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Size reduction

1- A material is crushed in a Blake jaw crusher such that the average size of particle

is reduced from 50 mm to 10 mm with the consumption of energy of 13.0

kW/(kg/s). What would be the consumption of energy needed to crush the same

material of average size 75 mm to an average size of 25 mm:

a) Assuming Rittingers law applies?

b) Assuming Kicks law applies?

passes through a 2-in screen and 80% of product passes through a in screen?

Knowing that the work index for limestone is 12.74 .

3- If crushing rolls, 1 m in diameter, are set so that the crushing surfaces are 12.5

mm apart and the angle of nip is 31, what is the maximum size of particle which

should be fed to the rolls?

If the actual capacity of the machine is 12 per cent of the theoretical, calculate the

throughput in kg/s when running at 2.0 m/s if the working face of the rolls is 0.4

m long and the bulk density of the feed is 2500kg/m3.

4- A ball mill , 1.2 m in diameter , is running at 0.8 Hz and it is found that the mill is

not working properly .Should any modification in the condition of operation

suggested ?

Answer of sheet(1)

1-

2-

=100 ton/h Wi=12.74

Dpa=2*25.4=50.8 mm Dpb=0.125*25.4=3.175 mm

P= 100*0.3162*12.74*

=169.6 kW

cos = (r1 + b)/(r1 + r2)

In this case: 2 = 31 cos = 0.964,

b = (12.5/2) = 6.25 mm or 0.00625 m

and:

r1 = (1.0/2) = 0.5 m

Thus:

0.964 = (0.5 + 0.00625)/(0.5 + r2)

and: r2 = 0.025 m or 25 mm

and the volumetric flow rate = (2.0 0.005) = 0.010 m3/s.

Thus, the actual throughput = (0.010 12)/100 = 0.0012 m3/s

or: (0.0012 2500) = 3.0 kg/s

It may be concluded that the speed of rotation is too high that the balls are

being carried round in contact with the sides of mill

OR

Sheet (2) Drying

drying conditions in 18 ks (5 h). If the equilibrium moisture

content is 4 per cent and the critical moisture content is 14 %, how

long will it take to dry to 6 % moisture under the same conditions?

conditions from 28 per cent to 13 per cent moisture in 25 ks. If the

equilibrium moisture content is 7 per cent, what is the time taken to dry

60 mm planks from 22 to 10 per cent moisture under the same

conditions, assuming no loss from the edges? All moisture contents are

expressed on the wet basis. The relation between E, the ratio of the

average free moisture content at time t to the initial free moisture

content, and the parameter J is given by:

E 1 0.64 0.49 0.38 0.295 0.22 0.14

J 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7

thickness of the sheet of material in mm.

to be dried in a tray dryer to 15.5 per cent moisture by passing a

current of air at 350 K tangentially across its surface at the velocity of

1.8 m/s. If the constant rate of drying under these conditions is 0.7

g/s m2 and the critical moisture content is 15 per cent, calculate the

approximate drying time. It may be assumed that the drying surface is

0.03 m2/kg dry mass.

conditions in an air stream flowing at 0.75 m/s. The area of surface

drying is 55 m2. If the initial rate of drying is 0.3 g/m2s, how long will

it take to dry the material from 0.15 to 0.025 kg water/kg dry solid?

Assume The critical moisture content of the material = 0.125

countercurrent rotary dryer at 295 K and is withdrawn at 305 K

containing 5 per cent moisture. The air supplied, which contains 0.006

kg water vapor/kg of dry air, enters at 385 K and leaves at 310 K. The

dryer handles 0.125 kg/s wet stock. Assuming that radiation losses

amount to 20 kJ/kg of dry air used, determine the mass flow of dry air

supplied to the dryer and the humidity of the outlet air. The latent heat

of water vapor at 295 K = 2449 kJ/kg, the specific heat capacity of dried

material = 0.88 kJ/kg K, the specific heat capacity of dry air = 1.00

kJ/kg K, and the specific heat capacity of water vapor = 2.01 kJ/kg K.

