., 120V
Allows for smaller
t hree-phase p ower?
versus 208V). amperage electrical 90 180 270 360
Conversely, single-phase power is distrib- devices within the
solution (breakers,
uted through common household outlets to wiring, panels, etc.).
power everyday equipment such as laptops,
lighting and televisions. When looking at an
oscilloscope image of the voltage coming
out of a single-phase outlet as illustrated in
Figure 2, theres only a single wave. Single-
phase power is obtained by simply using
only one phase of a three-phase system. Its
root mean square (RMS) voltage is 120V (for
North America) and it oscillates between its
peaks of 170V at 60 Hz (or 60 times a

18 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Increase server energy efficiencies by using
high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs
Maximizing energy efficiencies in todays When operating at 208 volts, a 1 to 2 Making the connections
data centers has become an important percent difference in efficiency can be
factor in saving costs and reducing an experienced for a 1000W power supply,
organizations carbon footprint. While depending on the load level. When the loss
there are new energy-saving tools and in the power distribution transformer (PDU)
technologies being introduced every day, needed to get to the 120V is added, theres
understanding existing methods and an additional 1.5 to 2 percent savings.
systems can bring immediate efficiencies Factor in cooling efficiencies and the savings H igh voltage
can add up to between 4 and 8 percent,
and savings, often without an additional
investment. which translates to about $70 per power m akes m e s izzle!
supply. When multiplied by the number
One such method is to operate equipment of power supplies in the server rack, the
at high-line voltage and use 208V UPSs, savings certainly justifies making the switch
which maximizes energy efficiency and to 208 volts, especially when expanding or
uptime, and saves money. IT devices moving into a new location.
equipped with a C14 plug are capable of
running on high voltage, which can One of the main reasons that U.S.
Remove the standard 5-15P/C13 power cord that
dramatically increase efficiency. customers have been reluctant to switch to
shipped with your IT equipment and replace it with
high voltage is that high voltage UPSs are
Even small increases in UPS efficiency can one of the C13/C14 jumper cables that shipped
typically fitted with IEC outlets (or even
quickly translate into tens of thousands of with your UPS. Your IT equipment is now
inlets) and customers dont know how
dollars in savings. For example, assuming a operating at 208V, running more efficiently and
to connect them to IT equipment with a
saving you money.
utility rate of 10 cents per kWh, a 60 kW traditional NEMA plug. However, all IT
N+1 redundant configuration would save power supplies come with a detachable
more than $30,000 over five years. High input cord with a NEMA plug on one side
UPS efficiency also extends battery and an IEC plug on the other. By simply
runtimes and produces cooler operating changing the standard NEMA/C13 power
conditions, resulting in lower utility bills. cord to an IEC C13/C14 power cord, these
At first glance, high-voltage input power additional IT equipment efficiencies can be
seems counter-intuitive when thinking about captured. IEC cables are fully UL-listed and
energy savings. However, in the real world, are the standard method of connection in
power supplies operate more efficiently at large mission-critical data centers across
high voltage. The typical server switch-mode the U.S.
power supply has an efficiency rating To read the complete white paper on this
between 65 and 80 percent, with some subject, please visit
special-purpose products able to reach 90
percent efficiency. Lower voltage causes
the power supply to operate at the lower
end of this range.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 19

Worldwide voltage map

50 Hz

60 Hz

*Mixed voltages are present in several countries, including Vietnam, South Korea, Philippines, Brazil, Peru and Saudi Arabia

I r oamed t he
Single-phase voltages*
110-127V; 60 Hz (also 208V; 60 Hz)
world b efore
110-127V; 60 Hz t here w ere
220/230V; 50 Hz
240V; 50 Hz

20 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Worldwide voltages

Single- Three-
phase phase

Single- Three-
phase phase

Single- Three-
phase phase

Single- Three-
phase phase
voltage voltage Frequency voltage voltage Frequency voltage voltage Frequency voltage voltage Frequency
Country (V) (V) ) (Hz) Country (V) (V) ) (Hz) Country (V) (V) ) (Hz) Country (V) (V) ) (Hz)

Afghanistan 220 380 50 Denmark 220-230 400 50 Laos 220 400 50 Runion Island 230 400 50
Albania 230 400 50 Djibouti 220 380 50 Latvia 220 400 50 Romania 220 400 50
Algeria 127/220 400 50 Dominica 230 400 50 Lebanon 110-220 400 50 Russia 220 400 50
American Samoa 120/240 208 60 Dominican Republic 110 120/208/ 60 Lesotho 240 380 50 Rwanda 220 400 50
Andorra 230 400 50 227/480 Liberia 120 208 60 Saudi Arabia 127/220 190/380 50/60
Angola 220 380 50 Ecuador 120 190 60 Libya 127-230 220/400 50 Scotland 220 400 50
Antigua 230 400 60 Egypt 220 380 50 Liechtenstein 220 400 50 Senegal 220 400 50
Armenia 230 380 50 El Salvador 115 200 60 Lithuania 220 400 50 Serbia 230 400 50
Argentina 220 380 50 England 240 400 50 Luxembourg 220-230 400 50 Seychelles 240 240 50
Aruba 115/127 220 60 Estonia 220 400 50 Macau 220 380 50 Sierra Leone 230 400 50
Australia 240 415 50 Ethiopia 220 380 50 Macedonia 230 400 50 Singapore 230 400 50
Austria 220-230 400 50 Faeroe Islands 230 400 50 Madagascar 220 220/380 50 Slovakia 220 400 50
Azerbaijan 220 380 50 Falkland Islands 240 415 50 Madeira (Portugal) 220 400 50 Slovenia 230 400 50
Azores (Portugal) 220 400 50 Fiji 240 415 50 Malawi 230 400 50 Somalia 110/220 380 50
Bahamas 120 208 60 Finland 220-230 400 50 Malaysia 240 415 50 South Africa 220-230 400 50
Bahrain 220 400 50 France 220-230 400 50 Maldives 230 400 50 Spain 220-230 400 50
Balearic Islands 230 400 50 French Guiana 220 380 50 Mali 220 380 50 Sri Lanka 230 400 50
Bangladesh 220 380 50 Gabon 220 380 50 Malta 240 400 50 St. Kitts & Nevis 230 400 60
Barbados 115 200 50 Gambia 220 400 50 Martinique 220 380 60 St. Lucia 240 400 50
Belarus 220 380 50 Gaza 230 400 50 Mauritania 220 220 50 St. Vincent 230 400 50
Belgium 220-230 400 50 Georgia 220 380 50 Mauritius 230 400 50 Sudan 240 400 50
Belize 110 190/380 60 Germany 220-230 400 50 Mexico 127 220/480 50 Surinam 115 220 60
Benin 220 380 50 Ghana 220 400 50 Moldova 220 380 50 Swaziland 230 400 50
Bermuda 120 208 60 Gibraltar 240 400 50 Monaco 220 400 50 Sweden 220-230 400 50
Bhutan 230 400 50 Greece 220-230 400 50 Mongolia 220 400 50 Switzerland 220-230 400 50
Bolivia 110-115/220 400 50 Greenland 220 400 50 Montserrat 230 400 60 Syria 220 380 50
Bosnia-Herzegovina 220 400 50 Grenada 230 400 50 Morocco 220 380 50 Tahiti 220 380 50
Botswana 220 400 50 Guadeloupe 220 400 50 Mozambique 220 380 50 Taiwan 110 190 60
Brazil 110-127 220/380/ 60 Guam 110-120 190 60 Myanmar 230 400 50 Tajikistan 220 380 50
220 440 60 Guatemala 120 208 60 Namibia 220-250 380 50 Tanzania 230 400 50
Brunei 240 415 50 Guinea 220 208 50 Nauru 240 415 50 Thailand 220/230 380 50
Bulgaria 220 400 50 Guinea-Bissau 220 380 50 Nepal 220 400 50 Togo 220 380 50
Burkina Faso 220 380 50 Guyana 110 190 50/60 Netherlands Antilles 120-127/220 220/380 50/60 Tonga 115 415 60
Burundi 220 380 50 Haiti 110-120 190 50/60 Netherlands 220-230 400 50 Trinidad & Tobago 115/23 200 60
Cambodia 120/220 400 50 Honduras 110 190 60 New Caledonia 220 380 50 Tunisia 220 400 50
Cameroon 220-230 380 50 Hong Kong 200 380 50 New Zealand 230 415 50 Turkey 220 400 50
Canada 120 208/240/600 60 Hungary 220 400 50 Nicaragua 120 208 60 Turkmenistan 220 380 50
Canary Islands (Spain) 220 400 50 Iceland 220 400 50 Niger 220 380 50 Uganda 240 415 50
Cape Verde 220 400 50 India 220-250 400 50 Nigeria 230 400 50 Ukraine 220 380 50
Cayman Islands 120 208 60 Indonesia 220 400 50 Northern Ireland 240 400 50 United Arab Emirates 220/230 415 50
Central African Republic 220 380 50 Iran 220 400 50 Norway 220-230 400 50 United Kingdom 240 400 50
Chad 220 380 50 Iraq 220 400 50 Okinawa 110-120 200/230 60 United States 120 277/480 60
Channel Islands 240 400 50 Ireland 220 400 50 Oman 240 415 50 Uruguay 220 220 50
Chile 220 380 50 Isle of Man 240 400 50 Pakistan 230 400 50 Uzbekistan 220 380 50
China 220 380 50 Israel 230 400 50 Palau 120 208 60 Venezuela 120 240 60
Colombia 110-220 440 60 Italy 220-230 400 50 Panama 110-120 190 60 Vietnam 120/220 380 50
Congo 220 400 50 Ivory Coast 220 380 50 Papua New Guinea 240 415 50 Virgin Islands 120 190 60
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 220 380 50 Jamaica 110 190 50 Paraguay 220 380 50 Wales 220 400 50
(formerly Zaire) Japan 100 200 50/60 Peru 110/220 220 50/60 Western Samoa 230 400 50
Cook Islands 240 415 50 Jordan 220 400 50 Philippines 115 380 60 Yemen 220 400 50
Costa Rica 120 240 60 Kazakhstan 220 380 50 Poland 240 400 50 Zambia 220 400 50
Croatia 220 400 50 Kenya 240 415 50 Portugal 220 400 50 Zimbabwe 220 415 50
Cuba 120 190 60 Korea, South 220 380 50/60 Puerto Rico 220-230 208 50
Cyprus 240 400 50 Kuwait 240 415 50 Qatar 240 415 50
Czech Republic 220 400 50 Kyrgyzstan 220 380 50

