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VOCATIONAL

TRAINING REPORT
SOURADEEP BHATTACHARJA

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


(INDIAN SCHOOL OF MINES)
TABLE OF CONTENTS

02
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A word of gratitude

04
INTRODUCTION
Some context

07
LIST OF
ABBREVIATIONS USED
Know what they mean

08
OVERVIEW OF
HALDIA REFINERY
A basic idea of the plant
09
MECHANICAL
EQUIPMENT
Machines in common use at
the plant

20
UNIT OVERVIEW
List of all the operational
units

21
HALDIA REFINERY
PLOT PLAN
A schematic of the entire
plant

WORKSHOP
Heart of mechanical
maintenance!

22
27
FUEL OIL BLOCK
This makes the things that
make your cars go
32
THERMAL POWER
STATION
The birthplace of electricity!

LUBE OIL BLOCK


Keeping it smooth

40
45 OIL MOVEMENT & STORAGE
Juggernaut of all storage
systems!

53
DIESEL HYDRO DE-
SULPHURISATION UNIT
Because of this your car is
environment friendly!

57
EFFLUENT
TREATMENT PLANT
Turning the impure into pure
62
ONCE-THROUGH HYDRO
CRACKING UNIT
Breaking it up

GARAGE
Last but not the least

67
Acknowledgement
Here I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those who have been instrumental in providing
me an enriching experience in this esteemed company. I can say that I have picked up some
valuable skills that would surely help me adapt better to the industry.

Something that specifically appealed to me was that how different the industry is when compared to
our theory. I have learnt about turbines, pumps etc. as a part of my course material and I was
perfectly happy with the theoretical aspects until I saw what happens in the real world.

Here I was shown how those basics that I learnt at college have to be applied in actual industry, I
was taught quite a few thumb rules that industrial experts rely on to do their jobs correctly. I was
also imparted with the skills of handling industrial problems at mammoth scales. My theoretical
problems involved machinery primarily on a lab scale, however here I was taught what other
considerations come into effect when the scale becomes roughly a thousand times or more of the
laboratory size. A lot of assumptions that I was used to making earlier do not hold in real life and I
understood the importance of being precise and accurate.

Lastly, I realised what it meant to be an engineer. I saw what engineers do for the nation, though
people might not realise it, engineers sacrifice a lot for our nation, they build our nation, they silently
work behind the scenes and turn our dreams into reality, the steel, the roads, the aircrafts, the cars,
the power plants, everything in this whole wide world has a touch of engineering in it and some
engineers hard work behind it. I am really happy and proud that I chose this noble profession.

Hence, I can sum up by saying that I gained a lot in this limited time and I would want to thank my
guide cum mentors, Mr. Mahadeo Oraon, Mrs. Abhisita Chakraborty and Mr. Mrinal Banerjee for
giving me this great opportunity and supporting me throughout the period of my stay.

Souradeep Bhattacharja,

Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad.

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IOCL HALDIA REFINERY

MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE PLANNING CELL

SL. WORKING
UNIT SITE OFFICER SIGNATURE
NO. DAYS

Mr. Debdyut De, DMML /


1 Workshop 3
Mr. Amal B. Das, AM(ML)

Mr. Vikash Kumar, AM(ML)


2 FOB 3
/ Mr. B. Mete, SMLE

Mr. Arun K. Gupta,


3 TPS 2
AM(ML)

Mr. Subhendu Mondal,


4 LOB MNM / Mr. Tanmay Sarkar, 3
AM(ML)

5 OM & S Md. Tanbir Haider, DMML 3

6 DHDS Mr. Himagna Sen, AM(ML) 3

7 ETP Mr. Vivekanand, MLE 3

8 OHCU Mr. Dilip Kumar, DMML 3

9 Garage Mr. D. K. Parua, AM(ML) 3

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Introduction
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOC) is the flagship national oil company in the downstream sector. The
Indian Oil Group of companies owns and operates 10 of India's 19 refineries with a combined
refining capacity of 1.2 million barrels per day. These include two refineries of subsidiary Chennai
Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (CPCL) and one of Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited
(BRPL). The 10 refineries are located at:

Guwahati
Barauni
Koyali
Haldia
Mathura
Digboi
Panipat
Chennai
Narimanam
Bongaigaon

Indian Oil's cross-country crude oil and product pipelines network span over 9,300 km. It operates
the largest and the widest network of petrol & diesel stations in the country, numbering around
16455. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (Indian Oil) was formed in 1964 through the merger of Indian Oil
Company Ltd and Indian Refineries Ltd. Indian Refineries Ltd was formed in 1958, with Feroze
Gandhi as Chairman and Indian Oil Company Ltd. was established on 30th June 1959 with Mr
S. Nijalingappa as the first Chairman. In 1964, Indian Oil commissioned Barauni Refinery and the
first petroleum product pipeline from Guwahati. In 1965, Gujarat Refinery was inaugurated. In 1967,
Haldia-Baraurii Pipeline (HBPL) was commissioned. In 1972, Indian Oil launched SERVO, the first
indigenous lubricant. In 1974, Indian Oil Blending Ltd. (IOBL) became the wholly owned subsidiary
of Indian Oil. In 1975, Haldia Refinery was commissioned. In 1981, Digboi Refinery and Assam
Oil Company's (AOC) marketing operations came under the control of Indian Oil. In 1982, Mathura
Refinery and Mathura-Jalandhar Pipeline (MJPL) were commissioned. In 1994, India's First
Hydrocracker Unit was commissioned at Gujarat Refinery.

In 1995, 1,443 km. long Kandla-Bhatinda Pipeline (KBPL) was commissioned at Sanganer. In 1998,
Panipat Refinery was commissioned. In the same year, Haldia- Barauni Crude Oil Pipeline
(HBCPL) was completed. In 2000, Indian Oil crossed the turnover of Rs 1,00,000 crore and

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became the first Corporate in India to do so. In the same year, Indian Oil entered into Exploration
& Production (E&P) with the award of two exploration blocks to Indian Oil and ONGC consortium
under NELP-I. In 2003, Lanka IOC Pvt. Ltd. (LIOC) was launched in Sri Lanka. In 2005, Indian
Oil's Mathura Refinery became the first refinery in India to attain the capability of producing entire
quantity of Euro-III compliant diesel.

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Vocational Training
Project Report

Page | 6
List of abbreviations used
1 MS Motor Spirit

2 ATF Aviation Turbine Fuel

3 SRN Straight Run Naphtha

4 HSD High Speed Diesel

5 IFO Internal Furnace Oil

6 MTO Mineral Turpentine Oil

7 MMTPA Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum

8 FCCU Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Unit

9 LOBS Lube Oil Base Stocks

10 VDU Vacuum Distillation Unit

11 CDU Crude Distillation Unit

12 API American Petroleum Institute

These are some of the abbreviations, several others have been used, however they have been
clarified throughout the document.

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Overview of Haldia Refinery
Haldia Refinery, one of the seven operating refineries of Indian Oil, was commissioned in January
1975. It is situated 136 km downstream of Kolkata in the district of Purba Midnapur, West Bengal,
near the confluence of river Hooghly and Haldi. From an original crude oil processing capacity of
2.5 MMTPA, the refinery is operating at a capacity of 5.8 MMTPA at present. Capacity of the refinery
was increased to 2.75 MMTPA through de-bottlenecking in 1989-90. Refining capacity was further
increased to 3.75 MMTPA in 1997 with the installation/commissioning of second Crude Distillation
Unit of 1.0 MMTPA capacity. Petroleum products from this refinery are supplied mainly to eastern
India through two product pipelines as well as through barges, tank wagons and tank trucks.
Products like MS, HSD and Bitumen are exported from this refinery. Haldia Refinery is the only
coastal refinery of the corporation and the lone lube flagship, apart from being the sole producer of
Jute Batching Oil. Diesel Hydro Desulphurisation (DHDS) Unit was commissioned in 1999, for
production of low Sulphur content (0.25% wt.) High Speed Diesel (HSD). With augmentation of this
unit, refinery is producing BS-II and Euro-III equivalent HSD (part quantity) at present. Residue
Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Unit (RFCCU) was commissioned in 2001 in order to increase the
distillate yield of the refinery as well as to meet the growing demand of LPG, MS and HSD. Refinery
also produces eco-friendly Bitumen emulsion and Microcrystalline Wax. A Catalytic De-Waxing Unit
(CIDWU) was installed and commissioned in the year 2003 for production of high quality Lube Oil
Base Stocks (LOBS), meeting the API Gr-II standard of LOBS. Finished products from this refinery
cover both fuel oil products as well as lube oil products.

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Chapter 1

Mechanical Equipment

Page | 9
Mechanical Equipment
The equipment present in the refinery may be broadly classified into the following groups:

1. Static Equipment
2. Rotary Equipment

Static Equipment:
1. Boilers
2. Furnaces
3. Heat Exchangers
4. Pipelines
5. Valves
6. Storage Tanks
7. Bearings

Rotary Equipment:
1. Pumps
2. Compressors
3. Turbines

Some of these shall be looked upon in some detail in the following sections.

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Main Mechanical Components
This section deals with the basic theoretical aspects of the major components in use in the refinery.

Pumps

Pumps

Positive
Dynamic
Displacement

Rotary Reciprocating Centrifugal Special Effect

External Gear Lobe

Slide Vane Internal Gear

Figure 1: Classification of Pumps

A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the
fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism
(typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the
fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines,
or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large
industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water
from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-
cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for
operating cooling towers, etcetera.

Most pumps used in the refinery are of the centrifugal type and hence they shall be elaborated upon.

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Working Principle of Centrifugal Pumps

Figure 2: Exploded View of Centrifugal Pump

The impeller of the centrifugal pump is rotated by a prime mover e.g. an electric motor, an engine
or a turbine. According to Bernoullis principle, for an incompressible fluid, the sum of its pressure
head, velocity head and gravitational head remains constant.

