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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System

V100R009C00

Maintenance Guide

Issue 02
Date 2016-08-15

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2016. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions

and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective
holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the
purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or
representations of any kind, either express or implied.

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base
Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China

Website: http://www.huawei.com
Email: support@huawei.com

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About This Document

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document.

Product Name Version

OptiX RTN 950 V100R009C00

iManager U2000 V200R016C50

Intended Audience
This document provides the guidelines to maintaining the OptiX RTN 950. It also describes
the alarms and performance events that are required for troubleshooting during the
maintenance.

This document is intended for:

l Network planning engineer


l Data configuration engineer
l System maintenance engineer

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Symbol Description

Indicates an imminently hazardous situation


which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.

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Symbol Description

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation


which, if not avoided, could result in death
or serious injury.

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation


which, if not avoided, may result in minor
or moderate injury.

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation


which, if not avoided, could result in
equipment damage, data loss, performance
deterioration, or unanticipated results.
NOTICE is used to address practices not
related to personal injury.

Calls attention to important information,


best practices and tips.
NOTE is used to address information not
related to personal injury, equipment
damage, and environment deterioration.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Convention Description

Times New Roman Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman.

Boldface Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in


boldface. For example, log in as user root.

Italic Book titles are in italics.


Courier New Examples of information displayed on the screen are in
Courier New.

Command Conventions
The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Convention Description

Boldface The keywords of a command line are in boldface.

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Convention Description

Italic Command arguments are in italics.

[] Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional.

{ x | y | ... } Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected.

[ x | y | ... ] Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.

{ x | y | ... }* Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all
items can be selected.

[ x | y | ... ]* Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Convention Description

Boldface Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles


are in boldface. For example, click OK.

> Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">"


signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue
contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 02 (2016-08-15) Based on Product Version V100R009C00


This document is the second issue of the V100R009C00 product version.

Update Description

A.3.148 KMC_KEY_SYNC_FAIL added.

- Fixed known defects.

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Updates in Issue 01 (2016-04-30) Based on Product Version V100R009C00


This document is the first issue of the V100R009C00 product version.

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Contents

About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii


1 Safety Precautions......................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 General Safety Precautions.............................................................................................................................................2
1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols..........................................................................................................................................3
1.3 Electrical Safety..............................................................................................................................................................4
1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas.....................................................................................................................................7
1.5 Storage Batteries.............................................................................................................................................................7
1.6 Radiation.........................................................................................................................................................................9
1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers....................................................................................................................................... 9
1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure......................................................................................................................................... 11
1.6.3 Forbidden Areas.........................................................................................................................................................11
1.6.4 Laser...........................................................................................................................................................................11
1.6.5 Microwave................................................................................................................................................................. 12
1.7 Working at Heights....................................................................................................................................................... 13
1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects.............................................................................................................................................13
1.7.2 Using Ladders............................................................................................................................................................14
1.8 Mechanical Safety........................................................................................................................................................ 16
1.9 Other Precautions......................................................................................................................................................... 17

2 Notices for High-Risk Operations........................................................................................... 19


2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch............................................................................................................. 20
2.2 Operation Guide for the IF Jumper...............................................................................................................................22
2.3 Operation Guide for the IF Cables............................................................................................................................... 23
2.4 Operation Guide for the IF Board.................................................................................................................................25

3 Routine Maintenance..................................................................................................................27
4 Network Monitoring...................................................................................................................32
4.1 Checking the NE Status................................................................................................................................................ 33
4.2 Checking the Board Status........................................................................................................................................... 34
4.3 Alarm and Performance Data Query............................................................................................................................ 35
4.3.1 Browsing Current Alarms..........................................................................................................................................35
4.3.2 Browsing Historical Alarms...................................................................................................................................... 40
4.3.3 Browsing Current Performance Events..................................................................................................................... 43
4.3.4 Browsing Historical Performance Events..................................................................................................................45

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4.3.5 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records............................................................................... 46


4.3.6 Browsing UAT Events............................................................................................................................................... 48
4.4 Microwave Link Performance Query........................................................................................................................... 49
4.4.1 Querying the Historical Transmit Power and Receive Power................................................................................... 49
4.4.2 Querying the SNR Values of a Radio Link................................................................................................................50
4.4.3 Browsing Current Performance Events of the radio link...........................................................................................51
4.4.4 Browsing Historical Performance Data of a Radio Link...........................................................................................53
4.5 Ethernet Performance Query........................................................................................................................................ 54
4.5.1 Browsing Current Ethernet Performance.................................................................................................................. 54
4.5.2 Configuring Ethernet Performance Threshold-Crossing Parameters........................................................................ 59
4.5.3 Setting Parameters for Monitoring Historical Ethernet Performance........................................................................63
4.5.4 Browsing Historical Ethernet Performance Data...................................................................................................... 63
4.6 Ethernet Port Traffic Monitoring.................................................................................................................................. 68
4.6.1 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports....................................................68
4.6.2 Querying Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization............................................................................ 69
4.7 Long-term Network Performance Monitoring............................................................................................................. 70
4.7.1 Creating a Performance Monitoring Template.......................................................................................................... 70
4.7.2 Creating a Performance Monitoring Instance............................................................................................................72
4.7.3 Browsing the Real-Time Data of a Performance Monitoring Instance..................................................................... 76
4.7.4 Browsing the Historical Data of a Performance Monitoring Instance...................................................................... 77
4.8 Report Query................................................................................................................................................................ 78
4.8.1 Querying the Microwave Link Information Report...................................................................................................78
4.8.2 Querying the Network-wide License Report.............................................................................................................79
4.8.3 Querying the Microwave Configuration Report........................................................................................................81
4.8.4 Querying the Board Information Report................................................................................................................... 82
4.8.5 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report...........................................................................................85
4.8.6 Querying the ODU Information Report.....................................................................................................................86
4.9 Alarm and Performance Management Setting..............................................................................................................87
4.9.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs.......................................................................................... 87
4.9.2 Setting Severity and Auto Reporting Status of Alarms............................................................................................. 88
4.9.3 Suppressing Alarms for Monitored Objects.............................................................................................................. 89
4.9.4 Suppressing Alarms for NEs..................................................................................................................................... 90
4.9.5 Reversing Alarms for Service Ports.......................................................................................................................... 91
4.9.6 Setting Trigger Conditions of AIS Insertion..............................................................................................................92
4.9.7 Setting Trigger Conditions of UNEQ Insertion.........................................................................................................92
4.9.8 Setting Bit Error Thresholds for Service Ports.......................................................................................................... 93
4.9.9 Setting the Alarm Threshold for Insufficient Fade Margin....................................................................................... 94
4.9.10 Setting Monitoring and Auto-Report Status of Performance Events...................................................................... 94
4.9.11 Setting Performance Thresholds..............................................................................................................................95
4.9.12 Resetting Performance Registers.............................................................................................................................96

5 Troubleshooting.......................................................................................................................... 98
5.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure........................................................................................................................... 100

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5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions....................................................................................................................... 102


5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link................................................................................................................................. 109
5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services.............................................................................................................116
5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications....................................................................................................................... 121
5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment...................................................................................... 125
5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment...................................................................................... 128
5.8 Troubleshooting Native Ethernet Service Faults........................................................................................................ 132
5.9 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service on the EoS/EoPDH Plane.................................................................................... 135
5.10 Troubleshooting MPLS Tunnels...............................................................................................................................140
5.11 Troubleshooting CES Services................................................................................................................................. 144
5.12 Troubleshooting ATM Services................................................................................................................................ 148
5.13 Troubleshooting Ethernet Services Carried by PWs................................................................................................ 155
5.14 Troubleshooting L3VPN Services............................................................................................................................ 158
5.15 Troubleshooting DCN Faults....................................................................................................................................161
5.16 Troubleshooting Orderwire Faults............................................................................................................................166
5.17 Typical Cases............................................................................................................................................................ 168
5.17.1 Transient Link Unavailability Due to Multi-path Fading......................................................................................168
5.17.2 Transoceanic Link Transient Unavailability Due to Insufficient Height Difference between Diversity Antennas
.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 170
5.17.3 Link Unavailability Due to Inter-building Reflection........................................................................................... 171
5.17.4 Unidirectional Link Availability Due to Interference............................................................................................172
5.17.5 Bit Errors on Microwave Links............................................................................................................................. 173
5.17.6 Poor Reliability Due to Network Planning Errors.................................................................................................174

6 Part Replacement....................................................................................................................... 176


6.1 Removing a Board...................................................................................................................................................... 178
6.2 Inserting a Board........................................................................................................................................................ 181
6.3 Replacing the SDH Optical Interface Board.............................................................................................................. 183
6.4 Replacing the Channelized STM-1 Processing Board............................................................................................... 184
6.5 Replacing the PDH Interface Board........................................................................................................................... 185
6.6 Replacing the Smart E1 Interface Board.................................................................................................................... 186
6.7 Replacing the Ethernet Interface Board......................................................................................................................187
6.8 Replacing an IF Board................................................................................................................................................ 188
6.9 Replacing the CF Card............................................................................................................................................... 190
6.10 Replacing the System Control, Switching and Timing Board..................................................................................192
6.11 Replacing the Auxiliary Board................................................................................................................................. 196
6.12 Replacing the Fan Board.......................................................................................................................................... 197
6.13 Replacing the Power Board...................................................................................................................................... 199
6.14 Replacing the SFP.................................................................................................................................................... 200
6.15 Replacing an ODU....................................................................................................................................................202
6.16 Replacing an IF Cable.............................................................................................................................................. 204
6.17 Erasing Data in the Repair Parts...............................................................................................................................206
6.17.1 Board Storage Media............................................................................................................................................. 206

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6.17.2 Removing the CF Card.......................................................................................................................................... 207


6.17.3 Formatting the Flash Memory............................................................................................................................... 208

7 Database Backup and Restoration......................................................................................... 210


7.1 NE Database............................................................................................................................................................... 211
7.2 Backing Up the Database Manually........................................................................................................................... 212
7.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy........................................................................................................................... 214
7.3.1 Setting the User-Defined Backup Policy................................................................................................................. 214
7.3.2 Enable the Backup Policy of the Device................................................................................................................. 216
7.3.3 Disable the Backup Policy of the Device................................................................................................................ 217
7.4 Restoring the Database by NMS................................................................................................................................ 219
7.5 Recovering Databases from a USB Flash Drive........................................................................................................ 223
7.6 Restoring Databases for an NE from Its Peer NE.......................................................................................................225

8 Common Maintenance Operations........................................................................................ 227


8.1 Microwave Link Troubleshooting.............................................................................................................................. 229
8.1.1 Monitoring Radio Link Indicators........................................................................................................................... 229
8.1.2 Scanning Interfering Signals................................................................................................................................... 230
8.1.3 Muting/Unmuting an ODU......................................................................................................................................231
8.1.4 Turning On/Off the Soft Power Switch of an ODU................................................................................................ 232
8.1.5 Performing a PRBS Test for the IF Board............................................................................................................... 233
8.2 Ethernet Service Troubleshooting.............................................................................................................................. 235
8.2.1 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port............................................................................................................ 235
8.2.2 Searching for Service Paths Based on VLANs....................................................................................................... 236
8.2.3 Searching for Service Paths Based on MAC Addresses..........................................................................................238
8.2.4 Checking the Layer 2 Protocols Used by Ethernet Services................................................................................... 239
8.2.5 Performing Intelligent Service Fault Diagnosis for Ethernet Services....................................................................240
8.2.6 Performing E-LAN Service Loopback Detection....................................................................................................242
8.2.7 Monitoring Ethernet Service Performance and Traffic Volume Based on Service Paths........................................243
8.2.8 Querying Ethernet Service QoS Configurations Based on Service Paths............................................................... 245
8.2.9 Using IP Ping Commands to Locate Ethernet Service Faults................................................................................. 247
8.2.10 Monitoring Ethernet Packets Through Port Mirroring.......................................................................................... 252
8.2.11 Monitoring Ethernet Packets by Using Port Traffic Mirroring..............................................................................254
8.2.12 Configuring IP Packet Coloring and Statistics Collection.................................................................................... 256
8.2.13 Capturing Headers of Specified Ethernet Packets................................................................................................. 258
8.2.14 Using the Ethernet Test Frames.............................................................................................................................260
8.2.15 Checking L3VPN Service Performance Using NQA............................................................................................262
8.3 TDM/CES Service Troubleshooting...........................................................................................................................269
8.3.1 Setting the On/Off State of the Laser...................................................................................................................... 269
8.3.2 Setting the ALS Function........................................................................................................................................ 270
8.3.3 Performing a PRBS Test for the Smart E1 Processing Board................................................................................. 271
8.3.4 Performing a PRBS Test for the Tributary Board....................................................................................................274
8.3.5 Querying the Impedance of an E1 Channel.............................................................................................................277
8.4 Software Loopback.....................................................................................................................................................278

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8.4.1 Setting Loopback for the SDH Optical Interface Board..........................................................................................278


8.4.2 Setting Loopback for the Channelized STM-1 Processing Board...........................................................................280
8.4.3 Setting Loopback for the Tributary Board...............................................................................................................282
8.4.4 Setting a Loopback for the Smart E1 Processing Board......................................................................................... 284
8.4.5 Setting a Loopback for the Packet-plane Ethernet Interface Board........................................................................ 285
8.4.6 Setting Loopbacks for the EOS/EoPDH-Plane Ethernet Interface Board............................................................... 287
8.4.7 Setting Loopback for the IF Board.......................................................................................................................... 290
8.4.8 Setting Software Loopback for the NE....................................................................................................................292
8.4.9 Setting Software Loopback for the Microwave Link.............................................................................................. 293
8.4.10 Locating a Fault by Performing Loopback Operations......................................................................................... 294
8.5 Hardware Loopback................................................................................................................................................... 296
8.6 Reset........................................................................................................................................................................... 296
8.6.1 Cold Reset................................................................................................................................................................296
8.6.2 Warm Reset..............................................................................................................................................................297
8.7 Setting the Automatic Release Function.................................................................................................................... 298
8.8 Querying Power Consumption of Boards...................................................................................................................299
8.9 Querying Optical Power and Alarm Thresholds of SDH Ports..................................................................................300
8.10 Preventing Service Loops......................................................................................................................................... 300
8.10.1 Enabling/Disabling Automatic Service Loop Detection....................................................................................... 300
8.10.2 Enabling the Automatic Broadcast Packet Suppression Function.........................................................................302
8.11 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit.............................................................................303
8.12 Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters................................................................................................................. 304
8.12.1 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Cartridge Cleaners..................................................................................... 304
8.12.2 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Lens Tissue.................................................................................................307
8.12.3 Cleaning Fiber Adapters by Using Optical Cleaning Sticks................................................................................. 308

