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SEA/BOB ADS-B WG/8 - SP/1

ADS-B Introduction

Greg Dunstone
Surveillance Program Lead, Airservices Australia
SURVEILLANCE
Basics
Primary and
Secondary radar
Why do we need Surveillance?
Why surveillance?
Improved safety
Reduced separation between aircraft
Automated safety alerts for ATC
Situational awareness for ATC
Improved Search & Rescue
Less transactional work for ATC/Pilots

Improved efficiency for users


Reduced & more flexible separation standards
More clearances to requested route/level
Reduced stepped climb/descent
Increased flexibility in poor weather
Less delay
Lower pilot & ATC workload
Reduced fuel burn & operating time
Reduced environmental impact
Surveillance benefit limited without
Voice communication

Local VHF
Remote VHF
To support a radar site?
A site
Power
Communications links
Reliability
Typically everything
duplicated
Accuracy
Remote Monitoring &
control
ADS-B

AUTOMATIC
DEPENDENT
SURVEILLANCE
- BROADCAST
ADS-B - What is it ?

Aircraft determines
position using GPS

Broadcasts position,
identity, altitude and
velocity (ADS-B out)

Ground stations receive


broadcasts and relay
information to ATC

Other aircraft receive


broadcasts & display to
pilot (ADS-B in)
ADS-B ground stations
are simple and economical

RADAR
ADS-B ~ $1M - $4M USD
~ $100K-$400K USD

Cost Comparison

Maintenance
Power
Site space
Building
Road
Environmental
Rotating machinery
Can be installed @ Existing
VHF/Navaid site

ADS-B antennas
At a NDB/VHF site
Power, Lease,
Communications
elements exist
ADS-B Ground
Station
Equipment

Installed

Duplicated

With Site
monitors
TESTING
BRISBANE: TERMINAL
Radar compared to ADS-B
AREA RADAR TOWER

ADS-B ANTENNA
Radar & ADS-B
Noise distribution
VH-QPC System Tracks : ADS-B Position Noise vs Radar Position Noise

60

ADS-B
50

ADS-B Position Noise


Radar Position Noise
40
Number of Reports

Samples:
240 ADS-B system track reports
30
240 Multi radar system track reports
Same aircraft RADAR
Same 20 min time interval
Error tails
20

10

0
-1.1 -1 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1
Dist in nautical miles from Smoothed Track
Burnett Basin Trial
Experience in 2002

Coverage good
Accuracy good
High update rate
High fidelity velocity vector
Includes Flight ID
We know ADS-B provides
lower cost surveillance

plus provides base


for ADS-B IN
+10

-20 -01
+10 01
+30

-07
+09
+09
AFR6512
AFR6512
323
323 M M

+21
Implementation of ADS-B IN - Avionics Europe March 2012

Participation in flight trials


They have already selected ATSAW

Page 17
How does it work ?
(Relationship to Mode S)
SSR background

AIRCRAFT 1030Mhz Interrogations 3 pulses (P1,P2,P3)


ModeA, C interrogations
1030 Receiver

ModeA, C replies
1090Mhz reply messages 12 pulses
1090 Transmitter
(no error detection)
MODE S background

ModeA, C interrogations
1030Mhz register requests (phase
1030 Receiver encoded messages)

ModeA, C replies
1090 Transmitter 1090Mhz reply messages
(pulse position modulated
with error detection)

Readout :
Registers
TCAS background

1030Mhz Interrogations 3 pulses

1030Mhz register requests (phase


1030 Receiver encoded messages)
Transmit DF11
1090Mhz reply pulses

1090 Transmitter 1090Mhz reply messages


(pulse position modulated
with error detection)
Receive ModeC replies
Receive DF11 TCAS LOGIC
Receive DF0 1090 Receiver & Display

1030 Transmitter
Mode C interrogate
Mode S interrogate (UF0)
Enhanced & Elementary
Surveillance
DATA to FILL the REGISTERS
1030Mhz Interrogations 3 pulses
Callsign panel 1030Mhz register requests (phase
1030 Receiver encoded messages)

1090Mhz reply pulses


GPS Receiver
1090 Transmitter 1090Mhz reply messages
(pulse position modulated
FMS with error detection)

Air Data Readout :


Computer Callsign
Bank angle
Selected level
Airspeed
Heading
Speed
450

400

350

300

250
Ra da r_GroundSpeed
Ground_Speed
TruAirspeed
Indi catedAIrspeed
200

150

100

50

0
31:12.0 45:36.0 00:00.0 14:24.0 28:48.0 43:12.0 57:36.0 12:00.0
ADS-B background