2
+ + = ()
2

The impeller imparts a velocity to the incompressible fluid flowing through the pump thereby
increasing the velocity head of the fluid. Now the fluid enters a volute casing wherein the area of
cross section of the casing keeps increasing, by equation of continuity:

1 1 = 2 2

Thus, 1 < 2 , hence 2 < 1

Since the total head must remain constant and at the same datum level, cannot vary, which means
that the pressure head at the outlet must increase to keep the total head constant. This increase in
pressure head ultimately translates to the manometric head of the pump.

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Compressors

COMPRESSOR

POSITIVE
DYNAMIC
DISPLACEMENT

RECIPROCATING ROTARY AXIAL CENTRIFUGAL

SINGLE ACTING DOUBLE ACTING LOBE LIQUID RING

DIAPHRAGM SCREW SCROLL

VANE

Figure 3: Classification of Compressors

A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing
its volume. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can
transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the
volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible; while some can be compressed.

Figure 4: A reciprocating compressor

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Working Principle of Compressors

The main type of compressor used in the refinery is reciprocating and hence the working principle
of this type of compressor shall be elaborated upon.

The reciprocating type compressor consists of a piston which is enclosed within the cylinder and
equipped with suction and discharge valves. The piston receives power from main shaft through
crankshaft and connecting rod. A flywheel/belt wheel is fitted on the crankshaft which is driven
by electric motor or diesel engine. It supplies uniform power throughout the cycle of operations.

The compression of gas is done by first drawing a volume of gas into its cylinder through suction
valves during suction stroke by the
piston and then compressing and
discharging it on the return stroke of
the piston through delivery valves. It
s hould be not ed that re c iproc ating
co mpre s s ors are posi tiv e
dis pla c eme nt ma c hine s , whic h
me ans that if there is no
ba c k pre s s ur e in the s ys tem, no
c ompre s s ion effec t s ha ll be
obse rv ed.

Multistaging in Compressors

Double stage or two stage reciprocating


compressor consists of two cylinders. One is called low
pressure cylinder and another is called
high pressure cylinder. When piston in low pressure
cylinder is at its Outer Dead Centre (ODC) the weight of
gas inside cylinder is zero (neglecting clearance volume),
as piston moves towards Inner Dead Centre (IDC)
pressure falls below atmospheric pressure
and suction valve opens due to pressure difference. The

Figure 5: Multistaging in Compressors fresh gas is drawn inside the low-pressure cylinder

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through suction filter. This gas is further compressed by piston and pressure inside and outside the
cylinder becomes equal, at this point suction valve is closed. As piston moves towards ODC
compression of gas takes place and
when the pressure of gas is in range of
1.5 kg/cm2 to 2.5 kg/cm2 delivery valves
opens and this compressed gas then
enters into high pressure cylinder
through inter cooler. This called as low-
pressure compression. The intercooler
reduces the temperature of the
compressed gas to the isothermal
ambient temperature before allowing
the gas to enter the high-pressure
cylinder. This ends up saving a lot of
work as can be seen from the diagram above. Similarly, there can be three-stage compressor, four-
stage compressor or multiple-stage compressors. The more the number of stages, more is the
operating curve similarity to the isothermal curve and hence greater is the efficiency.

Mathematically, work done by a compressor:

1 1
4 5
= 1 1 [ 1 ]+ 4 4 [ 1 ]
1 1 1 4

Sundyne Pumps

Sundyne Pumps are special pumps that are


designed to be operated at very high speeds. The
pumps are usually arranged in a vertical
configuration. This kind of pumps make use of a
gearbox which increases the rotation speed of the
pump impeller to about 5 times that of motor speed.
The approximate speed of operation of the pump is
around 22000 RPM. The fluid enters the pump from
one side, is struck by the impeller and is forced out
of the other side.
Figure 6: Sundyne Pump
Page | 15
Sundyne centrifugal pumps and compressors are traditionally utilized for processes requiring high-
head (pumps: 6,300 ft-1,921m), and low-flow (pumps: 1,100 gpm or 250 m/h). They are engineered
and built to meet the Best Efficiency Point 'BEP' for production processes.

Valves

A valve is a device for regulating or isolating the flow of gases, liquids, and slurries through pipework
and launder systems.

The force required to operate a valve can be carried out either manually or mechanically. Mechanical
attachments called actuators to a valve are usually either electrically or pneumatically operated.

Common Types of Valves:

1. Ball
2. Butterfly
3. Gate
4. Diaphragm
5. Non-Return/Check
6. Globe
7. Pinch
8. Pressure Relief

Gate Valves

Often simply called Gate valves, the valves are


also used as isolation valves. They work simply
by virtue of a gate which can be raised or lowered
to allow or restrict the flow. Gate valves should
not normally be used in a restrictive role i.e.
partially open or partially closed condition, this is
because it leads to rapid wearing of the base of
the gate.

Figure 7: Gate Valves

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Check Valves / Non - Return Valves

A c he c k valv e is a valve that normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one
direction. Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have
two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other
for fluid to leave. There are various types of check valves used
in a wide variety of
applications. Check valves
are often part of common
household items. Although
they are available in a wide
range of sizes and costs, Figure 8: Check Valve
check valves generally are
very small, simple, or inexpensive. Check valves work
automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any
Figure 9: Sectionalised View of external control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle
Check Valve
or stem. The bodies (external shells) of most check valves are
made of plastic or metal. An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the
minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. Typically, the check valve is designed
for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure.

Globe Valves

A globe valve is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline,


consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in
a generally spherical body. Globe valves are named for their spherical
body shape with the two
halves of the body
being separated by an
internal baffle. This has
an opening that forms a
seat onto which a
movable plug can be
Figure 10: Globe Valve screwed in to close (or
shut) the valve. The plug is also called a disk. In
globe valves, the plug is connected to a stem which

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is operated by screw action using a handwheel in manual valves. Typically, automated globe valves
use smooth stems rather than threaded and are opened and closed by an actuator assembly.

Butterfly Valves

A butterfly valve is a valve that isolates or regulates the


flow of a fluid. The closing mechanism is a disk that
rotates. The disc is positioned in the centre of the pipe.
A rod passes through the disc to an actuator on the
outside of the valve. Rotating the actuator turns the
disc either parallel or perpendicular to the flow. Unlike
a ball valve, the disc is always present within the flow,
so it induces a pressure drop, even when open.

Figure 11: Butterfly Valve

Diaphragm Valves

Diaphragm valves (or membrane valves) consists of a valve body with two or more ports, a
diaphragm, and a "weir or saddle" or seat upon which the diaphragm closes the valve. The valve is
constructed from either plastic or metal. There are two
main categories of diaphragm valves: one type seals
over a "weir" (saddle) and the other (sometimes called
a "full bore or straight-way" valve) seals over a seat.
The weir or saddle type is the most common in process
applications and the seat-type is more commonly used
in slurry applications to reduce blocking issues but
exists also as a process valve. While diaphragm valves
usually come in two-port forms (2/2-way diaphragm
Figure 12: Diaphragm Valve
valve), they can also come with three ports (3/2-way
diaphragm valves also called T-valves) and more (so called block-valves). When more than three
ports are included, they generally require more than one diaphragm seat; however, special dual
actuators can handle more ports with one membrane. Diaphragm valves can be manual or

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automated. Their application is generally as shut-off valves in process systems within the industrial,
food and beverage, pharmaceutical and biotech industries.

For the sake of conciseness, other valves are not elaborated upon.

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Unit Overview
The main units of the Haldia refinery that were covered during the training period were:

1. Workshop
2. Fuel Oil Block (FOB)
3. Thermal Power Station (TPS)
4. Lube Oil Block (LOB)
5. Oil Movement and Storage (OM&S)
6. Diesel Hydro De-Sulphurisation (DHDS)
7. Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
8. Once-through Hydro-Cracker Unit (OHCU)
9. Garage

During the training period, the basic mechanical activities relating to the above units were looked at.

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Haldia Refinery Plot Plan

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Chapter 2

Workshop

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Figure 13: A lathe similar in size to the one available at the workshop

The Workshop is the heart of all mechanical maintenance at the IOCL Refinery at Haldia.
Responsible for refurbishing and maintenance of the myriad pumps, valves, compressors, etcetera
it is an important asset the plant cannot do without. The workshop features a variety of equipment
such as large lathes, milling and planing machines, sand blasting chamber, and etcetera.

Some of the important machines undergoing maintenance at the workshop at the time of visit are
elaborated in the following pages.

Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbo machinery.


Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the
hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or
electric motor. In the typical case, the fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating
axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber
(casing), from where it exits. Common uses include water, sewage, petroleum and petrochemical
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pumping. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy
of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy, this principle is often used in pumped storage
hydroelectricity projects.

Figure 14: Parts of a Centrifugal Pump

Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts mechanical energy from a motor to energy of a
moving fluid. A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid motion, and some into
potential energy, represented by fluid pressure (Hydraulic head) or by lifting the fluid, against gravity,
to a higher altitude. The transfer of energy from the mechanical rotation of the impeller to the motion
and pressure of the fluid is usually described in terms of centrifugal force, especially in older sources
written before the modern concept of centrifugal force as a fictitious force in a rotating reference
frame was well articulated. The concept of centrifugal force is not actually required to describe the
action of the centrifugal pump. The outlet pressure is a reflection of the pressure that applies the
centripetal force that curves the path of the water to move circularly inside the pump. On the other
hand, the statement that the "outward force generated within the wheel is to be understood as being
produced entirely by the medium of centrifugal force" is best understood in terms of centrifugal force
as a fictional force in the frame of reference of the rotating impeller; the actual forces on the water
are inward, or centripetal, since that is the direction of force need to make the water move in circles.
This force is supplied by a pressure gradient that is set up by the rotation, where the pressure at the
outside, at the wall of the volute, can be taken as a reactive centrifugal force. This was typical of
nineteenth and early twentieth century writings, mixing the concepts of centrifugal force in informal
descriptions of effects, such as those in the centrifugal pump.