A Alarm Reference....................................................................................................................... 310


A.1 Alarm List (in Alphabetical Order)............................................................................................................................311
A.2 Alarm List (Classified by Logical Boards)................................................................................................................329
A.2.1 AUX........................................................................................................................................................................331
A.2.2 CQ1.........................................................................................................................................................................331
A.2.3 CSH.........................................................................................................................................................................332
A.2.4 CSHU/CSHUA....................................................................................................................................................... 334
A.2.5 CST......................................................................................................................................................................... 337
A.2.6 EFP8....................................................................................................................................................................... 338
A.2.7 EG4......................................................................................................................................................................... 339
A.2.8 EG4P.......................................................................................................................................................................340
A.2.9 EM6D..................................................................................................................................................................... 341
A.2.10 EM6T.................................................................................................................................................................... 341
A.2.11 EM6TA..................................................................................................................................................................342
A.2.12 EM6F.................................................................................................................................................................... 342
A.2.13 EM6FA..................................................................................................................................................................343
A.2.14 EMS6.................................................................................................................................................................... 344

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A.2.15 FAN.......................................................................................................................................................................344
A.2.16 IF1.........................................................................................................................................................................345
A.2.17 IFU2...................................................................................................................................................................... 345
A.2.18 IFX2...................................................................................................................................................................... 346
A.2.19 ISM6..................................................................................................................................................................... 347
A.2.20 ISU2...................................................................................................................................................................... 348
A.2.21 ISV3...................................................................................................................................................................... 349
A.2.22 ISX2...................................................................................................................................................................... 350
A.2.23 ML1/MD1.............................................................................................................................................................351
A.2.24 ODU......................................................................................................................................................................351
A.2.25 PIU........................................................................................................................................................................ 351
A.2.26 PMU......................................................................................................................................................................352
A.2.27 SL1D/SL1DA....................................................................................................................................................... 352
A.2.28 SP3S/SP3D........................................................................................................................................................... 352
A.2.29 TCU...................................................................................................................................................................... 353
A.3 Alarms and Handling Procedures.............................................................................................................................. 353
A.3.1 A_LOC................................................................................................................................................................... 353
A.3.2 ACR_LOCK_FAIL.................................................................................................................................................354
A.3.3 AES_MAC_ERR.................................................................................................................................................... 355
A.3.4 ALM_E1RAI.......................................................................................................................................................... 356
A.3.5 ALM_GFP_dCSF................................................................................................................................................... 357
A.3.6 ALM_GFP_dLFD...................................................................................................................................................358
A.3.7 ALM_IMA_LIF......................................................................................................................................................359
A.3.8 ALM_IMA_LODS................................................................................................................................................. 360
A.3.9 ALM_IMA_RE_RX_UNUSABLE........................................................................................................................361
A.3.10 ALM_IMA_RE_TX_UNUSABLE...................................................................................................................... 363
A.3.11 ALM_IMA_RFI....................................................................................................................................................364
A.3.12 AM_DOWNSHIFT.............................................................................................................................................. 366
A.3.13 APS_FAIL............................................................................................................................................................ 367
A.3.14 APS_INDI.............................................................................................................................................................369
A.3.15 APS_MANUAL_STOP........................................................................................................................................370
A.3.16 ARP_FAIL............................................................................................................................................................ 371
A.3.17 ARP_SPOOF........................................................................................................................................................ 372
A.3.18 ATMPW_UNKNOWNCELL_EXC.....................................................................................................................373
A.3.19 AU_AIS................................................................................................................................................................ 374
A.3.20 AU_LOP............................................................................................................................................................... 375
A.3.21 B1_EXC................................................................................................................................................................376
A.3.22 B1_SD...................................................................................................................................................................378
A.3.23 B2_EXC................................................................................................................................................................380
A.3.24 B2_SD...................................................................................................................................................................382
A.3.25 B3_EXC................................................................................................................................................................385
A.3.26 B3_EXC_VC3...................................................................................................................................................... 387

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A.3.27 B3_SD...................................................................................................................................................................389
A.3.28 B3_SD_VC3......................................................................................................................................................... 391
A.3.29 BAT1TEMP_SENSOR_FAIL.............................................................................................................................. 393
A.3.30 BAT2TEMP_SENSOR_FAIL.............................................................................................................................. 394
A.3.31 BD_NOT_INSTALLED....................................................................................................................................... 396
A.3.32 BD_STATUS........................................................................................................................................................ 396
A.3.33 BDTEMP_SENSOR_FAIL.................................................................................................................................. 398
A.3.34 BGPBACKTRANSITION................................................................................................................................... 400
A.3.35 BIOS_STATUS..................................................................................................................................................... 401
A.3.36 BIP_EXC.............................................................................................................................................................. 402
A.3.37 BIP_SD................................................................................................................................................................. 404
A.3.38 BOOTROM_BAD................................................................................................................................................ 406
A.3.39 BRDCASTRATIO_OVER................................................................................................................................... 407
A.3.40 BUS_ERR.............................................................................................................................................................408
A.3.41 CES_ACR_LOCK_ABN......................................................................................................................................411
A.3.42 CES_APS_INDI................................................................................................................................................... 412
A.3.43 CES_APS_MANUAL_STOP.............................................................................................................................. 415
A.3.44 CES_JTROVR_EXC............................................................................................................................................ 416
A.3.45 CES_JTRUDR_EXC............................................................................................................................................ 417
A.3.46 CES_K1_K2_M....................................................................................................................................................418
A.3.47 CES_K2_M...........................................................................................................................................................419
A.3.48 CES_LOSPKT_EXC............................................................................................................................................ 420
A.3.49 CES_MALPKT_EXC...........................................................................................................................................421
A.3.50 CES_MISORDERPKT_EXC...............................................................................................................................422
A.3.51 CES_RDI.............................................................................................................................................................. 423
A.3.52 CES_STRAYPKT_EXC.......................................................................................................................................424
A.3.53 CESPW_OPPOSITE_ACFAULT.........................................................................................................................424
A.3.54 CESPW_OPPOSITE_RAI................................................................................................................................... 425
A.3.55 CFCARD_FAILED.............................................................................................................................................. 426
A.3.56 CFCARD_FULL.................................................................................................................................................. 427
A.3.57 CFCARD_OFFLINE............................................................................................................................................ 428
A.3.58 CFCARD_W_R_DISABLED.............................................................................................................................. 430
A.3.59 CHCS.................................................................................................................................................................... 431
A.3.60 CLK_LOCK_FAIL...............................................................................................................................................432
A.3.61 CLK_NO_TRACE_MODE..................................................................................................................................433
A.3.62 COMMUN_FAIL................................................................................................................................................. 435
A.3.63 COM_EXTECC_FULL........................................................................................................................................437
A.3.64 CONFIG_NOSUPPORT...................................................................................................................................... 438
A.3.65 CPU_BUSY.......................................................................................................................................................... 440
A.3.66 DBMS_DELETE.................................................................................................................................................. 441
A.3.67 DBMS_ERROR....................................................................................................................................................441
A.3.68 DBMS_PROTECT_MODE................................................................................................................................. 443

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A.3.69 DCNLINK_OVER............................................................................................................................................... 444


A.3.70 DCNSIZE_OVER.................................................................................................................................................445
A.3.71 DDN_LFA............................................................................................................................................................ 445
A.3.72 DOWN_E1_AIS................................................................................................................................................... 447
A.3.73 DROPRATIO_OVER........................................................................................................................................... 448
A.3.74 E1_LOC................................................................................................................................................................ 449
A.3.75 E1_LOS................................................................................................................................................................ 450
A.3.76 ELAN_SMAC_FLAPPING................................................................................................................................. 451
A.3.77 ENVHUM_SENSOR_FAIL.................................................................................................................................452
A.3.78 ENVTEMP_SENSOR_FAIL................................................................................................................................453
A.3.79 ENVTEMP1_SENSOR_FAIL..............................................................................................................................455
A.3.80 ENVTEMP2_SENSOR_FAIL..............................................................................................................................456
A.3.81 ERPS_IN_PROTECTION....................................................................................................................................457
A.3.82 ETH_APS_LOST................................................................................................................................................. 458
A.3.83 ETH_APS_PATH_MISMATCH...........................................................................................................................460
A.3.84 ETH_APS_SWITCH_FAIL................................................................................................................................. 461
A.3.85 ETH_APS_TYPE_MISMATCH.......................................................................................................................... 461
A.3.86 ETH_AUTO_LINK_DOWN................................................................................................................................462
A.3.87 ETH_CFM_AIS....................................................................................................................................................463
A.3.88 ETH_CFM_LOC.................................................................................................................................................. 465
A.3.89 ETH_CFM_MISMERGE..................................................................................................................................... 467
A.3.90 ETH_CFM_RDI................................................................................................................................................... 470
A.3.91 ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI...................................................................................................................................... 472
A.3.92 ETH_EFM_DF..................................................................................................................................................... 475
A.3.93 ETH_EFM_EVENT............................................................................................................................................. 476
A.3.94 ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK.....................................................................................................................................478
A.3.95 ETH_EFM_REMFAULT..................................................................................................................................... 479
A.3.96 ETH_LOS............................................................................................................................................................. 480
A.3.97 ETH_NO_FLOW................................................................................................................................................. 482
A.3.98 ETH_PWR_SUPPLY_FAIL.................................................................................................................................483
A.3.99 ETHOAM_DISCOVER_FAIL.............................................................................................................................484
A.3.100 ETHOAM_RMT_CRIT_FAULT....................................................................................................................... 485
A.3.101 ETHOAM_RMT_LOOP.................................................................................................................................... 487
A.3.102 ETHOAM_RMT_SD......................................................................................................................................... 488
A.3.103 ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP................................................................................................................................... 490
A.3.104 ETHOAM_VCG_SELF_LOOP......................................................................................................................... 491
A.3.105 EX_ETHOAM_CC_LOS................................................................................................................................... 493
A.3.106 EX_ETHOAM_MPID_CNFLCT.......................................................................................................................494
A.3.107 EXT_SYNC_LOS.............................................................................................................................................. 496
A.3.108 EXT_TIME_LOC...............................................................................................................................................497
A.3.109 FAN_AGING......................................................................................................................................................498
A.3.110 FAN_FAIL.......................................................................................................................................................... 499

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
Maintenance Guide Contents

A.3.111 FCS_ERR............................................................................................................................................................500
A.3.112 FDBSIZEALM_ELAN.......................................................................................................................................501
A.3.113 FLOW_EXC_LCS..............................................................................................................................................502
A.3.114 FLOW_OVER.................................................................................................................................................... 503
A.3.115 GSP_RSVP_NB_AUTH_ERR...........................................................................................................................504
A.3.116 GSP_RSVP_NB_DOWN................................................................................................................................... 505
A.3.117 GSP_TNNL_DOWN.......................................................................................................................................... 507
A.3.118 HARD_ERR....................................................................................................................................................... 509
A.3.119 HARD_BAD.......................................................................................................................................................510
A.3.120 HARD_NONSUPPORT..................................................................................................................................... 511
A.3.121 HP_CROSSTR................................................................................................................................................... 512
A.3.122 HP_LOM............................................................................................................................................................ 513
A.3.123 HP_RDI.............................................................................................................................................................. 514
A.3.124 HP_REI...............................................................................................................................................................515
A.3.125 HP_SLM............................................................................................................................................................. 516
A.3.126 HP_TIM.............................................................................................................................................................. 517
A.3.127 HP_UNEQ.......................................................................................................................................................... 518
A.3.128 HPAD_CROSSTR.............................................................................................................................................. 519
A.3.129 IF_CABLE_OPEN............................................................................................................................................. 520
A.3.130 IF_INPWR_ABN............................................................................................................................................... 521
A.3.131 IF_MODE_UNSUPPORTED.............................................................................................................................523
A.3.132 IGSP_ENTRIES_EXC....................................................................................................................................... 524
A.3.133 IMA_GROUP_LE_DOWN................................................................................................................................525
A.3.134 IMA_GROUP_RE_DOWN............................................................................................................................... 526
A.3.135 IMA_TXCLK_MISMATCH.............................................................................................................................. 528
A.3.136 IN_PWR_ABN................................................................................................................................................... 528
A.3.137 IN_PWR_HIGH................................................................................................................................................. 530
A.3.138 IN_PWR_LOW.................................................................................................................................................. 531
A.3.139 INTEMP_SENSOR_FAIL..................................................................................................................................533
A.3.140 IPFPM_INST_TLP_ERR................................................................................................................................... 534
A.3.141 IPFPM_LOSSRATIO_EXCE.............................................................................................................................535
A.3.142 IPFPM_ONEDELAY_EXCE............................................................................................................................. 536
A.3.143 IPFPM_TWODELAY_EXCE............................................................................................................................ 537
A.3.144 ISISADJACENCYCHANGE.............................................................................................................................538
A.3.145 J0_MM................................................................................................................................................................540
A.3.146 K1_K2_M........................................................................................................................................................... 541
A.3.147 K2_M.................................................................................................................................................................. 542
A.3.148 KMC_KEY_SYNC_FAIL..................................................................................................................................544
A.3.149 L3V_TRAP_THRE_EXCEED...........................................................................................................................545
A.3.150 L3V_TRAP_VRF_DOWN.................................................................................................................................546
A.3.151 LAG_BWMM.....................................................................................................................................................547
A.3.152 LAG_DOWN......................................................................................................................................................548

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
Maintenance Guide Contents

A.3.153 LAG_MEMBER_DOWN.................................................................................................................................. 549