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 21

The nine power problems
In an ideal world, your wall socket would provide an infinite stream of perfect power, at
constant voltage and cycling exactly the same number of times per second. Dont count on it.

Power Problem Definition

1 Power Failure When a superhero loses his ability to fly or a total loss of utility power.

2 Power Sag Post-lunch sleepiness or short-term low voltage.

3 Power Surge
Rush of energy following a double shot of espresso or short-term high voltage more
than 110 percent of normal.

When your amps too wimpy to handle the bass line or reduced line voltage for an
4 Under-voltage
extended period of a few minutes to a few days. Often happens during the summer
months when everyone is cranking up their air conditioners.

5 Over-voltage
Inhuman cheefulness exuded by aerobics instructors or increased line voltage for an
extended period of a few minutes to a few days.

A h, m ore
6 Electrical
Line Noise
Excuse you use to get off the phone quickly or a high power frequency power wave
caused by radio frequency interference (RFI) or electromagnetic interference (EMI). m inions f or
m y e vil p lan!
7 Frequency
Fluctuation in how often you do laundry from week to week or a loss of stability in the
power supplys normal frequency of 50 or 60 Hz.

8 Switching
Breaking up with your significant other only to get back together every six months or
instantaneous under-voltage in the range of nanoseconds.

9 Harmonic
Music blaring from your nephews headphones or the distortion of the normal power
wave, generally transmitted by unequal loads.

22 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

AC to DC DC to AC
Rectifier Inverter


UPS topologies Buck Boost

DC to AC
Charger Inverter
There are several different UPS topologies that provide varying degrees of protection. Selecting Online UPSs provide the highest level of protection by isolating equipment from raw utility
the best fit depends on several factors, including the level of reliability and availability desired, powerconverting power from AC to DC and Battery back to AC. Unlike other topologies, double
the type of equipment being protected and the application/environment. While all four of the conversion provides zero transfer time to battery for sensitive equipment. This topology is best
most common UPS topologies outlined below meet the input voltage requirements for IT applied to mission-critical equipment and locations where power generally is poor.
equipment, there are key differences in how the result is achieved, as well as the frequency
and duration of demands on the battery.
Standby UPSs allow equipment to run off utility DC topower
AC until the UPS detects a problem, at
Inverter Capacitor
Internal Static Bypass
which point it switches to battery power to protect against sags, surges or outages. This
topology is best suited for applications requiring simple backup such as small office/home office
and point-of-sale equipment.
AC to DC
Rectifier DC to AC

DC to AC Battery
Inverter Capacitor
BatteryDC to AC
AC to DC
Rectifier Inverter


Line-interactive UPSs actively regulate voltage either by boosting or decreasing utility power Ferroresonant UPSs operate similarly to line-interactive models with the exception that a
as necessary before allowing it to pass to the DC
AC to DCBuck Boost
to AC equipment or by resorting to battery ferroresonant transformer is used to condition the output and hold energy long enough to
power. Line-interactive models Inverter
Rectifierare ideal for applications where protection from power cover the time between switching from line power to battery power which effectively means
anomalies is required, but the utility power is relatively clean. MDF and IDF communication a no-break transfer. Many ferroresonant UPSs are 82-88 percent efficient and offer excellent
closets, non-centralized server and network rooms, and general IT enclosures are ideally suited isolation. Although no longer the dominant type of UPS, these robust units are still used in
for this topology. industrial settings such as the oil and gas, petrochemical, chemical, utility and heavy
Battery DC to AC
Inverter industry markets.

Buck Boost

Battery DC to AC
Charger Inverter
Internal Static Bypass

Battery DC to AC
Inverter Capacitor
AC to DC
Rectifier DC to AC

Normal Operation Internal Static Bypass
Battery Power


AC to to AC
Management Fundamentals Handbook 23
Rectifier DC to AC Rectifier Inverter
UPS battery
Valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries, 2. Is there any difference between the
also known as sealed or maintenance free batteries used by smaller UPSs, from 250
are most commonly used in UPSs. VRLA VA to 3 kVA, and the ones used by larger
batteries are sealed, usually within UPSs?
polypropylene plastic, which offers the

While basic battery technology and the risks
advantage of not containing any sloshing
to battery life remain the same regardless of
liquid that might leak or drip. Because water
UPS size, there are some inherent
cant be added to VRLA batteries,
differences between large and small
recombination of water is critical to their life
applications. Smaller UPSs typically have
and health, and any factor that increases the
only one VRLA battery that supports the
rate of evaporation or water losssuch as
load and needs maintenance. As systems
temperature or heat from the charging
get larger, increasing battery capacity to
Its well known that the battery is the most vulnerable part of a UPS. In fact, battery failure currentreduces battery life.
support the load gets more complicated.
is a leading cause of load loss. Understanding how to properly maintain and manage UPS Larger systems may require multiple strings
batteries can extend their service life and help prevent costly downtime.
Frequently asked of batteries, introducing complexity to
battery maintenance and support. Individual

questions: batteries batteries must be monitored to prevent a

single bad battery from taking down an
entire string, and putting the load at risk.
1. What is the end of useful life? Also, as systems get larger, wet-cell
The IEEE defines end of useful life for a batteries become much more common.
UPS battery as the point when it can no
longer supply 80 percent of its rated
Positive Flag Extruded Intercell capacity in ampere-hours. When your
Valve Terminal Welded Connection, battery reaches 80 percent of its rated
Low Resistance capacity, the aging process accelerates and
Current Path
the battery should be replaced.


Strap Joining
Plates in

Pasted Plate
Lead Alloy

Polypropylene Figure 1. VRLA batteries are frequently used in UPS or

Container/Jar other high-rate applications.

