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Clemson University

Graduate Research and Discovery Symposium
Research and Innovation Month

Spring 2015

Combustion Modeling of Dual-fuel Engines

Shuonan Xu
Clemson University

Zoran Filipi
Clemson University

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Recommended Citation
Xu, Shuonan and Filipi, Zoran, "Combustion Modeling of Dual-fuel Engines" (2015). Graduate Research and Discovery Symposium
(GRADS). Paper 134.

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Combustion Modeling of Dual-fuel Natural Gas Diesel Engines
Shuonan Xu, Zoran Filipi (PI)
Department of Automotive Engineering
College of Engineering
Clemson University

Motivation for Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel Motivation of Modeling Work 1-D Engine Modeling & Validation
Provide better understanding of dual-fuel combustion nature
Abundant supply & Lower cost A comprehensive 1-D simulation of the Cummins ISX 550 dual-fuel
Enables investigation of a broader operating space
Low carbon emissions potential natural gas diesel engine is developed in GT-Power
Provide values of parameters that cannot be easily measured
NG for Heavy-Duty Trucks is the fastest Way to Increase NG Intake and exhaust geometry have been carefully measured and used
Enable efficient optimization of the engine fuel-injection calibration
Utilization to configure the model 6 77
Efficiency Map 104617 76
1200 rpm
5 1400 rpm
1600 rpm 74
4 4.5 1800 rpm

Pressure Ratio
4 72
Experiment 3.5 83339 71

Simulation 70

Cylinder Pressure [bar]

62061 68
3 2
51422 67
1.5 40783
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Mass Flow Rate [kg/s]

Injection Timing

Injection Timing [deg ATDC]



10 1000
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 15

0-D 3-D V/Vmax IMEP [bar]

25 2000

Engine Speed [rpm]

Properties of Natural Gas Selection of Modeling Approach Based on Simulation Goal: Predicting Ignition Delay
Pros Cons Reasonable level of predictiveness with light calculation load Pseudo-diesel equivalence ratio is proposed for dual-fuel ID correlation
High RON: potential for high Gaseous state: negative effect For application of system level analysis Modified ignition delay correlation is validated with dual-fuel combustion
compression ratio on volumetric efficiency
Renewable Challenge with storage
Objective and Challenges m fuel mD mNG Ea
ID 2.4 pD 0.2
P 1.02
Low carbon emissions Low energy density Objective: mO2 st 3.045 mD 3.612 mNG RuT
Fuel Methane Gasoline Light diesel
Develop a predictive quasi-D combustion model for dual-fuel combustion
Chemical Formula CH4 CnH1.87n CnH1.87n Challenges:
Lower Heating Value (MJ/kg) 50.0 44.0 42.5 Capture three types of combustion: Premixed & mixing controlled burning of
Density (kg/m3) 0.72 750 850
Octane Rating (RON) 120 92-98 - diesel, NG turbulent flame propagation and auto-ignition (Knock)
Model flame propagation of NG and air mixture from multiple ignition sites
Dual-fuel Engines (simultaneous with diesel burning)
Track evolution of temperature in the unburned zone, detect knock
Two ways of using NG in Engines
Model kinetics controlled combustion, if conditions enable HCCI type process. Diesel Only Dual-fuel
This leads to investigation of RCCI.
Phenomenological explanation of dual-fuel combustion:
Modeling of Heat Release (Semi-empirical model)
Dual-fuel Reproduce heat release rate with Hybrid Triple-Wiebe function
mi 1
illustration m fb 0.25
fi 1 exp 6.9

f p ( f m ft ) 1 f p 1 0.25
m ft i p , m ,t

Dual-fuel engines are directly converted from diesel engines
Pilot injected diesel fuel to ignite NG-air charge
Dual-fuel engines overcome major drawbacks presented with SI NG Multi-site ignition

High CR of diesel is retained, which improves thermal efficiency
Mode switching between diesel only and dual-fuel can be realized
real-time, which eliminates drivers range anxiety
Additional benefits
Improved thermal efficiency: Unthrottled operation, Reduced On-going Work:
pumping loss, Lean combustion
Improved emission performance: Less NOx and soot emissions Modeling of NG Combustion (Predictive model)
compared to diesel only engines Experiment Insights Capture combustion of natural gas, including:
Ignition and flame front development
Instrumented test on a dual-fuel HD engine Turbulent flame propagation in lean NG-air mixture
Experimental results provide insights and enable validation of simulation work
NG flame propagation
Instrumented sensors and data Measured cylinder pressure dme
aquisition systems unburned Aflame (u ' S L )
dmb me mb

dt SL

Two ways of natural-gas injection: PFI (left) and HPDI(right)

Dual-fuel is a promising concept in realizing NG usage in transportation.
However, it requires research and development to become ready for
large scale market introduction.