A.3.154 LAG_PORT_FAIL..............................................................................................................................................551
A.3.155 LAG_VC_PORT_FAIL...................................................................................................................................... 553
A.3.156 LAN_LOC.......................................................................................................................................................... 554
A.3.157 LASER_CLOSED.............................................................................................................................................. 556
A.3.158 LASER_MOD_ERR...........................................................................................................................................556
A.3.159 LASER_MOD_ERR_EX................................................................................................................................... 558
A.3.160 LASER_SHUT................................................................................................................................................... 559
A.3.161 LCAS_FOPR...................................................................................................................................................... 560
A.3.162 LCAS_FOPT...................................................................................................................................................... 561
A.3.163 LCAS_PLCR...................................................................................................................................................... 563
A.3.164 LCAS_PLCT...................................................................................................................................................... 564
A.3.165 LCAS_TLCR...................................................................................................................................................... 566
A.3.166 LCAS_TLCT...................................................................................................................................................... 567
A.3.167 LCD.................................................................................................................................................................... 569
A.3.168 LCS_DAYS_OF_GRACE..................................................................................................................................570
A.3.169 LCS_EXPIRED.................................................................................................................................................. 571
A.3.170 LCS_FILE_NOT_EXIST................................................................................................................................... 572
A.3.171 LCS_LIMITED...................................................................................................................................................573
A.3.172 LCS_TRIAL_PERIOD.......................................................................................................................................576
A.3.173 LFA..................................................................................................................................................................... 577
A.3.174 LICENSE_LOST................................................................................................................................................ 578
A.3.175 LINK_ERR......................................................................................................................................................... 579
A.3.176 LMFA..................................................................................................................................................................581
A.3.177 LOCAL_FAULT.................................................................................................................................................582
A.3.178 LOOP_ALM....................................................................................................................................................... 583
A.3.179 LP_CROSSTR.................................................................................................................................................... 587
A.3.180 LP_R_FIFO........................................................................................................................................................ 588
A.3.181 LP_RDI...............................................................................................................................................................589
A.3.182 LP_RDI_VC12................................................................................................................................................... 589
A.3.183 LP_RDI_VC3..................................................................................................................................................... 590
A.3.184 LP_REI............................................................................................................................................................... 591
A.3.185 LP_REI_VC12....................................................................................................................................................592
A.3.186 LP_REI_VC3......................................................................................................................................................593
A.3.187 LP_RFI............................................................................................................................................................... 594
A.3.188 LP_SLM............................................................................................................................................................. 595
A.3.189 LP_SLM_VC12.................................................................................................................................................. 596
A.3.190 LP_SLM_VC3.................................................................................................................................................... 597
A.3.191 LP_T_FIFO.........................................................................................................................................................598
A.3.192 LP_TIM.............................................................................................................................................................. 599
A.3.193 LP_TIM_VC12...................................................................................................................................................600
A.3.194 LP_TIM_VC3.....................................................................................................................................................601

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
Maintenance Guide Contents

A.3.195 LP_UNEQ...........................................................................................................................................................602
A.3.196 LP_UNEQ_VC12............................................................................................................................................... 603
A.3.197 LP_UNEQ_VC3................................................................................................................................................. 604
A.3.198 LPS_UNI_BI_M.................................................................................................................................................605
A.3.199 LPT_CFG_CLOSEPORT...................................................................................................................................607
A.3.200 LPT_INEFFECT.................................................................................................................................................608
A.3.201 LPT_RFI............................................................................................................................................................. 609
A.3.202 LSR_BCM_ALM............................................................................................................................................... 610
A.3.203 LSR_NO_FITED................................................................................................................................................ 611
A.3.204 LSR_WILL_DIE................................................................................................................................................ 612
A.3.205 LTI.......................................................................................................................................................................613
A.3.206 MAC_EXT_EXC............................................................................................................................................... 615
A.3.207 MAC_FCS_EXC................................................................................................................................................ 616
A.3.208 MAC_FCS_SD................................................................................................................................................... 617
A.3.209 MOD_COM_FAIL............................................................................................................................................. 618
A.3.210 MOD_TYPE_MISMATCH................................................................................................................................ 619
A.3.211 MP_DELAY........................................................................................................................................................621
A.3.212 MP_DOWN........................................................................................................................................................ 622
A.3.213 MPLSLDPSESSIONDOWN..............................................................................................................................624
A.3.214 MPLSLSP_TBL_LACK.....................................................................................................................................625
A.3.215 MPLS_PW_AIS................................................................................................................................................. 626
A.3.216 MPLS_PW_CSF.................................................................................................................................................627
A.3.217 MPLS_PW_BDI................................................................................................................................................. 628
A.3.218 MPLS_PW_Excess.............................................................................................................................................629
A.3.219 MPLS_PW_LCK................................................................................................................................................ 630
A.3.220 MPLS_PW_LOCK............................................................................................................................................. 630
A.3.221 MPLS_PW_LOCV............................................................................................................................................. 631
A.3.222 MPLS_PW_MISMATCH...................................................................................................................................633
A.3.223 MPLS_PW_MISMERGE...................................................................................................................................634
A.3.224 MPLS_PW_OAMFAIL...................................................................................................................................... 635
A.3.225 MPLS_PW_RDI................................................................................................................................................. 636
A.3.226 MPLS_PW_SD...................................................................................................................................................637
A.3.227 MPLS_PW_SF................................................................................................................................................... 638
A.3.228 MPLS_PW_UNEXPMEG..................................................................................................................................639
A.3.229 MPLS_PW_UNEXPMEP.................................................................................................................................. 640
A.3.230 MPLS_PW_UNEXPPER................................................................................................................................... 640
A.3.231 MPLS_PW_UNKNOWN...................................................................................................................................641
A.3.232 MPLS_TUNNEL_AIS....................................................................................................................................... 642
A.3.233 MPLS_TUNNEL_BDI....................................................................................................................................... 643
A.3.234 MPLS_TUNNEL_EXCESS............................................................................................................................... 644
A.3.235 MPLS_TUNNEL_FDI....................................................................................................................................... 644
A.3.236 MPLS_TUNNEL_LOCV................................................................................................................................... 646

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
Maintenance Guide Contents

A.3.237 MPLS_TUNNEL_LOCK................................................................................................................................... 647


A.3.238 MPLS_TUNNEL_MISMATCH.........................................................................................................................648
A.3.239 MPLS_TUNNEL_MISMERGE.........................................................................................................................649
A.3.240 MPLS_TUNNEL_OAMFAIL............................................................................................................................ 650
A.3.241 MPLS_TUNNEL_RDI....................................................................................................................................... 651
A.3.242 MPLS_TUNNEL_SD.........................................................................................................................................652
A.3.243 MPLS_TUNNEL_SF......................................................................................................................................... 653
A.3.244 MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPMEG........................................................................................................................654
A.3.245 MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPMEP........................................................................................................................ 655
A.3.246 MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPPER......................................................................................................................... 655
A.3.247 MPLS_TUNNEL_UNKNOWN.........................................................................................................................656
A.3.248 MS_AIS.............................................................................................................................................................. 657
A.3.249 MS_CROSSTR...................................................................................................................................................658
A.3.250 MS_RDI..............................................................................................................................................................660
A.3.251 MS_REI.............................................................................................................................................................. 661
A.3.252 MSAD_CROSSTR............................................................................................................................................. 662
A.3.253 MULTI_RPL_OWNER...................................................................................................................................... 663
A.3.254 MW_AM_TEST................................................................................................................................................. 664
A.3.255 MW_BER_EXC................................................................................................................................................. 664
A.3.256 MW_BER_SD.................................................................................................................................................... 668
A.3.257 MW_CFG_MISMATCH.................................................................................................................................... 671
A.3.258 MW_CONT_WAVE........................................................................................................................................... 674
A.3.259 MW_E1_LOST...................................................................................................................................................675
A.3.260 MW_FEC_UNCOR............................................................................................................................................676
A.3.261 MW_LIM............................................................................................................................................................679
A.3.262 MW_LOF........................................................................................................................................................... 681
A.3.263 MW_RDI............................................................................................................................................................ 685
A.3.264 NEIP_CONFUSION...........................................................................................................................................686
A.3.265 NESF_LOST.......................................................................................................................................................687
A.3.266 NESOFT_MM.................................................................................................................................................... 688
A.3.267 NO_BD_SOFT................................................................................................................................................... 690
A.3.268 NP1_MANUAL_STOP...................................................................................................................................... 691
A.3.269 NP1_SW_FAIL...................................................................................................................................................692
A.3.270 NP1_SW_INDI...................................................................................................................................................693
A.3.271 NTP_SYNC_FAIL..............................................................................................................................................694
A.3.272 OCD.................................................................................................................................................................... 695
A.3.273 ODC_BATTERY_CURRENT_ABN................................................................................................................. 696
A.3.274 ODC_BATTERY_PWRDOWN......................................................................................................................... 697
A.3.275 ODC_DOOR_OPEN.......................................................................................................................................... 700
A.3.276 ODC_FAN_FAILED.......................................................................................................................................... 701
A.3.277 ODC_HUMI_ABN.............................................................................................................................................702
A.3.278 ODC_LOAD_PWRDOWN................................................................................................................................704

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
Maintenance Guide Contents

A.3.279 ODC_MDL_ABN...............................................................................................................................................707
A.3.280 ODC_POWER_FAIL......................................................................................................................................... 708
A.3.281 ODC_SMOKE_OVER....................................................................................................................................... 710
A.3.282 ODC_SURGE_PROTECTION_FAIL............................................................................................................... 712
A.3.283 ODC_TEC_ALM............................................................................................................................................... 714
A.3.284 ODC_TEMP_ABN.............................................................................................................................................714
A.3.285 ODC_WATER_ALM..........................................................................................................................................716
A.3.286 OSPFNBRSTATECHANGE.............................................................................................................................. 718
A.3.287 OUT_PWR_ABN............................................................................................................................................... 719
A.3.288 OUT1TEMP_SENSOR_FAIL............................................................................................................................720
A.3.289 OUT2TEMP_SENSOR_FAIL............................................................................................................................722
A.3.290 PASSWORD_NEED_CHANGE........................................................................................................................723
A.3.291 PATCH_BD_EXCLUDE....................................................................................................................................724
A.3.292 PATCH_BD_MATCH_FAIL.............................................................................................................................. 724
A.3.293 PATCH_CHGSCC_NOTMATCH......................................................................................................................725
A.3.294 PATCH_PKGERR.............................................................................................................................................. 726
A.3.295 PG_LINK_FAIL................................................................................................................................................. 726
A.3.296 PG_PRT_DEGRADED...................................................................................................................................... 727
A.3.297 PLA_CFG_MISMATCH.................................................................................................................................... 729
A.3.298 PLA_DOWN...................................................................................................................................................... 732
A.3.299 PLA_MEMBER_DOWN................................................................................................................................... 733
A.3.300 PLA_MEMBER_DOWN_EXT......................................................................................................................... 734
A.3.301 PLA_PKT_ERR................................................................................................................................................. 737
A.3.302 PORTMODE_MISMATCH............................................................................................................................... 739
A.3.303 PORT_EXC_TRAFFIC...................................................................................................................................... 740
A.3.304 PORT_MODULE_OFFLINE.............................................................................................................................741
A.3.305 POWER_ABNORMAL..................................................................................................................................... 742
A.3.306 POWER_ALM................................................................................................................................................... 743
A.3.307 PRO_PKT_FLOODING.....................................................................................................................................745
A.3.308 PPP_LCP_FAIL..................................................................................................................................................746
A.3.309 PPP_NCP_FAIL................................................................................................................................................. 747
A.3.310 PTP_SOURCE_SWITCH.................................................................................................................................. 748
A.3.311 PTP_TIMESTAMP_ABN.................................................................................................................................. 749
A.3.312 PW_DOWN........................................................................................................................................................ 750
A.3.313 PW_DROPPKT_EXC........................................................................................................................................ 752
A.3.314 PW_NO_TRAFFIC............................................................................................................................................ 753
A.3.315 PWAPS_LOST................................................................................................................................................... 754
A.3.316 PWAPS_PATH_MISMATCH.............................................................................................................................755
A.3.317 PWAPS_SWITCH_FAIL....................................................................................................................................756
A.3.318 PWAPS_TYPE_MISMATCH............................................................................................................................ 757
A.3.319 PWD_ENCRYPT_RISK.................................................................................................................................... 758
A.3.320 PW_APS_DEGRADED..................................................................................................................................... 758

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
Maintenance Guide Contents

A.3.321 PW_APS_OUTAGE........................................................................................................................................... 759


A.3.322 R_LOC................................................................................................................................................................760
A.3.323 R_LOF................................................................................................................................................................ 761
A.3.324 R_LOS................................................................................................................................................................ 763
A.3.325 R_OOF................................................................................................................................................................765
A.3.326 RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF.............................................................................................................767
A.3.327 RADIO_MUTE.................................................................................................................................................. 769
A.3.328 RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH.............................................................................................................................. 770
A.3.329 RADIO_RSL_HIGH.......................................................................................................................................... 771
A.3.330 RADIO_RSL_LOW........................................................................................................................................... 772
A.3.331 RADIO_TSL_HIGH...........................................................................................................................................773
A.3.332 RADIO_TSL_LOW........................................................................................................................................... 774
A.3.333 REFLECTOR_IP_CNFLCT...............................................................................................................................775
A.3.334 RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL...........................................................................................................................776
A.3.335 RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE..............................................................................................................................776
A.3.336 RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR............................................................................................................................... 777
A.3.337 RELAY_ALARM_MINOR................................................................................................................................778
A.3.338 REMOTE_FAULT..............................................................................................................................................779
A.3.339 RMFA................................................................................................................................................................. 780
A.3.340 RPS_INDI...........................................................................................................................................................781
A.3.341 RS_CROSSTR....................................................................................................................................................782
A.3.342 RTC_FAIL.......................................................................................................................................................... 784
A.3.343 RT_TBL_LACK................................................................................................................................................. 784
A.3.344 S1_SYN_CHANGE........................................................................................................................................... 785
A.3.345 SCCDATA_BACKUP_FAIL(SYNC_FAIL)......................................................................................................787
A.3.346 SEC_RADIUS_FAIL..........................................................................................................................................788
A.3.347 SECU_ALM....................................................................................................................................................... 789
A.3.348 SERV_OVER_FWD_CAPA.............................................................................................................................. 790
A.3.349 SLAVE_BAD......................................................................................................................................................792
A.3.350 SOFTWARE_UNCOMMIT............................................................................................................................... 793
A.3.351 SRV_SHUTDOWN_LD.....................................................................................................................................794
A.3.352 SSL_CERT_DAMAGED................................................................................................................................... 795
A.3.353 SSL_CERT_NOENC..........................................................................................................................................795
A.3.354 SSL_CERT_TO_EXPIRE.................................................................................................................................. 796
A.3.355 STORM_CUR_QUENUM_OVER.................................................................................................................... 797
A.3.356 SUBNET_RT_CONFLICT................................................................................................................................ 798
A.3.357 SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT..................................................................................................................... 800
A.3.358 SWDL_AUTOMATCH_INH.............................................................................................................................801
A.3.359 SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH....................................................................................................................... 802
A.3.360 SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL.................................................................................................................................... 802
A.3.361 SWDL_INPROCESS......................................................................................................................................... 803
A.3.362 SWDL_NEPKGCHECK.................................................................................................................................... 804