Figure 2. Internal and external components of a valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery.
View the Professor
Wattson video on

24 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

3. My UPS has been in storage for over a 6. If I add more batteries to a UPS, can I 9. Why are batteries disconnected on 13. What are the risks associated with a
year. Are the batteries still good? add more load? small, single-phase UPSs when theyre lack of battery maintenance?
As batteries sit unused, with no charging Adding more batteries to a UPS can increase The primary risks of improperly maintained
regimen, their life will decrease. Due to the the battery runtime to support the load. This is done to ensure theyre in compliance batteries are load loss, fire, property damage
self-discharge characteristics of lead-acid However, adding more batteries to the UPS with Department of Transportation and personal injury.
batteries, it is imperative that they be doesnt increase the UPS capacity. Be sure regulations.
charged after every six to 10 months of your UPS is adequately sized for your load 14. What is thermal runaway?
storage. Otherwise, permanent loss of and then add batteries to fit your runtime 10. Does the UPS need to have a load on
capacity will occur between 18 and 30 needs. Thermal runaway occurs when the heat
it to charge its batteries?
months. To prolong shelf life without generated in a lead-acid cell exceeds its
charging, store batteries at 10C (50F) or The UPS should have a minimum of ability to dissipate it, which can lead to an
less. 10 percent load to charge its batteries. explosion, especially in sealed cells. The
Once connected to a standard supply of heat generated in the cell may occur without
electricity (via input plug or hardwiring), your any warning signs and may be caused by
4. What is the difference between
UPS should charge its batteries regardless overcharging, excessive charging, internal
hot-swappable and user-replaceable
of how much load, if any, is attached to it. physical damage, internal short circuit or a
hot environment.
Hot-swappable batteries can be changed out 11. How can you be sure UPS batteries
while the UPS is running. User-replaceable are in good condition and ensure they 15. Why do batteries fail?
batteries are usually found in smaller UPSs have maximum holdover in the event of a
and require no special tools or training to Batteries can fail for a multitude of reasons,
power failure? What preventive
replace. Batteries can be both hot- but common reasons are:
swappable and user-replaceable.
maintenance procedures should be done
and how often? High or uneven temperatures
Figure 4. Adding extended battery modules
increases runtime but doesnt increase the Inaccurate float charge voltage
The batteries used in the UPS and
power rating or capacity of the UPS.
associated battery modules and cabinets are Loose inter-cell links or connections
sealed, lead-acid batteries often referred to
as maintenance-free. While these types of Loss of electrolyte due to drying out or
7. If my UPS is in storage, how often
batteries are sealed and you dont need to damaged case
should I charge the batteries?
check their fluid level, they do require some Lack of maintenance, aging
The batteries should be charged every three attention to assure proper operation. You
or four months to prevent loss of capacity. should inspect the UPS a minimum of once 16. How is battery performance generally
per year by initiating a self-test. measured?
8. What is the average lifespan of UPS
batteries? 12. How long does it take for the UPS Batteries are generally rated for 100+
batteries to recharge? discharges and recharges, but many show a
The standard lifespan for VRLA batteries is marked decline in charging capacity after as
three to five years. However, expected life On average, it takes 10 times the discharge few as 10 discharges. The lower the charge
Figure 3. UPS models like the Eaton 9130 feature can vary greatly due to environmental time for the UPS batteries to recover. (A the battery can accept, the less runtime it
hot-swappable batteries for maximum uptime. conditions, number of discharge cycles, and 30-minute battery discharge requires about can deliver. Look for batteries with a high-
adequate maintenance. Have a regular 300 minutes to recharge.) After each power rate design that sustains stable performance
5. How is battery runtime affected if I schedule of battery maintenance and outage, the recharge process begins for a long service term.
reduce the load on the UPS? monitoring to ensure you know when your immediately. Its important to note that the
The battery runtime will increase if the load batteries are reaching their end-of-life. The load is fully protected while the batteries are
is reduced. As a general rule, if you reduce typical life of an Eaton UPS with ABM recharging, but if the batteries are needed
the load by half, you triple the runtime. technology is 50 percent longer than with during that time, the holdover time available
standard models.
will be less than it would have been if the
batteries were fully charged.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 25

Factors affecting
battery life
All UPS batteries have a limited service life, 2. Battery chemistry 3. Cycling 4. Maintenance
regardless of how or where the UPS is
UPS batteries are electro-chemical devices After a UPS operates on battery power For larger UPS models, service and
deployed. While determining battery life can
whose ability to store and deliver power during a power failure, the battery is maintenance of batteries are critical to its
be tricky, there are four primary factors that
slowly decreases over time. Even if all recharged for future use, which is called the reliability. Periodic preventive maintenance
contribute to a batterys overall lifespan.
guidelines for storage, maintenance and discharge cycle. At installation, the battery is not only extends battery string life by
usage are followed, batteries will still require at 100 percent of its rated capacity, but each preventing loose connections and removing
1. Ambient temperature replacement after a certain period of time. discharge and subsequent recharge slightly corrosion, but can help identify ailing
Because the rated capacity of a battery is reduces its relative capacity. Once the batteries before they fail. Even though
based on an ambient temperature of 25C chemistry is depleted, the cells fail and the sealed batteries are sometimes referred to
(77F), any variation from this can affect battery must be replaced. as maintenance free, they still require
performance and reduce battery life. For scheduled service, as maintenance free
every 8.3C (15F) average annual refers only to the fact that they dont require
temperature above 25C (77F), the life of replacement fluid.
the battery is reduced by 50 percent.

B atteries a re
h eavy. T hey g et
m e p umped u p. For additional information on UPS batteries, to use
the Eaton battery replacement selector, or to request
a free copy of Eatons battery handbook, visit

26 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

E ven I could u se
a l ittle m ore
v isibility to n etwork

UPS software p ower conditions.

Operating a UPS without power Some software offerings are capable of
management software is kind of like driving delivering a global view across the network
in the rain without windshield wipers you often from any PC with an Internet
may be protected from the downpour, but browser. Software can also provide a
your visibility only lasts for so long. complete log of events and UPS utility data,
While a UPS protects the attached load which is invaluable when debugging a
during a power outage, power management power anomaly. Many power management
software is required to ensure that all work- products have the ability to centralize
in-progress is saved and sensitive electronic alarms, organize data by customized views
equipment is gracefully shut down if the and maintain event logs for preventive
power outage exceeds battery runtime. maintenance of the entire installed
Without software, the UPS simply runs until equipment base.
its batteries are depleted and then drops the The more robust and versatile software
load. offerings are compatible with devices that
In addition to facilitating automatic, orderly support a network interface, including all
shutdown of all connected devices during an manufacturers UPSs, environmental
extended outage, power management sensors, ePDUs and other devices.
software delivers a broad spectrum of other Furthermore, power management software
advantages. The perfect complement to any enables load segment control for UPS
UPS solution, management software keeps models supporting that feature.
a constant pulse on network health through Because power protection and management
its monitoring and management capabilities. are just as vital for virtual machines as they
Most power management software is are for physical servers, new software
shipped with the UPS and is usually technologies have been specifically Figure 1. Eatons Intelligent Power Manager facilitates easy and versatile remote monitoring and management of
available as a free download online as well. designed to provide monitoring and multiple devices, keeping you apprised of power and environmental conditions.
Power event notifications are available as management capabilities in virtualized
audible alarms, pop-up alerts on a monitor, environments. Shutdown software is now
emails to pre-designated recipients based compatible with VMwares ESXi and
on the condition, text messages, phone calls vSphere and Microsofts Hyper-V, enabling
from our remote monitoring center, and graceful shutdown of multiple virtual
triggers for a multitude of network and machines.
building management systems to initiate the
orderly shutdown of equipment. To view an online demonstration of Eatons power
management software capabilities, please visit View the Professor Wattson video on

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 27

Service overview I n eed m aintenance,
One of the best ways to protect your Research indicates that regular, routine All manufacturers UPSs are complex too!
investment is by including a service preventive maintenance is crucial to achieve devices that perform several critical power
plan. Scheduled preventive maintenance maximum equipment performance; studies conditioning and backup supply functions
can help detect a wide range of ailments show it appreciably reduces the likelihood and are subject to failure. Without proper
before they become serious and costly that a UPS will succumb to downtime. The maintenance, all UPSs will eventually fail
issues. 2007 Study of Root Causes of Load Losses over their useful life, since critical
compiled by Eaton revealed that customers components like batteries and capacitors will
without preventive maintenance visits were wear out from normal use. A good
almost four times more likely to experience maintenance plan delivered by trained and
a UPS failure than those completing the experienced personnel can greatly minimize
recommended biannual preventive this risk of failure.
maintenance visits.