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Vertical Turbine Pump

A specialized centrifugal pump designed to move water from a well or reservoir that is deep
underground. Also, known a deep well turbine pump or a line shaft turbine pump, it is one of two
main types of turbine pumps. The two main types of turbine pumps are vertical turbine pumps and
submersible turbine pumps. While submersible pumps have the electric motor located underwater
at the bottom of the pump, vertical turbine pumps have the motor located above ground, connected
via a long vertical shaft to impellers at the bottom of the pump. The term turbine in the pump name
is somewhat of a misnomer, as this pump type has nothing to do with a turbine.

Figure 15: Vertical Turbine Pump

The pump under discussion needed replacement of a few parts and also needed an anti-rust
treatment.

Heat Exchangers

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between a solid object and a fluid, or between
two or more fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in
direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations,
chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage

Page | 25
treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in
which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the
coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which
is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical
device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant.

Heat Exchangers need to be retubed from time to time because at times corrosion sets in due to
the temperature and type of fluid flowing through the tubes of the heat exchanger. Also, tubes might
be clogged which results in lower flow and efficiency.

Figure 16: Internal tubing of a heat exchanger

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Chapter 3

Fuel Oil Block

Page | 27
This Unit was commissioned in August 1974, originally designed for processing light Iranian Aghajari
crude but presently crudes like Arab mix (lube bearing) and Dubai crude (non lube bearing) are
processed. The capacity has been increased from 2.5 MMPTA to 4.6 MMPTA. The Fuel Oil Block
is primarily meant for the production of Fuel Oil, of prime importance to Mechanical Engineers, this
unit has several compressors and pumps, both of positive and non-positive displacement types.

A very important part of a centrifugal and thereby all pumps was elaborated upon in this block. The
part under discussion is a mechanical seal which assumes prime importance in the oil industry
because of the hazardous materials being processed. Before going to the nuances of this block, the
basic concepts of a Mechanical Seal shall be elaborated upon.

Mechanical Seal

A mechanical seal is a device that helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing
leakage (e.g. in a plumbing system), containing pressure, or excluding contamination. The
effectiveness of a seal is dependent on adhesion in the case of sealants and compression in the
case of gaskets.

Single Mechanical Seal

A single mechanical seal consists of two


very flat surfaces that are pressed together by a spring
and slide against each other. Between these two
surfaces is a fluid film generated by the pumped product.
This fluid film prevents the mechanical seal from
touching the stationary ring. An absence of this fluid film
(dry running of the pump) results in frictional heat and
ultimate destruction of the mechanical
seal. Mechanical seals tend to leak a vapor from the
high-pressure side to the low-pressure side. This fluid
Figure 17: Mechanical Seal
lubricates the seal faces and absorbs the heat
generated from the associated friction, which crosses the seal faces as a liquid and vaporizes into
the atmosphere. So, it's common practice to use a single mechanical seal if the pumped product
poses little to no risk to the environment.

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Double Mechanical Seal

A double mechanical seal consists of two seals arranged in a series. The inboard, or primary seal
keeps the product contained within the pump housing. The outboard, or secondary seal prevents
the flush liquid from leaking into the atmosphere. Double mechanical seals are offered in two
arrangements:

Back to back

Two rotating seal rings are arranged facing away from each other. The lubricating film is generated
by the barrier fluid. This arrangement is commonly found in the chemical industry. In case of leakage,
the barrier liquid penetrates the product and this can be detected with the help of an appropriate
sensor.

Face to face

The spring loaded rotary seal faces are arranged face to face and slide from the opposite direction
to one or two stationary seal parts. This is a popular choice for the food industry, particularly for
products which tend to stick. In case of leakage, the barrier liquid penetrates the product. If the
product is considered hot, the barrier liquid acts as a cooling agent for the mechanical seal.

Double mechanical seals are commonly used in the following circumstances:

1. If the fluid and its vapours are hazardous to the operator or environment, and must be
contained.
2. When aggressive media are used at high pressures or temperatures
3. For many polymerising and sticky media

The seal demonstrated was a double mechanical seal.

Units of the Fuel Oil Block has been dealt with in the following section.

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Units of the Fuel Oil Block

The fuel oil block comprises the following units:

1. Crude Distillation Unit I (Unit 11)


2. Crude Distillation Unit II (Unit 16)
3. Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit (Unit 21)
4. Catalytic Reforming Unit (Unit 22)
5. Kero-Hydro De-Sulphurisation Unit (Unit 23)

Basic parameters of these units are featured below.

Brief description of the FOB Units:

Crud e Dis tilla tion U ni t 1

To distil the crude oil under atmospheric pressure for producing multi-component
P urpose :
distillates and send them to OM&S for supply.

Fe ed: Crude Oil from various offsite tanks via booster pumps

Propane, LPG, Naphtha, Kerosene, Aviation Turbine Fuel, Diesel, Reduced Crude
P roducts:
Oil, Jute Batching Oil.
Un it
510 m3/h
Capa c ity

Crud e Dis tilla tion U ni t 2

To distil the crude oil under atmospheric pressure for producing multi-component
P urpose :
distillates and send them to OM&S for supply.

Fe ed: Crude Oil from various offsite tanks via booster pumps

Propane, LPG, Naphtha, Kerosene, Aviation Turbine Fuel, Diesel, Reduced Crude
P roducts:
Oil, Jute Batching Oil.
Un it
615 m3/h
Capa c ity

Page | 30
Napht ha H ydrot re ating U nit

To remove Sulphur from straight run Naphtha which would otherwise lead to
P urpose :
considerable environmental pollution.

Fe ed: Heavy straight run Naphtha from offsite storage tanks.

P roducts: De-Sulphurised Naphtha (DSN)

Un it
216 MTPA
Capa c ity

Cata lytic Re fo rmi ng Un it

Transform the low octane constituents into high octane rating aromatics in the
P urpose :
range of 6 to 10 Carbon atoms.

Fe ed: De-Sulphurised Naphtha (DSN)

P roducts: Reformate

Un it
216 MTPA
Capa c ity

Kero -H ydro De -S ulph ur is ation U nit

To remove Sulphur from three raw kerosene distillate cuts produced from
P urpose :
Atmospheric Distillation Units.

Fe ed: Raw Kerosene, ATF, MTO from CDU

P roducts: De-Sulphurised Kerosene, ATF, MTO

Un it
500 MTPA
Capa c ity

Page | 31
Chapter 4

Thermal Power Station

Page | 32
TPS is one of the two main wings of power in Haldia refinery of Indian Oil Corporation Limited
(IOCL). It is called customarily called CPP I. The power unit called CPP II is a gas turbine
powered unit. CPP means Captiv e P ower P lant because both these units together supply the total
power required by the different units of the plants and also, the IOCL Township nearby.

Only CPP I was in the scope of the training.

Capacity of TPS

There are four steam turbines with four boilers for generating steam. Boilers I, II and III are made
by BH E L. Each of them is capable of delivering 125 tons of superheated steam per hour. The fourth
boiler (Boiler IV) with a capacity of 150 tons of steam per hour is made by A B B. Four steam turbines
are there which have been manufactured by BH E L each having a connectivity with all the boilers.
The steam turbines act as the prime movers of four turbo generators rotating at 3000 rpm. Three of
them (TG-1, TG-2, TG-3) have individual capacity of 10.5 MW and the fourth one (TG4) have a
capacity of 16.5 MW. TG-4 is the most recently installed generator and its excitation system is an
AC excitation system (Brushless exciter using rotating diode rectifier). The first three generators are
excited by DC exciter (using two DC generator) systems.

The main components of the Thermal Power Station are:

Cooling Towers
A cooling tower is a semi enclosed device for evaporative cooling of cooling water coming out from
the condenser with the help of unsaturated water. So, in this process, proper mixing with hot water
droplet and air will take place. There will be both heat and mass transfer for getting more efficient
cooling in the cooling tower. Usually the structure of cooling tower may be done by wood, concrete,
steel etc. Corrugated surfaces or perforated trays can be provided inside the tower for uniform
distribution of water droplets and better atomization of the water inside the tower. The air is allowed
to flow from the bottom of the tower or perpendicular to the direction of the water flow (in crossed
flow cooling tower) and the exhausts is allowed to go out to the atmosphere after effective cooling.

Demineralisation Plant (DM)

Page | 33
Here the water is treated for removing the minerals and radicals so that it does not create erosion
problems when heated in the boiler drum. The pH of the water is tested and then it is monitored and
kept nearly at 7 by adding sufficient acidic or basic materials. From here the water is sent to a surge
tank which stores the water coming from different units and then sends the water to de-aerator by
the help of a pump. The water level in the surge tank is controlled by a level switch and PLC system.

Deaerator
One of the feed water heaters is a contact-type open heater, known as deaerator, others being
closed heaters. It is used for the purpose of de-aerating the feed water. The presence of dissolved
gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide in water makes the water corrosive, as they react with the
metal to form iron oxide. The solubility of these gases in water decreases with increase in
temperature and becomes zero at the boiling or saturation temperature. These gases are removed
in the de-aerator, where feed water is heated to saturation temperature by the steam extracted by
the turbine. Feed water after passing
through a heat exchanger is sprayed
from the top so as to expose large
surface area, and the bled steam from
the turbine is fed from the bottom. By
contact the steam condenses and the
feed water is heated to the saturation
temperature. Dissolved oxygen and
carbon dioxide gases get released
from the water and leave along with
some vapour, which is condensed
back to the vent condenser, and the
Figure 18: Deaerator
gases are vented out. To neutralize the
effect of the residual dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in water, s odium s ul phite or
hydra zine is injected in suitable calculated doses into the feed water at the suction of the boiler feed
pump. The de-aerator is usually placed near the middle of the feed water system so that the total
pressure difference between the condenser and the boiler is shared equitably between the
condenser pump and the boiler feed pump. The feed water heaters be fo re the de -aera tor are open
are often termed as hi gh -pre s s ure heaters and those after the de-aera tor are termed as lo w-
pre s s ur e he aters . There are two de-aerators that supply water to the four boilers of the thermal
power station.