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
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A.3.363 SWDL_PKG_NOBDSOFT................................................................................................................................ 805


A.3.364 SWDL_PKGVER_MM...................................................................................................................................... 805
A.3.365 SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL...............................................................................................................................806
A.3.366 SYN_BAD.......................................................................................................................................................... 807
A.3.367 SYNC_C_LOS................................................................................................................................................... 808
A.3.368 SYNC_DISABLE...............................................................................................................................................809
A.3.369 SYSLOG_COMM_FAIL....................................................................................................................................810
A.3.370 T_ALOS..............................................................................................................................................................811
A.3.371 T_LOC................................................................................................................................................................ 812
A.3.372 TEM_HA............................................................................................................................................................ 813
A.3.373 TEM_LA.............................................................................................................................................................814
A.3.374 TEMP_ALARM................................................................................................................................................. 814
A.3.375 TEMP_OVER.....................................................................................................................................................816
A.3.376 TF........................................................................................................................................................................817
A.3.377 THUNDERALM................................................................................................................................................ 818
A.3.378 TIME_LOCK_FAIL........................................................................................................................................... 819
A.3.379 TIME_NO_TRACE_MODE.............................................................................................................................. 820
A.3.380 TR_LOC............................................................................................................................................................. 821
A.3.381 TU_AIS...............................................................................................................................................................822
A.3.382 TU_AIS_VC12................................................................................................................................................... 824
A.3.383 TU_AIS_VC3..................................................................................................................................................... 826
A.3.384 TU_LOP............................................................................................................................................................. 828
A.3.385 TU_LOP_VC12.................................................................................................................................................. 829
A.3.386 TU_LOP_VC3.................................................................................................................................................... 830
A.3.387 TUNNEL_APS_DEGRADED........................................................................................................................... 832
A.3.388 TUNNEL_APS_OUTAGE................................................................................................................................. 833
A.3.389 UHCS..................................................................................................................................................................834
A.3.390 UP_E1_AIS........................................................................................................................................................ 835
A.3.391 USB_FILE_UNSEC........................................................................................................................................... 836
A.3.392 USB_PROCESS_FAIL.......................................................................................................................................837
A.3.393 V5_VCAIS......................................................................................................................................................... 838
A.3.394 VC_AIS.............................................................................................................................................................. 839
A.3.395 VC_LOC.............................................................................................................................................................841
A.3.396 VC_RDI.............................................................................................................................................................. 843
A.3.397 VCAT_LOA........................................................................................................................................................844
A.3.398 VCAT_LOM_VC12........................................................................................................................................... 845
A.3.399 VCAT_LOM_VC3............................................................................................................................................. 847
A.3.400 VCAT_SQM_VC12............................................................................................................................................849
A.3.401 VCAT_SQM_VC3..............................................................................................................................................850
A.3.402 VERSION_NOTSUPPORT............................................................................................................................... 851
A.3.403 VOLT_LOS.........................................................................................................................................................853
A.3.404 VP_AIS...............................................................................................................................................................854

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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System
Maintenance Guide Contents

A.3.405 VP_LOC............................................................................................................................................................. 856


A.3.406 VP_RDI.............................................................................................................................................................. 858
A.3.407 W_R_FAIL......................................................................................................................................................... 859
A.3.408 WRG_BD_TYPE............................................................................................................................................... 860
A.3.409 XPIC_LOS..........................................................................................................................................................861

B Performance Event Reference.................................................................................................864


B.1 Performance Events (by Event Type)........................................................................................................................ 865
B.1.1 SDH/PDH Performance Event List........................................................................................................................ 865
B.1.2 Radio Performance Events......................................................................................................................................868
B.1.3 MPLS tunnel/PW Performance Events...................................................................................................................872
B.1.4 Other Performance Events...................................................................................................................................... 872
B.2 Performance Events (by Logical Board)....................................................................................................................874
B.2.1 CQ1......................................................................................................................................................................... 876
B.2.2 CST/CSH/CSHU/CSHUA...................................................................................................................................... 879
B.2.3 EG4/EG4P...............................................................................................................................................................882
B.2.4 EM6D......................................................................................................................................................................882
B.2.5 EM6T...................................................................................................................................................................... 883
B.2.6 EM6TA....................................................................................................................................................................884
B.2.7 EM6F...................................................................................................................................................................... 884
B.2.8 EM6FA....................................................................................................................................................................884
B.2.9 EFP8........................................................................................................................................................................885
B.2.10 EMS6.................................................................................................................................................................... 886
B.2.11 IF1......................................................................................................................................................................... 888
B.2.12 IFU2/ISU2.............................................................................................................................................................890
B.2.13 IFX2/ISX2.............................................................................................................................................................894
B.2.14 ISV3...................................................................................................................................................................... 899
B.2.15 ISM6..................................................................................................................................................................... 903
B.2.16 ML1/MD1............................................................................................................................................................. 908
B.2.17 ODU...................................................................................................................................................................... 908
B.2.18 SL1D/SL1DA....................................................................................................................................................... 910
B.2.19 SP3S/SP3D........................................................................................................................................................... 912
B.3 Performance Events and Handling Procedures..........................................................................................................913
B.3.1 ATPC_P_ADJUST and ATPC_N_ADJUST.......................................................................................................... 913
B.3.2 AMDOWNCNT and AMUPCNT.......................................................................................................................... 914
B.3.3 AUPJCHIGH, AUPJCLOW, and AUPJCNEW..................................................................................................... 915
B.3.4 BDTEMPMAX, BDTEMPMIN, and BDTEMPCUR............................................................................................916
B.3.5 CPUUSAGEMAX, CPUUSAGEMIN, CPUUSAGECUR, and CPUUSAGEAVG..............................................916
B.3.6 CURPOSITIVEPDV and CURNEGATIVEPDV...................................................................................................917
B.3.7 E1_LCV_SDH, E1_LLOSS_SDH, E1_LES_SDH, and E1_LSES_SDH............................................................. 917
B.3.8 E1_BBE, E1_ES, E1_SES, E1_CSES, and E1_UAS.............................................................................................918
B.3.9 FEC_BEF_COR_ER, FEC_COR_BYTE_CNT and FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT............................................ 920
B.3.10 HPBBE, HPES, HPSES, HPCSES, and HPUAS................................................................................................. 921

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B.3.11 HPFEBBE, HPFEES, HPFESES, HPFECSES, and HPFEUAS.......................................................................... 922


B.3.12 IF_BBE, IF_ES, IF_SES, IF_CSES, and IF_UAS............................................................................................... 923
B.3.13 IF_SNR_MAX, IF_SNR_MIN, and IF_SNR_AVG.............................................................................................924
B.3.14 IF_MSE_MAX, IF_MSE_MIN, IF_MSE_AVG, and IF_MSE_CUR................................................................. 925
B.3.15 LPBBE, LPES, LPSES, LPCSES, and LPUAS....................................................................................................925
B.3.16 LPFEBBE, LPFEES, LPFESES, LPFECSES, and LPFEUAS............................................................................ 927
B.3.17 MAXFREQDEV, MINFREQDEV, and AVGFREQDEV.................................................................................... 928
B.3.18 MAXMEANPATHDELAY, MINMEANPATHDELAY, and AVGMEANPATHDELAY....................................928
B.3.19 MAXPHASEOFFSET, MINPHASEOFFSET, and AVGPHASEOFFSET..........................................................929
B.3.20 MAXPOSITIVEDELAY, MINPOSITIVEDELAY, and AVGPOSITIVEDELAY...............................................930
B.3.21 MPLS_PW_LS, MPLS_PW_SLS, MPLS_PW_CSLS, and MPLS_PW_UAS...................................................930
B.3.22 MPLS_PW_LS_N, MPLS_PW_SLS_N, MPLS_PW_CSLS_N, and MPLS_PW_UAS_N............................... 931
B.3.23 MPLS_TUNNEL_LS, MPLS_TUNNEL_SLS, MPLS_TUNNEL_CSLS, and MPLS_TUNNEL_UAS........... 931
B.3.24 MPLS_TUNNEL_LS_N, MPLS_TUNNEL_SLS_N, MPLS_TUNNEL_CSLS_N, and
MPLS_TUNNEL_UAS_N............................................................................................................................................... 932
B.3.25 MSBBE, MSES, MSSES, MSCSES, and MSUAS.............................................................................................. 933
B.3.26 MSFEBBE, MSFEES, MSFESES, MSFECSES, and MSFEUAS.......................................................................934
B.3.27 OSPITMPMAX, OSPITMPMIN, and OSPITMPCUR........................................................................................935
B.3.28 PG_IF_BBE, PG_IF_ES, PG_IF_SES, PG_IF_CSES, and PG_IF_UAS............................................................936
B.3.29 RPLMAX, RPLMIN, and RPLCUR.................................................................................................................... 937
B.3.30 RSBBE, RSES, RSSES, RSCSES, and RSUAS.................................................................................................. 938
B.3.31 RSL_MAX, RSL_MIN, RSL_CUR, and RSL_AVG........................................................................................... 939
B.3.32 RSOOF and RSOFS..............................................................................................................................................940
B.3.33 QPSKWS, QPSK_S_WS, QAMWS16, QAM_S_WS16, QAMWS32, QAMWS64, QAMWS128, QAMWS256,
QAMWS512, QAM_L_WS512, QAMWS1024, QAM_L_WS1024, QAMWS2048, QAMWS4096........................... 941
B.3.34 TLBMAX, TLBMIN, and TLBCUR....................................................................................................................942
B.3.35 RLHTT, RLLTT, TLHTT, TLLTT........................................................................................................................ 942
B.3.36 TPLMAX, TPLMIN, and TPLCUR..................................................................................................................... 943
B.3.37 TSL_MAX, TSL_MIN, TSL_CUR, and TSL_AVG............................................................................................944
B.3.38 TUPJCHIGH, TUPJCLOW, and TUPJCNEW.....................................................................................................944
B.3.39 XPIC_XPD_VALUE............................................................................................................................................ 945

C RMON Event Reference.......................................................................................................... 947


C.1 List of RMON Alarm Entries.................................................................................................................................... 948
C.2 RMON Performance Entries List on the Packet-Plane..............................................................................................951
C.2.1 EM6D......................................................................................................................................................................951
C.2.2 EM6F/EM6T/EM6FA/EM6TA...............................................................................................................................978
C.2.3 EG4/EG4P.............................................................................................................................................................1001
C.2.4 IFU2/IFX2.............................................................................................................................................................1031
C.2.5 ISU2/ISX2/ISV3/ISM6.........................................................................................................................................1051
C.2.6 ML1/MD1............................................................................................................................................................. 1077
C.2.7 CQ1....................................................................................................................................................................... 1093
C.2.8 CSH....................................................................................................................................................................... 1100
C.2.9 CSHU/CSHUA..................................................................................................................................................... 1123

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C.2.10 EFP8/EMS6.........................................................................................................................................................1171
C.3 RMON Performance Entries List on the EoS/EoPDH-Plane.................................................................................. 1175
C.3.1 EFP8......................................................................................................................................................................1175
C.3.2 EMS6.....................................................................................................................................................................1183
C.4 RMON Events and Handling Procedures................................................................................................................ 1191
C.4.1 ETHDROP............................................................................................................................................................ 1192
C.4.2 ETHEXCCOL....................................................................................................................................................... 1193
C.4.3 ETHLATECOL..................................................................................................................................................... 1194
C.4.4 RXBBAD.............................................................................................................................................................. 1195
C.4.5 TXDEFFRM......................................................................................................................................................... 1195
C.4.6 ETHUNDER......................................................................................................................................................... 1196
C.4.7 ETHOVER............................................................................................................................................................ 1197
C.4.8 ETHFRG............................................................................................................................................................... 1198
C.4.9 ETHJAB................................................................................................................................................................1199
C.4.10 ETHCOL............................................................................................................................................................. 1199
C.4.11 ETHFCS..............................................................................................................................................................1200
C.4.12 ATMPW_LOSPKTS...........................................................................................................................................1201
C.4.13 ATMPW_MISORDERPKTS..............................................................................................................................1202
C.4.14 ATMPW_UNKNOWNCELLS...........................................................................................................................1203
C.4.15 ATM_CORRECTED_HCSERR.........................................................................................................................1203
C.4.16 ATM_UNCORRECTED_HCSERR................................................................................................................... 1204
C.4.17 CES_MISORDERPKTS.....................................................................................................................................1205
C.4.18 CES_STRAYPKTS.............................................................................................................................................1205
C.4.19 CES_MALPKTS.................................................................................................................................................1206
C.4.20 CES_JTRUDR.................................................................................................................................................... 1207
C.4.21 CES_JTROVR.................................................................................................................................................... 1207
C.4.22 CES_LOSPKTS.................................................................................................................................................. 1208

D Alarm Management............................................................................................................... 1210


D.1 NE Alarm Management........................................................................................................................................... 1211
D.2 Board Alarm Management.......................................................................................................................................1211
D.2.1 Setting the Alarm Severity....................................................................................................................................1211
D.2.2 Alarm Suppression................................................................................................................................................1211
D.2.3 Alarm Auto-Report............................................................................................................................................... 1211
D.2.4 Alarm Reversion................................................................................................................................................... 1212
D.2.5 Setting Alarm Thresholds..................................................................................................................................... 1212
D.2.6 AIS Insertion.........................................................................................................................................................1237
D.2.7 UNEQ Insertion.................................................................................................................................................... 1238

E Performance Event Management......................................................................................... 1240


E.1 NE Performance Event Management.......................................................................................................................1241
E.2 Board Performance Event Management.................................................................................................................. 1241

F Alarm Suppression Relationship......................................................................................... 1242

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F.1 Alarm Suppression on TDM Plane...........................................................................................................................1243


F.2 Alarm Suppression on the Data Plane...................................................................................................................... 1247

G Indicators of Boards............................................................................................................... 1254


H Glossary....................................................................................................................................1283

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1 Safety Precautions

About This Chapter

This topic describes the safety precautions that you must follow when installing, operating,
and maintaining Huawei devices.

1.1 General Safety Precautions


This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring
and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices.
1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols
Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the
equipment.
1.3 Electrical Safety
This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage
current, power cables, fuses, and ESD.
1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas
This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device.
1.5 Storage Batteries
This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries.
1.6 Radiation
This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers.
1.7 Working at Heights
This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights.
1.8 Mechanical Safety
This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating
fans, and carrying heavy objects.
1.9 Other Precautions
This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal
cables, and routing cables.