GPS Receiver 1030Mhz Interrogations 3 pulses

1030Mhz register requests (phase


1030 Receiver encoded messages)
TRANSMIT 1090Mhz reply pulses
DF17/18 ADS-B
1090 Transmitter 1090Mhz reply messages
(pulse position modulated
with error detection)

TCAS LOGIC
1090 Receiver & Display
Receive
DF17,DF18
ADS-B
& display 1030 Transmitter
Mode C interrogate
other aircraft & Mode S encounter
ADS-B simplified

GPS Receiver

ADS-B DF17/18
1090 Transmitter

OPTIONAL

1090 Receiver Display


Receiver ADS-B
Mode S Transponder & ADS-B

TCAS
24 bit code DF11 acquisition squit
(TCAS : Here I am)
24 bit AIRCRAFT
CONTROL PARITY
ADDRESS

ADS-B
POSITION, ALTITUDE, IDENTITY(CALLSIGN),
VELOCITY VECTOR, VERTICAL RATE
24 bit AIRCRAFT ADS-B MESSAGE
CONTROL PARITY
ADDRESS 56 Bits
MODE S EXTENDED SQUITTER

SHORT CONTRO MODE S ADDRESS PARITY


SQUITTER 56 BITS
L (24) (24)
(8)
LONG CONTROL MODE S ADDRESS ADS-B MESSAGE
PARITY 112 BITS
SQUITTER (8) (24) (56 BITS)

SQUITTER TYPE BROADCAST


INTERVALS
Type Status/Ant Altitude T CPR Lat Long
AIRBORNE (12) (1 (1) 0.5s
(5) (2+1) (34)
POSITION )

Type Sub-type Inten IFR NU Horizontal Velocity Vertical Velocity Turn Diff
AIRBORNE t (1) C (11) (2) 0.5s
(5) (3) (22) Baro
VELOCITY (1) (3) Alt(8)

Type Movement Statu Heading T CP Lat Long


SURFACE POSITION (1 R (34) 0.5s or 5s*
(5) (7) s (7)
(1) ) (1)

Type A/C type 8 Character Aircraft Callsign 5s or 10s*


AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICN (5) (3) (48 bits)
(* if stationary)
Type Sub-type Event Data
EVENT DRIVEN (5) (3) (48 bits) As required
What avionics are needed?

AIRCRAFT ID : CALLSIGN
3 major
Airframe dependent
elements
- GPS May have some elements
- Transponder already
Software upgrade?
- Callsign entry
Transponder
ADS-B and Radar

Multiple solutions
POSITION & Multiple vendors
INTEGRITY Different prices
GPS/ MMR

ATC TRANSPONDER
SA Aware not required for aircraft
manufactured before Dec 2012 ALTITUDE
HPL / HFOM (Position Quality)

HFOM : Accuracy measure assuming that all satellites are operating correctly

HPL : Integrity measure.


Positional data within this limit with high degree of certainty.

Even if a satellite gives false range data.

Based on GPS receiver ability to detect satellite false range data given
- Satellite geometry
- RAIM algorithm capability
- Assumption SA on/off
- WAAS signal received (not applicable in Australia)
Position & Integrity data
POSITION
+
HPL / HIL(ARINC LABEL 130)
POSITION +
GPS
ADS-B
TRANSMITTER
POSITION +
ADS-B FOM (derived from HPL)
Calculate GROUND
(TRANSPONDER)
NUC or STATION
HPL
NIC ASTERIX FORMAT
(derived MESSAGE
AIRCRAFT
from HPL)

ATC
SYSTEM

HPL, FOM, NUC and NIC are


just ways to encode integrity
Standards
Standards Exist

Standards for Global


interoperability

DO303 NRA
DO318 RAD

Led to AMC20-24
certification

Eg: RTCA DO303


ADS-B in Non-Radar Airspace NRA
Standards for Mode S
USA EUROPE
ICAO Signals in Space
Annex 10 SARPS Amend 77

Service Service
NRA : RTCA DO303 NRA : ED126
RAD : RTCA DO318 RAD : ED161

AVIONICS & TEST STANDARDS AVIONICS & TEST STANDARDS


RTCA EUROCAE
- ADS-B MOPS 1090 DO260 - ED102
- DO260A - ED102A
- DO260B

FORM/FIT STANDARDS FORM/FIT STANDARDS


AEEC EUROCAE
- ARINC 718A - ED86
REGULATOR REGULATOR
FAA -TSO C166B EASA - AMC20-24
- NPA 2012-19 / CS-ACNS (DO260B)
ICAO has
published
ADS-B
Procedures

Separation
Standard
Guidance in
Circular 326
Questions