Page | 34
Boiler
In TPS, four boilers are in operation and are used for steam generation. A steam generator
generates steam at a desired rate at a desired pressure and temperature by burning fuel at its
furnace. A steam generator is a complex integration of furnace, super heater, economizer, reheater,
boiler or evaporator, and air preheater along with various auxiliary such as ash handling equipment,
pulverisers, burners, fans, stokers, dust collectors and precipitators. The boiler is that part of steam
generator where phase change occurs from liquid to vapour essentially at constant pressure and
temperature. However, the term boiler is traditionally used to mean the whole steam generator.
The steam coming out from the boiler is treated again to maintain its pressure (61 k g/c m 2 ) and
temperature (450C) and made oxygen free. This is called high pressure s up erhe ated or VH S tea m
which is sent to turbine generator for generating electricity. This is also converted to me dium
pre s s ur e or V M S tea m and lo w pr es s ur e or V B S tea m for other uses as follows:

V H S tea m: Used in turbine generator as well as in burner

V M S tea m: Used in heat exchangers in the different units

V B S tea m: Used as cleaning agent

Page | 35
Figure 19: Boiler

Burner Unit
Here furnace oil is burnt in presence of air to produce hot flue gas at very high temperature. Every
boiler has six burner units. Furnace oil is burnt and the hot gas is released in the boiler. The relatively
cold flue gas after going through the economizer zone is sent out to stack and released in the
atmosphere.

Air Supply
An air supply unit is kept to supply air to the compressor as well as drier to produce compressed dry
air supply for pneumatic instruments.

Steam Turbine
The TPS or CPP-I has four steam turbines. Each turbine has two sections, namely HP and LP
section. The inlet blades (at HP section) are impulse type and the outlet blades are reaction (at LP
section) type. The steam produced in the boiler is fed to the inlet section at very high pressure (60-
62 Kg/Sq. cm) which rotates the inlet blades. As the steam moves from HP to LP region, its
temperature decreases and the low-pressure steam (14 Kg/Sq. cm) is extracted from a set point
determined previously. The exhaust steam is fed to the condenser.

Air Drier
Page | 36
A compressed air dryer is a device for removing water vapour from compressed air. Compressed
air dryers are commonly found in a wide range of industrial and commercial
facilities. The process of air compression concentrates atmospheric contaminants, including water
vapour. This raises the dew point of the compressed air relative to free atmospheric air and leads
to condensation within pipes as the compressed air cools downstream of the compressor. Excessive
water in compressed air, in either the liquid or vapour phase, can cause a variety of operational
problems for users of compressed air. These include freezing of outdoor air lines, corrosion in piping
and equipment, malfunctioning of pneumatic process control instruments, fouling of processes and
products, and more. There are various types of compressed air dryers. Their performance
characteristics are typically defined by the dew point.

Specifications

Boiler Feed Pump

Capa c ity: 145 m3/h.

Lube Oi l s pe c ific gra vity: 0.57

Dis c ha rge P res s ur e: 80-85 Kg/cm2

Motor Data for Boiler Feed Pump

Capa c ity: 460 KW

S pe ed: 2980 RPM

FD Fans

T ype : Radial single inlet and single width

Page | 37
Medium: Air

Des igne d r ating : 40.8 m3/sec

Fa n S pe ed: 740 RPM

Capa c ity: 2400 nm3/h.

Air Dryer

Mois t air inl et: RH 100%

P re s s ure : 8 kg/cm2 (normal), 6.5 kg/cm2 (minimum)

Te mpe ra ture: 40C

T ype of Des ic c ant: Activated Alumina

P re s s ure drop ac ros s the drie r: 0.5 kg/cm2 (Maximum)

Figure 20: Schematic Diagram of


CPP - I

Adsorption Towers

Page | 38
Des ign P res s ur e: 12 kg/cm2

Pre-filter and After-filter


Filte r e leme nt: Polypropylene
Des ign P res s ur e: 12 kg/cm2

Cooler:

Water flo w: 22.825 m3/h.


Water P re s s ure : 4kg/cm2
Inle t water te mpe rature : 33C
Outle t water temp era ture : 37C

Heater:
P ower r ating: 81KW (56.7 KW and 24.3KW)

Page | 39
Chapter 4

Lube Oil Block

Page | 40
In lube oil block, the reduced crude oil from the Atmospheric Distillation Unit (ADU) is processed to
produce lube base stock, slack wax, transfer oil feed stock (TOFS), etc. LOB contains the following
8 units:

1. Vacuum Distillation Unit (Unit 31)


2. Propane De-Asphalting Unit (Unit 32)
3. Furfural Extraction Unit (Unit 33)
4. Solvent De-Waxing Unit (Unit 34)
5. Hydro Finishing Unit (Unit 35)
6. Bitumen treatment Unit (Unit 36)
7. Visbreaking Unit (Unit 37)
8. N Methyl Pyrrolidine (NMP) Extraction Unit (Unit 38)
9. Micro Crystalline Wax Unit (Unit 39)
10. Catalytic Iso De-Waxing Unit (Unit 84)

Un it 3 1: V ac uum Dis til la tion U nit

Main fe ed: RCO

RCO (400C)
Gas oil
Spindle oil
Light oil
Intermediate oil
Heavy oil
Short residue (360C)

Un it 3 2: P ropa ne De -A s phal ting U nit

Main fe ed: Short Residue

Treated with propane (225C) DAO (De asphalt oil) + Asphalt (Bitumen)

Un it 3 3: Furfu ra l E x trac tion U nit

Page | 41
Main Fe ed: L.O./I.O./H.O./DAO. (by furfural extraction) (225C) Raffinate + Extract Raffinate
feed to Unit 34 (De-waxing Unit) In/Hn/Bn/De-waxed lube oil

Un it 3 5: Hy dro Fini s hing Unit

Main Fe ed: Lube Oil (de-waxed) Heated in catalytic bed at 250C Finished Lube Oil

Un it 3 7: V is br eak ing Un it

Main Fe ed: Asphalt + SR (60:40) (heated to 450C)


Gasoline (mixed in petrol)
Gas oil
VB tar (FO)

Un it 3 8: NM P Unit

Main Fe ed: I.O./H.O./DAO. treatment with NMP solution

Un it 3 9: Mic roc ry s tall ine Wax Un it

After de waxing in Unit 3 4 Residue wax is treated in this unit by Hydrogen to produce Micro-
crystalline wax.

Un it 8 4: C atal ytic Is o De -Wax ing Unit

Raffinate (from Units 33 and 38) + Wax treatment in catalytic bed with Hydrogen to remove
Sulphur/Nitrogen/ H2S/ NH3

Temperature: 310C 380C

P roduct: De-Waxed Lube Oil.

The Block Diagram of the Lube Oil Block has been presented in the next page.

Page | 42
Figure 21: Block Diagram of Lube Oil Block

Several reciprocating compressors are in operation in this block and they present a mechanical
engineer with a great opportunity to learn and observe the working principles of the system. The
particular compressor that was covered during the visit was a 3 s tage , 4-c yli nder re c iproc ating
ma k eup g as c ompre s s or.

S tage 1: 2 cylinders S uc tion Pr es s ure : 1.5 kg/cm2 Dis c ha rge P res s ur e: 4.5 kg/cm2

S tage 2: 1 cylinder S uc tion P res s ure : 4.5 kg/cm2 Dis c ha rge P res s ur e: 8.5 kg/cm2

S tage 3: 1 cylinder S uc tion Pr es s ure : 8.5 kg/cm2 Dis c ha rge P res s ur e: 12 kg/cm2

The makeup gas entered the compressor at a temperature of about 45C, after compression in the
first stage, the temperature rose to around 130C and pressure rose to around 4.5 kg/cm2, this gas
was passed through an intercooler which cooled the compressed gas to original temperature of
45C. After this, the gas was passed through the second stage, where the temperature rose to
around 140C and pressure rose to around 8.5 kg/cm2, this gas was again passed through another

Page | 43
intercooler which brought the temperature down to 45C. Finally, the gas was passed through the
last stage and was compressed to around 12 kg/cm 2 pressure and the temperature of the gas at
this point was around 130C, at this stage the gas was discharged through an air receiver for
required applications.

Page | 44
Chapter 5

Oil Movement & Storage

Page | 45
This section of the plant deals with the logistical challenge of moving crude oil to the plant for refining
and also distributing the refined products to consumers. There are several storage tanks which
maintain a large inventory of crude oil and finished products like Aviation Turbine Fuel, Motor Spirit,
Bitumen, Diesel, etcetera.

Apart from several storage tanks, this unit has the following main sections:

1. Wagon Loading Gantry


2. Truck and Tank Loading station
3. Bitumen Filling Station

Tank and Truck Loading station

Figure 22: TTL Station

The tank and truck loading station consists of fo urtee n point s through which different products are
filled in trucks. The trucks generally consist of thre e c hambe rs . The products are pumped through
the pipes and the PDM (positive displacement meter) measures the flow rate. There is also a liquid
Page | 46
controller which removes the liquid vapour (if any). Different products like A TF (A via tion Turbine
Fuel ), MS (Motor S piri t), MTO (Mine ra l Turpentine Oi l), S KO (Super Keros ene Oi l), HS D (High
S pe ed Di es el), J BO (J ute Batc hing Oi l), F O (Furn ac e O il), CB F S (C arbon Bl ac k Fe ed S toc k )
and M ic roc ry s tall ine W ax are filled in this station.

Ope ra tion:

The trucks are weighed and taken to the appropriate point where first the depth is checked using a
dipstick. There is a terminal in the gantry which display the specification of loading to be done for
example the number of chambers, capacity etc. After completion of loading the truck is weighed
again. Subtraction of the tare weight and gross weight gives the net weight.

Wagon Loading Gantry

The petroleum products (mainly MS, HSD etc.) are also dispatched to different parts of India through
railway wagons.

Ope ra tion:

Two types of wagons


are used in this
purpose viz. General
Purpose and BPD
(of capacity 64700
litres). A primary test is
conducted for body
leakage. Again, the
dipstick is calibrated
with the theoretical
data. Initially 700 to
1000 litres of product is
pumped in for leak-
testing and then the
tested wagons are
Figure 23: Wagon Loading Gantry
filled with the products.