answer of Sheet (2) Drying

1-

For the first drying operation:

f1=w1-we=0.35-0.04=0.31

fc=wc-we=0.14-0.04=0.1

f=w-we=0.16-0.04=0.06

t =

18 =

= 6.8944

f1=w1-we=0.35-0.04=0.31

fc=wc-we=0.14-0.04=0.1

f=w-we=0.06-0.04=0.02

t =

t= = 25.5744 ks

2-

Final free moisture content = (0.13 0.07) = 0.06 kg/kg.

Thus:

t = 25 ks, E= (0.06/0.21) = 0.286

plot E versus J from the given table :

J = 0.52

0.52 = (k 25)/(10/2)2

k = 0.52 = constant

Final free moisture content = (0.10 0.07) = 0.03 kg/kg.

E = (0.03/0.15) = 0.20

From the figure

J = 0.63

t = J * l 2/k

= 0.63(60/2)2 / 0.52

= 1090 ks (12.6 days)

3-

mass of dry solids = 100-30 = 70 kg

Initial 30 70 100

Final X 70 (70+x)

Thus:

initial moisture content, w1 = (30/70) = 0.429 kg/kg dry solids

final moisture content, w2 = (12.8/70) = 0.183 kg/kg dry solids

and water to be removed = (30 12.8) = 17.2 kg

The surface area available for drying = (0.03 70) = 2.1 m2

= 0.00147 kg/s.

As the final moisture content is above the critical value, all the drying is

at this constant rate

and the time of drying is:

t = (17.2/0.00147) = 11,700 s or 11.7 ks (3.25 h)

4-

(taking we as zero because this is non-porous solid)

fc = (0.125 0) = 0.125 kg/kg

f1 = (0.15 0) = 0.150 kg/kg

(dw/dt)/A = (0.3/1000) = 0.0003 kg/m2s

At the start of the falling rate period,

(dw/dt)/A =m(wc we) = m fc

Or: 0.0003 = m *0.125

and:

m = 2.4*10-3 kg/m2s -------- kg dry solid

6

= (2.4*10 )/1000 =2.4 10 kg/m 2s

-3

t =

= 13,707 s = 13.707 ks

5-

will be chosen as the datum temperature,

and it will be assumed that the flowrate of dry air = G kg/s.

Heat in:

(a) Air

G kg/s dry air enter with 0.006G kg/s water vapor and hence the

heat content of this stream

= [(1.00G) + (0.006 G 2.01)](385 273) = 113.35 G kW

(b) Wet solid

0.125 kg/s enter containing 0.40 kg water/kg wet solid,

assuming the moisture is expressed on

a wet basis.

mass flowrate of dry solid = (0.125 0.050) = 0.075 kg/s

Hence:

the heat content of this stream = [(0.050 4.18) + (0.075

0.88)](295 273) = 6.05 kW

Heat out:

(a) Air

Heat in exit air = [(1.00 G) + (0.006 G 2.01)](310 273) =

37.45 G kW.

Mass flowrate of dry solids = 0.075 kg/s containing 0.05 kg

water/kg wet solids.

Hence:

water in the dried solids leaving = (0.05 0.075)/(1 + 0.05) =

0.0036 kg/s

and:

the water evaporated into gas steam = (0.050 0.0036) = 0.0464

kg/s.

Assuming evaporation takes place at 295 K, then:

heat in the water vapor = 0.0464[2.01(310 295) + 2449 +

4.18(295 273)]

= 119.3 kW

(b) Dried solids

The dried solids contain 0.0036 kg/s water and hence heat

content of this stream is:

= [(0.075 0.88) + (0.0036 4.18)/(305 273)] = 2.59 kW

(c) Losses

These amount to 20 kJ/kg dry air or 20G kW.