28 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Types of UPS service Types of service
There are several UPS service delivery
methods, including:
A variety of different UPS service options
Factory warranty repair or replace.
are available, any of which will likely save
You contact the UPS service provider and
you time and money by minimizing business
ship your UPS to a repair facility. The
interruption and the costs of downtime, as
service provider returns the repaired unit
well as enhancing overall return on
or a refurbished unit.
investment by extending the lifespan of
Extended warranty advance swap critical power equipment.
depot exchange.
Support agreements, or service
You contact your UPS service provider,
contracts, usually combine parts and
which ships a refurbished unit to you; the
labor coverage (electronics, batteries or
original UPS unit is returned to a repair
both), one or more UPS preventive
facility. Typically this expedites a
maintenance inspections annually, and a
replacement UPS by the next business
combination of coverage hours and arrival
day and freight costs are paid both ways
response time. Plans can be tailored to
by Eaton.
meet almost any need. Special features
Onsite repair. You contact your UPS like remote monitoring, battery
service provider and factory-trained field replacement insurance and spare part kits
technicians travel to your site to diagnose may also be added.
and repair electronic or battery-related
Extended warranty (or basic warranty)
may also be purchased for many UPS
Smaller UPS products (below 1000 VA) products. A warranty commonly covers
generally can be repaired at a depot, while specified parts and labor such as
products over 1000 VA and up to 18 kVA can electronic components for a fixed period
either be repaired at a depot or serviced
The Eaton service
of time. Warranties may have limited Figure 3. Eaton is one of the UPS companies that
onsite. Larger UPSs that are either response times or exclude features like provides remote monitoring services.
hardwired (cant be unplugged) or too heavy
to ship can only be serviced onsite by
scheduled preventive maintenance. The
more services added to a warranty, the offering
trained technicians. closer it becomes to a support Eaton offers power quality services for
agreement. its UPS products as well as for related
Time and material (T&M) service is a equipment such as power distribution units
pay-as-you-go approach through which the (PDUs) and batteries. Eaton also services
service provider makes a repair only products from legacy brands, including
when something breaks. T&M can be Powerware, Exide Electronics, Best Power,
done either via depot repair or onsite, MGE Office Protection Systems, IPM,
depending on the UPS. This method Deltec and Lortec. Eaton has more than
can be an unacceptable service solution 40 years of experience designing and
for some customers, since its often servicing industry-leading UPSs for
expensive, and theres the uncertainty government, healthcare, industrial and
of not knowing when a field technician data center applications.
will arrive. Because support agreement
For more information on UPS service, and to
(contract) customers always take priority, access service-related white papers, please visit
T&M response times can be up to five
Figure 1. Smaller UPS models are usually sent to a days, based on the product and location.
repair facility.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 29

We compiled the following set 4. How is battery runtime impacted if 8. How is reliability measured?
of questions based on our extensive I reduce the load on the UPS?

Power reliability is usually stated as a
experience dealing with resellers and end
There can be a significant increase in percent of time the power is available. For
users. For frequently asked questions about
runtime. Generally speaking, a UPS that example, the power grid system in the U.S.
UPS batteries, please visit the UPS battery
provides five minutes at full load will provide provides three nines of reliabilitythe
overview section on page 24.

15 minutes at half load. power is available for 99.9 percent of the
time. Because those 8.8 hours of downtime
1. Whats the difference between a surge translate into significant downtime and
5. My business is too small for protective
protector and a UPS? expense, IT and telephone network services
measures. Do I really need a UPS?
A surge protector provides just thatsurge require at least five nines of reliability.

Power problems are equal-opportunity
protection. In addition to surge protection, a
threats. Your PCs, servers and network are Reliability average Non-availability per year
UPS continually regulates incoming voltage
just as critical to your business as a data 99% 88 hours
and provides battery backup in the event of
center is to a large enterprise. Downtime is
a power failure. You'll often see surge 99.9% 8.8 hours
costly in terms of hardware and potential
protectors plugged into a UPS for added 99.99% 53 minutes
loss of goodwill, reputation and sales. Also
surge protection and additional output
add in the delays that inevitably occur when 99.999% 5.3 minutes
rebooting locked-up equipment, restoring 99.9999% 32 seconds
damaged files and re-running processes that 99.99999%+ 3.2 seconds
2. How much capacity of a UPS should were interrupted. A sound power protection
I use? strategy is cost-effective insurance.
To allow for future expansion, we
recommend that you install a UPS at 6. Why is power quality such a problem 9. How are phone systems and IT
approximately 75 percent capacity. In today? equipment affected by inconsistent
addition, the batteries degrade over time; power?
Todays high-tech IT equipment and control
by oversizing, you provide room for error.
units are much more sensitive to electrical Fluctuating power is a waste of valuable
In the online Eaton UPS sizing tool
disturbances and are more important to the time and money. If customers expose their
( weve included
critical functions of many businesses than telephone systems (and any other electronic
a capacity used column.
in the past. As a result, power quality equipment) to inconsistent utility power,
problems today are more frequent and theyre vulnerable to hardware and software
3. How much UPS battery runtime do more costly than ever. damage, data corruption and communication
I need? breakdown. The time and cost of replacing
During an outage, you need enough battery 7. Are power quality problems always equipment, as well as the business lost
runtime to gracefully shut down systems or noticeable? during breakdown and replacement, can
switch to backup generators. You may add greatly affect a companys bottom line.
No. In many cases, disturbances can cause
an optional external battery module (EBM)
imperceptible damage to circuits and other
to increase runtime.
components, a major cause of premature
equipment failure and problems like
computer lockups. Many power quality
problems go unresolved, resulting in lost
revenue and data.

30 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

10. We have a generator. Do I still need Lightning strikes have such an incredible 16. Why is power management software 18. My data center only went down for a
a UPS? amount of energy that only an expensive important? couple of minutes. Whats the big deal?
lightning arrestor would protect you from a
A generator will NOT protect your Although UPSs are typically rugged and When a data center goes down and then
direct hit and they often don't guarantee
equipment against power problems. You reliable, they do require ongoing monitoring back up during a power outage without a
complete protection. For the best protection
need a UPS to guarantee that the and support. Power management software managed shut down, it doesn't come up
against lightning strikes, you want to
equipment stays up until the generator continuously monitors and diagnoses the nicely. Storage arrays initialize after servers
develop a two-stage defense with
kicks on and stabilizeswhich often requires state of the grid, batteries and power that try to mount their shares, while some
something at your panel and something at
several minutes. sources, together with the condition of the servers boot without access to DNS servers
the outlet level. Visit for
UPSs internal electronics. Eaton UPS that are also booting and thus have other
some informative videos and additional
11. How much UPS capacity do I need? software and connectivity cards enable problems. Although the outage was short, it
remote monitoring and management can take hours to get everything back
Determine the total load (in watts) of capability, including graceful shutdown and online. In addition, data corruption is a
the equipment you want to protect. 13. What happens if the UPS is load segment control. serious concern.
Add 1020 percent for future growth and overloaded, for example, if the protected
decide the minimum amount of runtime equipment and/or load draws more
17. Will my current UPS software monitor 19. Where can I get technical help?
you need. Use the online sizer at current than it can provide.
my new Eaton UPS?
( to identify Contact your territory representative or call
The UPS transfers the load to bypass (for a
the right solution for your application. Yes, you can monitor your Eaton UPS with the Eaton UPS hotline at 1-800-356-5794 for
few minutes) until the overload condition is
any UPS or facility management software pre-sales support and 1-800-356-5737 for
reversed. If the overload condition
12. What are the different levels of surge that supports the industry standard technical support. You can also visit
continues, some UPS models automatically
protection? Management Information Base (MIB, RFC
shut down. Some models can run at 110V
1628) as long as you install the optional
There are three typical levels: indefinitely in bypass.
connectivity card. Most UPS vendors
A. Lightning arrestors. Big and mean, usually support this MIB and all good facility
14. What causes a UPS to be overloaded? management software, including
found in large facilities located in high-risk
areas. Takes an extremely high voltage and There are two possible answers: (1) the UPS OpenManage, OpenView and Tivoli also
clamps it down. was undersized (e.g., the load is rated at support it. Extended Eaton Advanced MIBs
B. Surge Protective Devices (SPD or TVSS). 1200 VA, but a 1000 VA UPS was provided), are available for greater levels of detail. A g enerator?
Mounted on your panelboard or load center;
sometimes larger UPS models may have
or (2) you plugged more equipment into the
UPS than it was designed to handle. You can remotely control your Eaton UPS I a lready h ave
using the Eaton UPS management software
some level of this, but typically not a great
amount. Clamps voltage down two even 15. I have a 3000 VA UPS. Can I just plug or through a secure web interface if you m y o wn!
the unit into a standard 15A wall outlet? choose the optional connectivity card, which
lower tolerances (~1 kV or less).
also allows for automated email alerts for
C. Local outlet level surge protector. A Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500 power events without needing to install any
simple surge strip; small plug-and-play UPSs VA plug into a standard 15A wall outlet. All software.
often have this as well. Brings voltage down others require a larger receptacle, which
to levels that will not permanently damage must be installed by an electrician.
connected equipment (typically ~380V).

