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Previous study about intrinsic motivation indicated employees performance affected by intrinsic

motivation (Brewer, 1994). The other study supported that the employees who are motivated intrinsically
are more creative and can be more affective in the organization (Miller, 2002). Also empirical studies
provided the positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and employee performance. Tyagi (1985)
considered on the effects of intrinsic motivation and performance of salespersons and found that
performance of these people positively affected by intrinsic motivation. Another study showed that when
salespeople motivated intrinsically they show the higher performance in their job (Babakus et al., 1996).

Brewer, G. (1994), Mind reading: what drives top salespeople to greatness?, Sales and Marketing
Management, 146 (May): 828

Miller, J.F. (2002), Motivating people, Executive Excellence

(December): 15-24

Tyagi, P.K. (1985), Relative importance of key job dimensions and leadership behaviors in motivating
salesperson work performance, Journal of Marketing, 49 (Summer): 7686.

Babakus, E. Cravens, D.W. Johnston, M. and Moncrief, W.C. (1996), Examining the role of organizational
variables in the salesperson job satisfaction model, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 16
(3): 3346. Babakus, E.

Akintoye IR. The place of financial management in personnel psychology: A Paper Presented as Part of
Personnel Psychology Guest Lecture Series, Department of Guidance and Counselling. University of
Ibadan, Nigeria. 2000

Schwab DP. & Cummings LL. Theories of Performance and Satisfaction: A Review, Industrial Relations.
1970: 403-30.

Madura J. Introduction To Business 4th Edition, Thomson South-Western, USA. 2007

Bahrulmazi Bin Edrak, B. C.-F. (2013). The Effectiveness of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: A Study of
Malaysian Amway Companys Direct Sales Forces. International Journal of Business and Social
Science, 4(9), 97. Retrieved from http://ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_4_No_9_August_2013/8.pdf

Ryan RM. & Deci EL. Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social
Development, and Well-Being, American Psychologist. 2000a: 55(1): 68-78.

Glisson C. & Durick M. Predictors of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Human Service
Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1988: 33 (1): 61-81.

Glick NL. Job Satisfaction among academic administrators, Research in Higher Education. 1992: 33(5):
625-39

Hackman JR. & Oldham GR. Work redesign, Addison-Wesley, Reading, M. A. 1980
Gerhart B. How Important are Dispositional Factors as Determinants of Job Satisfaction? Journal of
Applied Psychology. 1987: 72 (1): 366-373.

Lawler E. & Douglas H. Relationship of Job Characteristics to Job Involvement, Satisfaction, and Intrinsic
Motivation, Journal of Applied Psychology. 1970: 54 (1): 305-312.

Akintoye (2000) asserts that money remains the most significant motivational strategy. Although there is
some school of thought that claims payment is not a direct determinant of job satisfaction, but pay does
extrinsically motivate the employees from the economic perspective. However, in Amway, pay for
performance systems may lead to greater productivity but lower job satisfaction (Schwab, 1974).

Empowerment is one of the most important motivation tools taken by all companies. Madura (2007)
contended that empowerment is giving the employees more responsibility and decision-making authority
to carry out their given tasks. It can intrinsically motivate the employees to contribute creative and
innovative ideas for selling the company products or services. Furthermore, job flexibility is also an
effective motivator to motivate the employees. Many organizations today find that flexibility in job design
and reward has resulted in employees increased longevity with the company, increased productivity, and
better morale (Reference for business, 2009).

Brookfield HB. The impact of flexible benefits plans on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and
turnover intention, Benefits Quarterly, 1998: 10 (1): 84-90.

Hancer M. & George RT. Job satisfaction of restaurant employees: an empirical investigation using the
Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 2003: 27 (1): 85-100.

Price Jl. Reflections on the determinants of voluntary turnover, International Journal of Manpower. 2001
22 (7): 660-624.

According to Brookfield (1998), individuals with high levels of job satisfaction would have healthier
physical and psychological records that very likely result in higher productivity and effectiveness in their
job performance and will staying longer in organization. Also, studies have consistently reported that job
satisfaction is one of the factors or reasons for employee intentions to leave the organization (Price, 2001).
Hence, job satisfaction can be a determinant of employees motivation and intention to stay or leave the
organization. In addition, research suggests that job satisfaction involves two dimensions: (i) Intrinsic; and
(ii) Extrinsic factors (Hancer and George, 2003; Holt, 1993). Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have
been widely studied and the distinction between them has played an important role on both
developmental and educational practices.
Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are able to help increase the employees job satisfaction and
improve their performance in the workplaces. Ryan and Deci (2000a) found that the term extrinsic
motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain some separable outcome and, thus,
contrasts with intrinsic motivation, which refer to doing an activity for the inherent satisfaction of the
activity itself.In human, intrinsic motivation is not the only form of motivation, or even of volitional
activity, but it is a pervasive and important one (Ryan and Deci 2000b). Job satisfaction among employees
appear to be highly correlated with intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics (Glick 1992, Glisson and
Durick 1988, Hackman and Oldham 1975, Gerhart 1987, Lawler 1970).