Heat balance

(113.35 G + 6.05) = (119.30 + 37.45 G + 2.59 + 20 G)

G = 2.07 kg/s

Water in the outlet air stream = (0.006 2.07) + 0.0464 =

0.0588 kg/s

sheet (3) crystallization

1- At 293 K, a supersaturated solution of sucrose contains 2.45 kg sucrose/kg

water. If the equilibrium saturation value is 2.04 kg/kg water, what is the

supersaturation ratio in terms of kg/kg water and kg/kg solution?

cooled in an open tank to 290 K. If the density of the solution is 1200 kg/m3, the

solubility of potassium chloride/100 parts of water by mass is 53.55 at 360 K and

34.5 at 290 K

calculate:

(a) the capacity of the tank required, and

(b) the mass of crystals obtained, neglecting any loss of water by evaporation.

solution containing 1000 kg of sodium sulphate (molecular mass = 142 kg/kmol) in

5000 kg water to 283 K? The solubility of sodium sulphate at 283 K is 9 kg

anhydrous salt/100 kg water and the deposited crystals will consist of the deca-

hydrate (molecular mass = 322 kg/kmol). It may be assumed that 2 per cent of the

water will be lost by evaporation during cooling.

293 K to form crystals of Na2CO3.10H2O. What is the yield of crystals if the

solubility of Na2CO3 at 293 K is 21.5 kg/100 kg water and during cooling 3 per

cent of the original solution is lost by evaporation?

Answer of sheet (3) crystallization

1-

For concentrations in kg sucrose/kg water:

and : S = c/c = (2.45/2.04) = 1.20

For concentrations in kg sucrose/kg solution:

c = 2.04/(2.04 + 1.0) = 0.671 kg/kg solution

2-

a- At 360 K,

1500 kg KCl will be dissolved in (1500 100)/53.55 = 2801 kg water.

The density of the solution = (1.2 1000) = 1200 kg/m3

b- At 290 K,

the mass of KCl dissolved in 2801 kg water = (2801 34.5)/100 = 966 kg

= 534 kg

3-

The ratio, R =( molecular mass of hydrate/molecular mass of

anhydrous salt )

= (322/142) = 2.27

The initial concentration, c1 = (1000/5000) = 0.2 kg Na2SO4/kg water

The final concentration, c2 = (9/100) = 0.09 kg Na2SO4/kg water

The initial mass of water, w1 = 5000 kg

and the water lost by evaporation, E = (2/100) = 0.02 kg/kg

y= 5000*2.27* = 1432 kg Na2SO4.10H2O

4-

The initial concentration of the solution = 0.3 kg/kg solution

or: c1 = 0.3/(1 0.3) = 0.428 kg/kg water.

The final concentration of the solution, c2 = (21.5/100) = 0.215

kg/kg water.

The feed of 10 Mg of solution contains (10 0.3) = 3 Mg of

anhydrous salt

And (10 3) = 7 Mg of water.

Thus:

3 per cent of the original solution or

The molecular mass of Na2CO3 = 106 kg/kmol

and the molecular mass of Na2CO3.10H2O = 286.2 kg/kmol

R = (286.2/106) = 2.7

= 6536 kg .

Sheet (4)-filtration

1- A slurry containing 100 kg of whiting, of density 3000 kg/m3, per

m3 of water, and, is filtered in a plate and frame press, which takes

900 s to dismantle, clean, and re-assemble. If the cake is

incompressible and has a voidage of 0.4, what is the optimum

thickness of cake for a filtration pressure (P) of 1000kN/m2?