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1.1 General Safety Precautions


This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring
and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices.

All Safety Precautions


To ensure the safety of humans and a device, follow the marks on the device and all the safety
precautions in this document when installing, operating, and maintaining a device.
The "CAUTION", "WARNING", and "DANGER" marks in this document do not cover all
the safety precautions that must be followed. They are supplements to the safety precautions.

Local Laws and Regulations


When operating a device, always comply with the local laws and regulations. The safety
precautions provided in the documents are in addition/supplementary to the local laws and
regulations.

Basic Installation Requirements


The installation and maintenance personnel of Huawei devices must receive strict training and
be familiar with the proper operation methods and safety precautions before any operation.
l Only trained and qualified personnel are permitted to install, operate, and maintain a
device.
l Only certified professionals are permitted to remove the safety facilities, and to
troubleshoot and maintain the device.
l Only the personnel authenticated or authorized by Huawei are permitted to replace or
change the device or parts of the device (including software).
l The operating personnel must immediately report the faults or errors that may cause
safety problems to the person in charge.

Grounding Requirements
The grounding requirements are applicable to the device that needs to be grounded.
l When installing the device, always connect the grounding facilities first. When removing
the device, always disconnect the grounding facilities last.
l Ensure that the grounding conductor is intact.
l Do not operate the device in the absence of a suitably installed grounding conductor.
l The device must be connected to the PGND permanently. Before operating the device,
check the electrical connections of the device, and ensure that the device is properly
grounded.

Human Safety
l When there is a risk of a lightning strike, do not operate the fixed terminal or touch the
cables.
l When there is risk of a lightning strike, unplug the AC power connector. Do not use the
fixed terminal or touch the terminal or antenna connector.

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NOTE
The preceding requirements apply to wireless fixed station terminals.
l To avoid electric shocks, do not connect safety extra-low voltage (SELV) circuits to
telephone-network voltage (TNV) circuits.
l Do not look into optical ports without eye protection. Otherwise, human eyes may be
hurt by laser beams.
l Before operating the device, wear an ESD protective coat, ESD gloves, and an ESD
wrist strap. In addition, you need to get off the conductive objects, such as jewelry and
watches, to prevent electric shock and burn.
l In case of fire, escape from the building or site where the device is located and press the
fire alarm bell or dial the telephone number for fire alarms. Do not enter the burning
building again in any situation.

Device Safety
l Before any operation, install the device firmly on the ground or other rigid objects, such
as on a wall or in a rack.
l When the system is working, ensure that the ventilation hole is not blocked.
l When installing the front panel, use a tool to tighten the screws firmly, if required.
l After installing the device, clean up the packing materials.

1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols


Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the
equipment.
Table 1-1 lists the warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 950 and their meanings.

Table 1-1 Warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 950
Symbol Indication

This symbol is for ESD protection.


A notice with this symbol indicates that you should wear
an ES wrist strap or glove when you touch a board.
Otherwise, you may cause damage to the board.

This symbol is for the laser class.


CLASS 1
LASER A notice with this symbol indicates the class of the laser.
PRODUCT Avoid direct exposure to the laser beams. Otherwise, it
may damage you eyes or skin.
LASER
RADIATION

DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY


WITH OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS
CLASS 1M LASER
PRODUCT

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Symbol Indication

A notice with this symbol indicates where the subrack is


grounded.

A notice with this symbol indicates that the air filter


ATTENTION should be cleaned periodically.
CLEAN PERIODICALLY

This symbol is for fan safety.


DON'T TOUCH THE
FAN LEAVES BEFORE A notice with this symbol indicates that the fan leaves
THEY SLOW DOWN !
should not be touched when the fan is rotating.

1.3 Electrical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage
current, power cables, fuses, and ESD.

High Voltage

DANGER
l A high-voltage power supply provides power for device operations. Direct human contact
with the high voltage power supply or human contact through damp objects can be fatal.
l Unspecified or unauthorized high voltage operations could result in fire or electric shock,
or both.

Thunderstorm
The requirements apply only to wireless base stations or devices with antennas and feeders.

DANGER
Do not perform operations on high voltage, AC power, towers, or backstays in stormy
weather conditions.

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High Leakage Current

CAUTION
Before powering on a device, ground the device. Otherwise, the safety of humans and the
device cannot be ensured.

If a high leakage current mark is labeled near the power connector of the device, you must
connect the PGND terminal on the shell to the ground before connecting the device to an A/C
input power supply. This is to prevent the electric shock caused by leakage current of the
device.

Power Cables

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cable with a live line. Transient contact between the core
of the power cable and the conductor may generate electric arc or spark, which may cause fire
or eye injury.

l Before installing or removing power cables, you must power off the device.
l Before connecting a power cable, you must ensure that the label on the power cable is
correct.

Device with Power On

DANGER
Installing or removing a device is prohibited if the device is on.

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cables of the equipment when it is powered on.

Short Circuits
When installing and maintaining devices, place and use the associated tools and instruments
in accordance with regulations to avoid short-circuits caused by metal objects.

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NOTICE
To avoid short-circuits when using a tool (such as a screwdriver), do not place the tool on the
ventilation plate of the subrack.

NOTICE
Prevent any screws from dropping into the subrack or chassis to avoid short-circuits.

Fuse

CAUTION
If the fuse on a device blows, replace the fuse with a fuse of the same type and specifications
to ensure safe operation of the device.

Electrostatic Discharge

NOTICE
The static electricity generated by the human body may damage the electrostatic sensitive
components on the board, such as the large-scale integrated circuit (LSI).

l The human body can generate static electromagnetic fields in the following situations:
physical movement, clothing friction, friction between shoes and the ground, plastics in
the hand. Such static electromagnetic effects can remain for an appreciable time.
l Before operating a device, circuit boards, or ASICs, wear an ESD wrist strap that is
properly grounded. The ESD wrist strap can prevent the electrostatic-sensitive
components from being damaged by the static electricity in the human body.
Figure 1-1 shows the method of wearing an ESD wrist strap.

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Figure 1-1 Wearing an ESD wrist strap

1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas


This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device.

DANGER
Do not place or operate devices in an environment of flammable or explosive air or gas.

Operating an electronic device in an environment of flammable gas causes a severe hazard.

1.5 Storage Batteries


This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries.

DANGER
Before operating a storage battery, you must read the safety precautions carefully and be
familiar with the method of connecting a storage battery.

l Incorrect operations of storage batteries cause hazards. During operation, prevent any
short-circuit, and prevent the electrolyte from overflowing or leakage.
l If the electrolyte overflows, it causes potential hazards to the device. The electrolyte may
corrode metal parts and the circuit boards, and ultimately damage the circuit boards.
l A storage battery contains a great deal of energy. Misoperations may cause a short-
circuit, which leads to human injuries.

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Basic Precautions
To ensure safety, note the following points before installing or maintaining the storage
battery:
l Use special insulation tools.
l Wear an eye protector and take effective protection measures.
l Wear rubber gloves and a protection coat to prevent the hazard caused by the
overflowing electrolyte.
l When handling the storage battery, ensure that its electrodes are upward. Leaning or
reversing the storage battery is prohibited.
l Before installing or maintaining the storage battery, ensure that the storage battery is
disconnected from the power supply that charges the storage battery.

Short-Circuit

DANGER
A battery short-circuit may cause human injuries. Although the voltage of an ordinary battery
is low, the instantaneous high current caused by a short-circuit emits a great deal of energy.

Avoid any short-circuit of batteries caused by metal objects. If possible, disconnect the
working battery before performing other operations.

Hazardous Gas

NOTICE
Do not use any unsealed lead-acid storage battery. Lay a storage battery horizontally and fix it
properly to prevent the battery from emitting flammable gas, which may cause fire or device
erosion.

Working lead-acid storage batteries emit flammable gas. Therefore, ventilation and
fireproofing measures must be taken at the sites where lead-acid storage batteries are placed.

Battery Temperature

NOTICE
If a battery overheats, the battery may be deformed or damaged, and the electrolyte may
overflow.

When the temperature of the battery is higher than 60C, you need to check whether the
electrolyte overflows. If the electrolyte overflows, take appropriate measures immediately.

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Battery Leakage

NOTICE
In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up appropriately.

When handling a leaky battery, protect against the possible damage caused by the acid. When
you find the electrolyte leaks, you can use the following substances to counteract and absorb
the leaking electrolyte:

l Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)


l Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up as recommended
by the battery manufacturer and any local regulations for acid disposal.

If a person contacts battery electrolyte, clean the skin that contacts the battery electrolyte
immediately by using water. In case of a severe situation, the person must be sent to a hospital
immediately.

1.6 Radiation
This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers.

1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers


The laser beam can cause damage to your eyes. Hence, you must exercise caution when using
optical fibers.

DANGER
When installing or maintaining an optical interface board or optical fibers, avoid direct eye
exposure to the laser beams launched from the optical interface board or fiber connectors. The
laser beam can cause damage to your eyes.

Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Optical Interfaces

NOTICE
If fiber connectors or flanges are contaminated, optical power commissioning is seriously
affected. Therefore, the two endfaces and flange of every external fiber must be cleaned
before the fiber is led into the equipment through the ODF for being inserted into an optical
interface on the equipment.

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The fiber connectors and optical interfaces of the lasers must be cleaned with the following
special cleaning tools and materials:

l Special cleaning solvent: It is preferred to use isoamylol. Propyl alcohol, however, can
also be used. It is prohibited that you use alcohol and formalin.
l Non-woven lens tissue
l Special compressed gas
l Cotton stick (medical cotton or long fiber cotton)
l Special cleaning roll, used with the recommended cleaning solvent
l Special magnifier for fiber connectors

For cleaning steps, see Task Collection "Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters" in the
OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System Maintenance and Troubleshooting.

Replacing Optical Fibers


When replacing an optical fiber, cover the fiber connector of the unused optical fiber with a
protective cap.

Connecting Optical Fibers


l Use an attenuator if the optical power is excessively high. A high received optical power
damages the optical interface.
l Directly connect an attenuator to a slanting optical interface. Install the attenuator on the
IN port instead of the OUT port.
l Do not directly connect an attenuator to the level optical interface. Use the optical
distribution frame (ODF) to connect an attenuator to a level optical interface.

Figure 1-2 shows a slanting optical interface, and Figure 1-3 shows a level optical interface.

Figure 1-2 Slanting optical interface

Slanting optical
interface

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Figure 1-3 Level optical interface

Level optical
interface

1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure


This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure.
If multiple transmit antennas are installed on a tower or backstay, keep away from the
transmit directions of the antennas when you install or maintain an antenna locally.

NOTICE
Ensure that all personnel are beyond the transmit direction of a working antenna.

1.6.3 Forbidden Areas


The topic describes requirements for a forbidden area.
l Before entering an area where the electromagnetic radiation is beyond the specified
range, the associated personnel must shut down the electromagnetic radiator or stay at
least 10 meters away from the electromagnetic radiator, if in the transmit direction.
l A physical barrier and an eye-catching warning flag should be available in each
forbidden area.

1.6.4 Laser
This topic describes safety precautions for lasers.

CAUTION
When handling optical fibers, do not stand close to, or look into the optical fiber outlet
directly without eye protection.

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Laser transceivers are used in the optical transmission system and associated test tools. The
laser transmitted through the bare optical fiber produces a small beam of light, and therefore it
has very high power density and is invisible to human eyes. When a beam of light enters eyes,
the eyes may be damaged.

In normal cases, viewing an un-terminated optical fiber or a damaged optical fiber without
eye protection at a distance greater than 150 mm does not cause eye injury. Eye injury may
occur, however, if an optical tool such as a microscope, magnifying glass, or eye loupe is used
to view an un-terminated optical fiber.

Safety Instructions Regarding Lasers


To avoid laser radiation, obey the following instructions:

l All operations should be performed by authorized personnel who have completed the
required training courses.
l Wear a pair of eye-protective glasses when you are handling lasers or fibers.
l Ensure that the optical source is switched off before disconnecting optical fiber
connectors.
l Do not look into the end of an exposed fiber or an open connector when you are not sure
whether the optical source is switched off.
l Use an optical power meter to measure the optical power and ensure that the optical
source is switched off.
l Before opening the front door of an optical transmission device, ensure that you are not
exposed to laser radiation.
l Do not use an optical tool such as a microscope, a magnifying glass, or an eye loupe to
view the optical connector or fiber that is transmitting optical signals.

Instructions Regarding Fiber Handling


Read and abide by the following instructions before handling fibers:

l Only trained personnel are permitted to cut and splice fibers.


l Before cutting or splicing a fiber, ensure that the fiber is disconnected from the optical
source. After disconnecting the fiber, cap to the fiber connectors.

1.6.5 Microwave
When installing and maintaining the equipment of Huawei, follow the safety precautions of
microwave to ensure the safety of the human body and the equipment.

CAUTION
Strong radio frequency can harm the human body.

When installing or maintaining an aerial on the tower or mast that is installed with multiple
aerials, switch off the transmitter in advance.

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1.7 Working at Heights


This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights.

CAUTION
When working at heights, be cautious to prevent objects from falling down.

The requirements for working at heights are as follows:


l The personnel who work at heights must be trained.
l Carry and handle the operating machines and tools with caution to prevent them from
falling down.
l Safety measures, such as wearing a helmet and a safety belt, must be taken.
l Wear cold-proof clothes when working at heights in cold areas.
l Check all lifting appliances thoroughly before starting the work, and ensure that they are
intact.

1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects


This topic describes the safety precautions for hoisting heavy objects that you must follow
when installing, operating, and maintaining Huawei devices.

CAUTION
When heavy objects are being hoisted, do not walk below the cantilever or hoisted objects.

l Only trained and qualified personnel can perform hoisting operations.


l Before hoisting heavy objects, check that the hoisting tools are complete and in good
condition.
l Before hoisting heavy objects, ensure that the hoisting tools are fixed to a secure object
or wall with good weight-bearing capacity.
l Issue orders with short and explicit words to ensure correct operations.
l Ensure that the angle between the two cables is less than or equal to 90 degrees during
the lifting, as shown in Figure 1-4.

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Figure 1-4 Hoisting heavy objects

1.7.2 Using Ladders


This topic describes safety precautions for using ladders.

Checking Ladders
l Before using a ladder, check whether the ladder is damaged. After checking that the
ladder is in good condition, you can use the ladder.
l Before using a ladder, you should know the maximum weight capacity of the ladder.
Avoid overweighing the ladder.