Page | 47
Tanker Loading and Unloading

Some portion of the finished products are also sent to consumers via ships, also, most of the crude
oil processed at the plant is from the middle east and enters Indian shores via ships. Ships are
loaded at the nearby Haldia port using ship loading gantries that are supplied by pipelines from the
refinery. Some finished products such as MS, HSD, etcetera is also imported and the purpose of
importing the latter two is that country wide demand of these two products is more than the amount
produced in the refinery.

T ype s & Ca pa c ities o f Tank ers :

General Purpose (G.P.) series: Up to 25,000 tonnes.


Medium Capacity (M.C.) series: 25,000 tonnes to 45,000 tonnes.
Low Range (L.R.) series: Three sub-categories namely L.R-1, L.R-2, L.R-3. 45,000 tonnes
to 1,20,000 tonnes.
Very Large Crude Carrier (V.L.C.C): 1,20,000 tonnes to 2,80,000 tons.
Ultra Large Crude Carrier (U.L.C.C.): 2,80,000 tonnes onwards. Vessels of these type do not
come to Indian ports.

Per day requirement of Haldia Refinery is 17,000 tonnes of crude oil.

Ope ra tion:

Figure 24: Tanker Ship and Marine Loading Arm

A marine loading arm, also known as a mechanical loading arm is a mechanical arm consisting of
articulated steel pipes is used that connects the tanker ship to the cargo terminal. Genericized
Page | 48
trademarks such as Chiksan are often used to refer to marine loading arms. These arms allow
movement and hence allow uninterrupted filling of the tanker ship during tide and ebb.

Bitumen Filling Station

Bitumen, also known as Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form
of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product; it is a substance
classed as a pitch. The bottom product of crude i.e. RCO (Reduced Crude Oil) is taken to a vacuum
distillation unit where distillate lube is extracted. The bottom product obtain is SR (Short residue)
which is mixed with solvent propane. Then it is taken to a de-asphalting unit where the asphalt is
taken out which is black and hard having less penetration.

There are three grades of bitumen:

1. 80/100
2. 60/70
3. 30/40

These are classified based on penetration property. A needle with the help of a reference weight is
introduced inside the bitumen, and it dips the least amount for 30/40 and most for 80/100.

The temperature of bitumen produced it around 140C. Its temperature is later brought down in the
BCU (bitumen cooing unit).

Drum fill ing

Weight of dry drum = 8 kg. (Approximate.)

Weight of filled drum = 156.5 kg. (Approximate.)

Empty drum is unloaded from truck and taken to a filling system by belt conveyers. The system
comprises of a pipeline through which the bitumen flows to the drum. There is a twin arm and jack
system to hold the drum upward for good contact with the filling tube. The mouth of the filled drum
is sealed with a cap using pneumatic pressure. Its then taken to digester where at a time 16 drums
are digested (8 on each side). The fork lifter then takes the drum and stacked at a place. Then they
are dispatched to different places by truck or railway wagon. Trucks are taken to the bitumen gantry
and loaded. There are four such points for bitumen filling.

Page | 49
Tanks

Almost one-third of the refinery area is allocated for different types of tanks. They are designed
according to the needs of the product conservation like in the case of Motor Spirit or Straight Run
Naphtha there must be a provision to reduce the pressure produced due to the vaporisation of these
products and hence these are generally stored in floating roof tanks. By design they are four types:

1. Fix ed roof tank : Meant for liquids with very high flash points, (e.g. fuel oil, water, bitumen
etc.) Further classifications are:
Co ne Roof Ta nk
Do me Ro of Ta nk : Dome roof tanks are meant for tanks having slightly higher storage
pressure than that of atmosphere (e.g. slop oil).
Umbrel la Roof Ta nk

2. Floa ting roof ta nk :


E x terna l Floa ting Ro of (F R) Ta nk : FR tanks do not have a fixed roof (it is open in
the top) and has a floating roof only. Medium flash point liquids such as naphtha,
kerosene, diesel, and crude oil are stored in these tanks.
Inter na l Floa ting Ro of (IFR ) Ta nk : IFR tanks are used for liquids with low flash-points
(e.g., ATF, MS. gasoline, ethanol). These tanks are nothing but cone roof tanks with
a floating roof inside which travels up and down along with the liquid level. This floating
roof traps the vapor from low flash-point fuels. Floating roofs are supported with legs
or cables on which they rest.

Although there are variations in design, there are some basic components that a tank is provided
with:

1. Manhole on the shell and roof.

2. Product inlet and outlet nozzle.

3. Drains.

4. Staircase and ladder.

5. Mechanical type level gauge.


Page | 50
6. Open vane with wire mesh / Breather valve / Vent with flame arrestor depending on the type
of substance being stored.

7. Sampling device.

8. Temperature gauge.

9. Jet mixing nozzle.

10. Inert gas blanketing.

11. Steam heating coils if the substance to be stored has a tendency to solidify e.g. bitumen.

Product is taken to this tank though the inlet by different pumps. There are two outlets one for
blending and product conveying and another for drainage. Generally, products from the different
units also contain some amount of water with them. This unwanted water is drained through the
drainage outlet. During blending different products are mixed to meet the specifications of the final
product such as Motor Speed (MS), Diesel etc. Constant circulation of the product of tank is done
for better mixing through these outlets.

Cathodic Protection

External protection of Mounded LPG storage bullets is an electrochemical phenomenon. The control
of this common process can be achieved by employing cathodic protection system. The state of art
cathodic system can be implemented to distribute uniform current over the entire surface to be
protected to achieve uniform corrosion protective potentials.

T ype s

Permanent Impressed Current type of cathodic protection system using continuous anode system
is to be implemented for protecting external surface area of bullet against corrosion.

P rotec tiv e Curre nt D ens ity

Protective current density recommended by LURGI.

Page | 51
General specification and BIS 8062-Part1 (1976) are as follows:
Bare steel 25 mA/m2
Painted steel 2.5 mA/m2

Protective current density of 25 mA/m2 of bare steel exposed to sand shall be adequate to achieve
desired protection level at an operating temperature of 5C - 46C.
P rotec tion C rite ria

The protected bullet to soil potential test has been established as a standard measure technique for
evaluation of corrosion protective potential. The OFF potential window considered is -0.85V (OFF)
to -1.15V (OFF) measured with respect to Copper-Copper Sulphate reference electrode at an instant
by interrupting the protective current and eliminating circuit IR drop.

T ype s of S urfac e Co ating/Pa inting

External surface of bullet is Polyurethane coated and buried in mound of sand layer.

Page | 52
Chapter 6

Diesel Hydro
De-Sulphurisation Unit

Page | 53
Hydrodesulphurisation (HDS) is a catalytic
chemical process widely used to remove sulphur
(S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum
products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel,
kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils. The purpose of
removing the sulphur, and creating products such
as ultra-low-sulphur diesel, is to reduce the sulphur
dioxide (SO2) emissions that result from using high
Sulphur fuels in automotive vehicles, aircraft,
railroad locomotives, ships, gas or oil burning power
plants, residential and industrial furnaces, and other
forms of fuel combustion. Another important reason
for removing Sulphur from the naphtha streams
within a petroleum refinery is that Sulphur, even in
extremely low concentrations, poisons the noble
metal catalysts (Platinum and Rhenium) in the
catalytic reforming units that are subsequently used
to upgrade the octane rating of the naphtha streams.
Figure 25: A distillation column

Page | 54
The industrial Hydrodesulphurisation processes include facilities for the capture and removal of the
resulting Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) gas. In petroleum refineries, the Hydrogen Sulphide gas is then
subsequently converted into by-product elemental Sulphur or Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4). In fact, the
vast majority of the 64,000,000 metric tons of Sulphur produced worldwide in 2005 was by-product
Sulphur from refineries and other hydrocarbon processing plants.

In an industrial hydrodesulphurisation unit, such as in a refinery, the Hydrodesulphurisation reaction


takes place in a fixed-bed reactor at elevated temperatures ranging from 300C to 400 C and
elevated pressures ranging from 30 to 130 atmospheres of absolute pressure, typically in the
presence of a catalyst consisting of an alumina base impregnated with Cobalt and Molybdenum
(usually called a CoMo catalyst). Occasionally, a combination of nickel and molybdenum (called
NiMo) is used, in addition to the CoMo catalyst, for specific difficult-to-treat feed stocks, such as
those containing a high level of chemically bound nitrogen.

The main units of the DHDS Block are:


Figure 26: Process Flow Diagram

1. Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Unit (Unit 17, 18, 19)


2. Hydrogen Unit (Unit 24)
3. Diesel Hydro De-Sulphurisation Unit (Unit 25)
4. Sour Water Stripping Unit (Unit 26)
5. Sulphur Recovery Unit II (Unit 28)

Page | 55
6. Amine Regeneration Unit (Unit 29)
7. Gas Turbine Generation Unit (Unit 58)
8. Heat Recovery Steam Generation Unit (Unit 59)
9. Cooling Water System (Unit 71)
10. Nitrogen Unit (Unit 73, 74)
11. Vacuum Distillation Unit (Unit 82)
12. Sulphur Recovery Unit III (Unit 83)
13. Naphtha Hydro Treatment Unit (Unit 85)

Apart from these, during the visit a turbine operated blower, a turbine operated centrifugal
compressor, stream ejectors in the distillation column and the sonic boom emerging from within
them were also shown.

Page | 56
Chapter 7

Effluent Treatment
Plant

Page | 57
The refinery generates several different types of waste that needs to be treated. Some common
wastes are:

1. Utility Wastes: Ash, Sludge, Dilute Aqueous Waste from cleaning activities
2. Processing Wastes: Chlorides, Sulphides, Bicarbonates, Ammonia, Hydrocarbons,
suspended solids.
3. Hydro-Cracking Wastes: Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulphide, spent catalysts, metallic
compounds.
4. Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Wastes: Fine Catalyst particles.
5. Coking Wastes: Slurry, Coke dust, Hydrocarbons.
6. Alkylation and polymerisation wastes: Sludge from neutralisation, acidic solution.