The density of the whiting is 3000 kg/m3. The resistance of the

filter medium may be neglected and the viscosity of water is 1

mNs/m2. In an experiment, a pressure difference of 165 kN/m2

produced a flow of water of 0.02 cm3/s through a centimeter cube

of filter cake.

m3/s. Operating under the same vacuum and neglecting the

resistance of the filter cloth, at what speed must the filter be

operated to give a filtration rate of 0.0160 m3/s?

a rotary drum filter 0.6 m long and 0.6 m diameter. The drum

rotates at one revolution in 360 s and 20 per cent of the filtering

surface is in contact with the slurry at any instant. If filtrate is

produced at the rate of 0.125 kg/s and the cake has a voidage of

0.5, what thickness of cake is produced when filtering with a

pressure difference of 65 kN/m2? The density of the solids is 3000

kg/m3. The rotary filter breaks down and the operation has to be

carried out temporarily in a plate and frame press with frames 0.3

m square. The press takes 120 s to dismantle and 120 s to

reassemble and, in addition, 120 s is required to remove the cake

from each frame. If filtration is to be carried out at the same overall

rate as before, with an operating pressure difference of 175 kN/m2,

what is the minimum number of frames that needs to be used and

what is the thickness of each? It may be assumed that the cakes are

incompressible and that the resistance of the filter medium may be

neglected.

Answer of Sheet (4)-filtration

1-

The basic filtration equation may be written as:

The slurry contains 100 kg whiting/m3 of water.

Volume of 100 kg whiting = (100/3000) = 0.0333 m3.

Volume of cake = 0.0333/(1 0.4) = 0.0556 m3.

Volume of liquid in cake = (0.0556 0.4) = 0.0222 m3.

Volume of filtrate = (1 0.0222) = 0.978 m3.

Thus: volume of cake/volume of filtrate = v = 0.0569

In experiment

8 3 3 2

= 2 10 m /s, = 10 Ns/m

In equation (1)

r = 8.25 1013

At constant pressure :

= 1.380 106 tf

the optimum cake thickness occurs when the filtration time is equal to the downtime

t=900 s

2-

For constant pressure filtration in a rotary filter:

or: V 2 t 1/N

where N is the speed of rotation.

As V 1/ and the rate of filtration is V/t, then:

V/t (1/N )(1/t) (N/N 0.5) N 0.5

0.5

0.0075/0.0160 = 0.030.5/N0.52

N2 = 0.136 Hz

3-

Drum filter

Area of filtering surface = (0.6 0.6) = 0.36 m2

Rate of filtration = 0.125 kg/s

= (0.125/1000) = 1.25 104 m3/s of filtrate

1 kg or 103 m3 water is associated with 0.2 kg of solids = 0.2 / (3 103)

= 6.67 105 m3 of solids in the slurry.

Since the cake porosity is 0.5,

6.67 105 m3 of water is held in the filter cake and

(103 6.67 105) = 9.33 104 m3 appears as filtrate, per kg of total water

in the slurry.

Volume of cake deposited by unit volume of filtrate,

v = (6.67 105 2)/(9.33 104) = 0.143.

Volumetric rate of deposition of solids = (1.25 104 0.143)

= 1.79 105 m3/s.

One revolution takes 360 s. Therefore the given piece of filtering surface is

immersed for (360 0.2) = 72 s

The bulk volume of cake deposited per revolution = (1.79 105 360)

= 6.44 103 m3

.

Thickness of cake produced = (6.44 10 )/(0.36) = 5.7 103 m or 5.7mm

3

At constant pressure

K = 3.38 1010

Filter Press

Using a filter press with n frames of thickness b m, the total time, for one

complete cycle of the press = (tf + 120n + 240) s,

where tf is the time during which filtration is occurring.

The volume of frames/volume of cake deposited by unit volume of filtrate, v, is

given by:

Vf = 0.32nb/0.143 = 0.629nb

= (0.629 n b) 2

tf = 2.064 105 b2

(0.629b 0.015) 51.6 b (0.030 + 25.8b2) 0.629 = 0

b2 0.0458b 0.001162 = 0

b = 0.0640 m or 64 mm

The sizes of frames which will give exactly the required rate of filtration when six are

used are given by:

0.030 + 25.8b2 = 3.774b 0.090

or: b2 0.146b + 0.00465 = 0

filtration rate

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