Placing Ladders
The proper slant angle of the ladder is 75 degrees. You can measure the slant angle of the
ladder with an angle square or your arms, as shown in Figure 1-5. When using a ladder, to
prevent the ladder from sliding, ensure that the wider feet of the ladder are downward, or take
protection measures for the ladder feet. Ensure that the ladder is placed securely.

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Figure 1-5 Slanting a ladder

Climbing Up a Ladder
When climbing up a ladder, pay attention to the following points:

l Ensure that the center of gravity of your body does not deviate from the edges of the two
long sides.
l Before operations, ensure that your body is stable to reduce risks.
l Do not climb higher than the fourth rung of the ladder (counted from up to down).

If you want to climb up a roof, ensure that the ladder top is at least one meter higher than the
roof, as shown in Figure 1-6.

Figure 1-6 Ladder top being one meter higher than the roof

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1.8 Mechanical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating
fans, and carrying heavy objects.

Drilling Holes

CAUTION
Do not drill holes on the cabinet without prior permission. Drilling holes without complying
with the requirements affects the electromagnetic shielding performance of the cabinet and
damages the cables inside the cabinet. In addition, if the scraps caused by drilling enter the
cabinet, the printed circuit boards (PCBs) may be short-circuited.

l Before drilling a hole on the cabinet, remove the cables inside the cabinet.
l Wear an eye protector when drilling holes. This is to prevent eyes from being injured by
the splashing metal scraps.
l Wear protection gloves when drilling holes.
l Take measures to prevent the metallic scraps from falling into the cabinet. After the
drilling, clean up the metallic scraps.

Sharp Objects

CAUTION
Wear protection gloves when carrying the device. This is to prevent hands from being injured
by the sharp edges of the device.

Fans
l When replacing parts, place the objects such as the parts, screws, and tools properly. This
is to prevent them from falling into the operating fans, which damages the fans or device.
l When replacing the parts near fans, keep your fingers or boards from touching operating
fans before the fans are powered off and stop running. Otherwise, the hands or the
boards are damaged.

Carrying Heavy Objects


Wear protection gloves when carrying heavy objects. This is to prevent hands from being
hurt.

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Maintenance Guide 1 Safety Precautions

CAUTION
l The carrier must be prepared for load bearing before carrying heavy objects. This is to
prevent the carrier from being strained or pressed by the heavy objects.
l When you pull a chassis out of the cabinet, pay attention to the unstable or heavy objects
on the cabinet. This is to prevent the heavy objects on the cabinet top from falling down,
which may hurt you.

l Generally, two persons are needed to carry a chassis. It is prohibited that only one person
carries a heavy chassis. When carrying a chassis, the carriers should stretch their backs
and move stably to avoid being strained.
l When moving or lifting a chassis, hold the handles or bottom of the chassis. Do not hold
the handles of the modules installed in the chassis, such as the power modules, fan
modules, and boards.

1.9 Other Precautions


This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal
cables, and routing cables.

Removing and Inserting a Board

NOTICE
When inserting a board, wear an ESD wrist strap or ESD gloves, and handle the board gently
to avoid distorting pins on the backplane.

l Slide the board along the guide rails.


l Do not contact one board with another to avoid short-circuits or damage.
l When holding a board in hand, do not touch the board circuits, components, connectors,
or connection slots of the board to prevent damage caused by ESD of the human body to
the electrostatic-sensitive components.

Binding Signal Cables

NOTICE
Bind the signal cables separately from the high-current or high-voltage cables.

Routing Cables
In the case of extremely low temperature, heavy shock or vibration may damage the plastic
skin of the cables. To ensure the construction safety, comply with the following requirements:

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Maintenance Guide 1 Safety Precautions

l When installing cables, ensure that the environment temperature is above 0C.
l If the cables are stored in a place where the ambient temperature is below 0C, transfer
them to a place at room temperature and store the cables for more than 24 hours before
installation.
l Handle the cables gently, especially in a low-temperature environment. Do not perform
any improper operations, for example, pushing the cables down directly from a truck.

High Temperature

CAUTION
If the ambient temperature exceeds 55C, the temperature of the front panel surface marked

the flag may exceed 70C. When touching the front panel of the board in such an
environment, you must wear the protection gloves.

IF Cables

CAUTION
Before installing or removing an IF cable, you must turn off the power switch of the IF board.

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

About This Chapter

This topic provides notices for the operations that may cause bodily injury or equipment
damage if they are not performed properly during the commissioning and maintenance of
microwave equipment.

2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch


The ODU-PWR switch on the IF board is a toggle lever switch which must be turned on and
off according to the following instructions to avoid damaging the IF board.
2.2 Operation Guide for the IF Jumper
Before installing or removing IF jumpers, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent
personal injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.
2.3 Operation Guide for the IF Cables
Before installing or removing IF cables, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent
personal injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.
2.4 Operation Guide for the IF Board
Before removing or installing an IF board, turn off the ODU-PWR switch to avoid bodily
injury or damage to the IF board and ODU.

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch


The ODU-PWR switch on the IF board is a toggle lever switch which must be turned on and
off according to the following instructions to avoid damaging the IF board.

Position and Description of the Toggle Lever Switch


The toggle lever switch is located on the IF board and controls the power that is fed to the
ODU, as shown in Figure 2-1.
NOTE

ISM6 boards do not have any toggle lever switches.

Figure 2-1 Toggle lever switch

Turning On the Toggle Lever Switch


1. Gently pull on the toggle lever switch out.

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

2. Turn it to the left.

3. Release the toggle lever switch.

Turning Off the Toggle Lever Switch


1. Gently pull on the toggle lever switch out.

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

2. Turn it to the right.

3. Release the toggle lever switch.

2.2 Operation Guide for the IF Jumper


Before installing or removing IF jumpers, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent
personal injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.

Precaution

NOTICE
l For an IF board with a power switch, do not disconnect/connect the IF jumper with power
on.
l For an IF board (ISM6) without a power switch, do not disconnect/connect the IF jumper
with no load; that is, ensure that the IF jumper is already connected to its IF cable and
ODU.

Procedure
Step 1 For an IF board with a power switch:
1. Follow instructions in 2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch to power off
the ODU.

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

1 2

DANGER
Ensure that the ODU is completely powered off before removing or installing the IF
jumper.

2. Remove or install the IF jumper.


Step 2 For an IF board (ISM6) without a power switch:
1. Ensure that the IF jumper is already connected to its IF cable and ODU.
2. Disconnect/Connect the IF jumper.

----End

2.3 Operation Guide for the IF Cables


Before installing or removing IF cables, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent
personal injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

Precautions

NOTICE
l For an IF board with a power switch, do not disconnect/connect the IF jumper with power
on.
l For an IF board (ISM6) without a power switch, do not disconnect/connect the IF jumper
with no load; that is, ensure that the IF jumper is already connected to its IF cable and
ODU.

Procedure
Step 1 For an IF board with a power switch:
1. Follow instructions in 2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch to power off
the ODU.

1 2

DANGER
Ensure that the ODU is completely powered off before removing or installing the IF
cable.

2. Install or remove the IF cables.

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

Step 2 For an IF board (ISM6) without a power switch:


1. Ensure that the IF jumper is already connected to its IF cable and ODU.
2. Connect/Disconnect the IF cable.

----End

2.4 Operation Guide for the IF Board


Before removing or installing an IF board, turn off the ODU-PWR switch to avoid bodily
injury or damage to the IF board and ODU.

Precautions

NOTICE
l For an IF board with a power switch, do not disconnect/connect the IF jumper with power
on.
l For an IF board (ISM6) without a power switch, do not disconnect/connect the IF jumper
with no load; that is, ensure that the IF jumper is already connected to its IF cable and
ODU.

Procedure
Step 1 For an IF board with a power switch:
1. Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the IF board. For details, see 2.1 Operation Guide
for the Toggle Lever Switch.

1 2 3

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Maintenance Guide 2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

DANGER
Ensure that the ODU is completely powered off before removing or installing the IF
board.

2. Disconnect the IF jumper or IF cable.


3. Remove or install the IF board.
Step 2 For an IF board (ISM6) without a power switch:
1. Ensure that the IF jumper is already connected to its IF cable and ODU.
2. Disconnect the IF jumper/IF cable.
3. Disconnect/Connect the IF board.

----End

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Maintenance Guide 3 Routine Maintenance

3 Routine Maintenance

Routine maintenance operations are performed to detect and rectify hidden faults before the
hidden faults cause damage to equipment and affect services. Routine maintenance operations
are preventive measures.
Routine maintenance items are classified into routine maintenance items carried out on the
NMS, field maintenance items for indoor equipment, and field maintenance items for outdoor
equipment.

NOTE

Microwave equipment requires professional preventive maintenance inspection (PMI) operations.


Contact Huawei engineers to carry out the PMI operations.

Routine Maintenance Items Carried Out on the NMS


Maintenance Item Recommen Check Point
ded
Maintenan
ce Cycle

4.1 Checking the NE Every day l If the NE icon is green, the NE operates
Status properly.
l If the NE icon is gray, the NE is
unreachable due to DCN faults.
l If the NE icon is in other colors, alarms
are reported or exceptions occur. You
need to troubleshoot in time.

4.3.1 Browsing Current Every day l Handle the alarms by referring to A.3
Alarms Alarms and Handling Procedures.
l For port alarms due to the interconnected
equipment, see 4.9.5 Reversing Alarms
for Service Ports to reduce the number
of alarms and prevent interference to
emergent alarms.

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Maintenance Guide 3 Routine Maintenance

Maintenance Item Recommen Check Point


ded
Maintenan
ce Cycle

4.3.2 Browsing Historical Every week By finding causes of and solutions to


Alarms historical alarms, you can take precautions
to avoid related faults.

Browsing abnormal events Every week l Security events are generally records of
normal operations. Investigate the illegal
operations if there are any.
l Abnormal events about equipment have
been properly solved.

4.3.3 Browsing Current Every week l Gauge type performance events such as
Performance Events the board temperature and laser power
are stable.
4.3.4 Browsing Historical Every week
Performance Events l Bit error type performance events meet
requirements on link availability.

4.4.1 Querying the Every week l Historical received signal levels do not
Historical Transmit Power exceed the fade margin for a long time.
and Receive Power l When automatic transmit power control
(ATPC) is disabled, historical
transmitted signal levels are allowed to
be 3 dB larger or smaller than the
specified value.

Testing IF 1+1 Protection Half a year For equipment that is configured with 1+1
Switching protection, perform manual switching to
check whether the protection has taken
effect. After the test is completed, clear the
switching to restore to the normal protection
status.
NOTE
During the 1+1 protection switching, the
protected services are interrupted. It is
recommended that you perform the 1+1
protection switching when the traffic is light.

Testing N+1 Protection Half a year For equipment that is configured with N+1
Switching protection, perform manual switching to
check whether the protection has taken
effect. After the test is completed, clear the
switching to restore to the normal protection
status.
NOTE
During the N+1 protection switching, the
protected services are interrupted. It is
recommended that you perform the N+1
protection switching when the traffic is light.

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Maintenance Guide 3 Routine Maintenance

Maximum number of alarms and performance events that the NE can store
The NE can record and store NE alarm and performance data in a 15-minute or 24-hour
monitoring period.

NOTE

You can use the performance management system (PMS) on the U2000 to store historical performance
data for a long term.

Item Specifications

Historical alarms 1000


NOTE
An NE uses loop queues with priorities to store alarms. When the number of
alarms in a queue reaches 1000, new major alarms overwrite existing minor
alarms and suggestions.

Historical l Sixteen 15-minute historical performance events


performance events l Six 24-hour historical performance events
(excluding RMON
NOTE
performance events) For the following performance events, an NE can store thirty 24-hour
historical performance events and six hundred and seventy two 15-minute
historical performance events:
l IF_BBE, IF_ES, IF_SES, IF_UAS
l IF_SNR_AVG, IF_SNR_MAX, IF_SNR_MIN
l RSL_AVG, RSL_MAX, RSL_MIN
l TSL_AVG, TSL_MIN, TSL_MAX
l FEC_BEF_COR_ER, FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT
l MAXPHASEOFFSET
l MAXFREQDEV
l CURPOSITIVEPDV
You cannot perform the operation of browsing historical performance events
on the NMS to query the preceding long-period performance events stored
on an NE. You need to use a data collection tool to collect the performance
events.

Historical RMON l Sixteen 30-second historical performance events


performance events l Sixteen 30-minute historical performance events
l Forty 15-minute historical performance events
l Six 24-hour historical performance events
NOTE
The preceding numbers are the default values. You can change them by
modifying historical Ethernet performance monitoring parameters. A
maximum of 50 historical performance events can be stored in each period.

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Maintenance Guide 3 Routine Maintenance

Field Maintenance Items for Indoor Equipment


Maintenance Item Recommen Check Point
ded
Maintenan
ce Cycle

Checking the Every two The site environment meets equipment


telecommunications room months operation requirements.

Maintaining the Half a year


environment of outdoor
cabinets

Field Maintenance Items for Outdoor Equipment


Maintenance Item Recommended Check Point
Maintenance Cycle

Checking the ODUa Half a year The ODU is securely


NOTE mounted and its appearance
Perform a complete check is in good condition, without
after a level-8 or higher-level the coating being damaged
hurricane, an earthquake, or or corroded.
other unexpected
Checking the hybrid circumstances. The hybrid coupler is fixed
couplera NOTICE and secure, with intact
In high-corrosion areas, check appearance and free from
whether outdoor components
and fasteners are loose due to
damage or corrosion to the
corrosion. If yes, take rust- and paint.
corrosion-proof measures or
Checking the antennaa replace the corroded The antenna is tightly placed
components or fasteners. and does not deviate from
the designed angle.

Checking the IF cable and The exterior of the cable is


flexible waveguidea intact, and the connectors
are properly waterproofed.
The cable is fixed properly
with a feeder fastener or
cable ties, and the cable
bending degree meets the
requirement.

Checking the LOS condition A radio link is not blocked


by any visible object.

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Maintenance Guide 3 Routine Maintenance

NOTE

a:An area close to a pollution source refers to the area that covers a radius within any of the following
values:
l 3.7 km away from salty waters (such as an ocean and salty water)
l 3 km away from severe pollution sources (such as iron refinery works, and coal mines)
l 2 km away from intermediate pollution sources (such as chemical plants, rubber processing works,
and electroplating workshops)
l 1 km away from light pollution sources (such as food processing works, leather working plants, and
heating boilers).