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 31

Electric transmission
distribution system
The flow of electricity begins at the The transmission substation then increases
utility company, where its created at the the voltage, which depends on the distance
generating station. A generator trans- the power needs to travel and the amount
former at the station switchyard then desired. Electricity then enters the
steps up the voltage to minimize cable transmission system, traveling at nearly the
size and electrical losses. speed of light, over heavy cables strung
between tall towers. A step-down
transformer located at a substation near the
final destination reduces the voltage to
between 22,000 and 69,000 volts, so the
electricity can be carried on smaller
distribution lines that carry it to the end
user. Transformers that adjust the voltages
down to the proper level for use are located
at or near each end user facility. For
commercial use, the load can range from
416 volts to 480 volts, while residential use
is typically 208/120 volts in the U.S. and

32 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Transmission Residential Residential Load Commercial Customer
Lines Small Business 120V and 280V Service Equipment
Overhead Customer Service
Transformer Main Lateral Lightning
Breaker Switchgear Feeder Static Fuse Arrestors

9 10 Pad Mounted 13 14

Powers Poles Transformer
Conduits 11
5 6


Underground 230,000 Volts Underground 7 Underground Commercial Load

Transmission Main Feeder Service 480/277 volts
Lines 380/220 volts
416/240 volts

Threats to the system

At each stage, there are a number of threats 1 Fire sparked by weak wire 6 Squirrels and raccoons chew through 10 Mylar balloons drift into power lines
that can interrupt the flow and distribution of burns through line a wire or wander into the wrong area 11 Three-car collision strikes utility pole
electricity. Everything from lightning strikes
2 Lightning strike damages 7 Underground explosion causes cable 12 Failure of underground cable
to failed equipment can severely affect the
transmission line failure
end user and disrupt important and vital 13 Equipment failure
processes. 3 Bird flies in causing short circuit 8 Storm blows branches and limbs down
that crash into power lines 14 The power goes out and no one
4 Thieves steal copper knows why
5 Blown fuse at substation transformer 9 Equipment malfunction
15 Utilities conduct a planned outage for
repairs or upgrades

T rees, r oads, g rass a nd

p ower l ines. W here a m I
s upposed to l and?

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 33


34 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Eatons Blackout Tracker monitors
power outages across the U.S. and Impact of power >33 percent of companies take more than
a day to recover
Canada to provide a snapshot of
reported power outages. The Blackout outages 10 percent of companies take more than
a week
Tracker is an interactive and educational Every day, an interruption to electrical
way to share information about the It can take up to 48 hours to reconfigure
service in homes, businesses and public
causes, frequencies and impact of a network
sector organizations occurs, and the losses
power outages. You can view a region from these power outages can be extensive It can take days or weeks to re-enter
or individual state or province to see and of great consequence. For a business, lost data
specific information about power the recovery time is significant and the 90 percent of companies that experience O n T he Walking
outages, including their cause, duration costs are high. According to Price
and number of people affected. Visit Waterhouse research, after a power outage
a computer disaster and don't have a
survival plan go out of business within D ead, t here i s to see this disrupts IT systems:
interactive tool and order the latest
18 months
Power outages can cause substantial losses
n o e lectricity.
Blackout Tracker annual report. for the companies affected. According to
the U.S. Department of Energy, when a
I l ike t hat.
power failure disrupts IT systems:
33 percent of companies lose $20,000-
20 percent lose $500,000 to $2 million
15 percent lose more than $2 million

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 35

Overview The following data was compiled by
Eaton based on reported power outages

of 2012 during 2012.

US national
Total number of people affected by outages 23,488,028
(This is the sum of the number of people affected by reported power outages in the
U.S. for 2012.)
74,598 minutes (approximately

power outage
Total duration of outages
1,243 hours or 52 days)
(This is the sum of the durations of the reported power outages.)
Total number of outages 2,808

(This is the sum of the number of reported power outages.)
Average number of people affected per outage 12,648
(This number is determined by dividing the Total number of people affected by
outages by the number of outages that reported the number of people affected.
Not all reports of outages included number of people affected.) See Note A below.
Average duration of outage 154 minutes (over 2.5 hours)
(This number is determined by dividing the Total duration of outages by the number
of outages that reported durations. Not all reports of outages included the duration.)
See Note B below.

A. Total number of people affected (and average) is based on 2,167 (63%) of the total reported outages. Total
duration of outages (and average) is based on 991 (29%) of the total reported outages. These are the number
of outages that had reports including data for number of people affected and duration, respectively.
B. Reports from news services, newspapers, websites, etc. used as sources, sometimes give statistics using
different terms. For example, some reports may be based on people while others may be based on
addresses, homes and businesses or utility customers. For purposes of this report, all of these are
assumed to be and counted as people.

36 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Reported power outages by cause in 2012 Reported power outages by month/year

Animal 450 2008

202 Faulty Equipment / 400 2010
Human Error 2011
3 791
79 2012
Overdemand 300

Theft / Vandalism

9 Unknown 100

246 159 50
Vehicle Accident
425 23 0











Weather/Falling Trees














Note: Each power outage was grouped into one of seven possible causes. The outages by cause were totaled Note: Data collection began February 16, 2008.
and the results displayed in the chart above. The number adjacent to the pie piece is the number of outages
attributable to that cause.

T hey h ave a c ategory f or

a nimals? T hat's h arsh.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 37

Case study example one
Challenge: Operation and maintenance: With the Eaton's complete solution: 5 Intelligent Power Software Suite (free
move to the main data center, the support with UPS) for comprehensive monitoring
A small college with multiple satellite staff onsite will be minimal. The IT manager Customer equipment and shutdown capabilities
campuses is consolidating data centers to a wants a comprehensive support plan to 1 Onsite generator
brand new facility. This site is a small 6 Recommended service contract: Flex
handle all service and maintenance. Onsite
community branch with only single-phase 2 Distribution panel
loads left in the data center and it supports Budget: The budget is a major Comprehensive coverage of UPS
3 Single-phase power
only small processes and equipment. It does consideration, since the satellite campus IT and batteries
have generator backup, which works for budgets have been reduced due to IT 4 Three telephony racks with a total load of
long-term outages, but the IT manager equipment consolidation. The IT manager 4.5 kW (120V) Telephone technical support
wants 15 minutes of runtime. Although the expects to spend less than $20,000. 5 Two server racks with a total load of 5 eNotify Remote Monitoring
shutdown process takes six to seven Management: The IT manager wants to kW (208V) Connectivity support
minutes, the IT manager prefers to have 15 continue to manage the equipment over the
minutes for peace of mind. The main IT network but only minimal monitoring is Expedited delivery of replacement
Eaton equipment parts, modules and batteries
support and servers will be handled from needed.
the main campus, but some of the backup 1 Three Eaton 9130 UPSs and three EBMs Onsite startup
and support processes will be run from this Power distribution: The facility has several provide 1.8 kW of power each and 40
data center and need power protection. rackmount UPSs being fed from an minutes of battery runtime Onsite corrective maintenance
upstream distribution panel. Theres a
Theres no need for scalability, as the load at UPS part number: PW9130L2000R-XL2U Next-day 24-hour response
mixture of 5-20R and L6-30R receptacles
the various branches will most likely available on this distribution panel. The IT EBM part number: PW9130N3000R-
decrease over the next several years. With manager prefers to continue using the EBM2U
the move to the central data center, the existing distribution panel without bringing
expectation is that over the next five years in an electrician to rewire the facility. Eaton 2 Two Eaton 9130 UPSs and two EBMs
almost all the IT equipment will be housed 9130 UPSs are available with these options provide 2.7 kW of power each and 20
at the main campus. in both tower and rackmount models. The IT minutes of battery runtime
The IT manager provides a list of equipment manager can separate racks based on 208V UPS part number: PW9130G3000R-XL2U
that shows the majority of the load needing or 120V, due to the limited equipment and EBM part number: PW9130N3000R-
protection is telecom equipment. There are ample rack space from the consolidation. EBM2U
three 120V telephony racks with an average
power draw of 1.5 kW each. There are two 3 Six ePDU models, two in each rack for
208V racks of servers to handle the support the A and B feeds. Model ePBZ97 with
processes that average 2.5 kW each. (24) 5-20R output receptacles
4 Four ePDU models, two in each rack for
the A and B feeds. Model ePBZ92 with
(20) C13 and (4) C19 output receptacles

