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Transformer

Transformer :

Machine to transform
levels of voltage and
current but not power or
volt-ampere.
From amperes law:

m =
N1i m Core
reluctance Winding
N1 = no. of turns of the coil
im = current in the coil

m
im
Direction of flux + +
given by right v1 e1 N1
hand thumb _ _
rule
From Faradays law:
dm
v1 = e1 = N1
dt

Magnitude of core flux is determined


by the induced voltage and hence = N1i m
m
applied voltage in case of an ideal reluctance
transformer.
m
im
For an ideal + +
transformer, v1 e1 N1
im = 0 _ _
Voltage induced in winding 2
m
+ + + +
v1 e1 N1 N2 e2 v2
_ _ _ _
i m= 0

Ideal transformer: Recluctance of core material is zero

d m
v1 = e1 = N1
dt
dm
v2 = e2 = N 2
dt
Polarity of induced voltage is given by
v1 e1 N1
Lenzs law : dotted terminals gets = =
similar polarity v2 e2 N 2
Ideal Transformer on load

m
i2
+ + + +
v1 e1 N1 N2 e2 v2
_ _ _ _
i m= 0

v1 being the applied voltage


remains same, but

d (m 2 )
e1 = N1
dt
Therefore, e1 < v1

i
Hence a current 1 flows from v1 to dot terminal
of winding 1.
Flow of current
1i in N1 sets a flux 1
in the core
Ideal Transformer on load
1
2

m
i1 i2
+ + + +
v1 e1 N1 N2 e2 v2
_ _ _ _
i m= 0

Steady state will reach when, 1 = 2 Therefore at steady state

1 =
N1i1
2 =
N 2i 2 N1i1 = N 2i2
reluctance reluctance i1 N 2
=
i2 N1
Ideal Transformer on load

1
2

m
i1 i2
+ + + +
v1 e1 N1 N2 e2 v2 Z
_ _ _ _
i m= 0

v1 e1 V1 N1 Therefore,
= = = v1i1 = v2i2
v2 e2 V2 N 2
e1i1 = e2i2
i1 N 2 e2 v2
= = =
i2 N1 e1 v1 Volt-amperes at both the sides are
same
Ideal Transformer on load
1
2

m
i1 i2
+ + + +
v1 e1 N1 N2 e2 v2 Z
_ _ _ _
i m= 0

v2 e2
Impedance seen by winding-1, Z= =
i2 i2
Impedance seen by winding-2,
N1v2
2 2
v1 N2 N1 v2 N1
Z = =
/
= = Z
i1 N 2i2 N 2 i2 N 2
N1