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

4 Network Monitoring

About This Chapter

4.1 Checking the NE Status


You can learn about the basic information such as whether the NE fails to communicate with
the NMS and whether any alarms are reported by checking the NE status.
4.2 Checking the Board Status
You can learn about the board status in a visual manner by checking the slot diagram.
4.3 Alarm and Performance Data Query
This section describes how to query alarms and non RMON-based performance data, such as
SDH performance data and microwave link performance data. You can query real-time and
historical performance data, which are monitored based on a 15-minute or 24-hour monitoring
period.
4.4 Microwave Link Performance Query
This section describes operations related to microwave link performance query.
4.5 Ethernet Performance Query
This section describes operations related to Ethernet performance query.
4.6 Ethernet Port Traffic Monitoring
This section describes operations related to Ethernet traffic monitoring on Ethernet ports and
microwave ports.
4.7 Long-term Network Performance Monitoring
The U2000 centrally monitors long-term performance of various Huawei devices through the
Performance Management System (PMS).
4.8 Report Query
This section describes operations related to report query. You can obtain network information
from reports.
4.9 Alarm and Performance Management Setting
This section describes operations related to alarm and performance management.

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

4.1 Checking the NE Status


You can learn about the basic information such as whether the NE fails to communicate with
the NMS and whether any alarms are reported by checking the NE status.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
NOTE

By default, the color of the NE icon on the U2000 indicates the NE status.

Procedure
Step 1 Query NE running status.

Select the View NE running


desired NE. status.
1
4

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

NOTE

You can also determine NE running status by referring to information on the Legend tab.

NOTE

Complete the following steps to check NE running status from the WebLCT:
1. Query Communication status and Login status of the NE in NE List.
2. If Login status is Offline, log in to the NE.
3. Select the NE and click Log in.
4. Set User Name and Password.

NOTE

The default user name is lct.


The lct account owns system-level rights.
The default password of the lct account is Changeme_123.
5. View NE status and alarm status.

----End

4.2 Checking the Board Status


You can learn about the board status in a visual manner by checking the slot diagram.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query board running status.

3
Determine the board
running status by referring
to legend information.

Right-click
the desired
NE.

NOTE

Complete the following step to query board running status from the WebLCT:
Click the Slot Layout tab in NE Explorer.

----End

4.3 Alarm and Performance Data Query


This section describes how to query alarms and non RMON-based performance data, such as
SDH performance data and microwave link performance data. You can query real-time and
historical performance data, which are monitored based on a 15-minute or 24-hour monitoring
period.

4.3.1 Browsing Current Alarms


You can find the faults that occur on the equipment by browsing current alarms.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Open the current alarm window.

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1
2

Step 2 Specify filter conditions.

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Configure the severity, type, and


maintenance status parameters of the
3 alarms to be queried.

Set the occurring time and clearing time


of the alarms to be queried.
4

Click the Alarm Source tab and


specify filter conditions.
5

6
Select the desired
8 NEs.

Configure the filter


type. For example,
you can filter alarms
by NE.
7

10

11

Step 3 View alarm information.

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

Select an alarm and view its details


and possible causes in the following
panes.
12

Alarm details: contain information


about the board and optical port that Alarm handling: contains possible
report the alarm as well as alarm causes for the alarm and reference
parameters. links to alarm handling suggestions

Step 4 Contact troubleshooting personnel in a timely manner for alarm handling.


For details about alarm handling, see A.3 Alarms and Handling Procedures.

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NOTE

Complete the following steps to browse current alarms from the WebLCT:

Select the NE from the NE Explorer and click in the tool bar.
The Browse Current Alarms tab page is displayed by default.

----End

Related Information
A current alarm refers to an alarm that is not cleared.

By U2000, you can browse the network-wide alarms based on the alarm severity by clicking
the alarm indicators in the upper right corner.

l You can click (red) to browse the network-wide critical alarms.

l You can click (orange) to browse the network-wide major alarms.

l You can click (yellow) to browse the network-wide minor alarms.

l You can click (light-blue) to browse the network-wide warning alarms.


NOTE

By default, the number shown by each indicator indicates the number of current network-wide alarms, which
are not cleared, of the specific severity.

By Web LCT, you can also click an alarm indicator on the toolbar to display the NE alarms of
the specific severity.

From left to right, the alarm indicators and corresponding alarm severities are as follows:
l Red: critical alarm

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

l Orange: major alarm


l Yellow: minor alarm
l Purple: warning
l Light blue: event

4.3.2 Browsing Historical Alarms


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing
historical alarms. A historical alarm refers to an alarm that is already cleared.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Open the historical alarm window.

Step 2 Specify filter conditions.

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Configure the severity, type, and maintenance


3 status parameters of the alarms to be queried.

Set the occurring time and clearing time


of the alarms to be queried.
4

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

Click the Alarm Source tab and


specify filter conditions.
5

6
Select the desired
8 NEs.

Configure the filter


type. For example,
you can filter alarms
by NE.
7

10

11

Step 3 View alarm information.

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12 Select an alarm and view its details


and possible causes in the following
panes.

Alarm details: contain information about Alarm handling: contains possible


the board and optical port that report the causes for the alarm and reference
alarm as well as alarm parameters. links to alarm handling suggestions

NOTE

Complete the following steps to browse current alarms from the WebLCT:

Select the NE from the NE Explorer and click in the tool bar.
Click the Browse Historical alarms tab.

----End

4.3.3 Browsing Current Performance Events


You can know the running status of the equipment by browsing current SDH/PDH
performance events. The counter of current performance events measures all the performance
events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and the current time.

Prerequisites
l The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable
the performance monitoring function, see Configuring the Performance Monitoring
Status of NEs.
l You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

Procedure
Step 1 Open the performance data window.
1

Step 2 View current performance data.

Select performance event types and


4 specify the performance monitoring
6 period.
5

3
Configure the query type.
Select the desired For example, Measure is
NEs. selected here.

(Optional) Output the


performance data.

7 8

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Maintenance Guide 4 Network Monitoring

NOTE

Complete the following steps to query current performance data from the WebLCT:
Select the desired board in the NE Explorer and choose Performance > Current Performance from the
Function Tree.

----End

4.3.4 Browsing Historical Performance Events


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing
historical performance events.

Prerequisites
l The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable
the performance monitoring function, see Configuring the Performance Monitoring
Status of NEs.
l You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Open the performance data window.
1

2
3

Step 2 View historical performance data.

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6
4
7
Select Data Source.
6 If you select Query from NMS, historical performance data will be obtained from
Configure the query type. For the U2000 database.
example, Count is selected here. 6 If you select Query from NE, a message will be sent through an interface to obtain
historical performance data from NEs.
6 Historical performance data of NEs changes with services. To query the latest
historical performance data of NEs and save the data to the U2000 database, set
Data Source to Query from NE and select Save to Database. Then the data is
saved to the U2000 database and you can query it from the database by selecting
Query from NMS next time.

NOTE

Complete the following steps to query historical performance data from the Web LCT:
Select the desired board in the NE Explorer and choose Performance > Historical Performance from the
Function Tree.
The Web LCT does not support data source selection.

----End

4.3.5 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing


Records
You can learn about the threshold-crossing information of the performance events of an NE
by browsing the performance event threshold-crossing records.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Open the Performance Threshold-Crossing Record window.

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2
3

Step 2 Query performance threshold-crossing records.

Select performance event types


5
and specify the performance
6 monitoring period.

Select the desired


NEs.

NOTE

Complete the following steps to query performance threshold-crossing records from the WebLCT:
Select a desired board in the NE explorer and choose Performance > Threshold-Crossing Record from the
Function Tree.

----End

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4.3.6 Browsing UAT Events


Learn about the severe abnormalities on the transmission line by browsing UAT events.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Context
UAT refers to a period of 10 consecutive seconds during which the bit error ratio per second
of the digital signal in either of the transmission directions of a transmission system is inferior
to 10-3. These 10 seconds are considered to be part of the unavailable time.

Procedure
Step 1 Open the UAT window
1

2
3

Step 2 Query UAT events.

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5
Specify the time period, data source
6 and functional block type.

Select the
desired board.

----End

4.4 Microwave Link Performance Query


This section describes operations related to microwave link performance query.

4.4.1 Querying the Historical Transmit Power and Receive Power


If the radio link requires troubleshooting, query the change trend for the historical transmit
power and receive power for reference.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The corresponding IF boards and the ODUs connected to the IF boards must be added to
the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Query historical receive power or transmit power information.

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Set the time range, monitoring period, and


3 power parameters.
In the NE Explorer,
select the desired
ODU. 4

Click Draw.
The power curve is
1 displayed.

----End

4.4.2 Querying the SNR Values of a Radio Link


This section describes how to query the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) change curve of a radio
link, assisting in handling radio link faults.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The IF boards and the ODUs to which the IF boards are connected have been added in
the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Query how the SNR or Root-mean-square (RMS) error changes on microwave links.

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Set the time range, monitoring period, and


1 3 performance type (SNR or MSE).

In the NE Explorer,
select the desired IF 4
board.

Click Draw.
The SNR or MSE curve is
displayed.

----End

4.4.3 Browsing Current Performance Events of the radio link


You can learn about the current operating status of a radio link by browsing its current
performance data.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Right-click a microwave link in the main topology and choose Microwave Link
Performance Statistics.

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1
Right-click the desired
microwave link.

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NOTE

Uncheck Auto Refresh. Click Save as to save current performance of the microwave link into a TXT file.
Complete the following steps to query current performance of the microwave link from the WebLCT:
Select the desired microwave link in the NE Explorer and choose Configuration > Microwave Link
Performance from the Function Tree.

----End

4.4.4 Browsing Historical Performance Data of a Radio Link


You can learn about the operating status of a radio link by browsing its historical performance
data over a specific period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Query historical performance of the microwave link.

1
Right-click the desired
microwave link.

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Specify the query period and


monitoring period of the the
3 4 desired performance data.

6 (Optional) Specify the data type to be


displayed. By default, link transmit power and
receive power are displayed. (Optional) Move the cursor
over the desired node to
check link information at a
specific time.
8

NOTE

Complete the following steps to query historical performance of the microwave link from the WebLCT:
Select the desired microwave link in the NE Explorer and choose Configuration > Microwave Link
Performance from the Function Tree.

----End

4.5 Ethernet Performance Query


This section describes operations related to Ethernet performance query.

Context
NOTE

You can query real-time performance data and recent performance data.
Ethernet performance is monitored through RMON. Available performance monitoring periods include 30s,
30 minutes, custom period 1 (15 minutes by default), and custom period 2 (24 hours by default).

4.5.1 Browsing Current Ethernet Performance


After setting the RMON statistics group. you can browse real-time Ethernet performance
statistics.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

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l The corresponding board must be added in the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, navigate to the performance query interfaces for different objects
according to the following tables.

Table 4-1 Packet plane


Performa Browsed Navigation Path
nce Object
Object

Basic Ethernet Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE
performan porta Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from
ce/ the Function Tree.
Extended NOTE
performan a: Packet Ethernet ports include FE/GE ports, Integrated IP microwave
ce ports, PORT8 on the EMS6 board, and PORT10 on the EFP8 board.

PLA group PLA 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
performan group Tree and choose Configuration > Physical Link
ce Aggregation.
2. Select the desired PLA group, right-click, and choose
Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

XPIC XPIC 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
group group Tree and choose Configuration > Link Configuration.
performan 2. Select the desired XPIC group, right-click, and choose
ce Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

XPIC XPIC 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
group group Tree and choose Configuration > IF 1+1 Protection.
performan 2. Select the desired 1+1 protection group, right-click, and
ce choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

MPLS MPLS 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
tunnel Tunnel Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
performan Unicast Tunnel Management from the Function Tree.
ce 2. Click the Static Tunnel tab.
3. Select one or more tunnels, right-click the tunnel(s), and
choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

L2 VPN- ETH 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
PW PWE3 Choose Configuration > Ethernet Service Management >
performan service E-Line Service from the Function Tree.
ce 2. Select one or more ETH PWE3 services, right-click the
service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
shortcut menu.

L2 VPN UNI-UNI 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
performan E-Line Choose Configuration > Ethernet Service Management >
ce service E-Line Service from the Function Tree.
2. Select one or more UNI-UNI E-Line services, right-click the
service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
shortcut menu.

CES-PW CES 1. In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and
performan service choose Configuration > CES Service Management from
ce the Function Tree.
CES 2. Select one or more CES services, right-click the service(s),
performan and choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.
ce

ATM/IMA Smart E1 Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE
(access port Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from
side) the Function Tree.
performan
ce

ATM-PW ATM 1. In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and
performan PWE3 choose Configuration > ATM Service Management from
ce service the Function Tree.
ATM 2. Select one or more ATM PWE3 services, right-click the
PWE3 service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
performan shortcut menu.
ce

Port traffic Ports that 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
classificati perform Choose Configuration > QoS Management > Policy
on complex Management > Port Policy from the Function Tree.
performan traffic 2. Click the Application Object tab.
ce classificati
on 3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
Complete the operation Creating Traffic before monitoring the port
traffic classification performance.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

Port Egress For FE/GE ports:


priority queues 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
performan Choose Configuration > Interface Management >
ce Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree.
2. Click the Basic Attributes tab.
3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
4. Select the desired egress queue in the Object drop-down list.
For Integrated IP microwave ports:
1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
Choose Configuration > Interface Management >
Microwave Interface from the Function Tree.
2. Click the Basic Attributes tab.
3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
4. Select the desired egress queue in the Object drop-down list.

Port DS Ports in a 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
domain DS Choose Configuration > QoS Management > Diffserv
performan domain Domain Management > Diffserv Domain Management
ce from the Function Tree.
2. Select the desired DS domain.
3. Click the Application Object tab.
4. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

ETH OAM E-Line 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
E-Line service Tree and choose Configuration > Ethernet OAM
service Management > Ethernet Service OAM Management.
performan 2. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
ce Performance from the shortcut menu.