38 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 39
Case study example two
Challenge: The facility has a backup generator, that Eaton equipment
suffices for long-term outages. Because he 1 Two Eaton 9390 UPS (160 kVA each)
A data center has 480 Vac three-phase has critical phone switches and other
service with dual-mains, feeding an older providing 320 kVA of support or 288 kW
telecom equipment, the IT manager wants (34 percent extra capacity); includes
300 kVA UPS. There are two wall-mounted 10 minutes of runtime to be safe, should he
panels being fed from the two utility parallel configuration, Web card, side-car
face generator problems. Since he also has tie cabinet and three-breaker MBS
sources that feed the UPS (rectifier and two 150 kVA PDUs, the IT manager is
bypass input), which is feeding a (TD1622231129010)
interested in the possibility of providing two
switchboard. The switchboard feeds two 150 parallel UPSs for N+1 redundancy. With two 2 Two external battery cabinets (432 Vdc)
kVA power distribution units (PDUs). Its a UPSs providing a total of 300 kVA or more, providing 12 minutes of runtime
three-phase environment for the main UPS only half the data center would be impacted (TL1602E28211100) E aton g ave o ur
and single-phase UPSs within the racks.
The switchboard, fed by the UPS, is feeding
in a UPS or mains failure.
With regard to service, the IT manager
3 54 monitored ePDU units with L6-30P
input, (24) C13s and (4) C19s
data c enter
two 150 kVA PDUs; the PDUs are feeding
six rows of racks via cabling under the
defers to the facility manager, who prefers
complete factory support. With the systems
(PW105MIOU096) n ew l ife. W hat
12-foot raised floor. Each rack has metered
ePDU units for in-rack power distribution,
backing up their critical data center, they a bout m e?
want to ensure each UPS is under a service 4 Startup and one year of on-site service
which are being fed from the PDU contract with ongoing preventive
distribution breakers and receptacle junction included with all 9390 units.
boxes under the floor. With metered ePDUs 5 Recommended PowerTrust service plan:
in each rack, this is a nice power distribution
Parts and labor for electronics
scheme. The ePDUs are being fed through Eaton's complete solution:
receptacle boxes under the floor with 24x7 onsite corrective maintenance
L6-30P input plugs for each rack. The IT Customer equipment
8-hour field technician response time
manager also says he has a mixture of C13 1 480 Vac three-phase service
and C19 outputs on each ePDU. with dual-mains 8x5 preventive maintenance
(1 per year)
One or more UPSs will replace the existing 2 Switchboard
300 kVA system and be installed in the Battery preventive maintenance
3 Pair of 150 kVA PDUs (1 per year)
dedicated facility or power room behind the
wall. In total, the facility has 54 racks of IT 4 54 racks of IT equipment eNotify Remote Monitoring service
equipment (~1500 square feet) with a total (~1500 square feet)
load of 214 kW, or 4 kW per rack. Discounted spare parts and
5 Backup generator upgrade kits

5 Intelligent Power Software Suite UPS

software (free with UPS) for
comprehensive monitoring and
shutdown capabilities
6 Future LAN drop to UPS for
communications and PowerXpert for
advanced monitoring and management

40 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook




EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 41

Commonly used acronyms
UPS and electrical acronyms
A Ampere HVAC Heating, Ventilating and PDU Power Distribution Unit Vac Volts Alternating Current
Air Conditioning
AC Alternating Current PE Protective Earth (also Physical Vdc Volts Direct Current
HW Hardwired Education)
AFCI Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter VRLA Valve Regulated Lead Acid
Hz Hertz PF Power Factor W Watt
AH Ampere Hour
IEC International Electrotechnical PFC Power Factor Correction
ANSI American National Standards
Eaton acronyms
Commission (IEC)
Institute PoE Power over Ethernet
IEEE Institute of Electrical And
ASCII American Standard Code for PPDM PowerPass Distribution
Electronics Engineers
Information Interchange Module ABM Advanced Battery
IGBT Insulated Gate Bi-polar Management
AVR Automatic Voltage Regulation PPE Personal Protective
Equipment AFC American Football Conference
BBM Break-Before-Make (Bypass
ISO International Standards
Switch) PUE Power Usage Effectiveness AM Advanced Monitored (ePDU)
BDM Bypass Distribution Module REPO Remote Emergency Power ARG Amphibious Ready Group
ITIC Information Technology
BTU British Thermal Unit Industry Council BA Basic (ePDU)
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
CRAC Computer Room Air kAIC Kiloampere Interrupting CSE Customer Service Engineer
Conditioning Capacity RM Rackmount (also Rectifier
EOSL End of Service Life
CRAH Computer Room Air Handler kVA Kilovolt ampere
EMS Energy Management System
RMS Root Mean Square
CSA Canadian Standards LAN Local Area Network
ESS Energy Saver System
Association RoHS Restriction of Hazardous
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
Substances ME Metered (ePDU)
DC Direct Current
LED Light-Emitting Diode
SCR Silicon-Controlled Rectifier MI Ethernet Monitored (ePDU)
DCIE Data Center Infrastructure
LV Low Voltage
Efficiency SLA Service Level Agreement NFC National Football Conference
MBB Make-Before-Break (bypass
EBC Extended Battery Cabinet SNMP Simple Network Management PDR Power Distribution Rack
EBM Extended Battery Module RMA Return Material Authorization
MIB Management Information
SPD Surge Protection Device
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility Base RPM Rack Power Module
THD Total Harmonic Distortion
EMF Electromagnetic Force MOV Metal Oxide Varistor ROO Remote On/Off
TVSS Transient Voltage Surge
EMI Electromagnetic Interference MTBF Mean Time Between Failure RPO Remote Power Off
FCC Federal Communications MTTR Mean Time To Repair RPP Remote Power Panel
UL Underwriters Laboratory
NEC National Electrical Code SEAL Sea Air Land
UPS Uninterruptible Power System
GFCI Ground-Fault Circuit
NEMA National Electrical (or Supply) SW Switched (ePDU)
Manufacturers Association
USB Universal Serial Bus T&M Time and Material
GND Ground
NIC Network Interface Card
V Volt VMMS Variable Module Management
HV High Voltage
PDM Power Distribution Module System
VA Volt Ampere

42 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Other acronyms
CI Converged Infrastructure LEED Leadership in Energy and SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
Environmental Design
CPU Central Processing Unit TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/
MSP Managed Service Platform Internet Protocol
DCIM Data Center Infrastructure
Management MTDC Multi-Tenant Data Center TDM Time-division Multiplexing
DISA Defense Information Systems M2MI Machine-to-Machine Interface UC Unified Communications
NAS Network Attached Storage URL Uniform Resource Locator
DNS Domain Name System
NIC Network Interface Card VDI Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
DR Disaster Recovery
NOC Network Operations Center VGA Video Graphics Array
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
PABX Private Automatic Branch VLAN Virtual LAN
DVV or Data, Voice, Video Exchange
PaaS Platform as a Service
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol W e've a dded
E911 Enhanced 911
PBX Private Branch Exchange
VM Virtual Machine
s ome s izzle h ere!
VPN Virtual Private Network
ELT Emergency Locator
PC Personal Computer
Transmitter WAN Wide Area Network
PHI Personal Health Information
EMEA Europe, Middle East, Africa
PICNIC Problem in chair not in
FMC Fixed/Mobile Convergence
FTP File Transfer Protocol
PMDC Portable Modular Data Center
GUI Graphical User Interface
POTS Plain Old Telephone System
HDD Hard Disk Drive
PSAP Public Safety Answering Point
HPC High-Performance Computer
PSTN Public Switched Telephone
HTML HyperText Markup Language Network
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol P2V Physical to Virtual
MDF Main Distribution Frame RAM Random Access Memory
NNM Network Node Manager SasS Software as a Solution
IaaS Infrastructure as a Service SAN Storage Area Network
IDF Intermediate Distribution SATA Serial Advanced Technology
Frame Attachment
IP Internet Protocol SOA Service-Oriented Architecture
ISP Internet Service Provider SQL Structured Query Language
KVM Keyboard, Video, Mouse SSL Secure Socket Layer