Kalleberg, A., (1977). Work Values and Job Rewards: A Theory of Job Satisfaction. American Sociological
Review, 42, 124-143.

Einhorn, H., & Gallagher, W., (1976).Motivation Theory and Job Design. The Journal of Business, 49(3),358-
373.

Ryan, R., & Grolnick, W., (1986). Origins and Pawns in the Classroom: SelfReport and Projective
Assessments of Individual Differences in Children's Perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 50, 550-558.

Stoner, C. R. (1989). The foundations of Business Ethics: Exploring the Relationship Between
Organizational Culture, Moral Values and Actions Advanced Management Journal, 54,38 - 43. Spreitzer,
G., Sutcliffe, K., Dutton, J., Sonenshein, S. and Grant, AM. (2005). A Socially Embedded Model of Thriving
at Work. Organization Science, 16, 537-549.

Deci, E., & Ryan, R., (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York:
Plenum.

Locke, E., (1976). The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction. Chicago: Rand Mcnally

Spreitzer, G., Sutcliffe, K., Dutton, J., Sonenshein, S. and Grant, AM. (2005). A Socially Embedded Model
of Thriving at Work. Organization Science, 16, 537-549.

Shirom, A, (2003). Feeling Vigorous at Work? The Construct of Vigor and the Study of Positive Affect in
Organizations. Research in Organizational Stress and Well-Being, 3,135-165

All over the years, studies show that there a certain connection between job

satisfaction and motivation. In a study by Kalleberg (1977), job satisfaction can be

attained through intrinsic motivation. It shows that less employee absence and lower

turnover rates are manifested by employees who have higher job satisfaction. The

company used job enlargement, job rotation and job enrichment to raise the employees
intrinsic motivation. Job enlargement referred to the designing of the job to increase the

work activities and responsibilities to overcome employees being bored at the job or to

feel overspecialized in his field of work. Job rotation on the other hand offered the

employee the opportunity to be exposed to different work areas and responsibilities within

an organization. This allow them to have a broader perspective of the company (Einhorn

& Gallegher, 1976). Job enrichment was defined as fostering the intrinsic motivation

through giving the employee higher responsibility tasks in the work situation. Through

this, the employees were given the opportunity to endorse their skills and job capability

to their supervisors. To be recognized for the progress or result of their work as an

individual or as a part of a team was also a key element in intrinsic motivation (Stoner,

1989). Recognizing and appreciating the success or the improvement of work

performance of the employee, leads him to be motivated to work on to the next project

and assignment. As human beings, according to psychologists, are generally active,

inquisitive and curious which tends to lead them to have enough interest to grow and

develop their knowledge and skills (Ryan & Grolnick, 1986).

Intrinsic motivation had been judged whether employees enjoy the self-rated task

or volunteer to do job without extrinsic reasons, such like higher pay, incentive or

promotion persist. Deci & Ryan (1985) stated that intrinsic motivation relied on employee's

self-determination and self-competence. Locke (1976) indicated job satisfaction as "a

pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from an appraisal of one's job or job

experiences". Spreitzer, et.al (2005) thriving at work concept combined the emotions of

vigor and enthusiasm with beliefs that individual is studying, developing towards self-
value. Bakker and Demerouti (2008) also defined it as: "a positive, Fulfilling, work-related

state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and Absorption", and

"Vigor is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working.

Dedication referred to being strongly involved in one's work and experiencing a sense of

significance, enthusiasm, and challenge. Absorption was characterized by being fully

concentrated and happily engrossed in one's work, whereby time passes quickly and one

had difficulties with detaching oneself from work." Shirom (2003) defined vigor at work as

positive emotional experience combined energetic factors like physical strength, positive

mental energy and cognitive activeness. Individuals could be characterized by their vigor

level since it was a stable person level variable. However, a person's vigor at work may

fluctuate due to any reason or anytime, so it should be studied at a transient scenario

also.

Previous study about intrinsic motivation indicated employees performance affected by

intrinsic motivation (Brewer, 1994). The other study supported that the employees who

are motivated intrinsically are more creative and can be more affective in the organization

(Miller, 2002). Also empirical studies provided the positive relationship between intrinsic

motivation and employee performance. Tyagi (1985) considered on the effects of intrinsic

motivation and performance of salespersons and found that performance of these people

positively affected by intrinsic motivation. Another study showed that when salespeople

motivated intrinsically they show the higher performance in their job (Babakus et al.,

1996).