These were just some of the wastes, several other kinds of waste are generated and the effluent
needs to be treated so as to ensure that it does not harm the environment.

All the effluents from the refinery are subjected to a purification process in ETP. Hence, it is one of
the important parts of the plant.

Operation

Figure 27: Flow Chart of ETP

Chemical effluents from all parts of the plant are generally taken to the new influent sump. Then
they are treated physically, chemically and biologically to separate out the clean water and different
effluents. The effluents are given with allowed a settling time and top layer consisting mainly of oil
is taken out. In API bays the oil, water (with some amount of oil) and sludge is separated out using
Page | 58
A P I Oi l-Water S epa rators . An API oilwater separator is a device designed to separate gross
amounts of oil and suspended solids from the wastewater effluents of oil refineries, petrochemical
plants, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial oily water sources. The
name is derived from the fact that such separators are designed according to standards published
by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Equalization ponds give a high residence time for the
sludge to settle down.

Figure 28: ETP

Lime solution, Ferrous Sulphate (also Hydrogen Peroxide for high sulphur content) is charged to
clarify the water. Mechanically extra oxygen is mixed with this water in aeration tank by agitation to
break down the organic impurity.

Oil Skimmers

Equipment that removes oil floating on the surface of a fluid. In general, oil skimmers work because
they are made of materials to which oil is more likely to stick than the fluid it is floating on. Pre-
treating the fluid with oil skimmers reduces the overall cost of cleaning the liquid.

All designs depend on the laws of gravity and on surface tension in order to function. The six main
types of oil skimmers are belt, disk, drum or barrel style, mop, large tube or mini tube, and floating
suction oil skimmers.

Page | 59
Equalisation Tanks

Equalisation tanks are provided:

(i) To balance fluctuating flows or concentrations.


(ii) To assist self-neutralisation.
(iii) To even out the effect of a periodic "slug" discharge from a batch process.

T ype s of e qual is ation ta nk s :

Flo w through type : Useful in assisting self-neutralisation. A flow through type tank once

filled, gives output equal to input.

Inter mittent flo w type: Flow balancing and self-neutralisation are both achieved by using
two tanks, intermittently one after another.

V aria bl e inflo w/con s tant dis c ha rge type : When flows are large an equalization tank of
such a size may have to be provided that inflow can be variable while outflow is at a constant
rate.

Trickling Filters
Also called trickle filter, trickling biofilter, biological filter and biological trickling filter roughing filters,
intermittent filters, packed media bed filters, alternative septic systems, percolating filters, attached
growth processes, and fixed film processes. Consists of a fixed bed of rocks, lava, coke, gravel,
slag, polyurethane foam, peat moss, ceramic, or plastic media over which sewage flows downward
and causes a layer of microbial slime (biofilm) to grow, covering the bed of media. Aerobic conditions
are maintained by splashing, diffusion, and either by forced air flowing through the bed or natural
convection of air if the filter medium is porous.

Aeration Tank
An aeration tank is a device in which liquid is held in order to increase the amount of air within it.
There are two main methods of aerating liquid: forcing air through the liquid or forcing liquid through
the air. The water is mixed with biological agents and then aerated. The increased oxygen promotes
the growth of the beneficial biological material. That material will consume unwanted waste products

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held in the water. The beneficial material will grow due to increased oxygen and food, which makes
it easier to filter the water.

Lagoons / Basins
Effluent Treatment Plants have lagoons / basins which are final polishing ponds.

T ype s of a era ted la g oons/ ba s in s :

S us pe ns ion Mix ed L agoon s : Suspension mixed lagoons, where there is sufficient energy
provided by the aeration equipment to keep the sludge in suspension.

Fa c ultativ e la goon s : There is insufficient energy provided by the aeration equipment to keep
the sludge in suspension and solids settle to the lagoon floor. The biodegradable solids in
the settled sludge then degrade anaerobically.

National Standards
The treated water must have maximum limits of the following:

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): 25 mg/l (30-day average)


45 mg/l (07-day average)

Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 30 mg/l (30-day average)


45 mg/l (07-day average)

pH shall remain between 6 and 9.

There shall be no visible solids or oil.

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Chapter 7

Once-through Hydro
Cracking Unit

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It consists of Hydrogen Generation Unit, Once-through Hydrocracker Unit, Sulphur Recovery Unit
and Nitrogen Unit. Initially installed with a 2.5 MMTP A crude processing capacity with designed
Lube Oil Base Stocks, the Refinery has subsequently augmented its capacity to process 6.0 MMTP A
crude. The capacity of the refinery is being augmented to 7.5 MMTP A through revamp of Crud e
Dis tilla tion Un it in the year 2009-10. Since commissioning of the P ara dip -Hal dia Cr ude Oil
P ipe li ne (PHC P L) in Jan'09, the refinery started receiving crude oil from Paradip port and receiving
of crude by oil tankers through oil jetties has come down resulting in optimization of transportation
costs of crude oil. The Refinery has facilities for storage of crude oil and finished products produced
by the refinery. Hydro Cracking Unit is designed for 1.2 MMT/year (16 5.6 m/hr, 25,000BP S D) . The
objective of the Hydro Cracking Unit is to produce middle distillate fuel of superior quality. The unit
is designed to process two different types of feed i.e. A ra b Mix HVG O, Bo mba y High H V GO . All
the H2S is removed by absorbing in DEA.

Process Description
Heavier Hydro-Carbon molecules are mixed with Hydrogen and the mixture is subjected to severe
operating conditions of Temp. (380-400C) and pressure (165 185 kg/cm2) to get Lighter Hydro-
Carbons like LPG, MS & HSD components. Strict operating conditions are maintained to get
specified products. All products are of Superior quality w.r.t. Sulphur content. The Hydrocracker Unit
consists of four principle sections:
Make-Up Gas Hydrogen Compression
Reactor Section
Fractionation Section
Light Ends Recovery Section

Reactor Feed System


Fresh feed to the Hydrocracker consists of a blend of Arab Mix and Bombay High VGO. The feed
control system allows the operator to control the ratio of Arab Mix and Bombay High VGOs in order
to set the relative rates of each. The preheated and filtered oil feed is combined with a preheated
mixture of makeup hydrogen from the make-up hydrogen compression section and hydrogen-rich
recycle gas from the recycle gas compressor in a gas-to-oil ratio of 845 Nm3/m3. The reactor system
contains one reaction stage consisting of two reactors in series in a single high-pressure loop. The
lead and main reactors contain hydro treating and hydro cracking catalyst (Si/Al with Ni-Co-Fe) for
denitrification, desulphurization, and conversion of the raw feed to products. The reactor effluent is
initially cooled by heat exchange with the VGO feed and then by heat exchange with recycle gas
and with the product fractionators feed. The effluent is then used to generate medium pressure [12.0
kg/cm2 (g)] steam.
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Fractionation Section
The fractionation section consisting of the fractionators, side cut strippers, and heat exchange
equipment is designed to separate conversion products from unconverted feed. The reaction
products recovered from the column are Sour Gas (Off gas), Unstable Light Naphtha, Heavy
Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel and FCC Feed. The fractionator off-gas unstable light naphtha is sent
to the light ends recovery section for recovery of LPG and light naphtha product.

De-Ethaniser
The de-ethaniser remove light ends (C2), H2S, and water from the light naphtha and LPG. Feed
enters the top of the column. The feed to the de-ethaniser comes from the combined liquid stream
leaving the de-ethaniser reflux drum and is pumped to the top of the de-ethaniser.

Hydrogen Generation Unit


The Unit is designed to process Straight Run Naphtha or Natural Gas to hydrogen that will cater to
the needs of the new DHDT-MSQ and other units. The process involved for converting the Naphtha
to hydrogen is steam reforming. Process licensor for HGU is HTAS, Denmark. The plant is divided
into 3 sections:

Desulphurization

Reforming

CO-Conversion

Sulphur Recovery Unit


The unit consists of three identical units A, B and C. One of them is kept standby. The process
design is in accordance with common practice to recover elemental sulphur known as the Clause
process, which is further improved by Super Clause process. Each unit consists of a thermal stage,
in which H2S is partially burnt with air, followed by two catalytic stages. A catalytic incinerator for
incineration of all gases has been incorporated in order to prevent pollution of the atmosphere. The
primary function of the waste heat boiler is to remove the major portion of heat involved in the
combustion chamber. The secondary function of waste heat boiler is to condense the sulphur, which

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is drained to a sulphur pit. At this stage 60% of the sulphur present in the sour gas feed is removed.
The third function of the waste heat boiler is to utilise the heat liberated there to produce LP steam
(4kg/cm2). The process gas leaving the waste heat boiler still contains a considerable part of H2S
and SO2. Therefore, the essential function of the following equipment is to shift the equilibrium by
adopting a low reactor temperature thus removing the sulphur as soon as it is formed. Conversion
to sulphur is reached by a catalytic process in two subsequent reactors containing a special synthetic

Figure 29: OHCU Layout

alumina catalyst. Before entering the first reactor, the process gas flow is heated to an optimum
temperature by means of a line burner, with mixing chamber, in order to achieve a high conversion.
In the line burner mixing chamber the process gas is mixed with the hot flue gas obtained by burning
fuel gas with air. In the first reactor, the reaction between the H2S and SO2 recommences until
equilibrium is reached. The effluent gas from the first reactor passes to the first sulphur condenser
where at this stage approximately 29% of the sulphur present in the sour gas feed is condensed
and drained to the sulphur pit. The total sulphur recovery after the first reactor stage is 89% of the
sulphur present in the sour gas feed. In order to achieve a figure of 94% sulphur recovery the sour
gas is subjected to one more stage.
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Feed
The hydrogen generation unit can be fed either by naphtha or natural gas. The naphtha feed is
pressurized to about 35 Kg/cm2 by one of the naphtha feed pumps and sent to the desulphurization
section. The pressurized feed is mixed with recycle hydrogen from the hydrogen header. The liquid
naphtha is evaporated to one of the naphtha feed vaporisers. The hydrocarbon feed is heated to
380 to 400C by heat exchange with superheated steam in the naphtha feed preheater.