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 43

Glossary of power terms
In the following glossary, weve Audible Noise Charger Converter
attempted to capture the common terms A measure of the noise emanating from a (1) An electronic component in a UPS that A device that delivers DC power when
related to UPS and power distribution device at audible frequencies. provides regulated DC voltage to recharge energized by a DC source. Its also a
products. If you look closely, you might batteries. (2) An inferior mascot for an section of a switching power supply that
Backup Time
see us trying to have a little fun! inferior team in the AFC West. performs the actual power conversion and
The amount of time the battery in a UPS
final rectification.
is designed to support the load. Cloud Computing
(1) Internet- (cloud-) based development Crest Factor
Balanced Load
and use of computer technology. This Usually refers to current. Its the
Advanced Battery Management (1) AC power system using more than
new supplement, consumption and mathematical relationship between RMS
A three-stage charging technique that two wires, where the current and voltage
delivery model for IT services typically and peak current. A normal resistive load
automatically tests battery health. are of equal value in each energized
involves the provision of dynamically will have a crest factor of 1.4142, which is
Provides advance notification when conductor. (2) Laundry with equal parts of
scalable, and often virtualized, resources the normal relationship between peak and
preventive maintenance is needed, light and dark clothes.
as a service over the Internet. (2) Work RMS current. A typical PC will have a
allowing ample time to hot-swap batteries Battery String done while traveling on a plane. crest factor of 3. Unrelated to toothpaste.
without ever having to shut down A group of batteries connected together
connected equipment significantly Common Mode Noise Critical Equipment
in a series.
extending the life of your UPS's battery An undesirable voltage that appears Equipment such as computers,
(and, quite possibly, your contract). Blackout between the power conductors and communications systems or electronic
A zero-voltage condition lasting for more ground. process controls, which must be
Alternating Current (AC) than two cycles. Also known as a power continuously available.
An electric current that reverses its Commercial Power
outage or failure.
direction at regularly recurring intervals, The power supplied by local utility Delta Connection
as opposed to direct current, which is British Thermal Unit (BTU) companies which can vary drastically in A circuit formed by connecting three
constant. Usually in a sine wave pattern, Used to measure heat dissipation and is quality throughout the U.S. depending on electrical devices in series to form a
for optimal transmission of energy. the amount of energy required to raise location, weather and other factors. closed loop; most often used in three-
one pound of water one degree phase connections. If you fly Delta
Ampere (A or Amp) Communication Bay
Fahrenheit. One pound of water at 32F Airlines, this most likely takes place in
The unit of measure for the rate of flow Also known as an option slot, a UPS
requires the transfer of 144 BTUs to Atlanta, Salt Lake City or Cincinnati.
of electricity, analogous to gallons per feature that enables the addition of various
freeze into solid ice.
minute. VA x 0.7 (power factor) = watts connectivity cards for Web, SNMP, Derating
Brown Field Modbus or serial connectivity interface A reduction of some operating
Apparent Power An existing data centeroften with capabilities. parameters to compensate for a change
Applied voltage multiplied by current in an limited possibilities for sustainable and in one or more other parameters. In
AC circuit which doesnt take the power energy-efficient designs. power systems, the output power rating
factor into account. Unit is volt amperes is generally reduced at elevated
(VA). Brownout temperatures.
A steady state of low voltage, but not
Arc zero voltage. Brownouts often occur Direct Current (DC)
Sparking that results when undesirable during summer months when energy use An electric current in which the flow of
current flows between two points of is high. electrons is in one direction, such as
differing potential due to leakage through supplied by a battery.
the intermediate insulation or a leakage Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
path due to contamination. In astronomy, An independent Canadian organization DC Distribution (DCD)
an arc is the part of a circle representing that tests for public safety, similar to the A module in a DC power system that
the apparent course of a heavenly body. function of Underwriters Laboratories distributes DC power to the loads. It also
(UL) in the U.S. As far as we know, it Eaton 9130 equipped with a communication bay. provides protection for the load cables.
doesnt set the rules for hockey.
An electronic component that can store
an electrical charge on conductive plates.

44 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

DC Power System ePDU High Efficiency Mode Kilovolt Ampere (kVA)
An AC to DC power supply with A power distribution unit that mounts to A mode of UPS operation that cuts A common measurement of equipment
integrated control and monitoring, and rack enclosures and distributes power to energy usage and operating costs. capacity equaling 1000 volt-amperes. An
standby batteries designed to supply connected devices via a wide variety of approximation of available power in an AC
High Voltage (HV)
no-break DC power (usually 24V or 48V) output receptacles. system that does not take the power
In the context of UPS products, high
to telecommunications and IT network factor into account.
Federal Communications Commission voltage is anything 200V: 200V, 208V,
(FCC) 220V, 230V, 240V, 250V, 480V and 600V. Kinetic Energy
Double Conversion A U.S. federal regulating body whose new The energy an object possesses because
High Voltage Spike
A UPS design in which the primary power EMI limitations are affecting the design of its motion.
Rapid voltage peaks up to 6,000 volts.
path consists of a rectifier and inverter. It and production of digital electronics
Line Conditioner
isolates the output power from all input systems and their related subassemblies. Hot Swappable
A device intended to improve the quality
anomalies such as low voltage surges and The ability to change a module without
Flooded Batteries of the power thats delivered to electrical
frequency variations. taking the critical load off the UPS. Also
A form of battery where the plates are load equipment. A line conditioner is
see user replaceable.
Downtime completely immersed in a liquid generally designed to improve power
The time during which a functional unit electrolyte. quality (e.g., proper voltage level, noise
cant be used because of a fault within it suppression, transient impulse protection,
or the environment. etc.).
The number of complete cycles of AC
Dry Contacts voltage that occur during one second Line Interactive
Dry contact refers to a contact of a relay (Hz). In North America, electrical current An offline UPS topology in which the
which does not make or break a current. is supplied mainly at 60 Hz, or 60 cycles system interacts with the utility line to
per second. regulate the power to the load. Provides
Efficiency The batteries on this Eaton 9130 UPS are hot
better protection than a standby system
The ratio of output to input power. Green Field swappable.
but isnt as fully prepared against
Generally measured at full-load and A new data center with many possibilities
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) irregularities as a full double-conversion
nominal line conditions. If the power for sustainable and energy-efficient
A three-terminal power semiconductor system, making it the "Goldilocks" of UPS
efficiency of a device is 90 percent, you designs.
device, noted for high efficiency and fast topologies.
get back 90 watts for every 100 you put
Ground switching. It switches electric power in
in, and the rest is mainly dissipated as Linear Load
A conducting connection, whether many modern appliances such as electric
heat from the filtration process. To think AC electrical loads where the voltage and
intentional or accidental, by which an cars, trains and UPSs.
of it another way, this would be current waveforms are sinusoidal. The
electric circuit or equipment is connected
equivalent to a bartender pouring off Impedance current at any time is proportional to
to the earth, or to some conducting body
about an ounce and a half of your beer The total opposition to alternating current voltage.
of relatively large extent that serves in its
before handing you the remaining 14.5 flow in an electrical circuit.
place. Load
Input Voltage Range The equipment connected to and
Electrical Line Noise The voltage range within which a UPS protected by a UPS. Pretty rockin
Radio frequency interference (RFI), operates in normal mode and doesnt Metallica album.
electromagnetic interference (EMI) and require battery power.
Earth ground symbol Load Segment
other voltage or frequency disturbances.
Inrush Current UPS configuration with separate
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Harmonics The maximum, instantaneous input receptacle groups, enabling scheduled
Electrical interference that can cause A sinusoidal component of an AC voltage current drawn by an electrical device shutdowns and maximum backup power
equipment to work improperly, EMI can thats multiple of the fundamental when first turned on. Some electrical time for critical devices.
be separated into conducted EMI waveform frequency. Certain harmonic devices draw several times their normal
(interference conducted through cables patterns may cause equipment problems full-load current when initially energized.
out of the UPS) and radiated EMI
Harmonic Distortion Inverter
(interference conducted through the air).
Regularly appearing distortion of the sine UPS assembly that converts internal DC
Energy Saver System (ESS) wave which is converted into a complex power to output AC power to run the
Innovative technology from Eaton that waveform at a multiple of the users equipment. When the inverter is
enables select UPS models to operate at fundamental frequency. supporting 100 percent of the load at all
99 percent efficiency without times, as with an online UPS, there is no
Hertz (Hz)
compromising reliabilitynot to be break from utility to battery power.
A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per
confused with inferior eco modes.
This Eaton 9130 UPS is equipped with two load
segments, each with three 5-15R

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 45

Low Voltage (LV) Ohms Law Plenum Cable Rail Kit
In the context of UPS products, low The voltage (E) is equal to the current (I) Cable thats laid in the plenum spaces of A set of metal brackets that allows the
voltage is anything <200V (100V and times the resistance (R). The formula is buildings to facilitate air circulation for installation of a UPS or extended battery
120V). written: E=IR. heating and air conditioning systems. The module in a 2- or 4-post rack.
plenum space is typically used to house
Maintenance Bypass Online
computer and telephone network
An external wiring path to which the load (1) A UPS that provides power to the load
communication cables. Cable that runs
can be transferred to upgrade or perform from its inverter 100 percent of the time,
between floors in non-plenum areas is
service on the UPS without powering regulating BOTH voltage and frequency,
rated as riser cable.
down the load. usually using double-conversion topology.
(2) The most convenient way to shop, Plug and Play
bank, get news, etc. An electrical device that doesnt require Four-post rail kit
Operational sequence of a switch or relay
extensive setup to operate.
where the new connection is made prior Orderly Shutdown
to disconnecting the existing connection, The sequenced shutdown of units Power Factor (PF)
thats also know as soft-load-transfer comprising a computer system to prevent (1) The ratio of real power to apparent
switching. damage to it and subsequent corruption power. Watts divided by VA. Most power
or loss of data. supplies used in communication and
computer equipment have a power factor
A serial communications protocol thats Output Waveform (UPS)
of 0.9.
the most commonly available means of The shape of the graph of alternating
connecting industrial electronic devices. It current on the output side of a UPS. The (PF = 0.9)
allows for communication between many highest quality of an output waveform VA x PF = W
devices connected to the same network. from a UPS is the sine wave, but, some W/PF = VA
UPSs provide step waves or modified
Network Transient Protector (2) Why DeNiro can get immediate
sine waves.
UPS feature that isolates networks, seating in any restaurant he wants, and
modems and cables from power threats, you cant.
UPS in a two-post rack
including surges and spikes.
Power Sag
90 180 270 360

