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Sheet (1)

Size reduction

1- A material is crushed in a Blake jaw crusher such that the average size of particle
is reduced from 50 mm to 10 mm with the consumption of energy of 13.0
kW/(kg/s). What would be the consumption of energy needed to crush the same
material of average size 75 mm to an average size of 25 mm:
a) Assuming Rittingers law applies?
b) Assuming Kicks law applies?

2- What is the power required to crush 100 ton/h of limestone , if 80 % of feed


passes through a 2-in screen and 80% of product passes through a in screen?
Knowing that the work index for limestone is 12.74 .

3- If crushing rolls, 1 m in diameter, are set so that the crushing surfaces are 12.5
mm apart and the angle of nip is 31, what is the maximum size of particle which
should be fed to the rolls?
If the actual capacity of the machine is 12 per cent of the theoretical, calculate the
throughput in kg/s when running at 2.0 m/s if the working face of the rolls is 0.4
m long and the bulk density of the feed is 2500kg/m3.

4- A ball mill , 1.2 m in diameter , is running at 0.8 Hz and it is found that the mill is
not working properly .Should any modification in the condition of operation
suggested ?
Answer of sheet(1)
1-

2-
=100 ton/h Wi=12.74

Dpa=2*25.4=50.8 mm Dpb=0.125*25.4=3.175 mm

The power required is

P= 100*0.3162*12.74*

=169.6 kW

3- The particle size may be obtained from:


cos = (r1 + b)/(r1 + r2)
In this case: 2 = 31 cos = 0.964,
b = (12.5/2) = 6.25 mm or 0.00625 m
and:
r1 = (1.0/2) = 0.5 m
Thus:
0.964 = (0.5 + 0.00625)/(0.5 + r2)
and: r2 = 0.025 m or 25 mm

The cross sectional area for flow = (0.0125 0.4) = 0.005 m2


and the volumetric flow rate = (2.0 0.005) = 0.010 m3/s.
Thus, the actual throughput = (0.010 12)/100 = 0.0012 m3/s
or: (0.0012 2500) = 3.0 kg/s

4- Nc = 42.29 / d.5= 42.29/ = 38.62 rpm

the actual speed = 0.8*60=48 rpm

It may be concluded that the speed of rotation is too high that the balls are
being carried round in contact with the sides of mill

The optimum speed lies in range of (50 %-75%) say 60%

Optimum speed = 0.6* Nc=0.6*38.62 = 23.172 rpm

OR
Sheet (2) Drying

1- A wet solid is dried from 35 % to 10 % moisture under constant


drying conditions in 18 ks (5 h). If the equilibrium moisture
content is 4 per cent and the critical moisture content is 14 %, how
long will it take to dry to 6 % moisture under the same conditions?

2- Strips of a material 10 mm thick are dried under constant drying


conditions from 28 per cent to 13 per cent moisture in 25 ks. If the
equilibrium moisture content is 7 per cent, what is the time taken to dry
60 mm planks from 22 to 10 per cent moisture under the same
conditions, assuming no loss from the edges? All moisture contents are
expressed on the wet basis. The relation between E, the ratio of the
average free moisture content at time t to the initial free moisture
content, and the parameter J is given by:
E 1 0.64 0.49 0.38 0.295 0.22 0.14
J 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7

where J = kt/l2, k is a constant, t is the time in ks and 2l is the


thickness of the sheet of material in mm.

3- A 100 kg batch of granular solids containing 30 per cent of moisture is


to be dried in a tray dryer to 15.5 per cent moisture by passing a
current of air at 350 K tangentially across its surface at the velocity of
1.8 m/s. If the constant rate of drying under these conditions is 0.7
g/s m2 and the critical moisture content is 15 per cent, calculate the
approximate drying time. It may be assumed that the drying surface is
0.03 m2/kg dry mass.

4- 1 Mg of dry mass of a non-porous solid is dried under constant drying


conditions in an air stream flowing at 0.75 m/s. The area of surface
drying is 55 m2. If the initial rate of drying is 0.3 g/m2s, how long will
it take to dry the material from 0.15 to 0.025 kg water/kg dry solid?
Assume The critical moisture content of the material = 0.125

5- granular material containing 40 per cent moisture is fed to a


countercurrent rotary dryer at 295 K and is withdrawn at 305 K
containing 5 per cent moisture. The air supplied, which contains 0.006
kg water vapor/kg of dry air, enters at 385 K and leaves at 310 K. The
dryer handles 0.125 kg/s wet stock. Assuming that radiation losses
amount to 20 kJ/kg of dry air used, determine the mass flow of dry air
supplied to the dryer and the humidity of the outlet air. The latent heat
of water vapor at 295 K = 2449 kJ/kg, the specific heat capacity of dried
material = 0.88 kJ/kg K, the specific heat capacity of dry air = 1.00
kJ/kg K, and the specific heat capacity of water vapor = 2.01 kJ/kg K.
answer of Sheet (2) Drying

1-
For the first drying operation:
f1=w1-we=0.35-0.04=0.31
fc=wc-we=0.14-0.04=0.1
f=w-we=0.16-0.04=0.06

t =

18 =

= 6.8944

For the second drying operation:

f1=w1-we=0.35-0.04=0.31
fc=wc-we=0.14-0.04=0.1
f=w-we=0.06-0.04=0.02

t =

t= = 25.5744 ks

2-

For the 10 mm strips:

Initial free moisture content = (0.28 0.07) = 0.21 kg/kg.