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Chapter 8

Garage

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Diesel Engine
A diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition engine) is an internal combustion engine that
uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel that has been injected into the
combustion chamber. This is in contrast to spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline
engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to gasoline), which uses a spark plug to
ignite an air-fuel mixture. The engine was developed by German inventor Rudolf Diesel in 1893. The
diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any regular internal or external combustion
engine due to its very high compression ratio. Low-speed diesel engines (as used in ships and other
applications where overall engine weight is relatively unimportant) can have a thermal efficiency that
exceeds 50%. Diesel engines are manufactured in two stroke and four-stroke versions. They were
originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they
have been used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy equipment and electric
generating plants followed later.

How diesel engines work:


The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly
compressed hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (compression ignition rather than
spark ignition). In the true diesel engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber.
The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 resulting in
40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.4 MPa) (about 200 psi) in
the petrol engine. This high compression heats the air to 550 C (1,022 F). At about the top of the
compression stroke, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber.
This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a pre-chamber depending upon
the design of the engine. The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets,
and that the fuel is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel from the surface
of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion
chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the
fuel in the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay period during ignition
and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes
an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then
drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft. As well as the high level of
compression allowing combustion to take place without a separate ignition system, a high
compression ratio greatly increases the engine's efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio in a
spark ignition engine where fuel and air are mixed before entry to the cylinder is limited by the need

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to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not
introduced into the cylinder until shortly before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not
an issue and compression ratios are much higher.

Major advantages

1. Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines:

2. They burn less fuel than a petrol engine performing the same work, due to the engine's higher
temperature of combustion and greater expansion ratio. Gasoline engines are typically 30%
efficient while diesel engines can convert over 45% of the fuel energy into mechanical energy.

3. They have no high voltage electrical ignition system, resulting in high reliability and easy
adaptation to damp environments. The absence of coils, spark plug wires, etc., also
eliminates a source of radio frequency emissions which can interfere with navigation and
communication equipment, which is especially important in marine and aircraft applications.

4. The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as long as that of a petrol engine due to
the increased strength of parts used. Diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than petrol
as well.

5. Diesel fuel is distilled directly from petroleum. Distillation yields some gasoline, but the yield
would be inadequate without catalytic reforming, which is a costlier process.

6. Diesel fuel is considered safer than petrol in many applications. Although diesel fuel will burn
in open air using a wick, it will not explode and does not release a large amount of flammable
vapor. The low vapor pressure of diesel is especially advantageous in marine applications,
where the accumulation of explosive fuel-air mixtures is a particular hazard. For the same
reason, diesel engines are immune to vapor lock.

7. For any given partial load, the fuel efficiency (mass burned per energy produced) of a diesel
engine remains nearly constant, as opposed to petrol and turbine engines which use
proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs.

8. They generate less waste heat in cooling and exhaust.

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9. Diesel engines can accept turbocharging pressure without any natural limit, constrained only
by the strength of engine components. This is unlike petrol engines, which inevitably suffer
detonation at higher pressure.

10. The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal; therefore, diesel engines are used
in underground mines.

11. Biodiesel is an easily synthesized, nonpetroleum-based fuel (through transesterification)


which can run directly in many diesel engines, while gasoline engines either need adaptation
to run synthetic fuels or else use them as an additive to gasoline (e.g., ethanol added to
gasohol).

Supercharging and Turbocharging

Most diesel engines are now turbocharged and some are both turbo charged and supercharged.
Because diesel engines do not have fuel in the cylinder before combustion is initiated, more than
one bar (100 kPa) of air can be loaded in the cylinder without pre-ignition. A turbocharged engine
can produce significantly more power than a naturally aspirated engine of the same configuration,
as having more air in the cylinders allows more fuel to be burned and thus more power to be
produced. A supercharger is powered mechanically by the engine's crankshaft, while a turbocharger
is powered by the engine exhaust, not requiring any mechanical power. Turbocharging can improve
the fuel economy of diesel engines by recovering waste heat from the exhaust, increasing the
excess air factor, and increasing the ratio of engine output to friction losses.

Turbochargers

A turbocharger is a forced induction device used to allow more power to be produced by an engine
of a given size. A turbocharged engine can be more powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated
engine because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion
chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were originally known as turbo-
superchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers; nowadays the
term "supercharger" is usually applied to only mechanically-driven forced induction devices. The key
difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that the latter is mechanically
driven from the engine, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is
driven by the engine's exhaust gas turbine. Compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbo-
chargers tend to be more efficient but less responsive. Twin charger refers to an engine which has
both a supercharger and a turbocharger. Turbos are commonly used on truck, car, train, and
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construction equipment engines. Turbos are popularly used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal
combustion engines.

Ope ra ting Pr inc ipl e

In most piston engines, intake gases are "pulled" into the engine by the downward stroke of the
piston (which creates a low-pressure area), similar to drawing liquid using a syringe. The amount of
air which is actually inhaled, compared with the theoretical amount if the engine could maintain
atmospheric pressure, is called volumetric efficiency. The objective of a turbocharger is to improve
an engine's volumetric efficiency by increasing density of the intake gas (usually air). The
turbocharger's compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it before it enters into the intake
manifold at increased pressure. This results in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each
intake stroke. The power needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived from the kinetic
energy of the engine's exhaust gases. A turbocharger may also be used to increase fuel efficiency
without increasing power. This is achieved by recovering waste energy in the exhaust and feeding
it back into the engine intake. By using this otherwise wasted energy to increase the mass of air, it
becomes easier to ensure that all fuel is burned before being vented at the start of the exhaust
stage. The increased temperature from the higher pressure gives a higher Carnot efficiency. The
control of turbochargers is very complex and has changed dramatically over the 100-plus years of
its use. Modern turbochargers can use waste gates, blow-off valves and variable geometry. The
reduced density of intake air is often compounded by the loss of atmospheric density seen with
elevated altitudes. Thus, a natural use of the turbocharger is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft
climbs to higher altitudes, the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. At 5,486 metres
(17,999 ft.), the air is at half the pressure of sea level, which means that the engine will produce less
than half-power at this altitude, with a turbocharger this can be alleviated.

P re s s ure Inc re as e/Bo os t

In automotive applications, "boost" refers to the amount by which intake manifold pressure exceeds
atmospheric pressure. This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what
would be achieved without the forced induction. The level of boost may be shown on a pressure
gauge, usually in bar, psi or possibly kPa. In aircraft engines, turbocharging is commonly used to
maintain manifold pressure as altitude increases (i.e. to compensate for lower-density air at higher
altitudes). Since atmospheric pressure reduces as the aircraft climbs, power drops as a function of
altitude in normally aspirated engines. Systems that use a turbocharger to maintain an engine's sea-
level power output are called turbo-normalized systems. Generally, a turbo-normalized system will
attempt to maintain a manifold pressure of 29.5 inches of mercury (100 kPa). In all turbocharger

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applications, boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system, including the turbo, inside
its thermal and mechanical design operating range. Over boosting an engine frequently causes
damage to the engine in a variety of ways including pre-ignition, overheating, and over-stressing the
engine's internal hardware. For example, to avoid engine knocking (aka detonation) and the related
physical damage to the engine, the intake manifold pressure must not get too high, thus the pressure
at the intake manifold of the engine must be controlled by some means. Opening the waste gate
allows the excess energy destined for the turbine to bypass it and pass directly to the exhaust pipe,
thus reducing boost pressure. The waste gate can be either controlled manually (frequently seen in
aircraft) or by an actuator (in automotive applications, it is often controlled by the Engine Control
Unit).

Inter c ooling

When the pressure of the engine's intake air is increased, its temperature will also increase. In
addition, heat soak from the hot exhaust gases spinning the turbine may also heat the intake air.
The warmer the intake air the less dense, and the less oxygen available for the combustion event,
which reduces volumetric efficiency. Not only does excessive intake-air temperature reduce
efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation, which is destructive to engines. Turbocharger
units often make use of an intercooler (also known as a charge air cooler), to cool down the intake
air. Intercoolers are often tested for leaks during routine servicing, particularly in trucks where a
leaking intercooler can result in a 20% reduction in fuel economy. (Note that "intercooler" is the
proper term for the air cooler between successive stages of boost, whereas "charge air cooler" is
the proper term for the air cooler between the boost stage(s) and the appliance that will consume
the boosted air.)

Transmission
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled
application of the power. Transmission is an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears
and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. Often
transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and
torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.

The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal
combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational
speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the
higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions
are also used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, and anywhere rotational speed and torque must

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be adapted. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios (or simply gears), with the ability to
switch between them as speed varies. This switching may be done manually (by the operator), or
automatically. Directional (forward and reverse) control may also be provided. Single-ratio
transmissions also exist, which simply change the speed and torque (and sometimes direction) of
motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission generally is connected to the engine crankshaft
via a flywheel and/or clutch and/or fluid coupling. The output of the transmission is transmitted via
driveshaft to one or more differentials, which in turn, drive the wheels. While a differential may also
provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate
at different speeds (essential to avoid wheel slippage on turns) as it changes the direction of rotation.
Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation.
Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation (for example, diesel-
electric transmission and hydraulic drive system). Hybrid configurations also exist.

Manual type

Manual transmissions come in two basic types:

A simple but rugged sliding mesh or unsynchronized/nonsynchronous system, where


straight-cut spur gear sets spin freely, and must be synchronized by the operator matching
engine revs to road speed, to avoid noisy and damaging clashing of the gears.

