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# Module 2 : Transmission Lines

Objectives

## Impedance transformation on a loss-less line.

For a given load impedance, maximum and minimum impedance seen on the line.

## Concept of matched impedance.

Module 2 : Transmission Lines

## Impedance Variation on Transmission Line

The impedance at any point on the loss-less transmission line is

## Which can be written in terms of normalized impedances as

The expression can be used for transforming impedance on any point on the loss-less transmission line to any other point.
Module 2 : Transmission Lines

## Maximum and Minimum Impedance seen on Transmission Line

The maximum impedance occurs where the voltage is maximum and current is minimum, and its value is

Noting that the quantity inside the square bracket is the VSWR, we get

The minimum impedance occurs at a location where the voltage is minimum and the current is maximum,
and its value is

The magnitude of the impedance at any point on the loss-less line is bounded by and
Module 2 : Transmission Lines

## Important Characteristics of a Loss Less Transmission Line

(1)
We know line characteristics repeat every , we have
Proof :

Therefore,

(2)
Normalized impedance inverts every distance
Proof :
In this case,

Hence we get,

Note

It is the Normalized impedance which inverts every distance and not the absolute impedance.
Module 2 : Transmission Lines

## Important Characteristics of a Loss Less Transmission Line

The input impedance of a line of length, which is terminated with an impedance is

## For (open circuit), and for (short circuit),

Interesting
An open circuited cable connected to the output of a circuit may heavily load the circuit if the length of the cable is ,
since at the output of the circuit the impedance appeared will be short circuit.

Caution
In circuit measurements we invariably make connections between a circuit and an oscilloscope. For high input
impedance oscilloscope we assume that the testing is carried out in almost open circuit conditions. However, at
high frequencies when the length of the cable connecting the circuit and the oscilloscope becomes comparable to
, the circuit does not see the open circuit. For long cable the circuit sees short circuit and therefore the
measurements may go completely wrong.
Module 2 : Transmission Lines

## Important Characteristics of a Loss Less Transmission Line

(3)
For load impedance , the impedance at any point on the line is
Proof :

Important
If a line is terminated in the characteristics impedance , the impedance at every point on the line is . That
is the input impedance of the line is independent of the length of the line.
This is called the 'Matched Load' condition.
Golden Rule

All high frequency measurements should be carried out in the matched load conditions (i.e. ) so that
the cable lengths used in measurement setups do not play any role.
Module 2 : Transmission Lines

Recap

## Impedance transformation on a loss-less line.

For a given load impedance, maximum and minimum impedance seen on the line.