Final free moisture content = (0.13 0.07) = 0.06 kg/kg.

Thus:
t = 25 ks, E= (0.06/0.21) = 0.286
plot E versus J from the given table :

and from the figure

J = 0.52
0.52 = (k 25)/(10/2)2

k = 0.52 = constant

For the 60 mm planks:

Initial free moisture content = (0.22 0.07) = 0.15 kg/kg.


Final free moisture content = (0.10 0.07) = 0.03 kg/kg.

E = (0.03/0.15) = 0.20
From the figure
J = 0.63

t = J * l 2/k
= 0.63(60/2)2 / 0.52
= 1090 ks (12.6 days)
3-

mass = 100 kg of granular solids

mass of water = 100*0.3=30 kg


mass of dry solids = 100-30 = 70 kg

water dry total


Initial 30 70 100
Final X 70 (70+x)

For the dried solids :

the water in the product x = 12.8 kg


Thus:
initial moisture content, w1 = (30/70) = 0.429 kg/kg dry solids
final moisture content, w2 = (12.8/70) = 0.183 kg/kg dry solids
and water to be removed = (30 12.8) = 17.2 kg
The surface area available for drying = (0.03 70) = 2.1 m2

the rate of drying during the constant period = (0.0007 2.1)


= 0.00147 kg/s.
As the final moisture content is above the critical value, all the drying is
at this constant rate
and the time of drying is:
t = (17.2/0.00147) = 11,700 s or 11.7 ks (3.25 h)

4-
(taking we as zero because this is non-porous solid)

f = (0.025 0) = 0.025 kg/kg


fc = (0.125 0) = 0.125 kg/kg
f1 = (0.15 0) = 0.150 kg/kg

During the constant rate period, the rate of drying is:


(dw/dt)/A = (0.3/1000) = 0.0003 kg/m2s
At the start of the falling rate period,
(dw/dt)/A =m(wc we) = m fc
Or: 0.0003 = m *0.125
and:
m = 2.4*10-3 kg/m2s -------- kg dry solid
6
= (2.4*10 )/1000 =2.4 10 kg/m 2s
-3

----------------- Mg dry solid

t =

= 13,707 s = 13.707 ks

5-

This example involves a heat balance over the system. 273 K


will be chosen as the datum temperature,
and it will be assumed that the flowrate of dry air = G kg/s.
Heat in:
(a) Air
G kg/s dry air enter with 0.006G kg/s water vapor and hence the
heat content of this stream
= [(1.00G) + (0.006 G 2.01)](385 273) = 113.35 G kW
(b) Wet solid
0.125 kg/s enter containing 0.40 kg water/kg wet solid,
assuming the moisture is expressed on
a wet basis.

mass flowrate of water = (0.125 0.40) = 0.050 kg/s


mass flowrate of dry solid = (0.125 0.050) = 0.075 kg/s
Hence:
the heat content of this stream = [(0.050 4.18) + (0.075
0.88)](295 273) = 6.05 kW
Heat out:
(a) Air
Heat in exit air = [(1.00 G) + (0.006 G 2.01)](310 273) =
37.45 G kW.
Mass flowrate of dry solids = 0.075 kg/s containing 0.05 kg
water/kg wet solids.
Hence:
water in the dried solids leaving = (0.05 0.075)/(1 + 0.05) =
0.0036 kg/s
and:
the water evaporated into gas steam = (0.050 0.0036) = 0.0464
kg/s.
Assuming evaporation takes place at 295 K, then:
heat in the water vapor = 0.0464[2.01(310 295) + 2449 +
4.18(295 273)]
= 119.3 kW

the total heat in this stream = (119.30 + 37.45G) kW.


(b) Dried solids
The dried solids contain 0.0036 kg/s water and hence heat
content of this stream is:
= [(0.075 0.88) + (0.0036 4.18)/(305 273)] = 2.59 kW
(c) Losses
These amount to 20 kJ/kg dry air or 20G kW.
Heat balance
(113.35 G + 6.05) = (119.30 + 37.45 G + 2.59 + 20 G)
G = 2.07 kg/s
Water in the outlet air stream = (0.006 2.07) + 0.0464 =
0.0588 kg/s

the humidity H = (0.0588/2.07) = 0.0284 kg/kg dry air.


sheet (3) crystallization
1- At 293 K, a supersaturated solution of sucrose contains 2.45 kg sucrose/kg
water. If the equilibrium saturation value is 2.04 kg/kg water, what is the
supersaturation ratio in terms of kg/kg water and kg/kg solution?