The now common constant mesh gearboxes, which can include no synchronised, or
synchronized/synchromesh systems, where typically diagonal cut helical (or sometimes
either straight-cut, or double helical) gear sets are constantly "meshed" together, and a dog
clutch is used for changing gears. On synchromesh boxes, friction cones or "synchro-rings"
are used in addition to the dog clutch to closely match the rotational speeds of the two sides
of the (declutched) transmission before making a full mechanical engagement. The former
type was standard in many vintage cars (alongside e.g. epicyclic and multi-clutch systems)
before the development of constant mesh manuals and hydraulic-epicyclic automatics, older
heavy-duty trucks, and can still be found in use in some agricultural equipment. The latter is
the modern standard for on- and off-road transport manual and semi-automatic transmission,
although it may be found in many forms; e.g., non-synchronised straight-cut in racetrack or
super-heavy-duty applications, non-synchro helical in the majority of heavy trucks and
motorcycles and in certain classic cars (e.g. the Fiat 500), and partly or fully synchronised
helical in almost all modern manual-shift passenger cars and light trucks.

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Automatic type

Most modern cars have an automatic transmission that selects an appropriate gear ratio without any
operator intervention. They primarily use hydraulics to select gears, depending on pressure exerted
by fluid within the transmission assembly. Rather than using a clutch to engage the transmission, a
fluid flywheel, or torque converter is placed in between the engine and transmission. It is possible
for the driver to control the number of gears in use or select reverse, though precise control of which
gear is in use may or may not be possible. Automatic transmissions are easy to use. However, in
the past, automatic transmissions of this type have had a number of problems; they were complex
and expensive, sometimes had reliability problems (which sometimes caused more expenses in
repair), have often been less fuel-efficient than their manual counterparts (due to "slippage" in the
torque converter), and their shift time was slower than a manual making them uncompetitive for
racing. With the advancement of modern automatic transmissions this has changed. Attempts to
improve fuel efficiency of automatic transmissions include the use of torque converters that lock up
beyond a certain speed or in higher gear ratios, eliminating power loss, and overdrive gears that
automatically actuate above certain speeds. In older transmissions, both technologies could be
intrusive, when conditions are such that they repeatedly cut in and out as speed and such load
factors as grade or wind vary slightly. Current computerized transmissions possess complex
programming that both maximizes fuel efficiency and eliminates intrusiveness. This is due mainly to
electronic rather than mechanical advances, though improvements in CVT technology and the use
of automatic clutches have also helped.

Cranes
A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves,
that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for
lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. It uses one or more simple machines to
create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a man. Cranes
are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in the
construction industry for the movement of materials and in the manufacturing industry for the
assembling of heavy equipment. The first construction cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks
and were powered by men or beasts of burden, such as donkeys. These cranes were used for the
construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were later developed, employing the use of human
treadwheels, permitting the lifting of heavier weights. In the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were
introduced to load and unload ships and assist with their construction some were built into stone
towers for extra strength and stability. The earliest cranes were constructed from wood, but cast iron

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Figure 30: A mobile crane

and steel took over with the coming of the Industrial Revolution. For many centuries, power was
supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills
could be driven by the harnessed natural power. The first 'mechanical' power was provided by steam
engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, with many remaining
in use well into the late 20th century. Modern cranes usually use internal combustion engines or
electric motors and hydraulic systems to provide a much greater lifting capability than was previously
possible, although manual cranes are still utilised where the provision of power would be
uneconomic. Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms each tailored to a specific use.
Sometimes sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower
cranes, used for constructing high buildings. For a while, mini - cranes are also used for constructing
high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces. Finally, we can find larger
floating cranes, generally used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships.

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Fork-lifts

A fork-lift truck (also called a lift truck, a fork truck, or a fork-lift) is a powered industrial truck used to
lift and transport materials. The modern fork-lift was developed in the 1960s by various companies
including the transmission manufacturing company Clark and the hoist company Yale & Towne
Manufacturing. The forklift has since become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing
and warehousing operations.

Figure 31: Forklift

Co unt erba la nc ed for k -li ft c omponents

A typical counterbalanced forklift contains the following components:

Truc k Fra me is the base of the machine to which the mast, axles, wheels, counterweight,
overhead guard and power source are attached. The frame may have fuel and hydraulic fluid
tanks constructed as part of the frame assembly.

Co unt erweight is a mass attached to the rear of the forklift truck frame. The purpose of the
counterweight is to counterbalance the load being lifted. In an electric forklift the large lead-
acid battery itself may serve as part of the counterweight.

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Cab is the area that contains a seat for the operator along with the control pedals, steering
wheel, levers, switches and a dashboard containing operator readouts. The cab area may be
open air or enclosed, but it is covered by the cage-like overhead guard assembly. The 'Cab'
can also be equipped with a Cab Heater for cold climate countries.
Ov erhe ad Gua rd is a metal roof supported by posts at each corner of the cab that helps
protect the operator from any falling objects. On some forklifts, the overhead guard is an
integrated part of the frame assembly.

P ower S ourc e may consist of an internal combustion engine that can be powered by LP gas,
CNG gas, gasoline or diesel fuel. Electric forklifts are powered by either a battery or fuel cells
that provides power to the electric motors. The electric motors used on a forklift may be either
DC or AC types.

Tilt C yli nder s are hydraulic cylinders that are mounted to the truck frame and the mast. The
tilt cylinders pivot the mast to assist in engaging a load.

Mas t is the vertical assembly that does the work of raising and lowering the load. It is made
up of interlocking rails that also provide lateral stability. The interlocking rails may either have
rollers or bushings as guides. The mast is driven hydraulically, and operated by one or more
hydraulic cylinders directly or using chains from the cylinder/s. It may be mounted to the front
axle or the frame of the forklift.

Carr ia ge is the component to which the forks or other attachments mount. It is mounted into
and moves up and down the mast rails by means of chains or by being directly attached to
the hydraulic cylinder. Like the mast, the carriage may have either rollers or bushings to guide
it in the interlocking mast rails.

Load Bac k Res t is a rack-like extension that is either bolted or welded to the carriage in
order to prevent the load from shifting backward when the carriage is lifted to full height.

A ttac hme nts may consist of forks or tines that are the L-shaped members that engage the
load. A variety of other types of material handling attachments are available. Some
attachments include side shifters, slip-sheet attachments, carton clamps, multipurpose
clamps, rotators, fork positioners, carpet poles, pole handlers, container handlers and roll
clamps.

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Tire s either solid for indoor use, or pneumatic for outside use.

A ttac hme nts

Below is a list of common forklift attachments:

Dime ns ioning Dev ic es : Fork truck mounted dimensioning systems provide dimensions for the
cargo to facilitate truck trailer space utilization and to support warehouse automation systems. The
systems normally communicate the dimensions via 802.11 radios. NTEP certified dimensioning
devices are available to support commercial activities that bill based on volume.

S ide s hift er is a hydraulic attachment that allows the operator to move the tines (forks) and backrest
laterally. This allows easier placement of a load without having to reposition the truck.

Ro tator: To aid the handling of skids that may have become excessively tilted and other specialty
material handling needs some forklifts are fitted with an attachment that allows the tines to be
rotated. This type of attachment may also be used for dumping containers for quick unloading.

Fork P os itione r is a hydraulic attachment that moves the tines (forks) together or apart. This
removes the need for the operator to manually adjust the tines for different sized loads.

Ro ll and Barr el Cla mp A ttac hme nt: A mechanical or hydraulic attachment used to squeeze the
item to be moved. It is used for handling barrels, kegs, or paper rolls. This type of attachment may
also have a rotate function. The rotate function would help an operator to insert a vertically stored
paper into the horizontal intake of a printing press for example.

Carton and Multipurpose Cla mp A ttac hme nts are hydraulic attachments that allow the operator
to open and close around a load, squeezing it to pick it up. Products like cartons, boxes and bales
can be moved with this type attachment. With these attachments in use, the forklift truck is
sometimes referred to as a clamp truck.

P ole A ttac hme nts : In some locations, such as carpet warehouses, a long metal pole is used
instead of forks to lift carpet rolls. Similar devices, though much larger, are used to pick up metal
coils.

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S li p S he et A ttac hme nt (Pus h - P ull) is a hydraulic attachment that reaches forward, clamps onto
a slip sheet and draws the slip sheet onto wide and thin metal forks for transport. The attachment
will push the slip sheet and load off the forks for placement.

Drum Handle r A ttac hme nt is a mechanical attachment that slides onto the tines (forks). It usually
has a spring-loaded jaw that grips the top lip edge of a drum for transport. Another type grabs around
the drum in a manner similar to the roll or barrel attachments.

Te le s c opic Fork s are hydraulic attachments that allow the operator to operate in warehouse design
for "double deep stacking", which means that two pallet shelves are placed behind each other
without any aisle between them.

S c ales : Fork truck mounted scales enable operators to efficiently weigh the pallets they handle
without interrupting their workflow by travelling to a platform scale. Scales are available that provide
legal for trade weights for operations that involve billing by weight. They are easily retrofitted to the
truck by hanging on the carriage in the same manner as forks hang on the truck. Any attachment on
a forklift will reduce its nominal load rating, which is computed with a stock fork carriage and forks.
The actual load rating may be significantly lower.

Mobile Oil Spill Recovery Unit (MOSRU)

Various regulations are laid down by relevant government agencies concerning cleaning of oil spills,
which need to be adhered, for safeguarding the environment. Until recent years there was no
systematic method available for collection of
leaked petroleum products, causing
substantial environmental damage. MOSRU
consists of a collection tank with 360
rotatable suction boom and a superior dual
cooled (air + water cooled) vacuum pump or
compressor system. The power to the system
is given from the truck engine through the
PTO, creating the required vacuum in the tank
for suction of the leaked product.
Figure 32: Indian Oils MOSRU Unit

MOSRU comes equipped with a lighting system and an independent power generator, for carrying
out operations during night and in remote areas. It also features a simplified control panel for easy
operation, a corrosion resistant collection tank; convenient storage compartment for tools and
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accessories; and a large assortment of custom built accessories for added efficiency and long-term
dependability. MOSRUs are custom-made in capacities depending on gross vehicle weight (GVW)
of truck chassis (common tank capacities: 1500 litres on 5 tonne GVW chassis; 3000 Iitres on 10
tonne GVW chassis; 6000 litres on 16 tonne GVW chassis; 12000 Iitres on 25 tonne GVW chassis).

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THE END
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (INDIAN SCHOOL OF MINES)

Souradeep Bhattacharja
2017

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