Low voltage (below nominal 120 volts). Rectifier

(1) A disturbance that affects a signal; it A UPS component that converts incoming
Sine Wave Power Surge AC power to DC power for feeding the
can distort the information carried by it.
High voltage (above nominal 120 volts). inverter and charging the battery.
(2) Random variations of one or more Parallel Operation
characteristics of any entity, such as The ability of UPSs to be connected Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Rectifier Magazine (RM)
voltage, current or data. (3) Loosely, any so the current from corresponding
90 180 270 360
A circuit used in switching regulated A module in the DC power system used
disturbance tending to interfere with outputs can be combined into a power supplies where the switching to connect the rectifiers in the power
normal operation of a device. (4) What single load. frequency is held constant and the width system.
parents with children deal with every day. of the power pulse is varied, controlling
Partition Redundancy
both lines and load changes with minimal
Nominal Output Voltage A logical division of a hard disk created The ability to connect units in parallel so if
The intended, ideal voltage of any given to have different operating systems on one fails the other(s) will provide continual
output. the same hard disk or to create the Rackmount power to the load. This mode
appearance of having separate hard Ability to mount an electrical assembly is used in systems when power failure
Non-linear Load
into a standardized rack. Generally cant be tolerated.
AC electrical loads where the current is
drives for file management, multiple stacked up to 42U and 19 inches wide
not proportional to the voltage. Non-linear Relay Communication
users, or other purposes. about the size of a pizza box but not
loads often generate harmonics in the Communication between a UPS and
as greasy.
current waveform that lead to distortion Peak Demand a computer through the opening and
of the voltage waveform. The highest 15- or 30-minute demand Rack Unit (U) closing of solid-state relays that are
recorded during a 12-month period. A unit of height measurement in a rack pre-defined to indicate UPS status.
enclosure. A U is equivalent to 1.75
Any UPS that doesnt fit the definition of Phase Root Mean Square (RMS)
online. Line-interactive and standby The time relationship between current A modified average. Averaging a sine
topologies are offline, as are minor and voltage in AC circuits. wave would give a zero, so to obtain
skirmishes that take place just outside meaningful values, the wave is first
the boardroom. squared (S), then averaged over one
Ohm period (M) and finally the square root
The unit of measurement for electrical taken (R). In a sine wave, the factor
The Eaton 5PX UPS occupies 2U of rack space and
resistance or opposition to current flow. between RMS and peak is the square
the optional extended battery module also
root of two. If you know what that
occupies 2U.
means, youre pretty smart!
46 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
RS-232 Standby Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Uninterruptible Power System (UPS)
(1) The standard for serial interfaces (serial (1) UPS type that "stands by," waiting for (1) How much the circuit voltage deviates (1) An electrical system designed to
refers to the eight bits of each character a power problem from the utility company from a perfect sine wave. When viewed provide instant, transient-free backup
successively sent down one wire) used and rapidly switching to UPS battery on a meter, a poor voltage THD is most power during power failure or fault. Some
by most computers, modems and power to protect equipment against often manifested in a flat-topped UPSs also filter and/or regulate utility
printers. (2) A little known droid in the power failures, sags and surges. (2) The waveform that comes from the inability of power (line conditioning). (2) A Device
Star Wars trilogy. person you call after your hot date falls a power source to respond to the whose sole purpose is to save your
through, and the two of you go out for demands of highly nonlinear loads. (2) The equipment, your data and your job.
Simple Network Management Protocal
milkshakes in your sweatpants instead. parts of a difficult lecture that didn't quite
(SNMP) User Replaceable
make it into your brain, but rather united
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP)-based Static Switch Capable of being replaced by an end user.
in a "blahblahblah" cacophony of scratchy-
network protocol. Its used mostly in An electrical component in a UPS that Connected equipment may need to be
sounding jargon and esoteric corollaries.
network management systems to turns power flow on and off on command shut down first. Also see hot
monitor network-attached devices for without moving or mechanical Transfer Time swappable.
conditions that warrant administrative components. The length of time it takes a UPS to
attention. Variable Module Management System
transfer to battery power. Typically
Step Load (VMMS)
measured in milliseconds (ms).
Sine Wave An instantaneous change in the loading Innovative technology from Eaton that
A mathematical function that plots three conditions presented to the output of Transformer maximizes UPS efficiencies at low load
qualities of an electrical signal over time: a UPS. (1) A magnetic device that converts AC levels while supplying the load with
amplitude, frequency and phase. Clean, voltages to AC voltages at any level. An continuous double-conversion power.
Switching Frequency
uninterrupted power is represented by a ideal transformer is a lossless device in
The rate at which the source voltage Virtualization
sine waves, which can also resemble which no energy is stored that requires
is switched in a switching regulator The creation of a virtual (rather than
ocean waves, though they're rarely no magnetic current. (2) An alien robot
or chopped in a DC-to-DC converter. actual) version of something, such as an
perfect. that can disguise itself by transforming
operating system, server, storage device
Technischer Uberwachungs-Verein (TUV) into everyday machinery.
Single Phase or network resource. Operating system
An independent non-profit organization
(1) Power system with one primary Transient virtualization is the use of software to
that tests and certifies electrical
waveform. Lower-capacity distribution of (1) A temporary and brief change in a allow a piece of hardware to run multiple
equipment for public safety in the U.S.
power using only one portion of a power given parameter, typically associated with operating system images at the same
and worldwide.
source thats three-phase, like what's input voltage or output loading time.
supplied by most electric utilities. Used The Far Side parameters. (2) Transient killer whale pods
for heating and lighting, no large motors Volt/Voltage (V)
The greatest cartoon strip ever. Created are generally comprised of an adult
or other heavy-drain devices. (2) That part Electrical pressure that pushes current
by Gary Larson. female and two or three of her offspring.
of junior high school in which you briefly through a circuit. High voltage in a
Among the differences between residents
but fiercely embrace an unusual hobby or Thermal Regulation computer circuit is represented by 1,
and transients are that while resident
interest, like lawn bowling, never to return Monitoring the temperature of the while low (or zero) voltage is represented
orcas of both sexes stay within shouting
to it. batteries to ensure proper charging. by 0.
distance of their mothers their entire
Three Phase lives, only first-born male transients Volt Amps (VA)
Sliding Demand
(1) Power supplied through at least three maintain such intense fidelity to their (1) The voltage applied to a given piece of
Calculating average demand by averaging
wires, each carrying power from a mothers. equipment, multiplied by the current it
demand over several successive time
intervals, advancing one interval at a time. common generator but offset in its cycle draws. Not to be confused with watts,
Unbalanced Load
from the other two. Used for heavy-duty which are similar but represent the actual
(1) An AC power system using more than
Split-phase UPS applications. (2) The universal healing power drawn by the equipment, and can
two wires, where the current is not equal
A UPS with two output phases process after buying inferior power be somewhat lower than the VA rating.
due to an uneven loading of the phases.
referenced to a neutral connection with a protection: (2) Legendary Brigadier General from
(2) A load that makes your washing
specific phase displacement between Planet Zap.
1. Denial machine go, whump, whump, whump.
phases, which allows flexibility in load
configuration while maintaining the 2. Anger Watts (W)
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
availability of bypass. A split-phase UPS 3. Calling Eaton The measure of real power. Its the rate of
An independent non-profit organization
can provide 120V and 208V on the output doing electrical work. W x 1.3 = VA.
Topology (UPS) that tests for public safety in the U.S. UL
simultaneously without the use of an The core technology of a UPS. Typically, a recognition is required for equipment Wye Connection
external transformer. The capabilities for UPS is either standby, line interactive or used in some applications. A connection of three components made
output are: online though other hybrid technologies in such a manner that one end of each
Phase to neutral 100, 110, 120 or have been introduced. component is connected. Its generally
127 Vac used to connect devices to a three-phase
power system.
Phase to phase 200, 208, 220, 230, 240

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 47

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