2- A saturated solution containing 1500 kg of potassium chloride at 360 K is


cooled in an open tank to 290 K. If the density of the solution is 1200 kg/m3, the
solubility of potassium chloride/100 parts of water by mass is 53.55 at 360 K and
34.5 at 290 K
calculate:
(a) the capacity of the tank required, and
(b) the mass of crystals obtained, neglecting any loss of water by evaporation.

3- What is the theoretical yield of crystals which may be obtained by cooling a


solution containing 1000 kg of sodium sulphate (molecular mass = 142 kg/kmol) in
5000 kg water to 283 K? The solubility of sodium sulphate at 283 K is 9 kg
anhydrous salt/100 kg water and the deposited crystals will consist of the deca-
hydrate (molecular mass = 322 kg/kmol). It may be assumed that 2 per cent of the
water will be lost by evaporation during cooling.

4- 10 Mg of a solution containing 0.3 kg Na2CO3/kg solution is cooled slowly to


293 K to form crystals of Na2CO3.10H2O. What is the yield of crystals if the
solubility of Na2CO3 at 293 K is 21.5 kg/100 kg water and during cooling 3 per
cent of the original solution is lost by evaporation?
Answer of sheet (3) crystallization

1-
For concentrations in kg sucrose/kg water:

c = 2.45 kg/kg, c = 2.04 kg/kg


and : S = c/c = (2.45/2.04) = 1.20
For concentrations in kg sucrose/kg solution:

c = 2.45/(2.45 + 1.0) = 0.710 kg/kg solution,


c = 2.04/(2.04 + 1.0) = 0.671 kg/kg solution

and: S = (0.710/0.671) = 1.06

2-
a- At 360 K,
1500 kg KCl will be dissolved in (1500 100)/53.55 = 2801 kg water.

The total mass of the solution = (1500 + 2801) = 4301 kg.


The density of the solution = (1.2 1000) = 1200 kg/m3

the capacity of the tank = (4301/1200) = 3.58 m3.

b- At 290 K,
the mass of KCl dissolved in 2801 kg water = (2801 34.5)/100 = 966 kg

mass of crystals which has come out of solution = (1500 966)


= 534 kg

3-
The ratio, R =( molecular mass of hydrate/molecular mass of
anhydrous salt )
= (322/142) = 2.27
The initial concentration, c1 = (1000/5000) = 0.2 kg Na2SO4/kg water
The final concentration, c2 = (9/100) = 0.09 kg Na2SO4/kg water
The initial mass of water, w1 = 5000 kg
and the water lost by evaporation, E = (2/100) = 0.02 kg/kg
y= 5000*2.27* = 1432 kg Na2SO4.10H2O

4-
The initial concentration of the solution = 0.3 kg/kg solution
or: c1 = 0.3/(1 0.3) = 0.428 kg/kg water.
The final concentration of the solution, c2 = (21.5/100) = 0.215
kg/kg water.
The feed of 10 Mg of solution contains (10 0.3) = 3 Mg of
anhydrous salt
And (10 3) = 7 Mg of water.
Thus:

the initial mass of solvent in the liquid, w1 = (7 1000) = 7000 kg.


3 per cent of the original solution or

E = 0.03 kg/kg solution.


The molecular mass of Na2CO3 = 106 kg/kmol
and the molecular mass of Na2CO3.10H2O = 286.2 kg/kmol

R = (286.2/106) = 2.7

and by substituting, the yield is:

= 6536 kg .
Sheet (4)-filtration
1- A slurry containing 100 kg of whiting, of density 3000 kg/m3, per
m3 of water, and, is filtered in a plate and frame press, which takes
900 s to dismantle, clean, and re-assemble. If the cake is
incompressible and has a voidage of 0.4, what is the optimum
thickness of cake for a filtration pressure (P) of 1000kN/m2?
The density of the whiting is 3000 kg/m3. The resistance of the
filter medium may be neglected and the viscosity of water is 1
mNs/m2. In an experiment, a pressure difference of 165 kN/m2
produced a flow of water of 0.02 cm3/s through a centimeter cube
of filter cake.

2- A rotary filter, operating at 0.03 Hz, filters at the rate of 0.0075


m3/s. Operating under the same vacuum and neglecting the
resistance of the filter cloth, at what speed must the filter be
operated to give a filtration rate of 0.0160 m3/s?

3- A slurry, containing 0.2 kg of solid per kilogram of water, is fed to


a rotary drum filter 0.6 m long and 0.6 m diameter. The drum
rotates at one revolution in 360 s and 20 per cent of the filtering
surface is in contact with the slurry at any instant. If filtrate is
produced at the rate of 0.125 kg/s and the cake has a voidage of
0.5, what thickness of cake is produced when filtering with a
pressure difference of 65 kN/m2? The density of the solids is 3000
kg/m3. The rotary filter breaks down and the operation has to be
carried out temporarily in a plate and frame press with frames 0.3
m square. The press takes 120 s to dismantle and 120 s to
reassemble and, in addition, 120 s is required to remove the cake
from each frame. If filtration is to be carried out at the same overall
rate as before, with an operating pressure difference of 175 kN/m2,
what is the minimum number of frames that needs to be used and
what is the thickness of each? It may be assumed that the cakes are
incompressible and that the resistance of the filter medium may be
neglected.
Answer of Sheet (4)-filtration

1-
The basic filtration equation may be written as:

where r is defined as the specific resistance of the cake.


The slurry contains 100 kg whiting/m3 of water.
Volume of 100 kg whiting = (100/3000) = 0.0333 m3.
Volume of cake = 0.0333/(1 0.4) = 0.0556 m3.
Volume of liquid in cake = (0.0556 0.4) = 0.0222 m3.
Volume of filtrate = (1 0.0222) = 0.978 m3.
Thus: volume of cake/volume of filtrate = v = 0.0569

In experiment

A = 104 m2 ( P) = 1.65 105 N/m2, l= 0.01 m,


8 3 3 2
= 2 10 m /s, = 10 Ns/m

In equation (1)

r = 8.25 1013

At constant pressure :

If v is the volume of cake deposited by unit volume of filtrate then:


= 1.380 106 tf

the optimum cake thickness occurs when the filtration time is equal to the downtime

t=900 s

Lopt = 1.61*10-3 *30= 34.8 103 m = 34.8 or 35 mm

l = half frame thickness

the frame thickness = 70 mm

2-
For constant pressure filtration in a rotary filter:

or: V 2 t 1/N
where N is the speed of rotation.
As V 1/ and the rate of filtration is V/t, then:
V/t (1/N )(1/t) (N/N 0.5) N 0.5
0.5

(V /t)1/(V /t)2 = N0.51 /N0.52

0.0075/0.0160 = 0.030.5/N0.52
N2 = 0.136 Hz
3-

Drum filter
Area of filtering surface = (0.6 0.6) = 0.36 m2
Rate of filtration = 0.125 kg/s
= (0.125/1000) = 1.25 104 m3/s of filtrate
1 kg or 103 m3 water is associated with 0.2 kg of solids = 0.2 / (3 103)
= 6.67 105 m3 of solids in the slurry.
Since the cake porosity is 0.5,
6.67 105 m3 of water is held in the filter cake and
(103 6.67 105) = 9.33 104 m3 appears as filtrate, per kg of total water
in the slurry.
Volume of cake deposited by unit volume of filtrate,
v = (6.67 105 2)/(9.33 104) = 0.143.
Volumetric rate of deposition of solids = (1.25 104 0.143)
= 1.79 105 m3/s.

One revolution takes 360 s. Therefore the given piece of filtering surface is
immersed for (360 0.2) = 72 s
The bulk volume of cake deposited per revolution = (1.79 105 360)
= 6.44 103 m3
.
Thickness of cake produced = (6.44 10 )/(0.36) = 5.7 103 m or 5.7mm
3

At constant pressure

(1.25 104 360)2 = K (6.5 104 ) (0.36)2 72

K = 3.38 1010

Filter Press

Using a filter press with n frames of thickness b m, the total time, for one
complete cycle of the press = (tf + 120n + 240) s,
where tf is the time during which filtration is occurring.

where Vf is the total volume of filtrate per cycle.


The volume of frames/volume of cake deposited by unit volume of filtrate, v, is
given by:
Vf = 0.32nb/0.143 = 0.629nb

Vf 2 = (3.38 1010) (1.75 105)(2n 0.3 0.3)2 tf


= (0.629 n b) 2

tf = 2.064 105 b2

n is a minimum when dn/db = 0, that is when:


(0.629b 0.015) 51.6 b (0.030 + 25.8b2) 0.629 = 0
b2 0.0458b 0.001162 = 0

Thus: b = 0.0229 and taking the positive root:


b = 0.0640 m or 64 mm

Thus a minimum of 6 frames must be used.


The sizes of frames which will give exactly the required rate of filtration when six are
used are given by:
0.030 + 25.8b2 = 3.774b 0.090
or: b2 0.146b + 0.00465 = 0

b = 0.073 = 0.047 or 0.099 m

Thus, 6 frames of thickness either 47 mm or 99 mm will give exactly the required


filtration rate