ETH OAM E-LAN 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
E-LAN service Tree and choose Configuration > Ethernet OAM
service Management > Ethernet Service OAM Management.
performan 2. Select the desired test ID, right-click, and choose Browse
cec Performance from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
c: Only an NE housing CSHU or CSHUA boards supports ETH OAM
E-LAN service performance.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

MPLS-TP TUNNEL 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
OAM Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
Unicast Tunnel Management.
2. Click the MPLS-TP OAM tab.
3. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

PW 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object


Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
PW Management.
2. Click the MPLS-TP OAM tab.
3. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

Table 4-2 EoS/EoPDH plane

Performa Browse Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

Basic Ethernet In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8 or EMS6 board from the
performan portb Object Tree and choose Performance > RMON Performance
ce from the Function Tree.
NOTE
Extended b:
performan EoPDH Ethernet ports include PORT1 to PORT9 on the EFP8 board.
ce
EoS Ethernet ports include PORT1 to PORT7 on the EMS6 board.
VCG-other VCTRUN
performan K port
ce

NOTE

If you browse current Ethernet performance using the Web LCT: Select the corresponding board from the
Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Click the Statistics Group tab.

Step 3 Set the required parameters for the statistics group.


1. Select the desired object or port from the drop-down list.
2. Select the performance items for which statistics need to be collected.
3. Set Sampling Period.
Sampling Period represents the time unit of the performance statistics.

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Step 4 Click Resetting begins.


NOTE

If you click Start, the register of the statistics group is not reset to clear the existing data.

----End

4.5.2 Configuring Ethernet Performance Threshold-Crossing


Parameters
After setting the RMON alarm group. you can monitor whether the Ethernet performance
value crosses its threshold for a long time.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The corresponding boards must be added in the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, navigate to the performance query interfaces for different objects
according to the following tables.

Table 4-3 Packet plane


Performa Browsed Navigation Path
nce Object
Object

Basic Ethernet Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE
performan porta Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from
ce/ the Function Tree.
Extended NOTE
performan a: Packet Ethernet ports include FE/GE ports, Integrated IP microwave
ce ports, PORT8 on the EMS6 board, and PORT10 on the EFP8 board.

PLA group PLA 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
performan group Tree and choose Configuration > Physical Link
ce Aggregation.
2. Select the desired PLA group, right-click, and choose
Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

XPIC XPIC 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
group group Tree and choose Configuration > Link Configuration.
performan 2. Select the desired XPIC group, right-click, and choose
ce Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

XPIC XPIC 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
group group Tree and choose Configuration > IF 1+1 Protection.
performan 2. Select the desired 1+1 protection group, right-click, and
ce choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

MPLS MPLS 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
tunnel Tunnel Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
performan Unicast Tunnel Management from the Function Tree.
ce 2. Click the Static Tunnel tab.
3. Select one or more tunnels, right-click the tunnel(s), and
choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

L2 VPN- ETH 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
PW PWE3 Choose Configuration > Ethernet Service Management >
performan service E-Line Service from the Function Tree.
ce 2. Select one or more ETH PWE3 services, right-click the
service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
shortcut menu.

L2 VPN UNI-UNI 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
performan E-Line Choose Configuration > Ethernet Service Management >
ce service E-Line Service from the Function Tree.
2. Select one or more UNI-UNI E-Line services, right-click the
service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
shortcut menu.

CES-PW CES 1. In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and
performan service choose Configuration > CES Service Management from
ce the Function Tree.
CES 2. Select one or more CES services, right-click the service(s),
performan and choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.
ce

ATM/IMA Smart E1 Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE
(access port Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from
side) the Function Tree.
performan
ce

ATM-PW ATM 1. In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and
performan PWE3 choose Configuration > ATM Service Management from
ce service the Function Tree.
ATM 2. Select one or more ATM PWE3 services, right-click the
PWE3 service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
performan shortcut menu.
ce

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

Port traffic Ports that 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
classificati perform Choose Configuration > QoS Management > Policy
on complex Management > Port Policy from the Function Tree.
performan traffic 2. Click the Application Object tab.
ce classificati
on 3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
Complete the operation Creating Traffic before monitoring the port
traffic classification performance.

Port Egress For FE/GE ports:


priority queues 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
performan Choose Configuration > Interface Management >
ce Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree.
2. Click the Basic Attributes tab.
3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
4. Select the desired egress queue in the Object drop-down list.
For Integrated IP microwave ports:
1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
Choose Configuration > Interface Management >
Microwave Interface from the Function Tree.
2. Click the Basic Attributes tab.
3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
4. Select the desired egress queue in the Object drop-down list.

Port DS Ports in a 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
domain DS Choose Configuration > QoS Management > Diffserv
performan domain Domain Management > Diffserv Domain Management
ce from the Function Tree.
2. Select the desired DS domain.
3. Click the Application Object tab.
4. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

ETH OAM E-Line 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
E-Line service Tree and choose Configuration > Ethernet OAM
service Management > Ethernet Service OAM Management.
performan 2. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
ce Performance from the shortcut menu.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

ETH OAM E-LAN 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
E-LAN service Tree and choose Configuration > Ethernet OAM
service Management > Ethernet Service OAM Management.
performan 2. Select the desired test ID, right-click, and choose Browse
cec Performance from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
c: Only an NE housing CSHU or CSHUA boards supports ETH OAM
E-LAN service performance.

MPLS-TP TUNNEL 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
OAM Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
Unicast Tunnel Management.
2. Click the MPLS-TP OAM tab.
3. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

PW 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object


Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
PW Management.
2. Click the MPLS-TP OAM tab.
3. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

Table 4-4 EoS/EoPDH plane


Performa Browse Navigation Path
nce Object
Object

Basic Ethernet In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8 or EMS6 board from the
performan portb Object Tree and choose Performance > RMON Performance
ce from the Function Tree.
NOTE
Extended b:
performan EoPDH Ethernet ports include PORT1 to PORT9 on the EFP8 board.
ce
EoS Ethernet ports include PORT1 to PORT7 on the EMS6 board.
VCG-other VCTRUN
performan K port
ce

NOTE

If you browse current Ethernet performance using the Web LCT: Select the corresponding board from the
Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from the Function Tree.

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Step 2 Click the Event tab and set the corresponding parameters.
Step 3 Click Apply. Close the displayed dialog box.

----End

4.5.3 Setting Parameters for Monitoring Historical Ethernet


Performance
After configuring a historical control group, you can specify how the historical Ethernet
performance data is monitored.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The corresponding boards must be added in the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.
NOTE
To set parameters for monitoring historical Ethernet performance of multiple NEs on the U2000, choose
Performance > RMON History Control Group Management from the main menu.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON
History Control Group.
Step 2 Set the parameters of the historical control group.
Step 3 Click Apply. Close the displayed dialog box.

----End

4.5.4 Browsing Historical Ethernet Performance Data


After configuring an history group, you can browse the historical performance statistics.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The corresponding boards must be added in the NE Panel.
l The objects and performance events to be monitored must be set.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

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Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, navigate to the performance query interfaces for different objects
according to the following tables.

Table 4-5 Packet plane


Performa Browsed Navigation Path
nce Object
Object

Basic Ethernet Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE
performan porta Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from
ce/ the Function Tree.
Extended NOTE
performan a: Packet Ethernet ports include FE/GE ports, Integrated IP microwave
ce ports, PORT8 on the EMS6 board, and PORT10 on the EFP8 board.

PLA group PLA 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
performan group Tree and choose Configuration > Physical Link
ce Aggregation.
2. Select the desired PLA group, right-click, and choose
Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

XPIC XPIC 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
group group Tree and choose Configuration > Link Configuration.
performan 2. Select the desired XPIC group, right-click, and choose
ce Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

XPIC XPIC 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
group group Tree and choose Configuration > IF 1+1 Protection.
performan 2. Select the desired 1+1 protection group, right-click, and
ce choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

MPLS MPLS 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
tunnel Tunnel Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
performan Unicast Tunnel Management from the Function Tree.
ce 2. Click the Static Tunnel tab.
3. Select one or more tunnels, right-click the tunnel(s), and
choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.

L2 VPN- ETH 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
PW PWE3 Choose Configuration > Ethernet Service Management >
performan service E-Line Service from the Function Tree.
ce 2. Select one or more ETH PWE3 services, right-click the
service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
shortcut menu.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

L2 VPN UNI-UNI 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
performan E-Line Choose Configuration > Ethernet Service Management >
ce service E-Line Service from the Function Tree.
2. Select one or more UNI-UNI E-Line services, right-click the
service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
shortcut menu.

CES-PW CES 1. In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and
performan service choose Configuration > CES Service Management from
ce the Function Tree.
CES 2. Select one or more CES services, right-click the service(s),
performan and choose Browse Performance from the shortcut menu.
ce

ATM/IMA Smart E1 Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE
(access port Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from
side) the Function Tree.
performan
ce

ATM-PW ATM 1. In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and
performan PWE3 choose Configuration > ATM Service Management from
ce service the Function Tree.
ATM 2. Select one or more ATM PWE3 services, right-click the
PWE3 service(s), and choose Browse Performance from the
performan shortcut menu.
ce

Port traffic Ports that 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
classificati perform Choose Configuration > QoS Management > Policy
on complex Management > Port Policy from the Function Tree.
performan traffic 2. Click the Application Object tab.
ce classificati
on 3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
Complete the operation Creating Traffic before monitoring the port
traffic classification performance.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

Port Egress For FE/GE ports:


priority queues 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
performan Choose Configuration > Interface Management >
ce Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree.
2. Click the Basic Attributes tab.
3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
4. Select the desired egress queue in the Object drop-down list.
For Integrated IP microwave ports:
1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
Choose Configuration > Interface Management >
Microwave Interface from the Function Tree.
2. Click the Basic Attributes tab.
3. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.
4. Select the desired egress queue in the Object drop-down list.

Port DS Ports in a 1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
domain DS Choose Configuration > QoS Management > Diffserv
performan domain Domain Management > Diffserv Domain Management
ce from the Function Tree.
2. Select the desired DS domain.
3. Click the Application Object tab.
4. Select one or multiple ports, right-click and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

ETH OAM E-Line 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
E-Line service Tree and choose Configuration > Ethernet OAM
service Management > Ethernet Service OAM Management.
performan 2. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
ce Performance from the shortcut menu.

ETH OAM E-LAN 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
E-LAN service Tree and choose Configuration > Ethernet OAM
service Management > Ethernet Service OAM Management.
performan 2. Select the desired test ID, right-click, and choose Browse
cec Performance from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
c: Only an NE housing CSHU or CSHUA boards supports ETH OAM
E-LAN service performance.

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Performa Browsed Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

MPLS-TP TUNNEL 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object
OAM Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
Unicast Tunnel Management.
2. Click the MPLS-TP OAM tab.
3. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

PW 1. In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object


Tree and choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
PW Management.
2. Click the MPLS-TP OAM tab.
3. Select the desired MEP, right-click, and choose Browse
Performance from the shortcut menu.

Table 4-6 EoS/EoPDH plane

Performa Browse Navigation Path


nce Object
Object

Basic Ethernet In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8 or EMS6 board from the
performan portb Object Tree and choose Performance > RMON Performance
ce from the Function Tree.
NOTE
Extended b:
performan EoPDH Ethernet ports include PORT1 to PORT9 on the EFP8 board.
ce
EoS Ethernet ports include PORT1 to PORT7 on the EMS6 board.
VCG-other VCTRUN
performan K port
ce

NOTE

If you browse current Ethernet performance using the Web LCT: Select the corresponding board from the
Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Performance > RMON Performance from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Click the History Group tab.

Step 3 Set the parameters of the historical group.


1. Select the desired object or port from the drop-down list.
2. Click and specify the required time span.
3. Select the performance items to browse.
4. Under History Table Type, set the time span for the performance items to be browsed.

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Step 4 Click Query.

----End

4.6 Ethernet Port Traffic Monitoring


This section describes operations related to Ethernet traffic monitoring on Ethernet ports and
microwave ports.

4.6.1 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth


Utilization of Ethernet Ports
To query the traffic, physical bandwidth, or bandwidth utilization of Ethernet ports within a
certain period, you need to enable the monitoring for the object before that period starts. The
FE/GE ports and the ports on the packet plane support this operation.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.
The flow monitoring function is enabled on the Ethernet port. To enable the flow monitoring
function on a port, see 4.6.1 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization
of Ethernet Ports.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Background Information
After the flow monitoring function is enabled, the system saves the statistics about the
received traffic and transmitted traffic with an interval of 15 minutes. In normal cases, the
system stores the statistics that are collected in the last 30 days. In the system, every
measurement entry shows the average transmit rate and average receive rate within a period
of 15 minutes. You can query the statistics in the last 30 days.

Procedure
Step 1 Set Ethernet performance monitoring parameters.

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Select the board where


the desired Ethernet
port resides. 3 Configure whether to flow
monitoring, physical bandwidth
monitoring, and bandwidth
utilization monitoring.

----End

4.6.2 Querying Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth


Utilization
This section describes how to query the change curve of the traffic, physical bandwidth, or
bandwidth utilization within a certain period. The FE/GE ports and the ports on the packet
plane support this operation.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

The flow monitoring function is enabled on the Ethernet port. To enable the flow monitoring
function on a port, see 4.6.1 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization
of Ethernet Ports.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Background Information
After the flow monitoring function is enabled, the system saves the statistics about the
received traffic and transmitted traffic with an interval of 15 minutes. In normal cases, the
system stores the statistics that are collected in the last 30 days. In the system, every
measurement entry shows the average transmit rate and average receive rate within a period
of 15 minutes. You can query the statistics in the last 30 days.

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This operation allows only the queries about port-based Ethernet traffic by using U2000. For
how to query tunnel- or PW-based traffic, see 4.5.1 Browsing Current Ethernet
Performance.

Procedure
Step 1 Query traffic, physical bandwidth, and bandwidth utilization.
1

Select the
desired board. 5
3
Select the port
of the board.
4
Specify the time
period and display
mode.

----End

4.7 Long-term Network Performance Monitoring


The U2000 centrally monitors long-term performance of various Huawei devices through the
Performance Management System (PMS).

4.7.1 Creating a Performance Monitoring Template


This section describes how to create a performance monitoring template. Performance
monitoring templates specify counters used by performance monitoring instances and their
thresholds (if any). When counter values collected exceed the preset thresholds, the system
reports corresponding threshold crossing alerts (TCAs).

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

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Context
NOTE
You can create data monitoring templates and remote network monitoring (RMON) TCA monitoring
templates. To monitor Ethernet performance counters supporting TCAs, create RMON TCA monitoring
templates. To monitor other counters, create data monitoring templates.

Procedure
Step 1 Create a data monitoring template.

2 3

Select the monitoring


resource type.
4

Set the parameters of the


6 data monitoring template.

7
Click Add, and select the
performance monitoring
indicators.

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Step 2 Create an RMON TCA monitoring template.

2 3

Select the monitoring


resource type.
4

Enter the template name and


set the template type to RMON
6 TAC.

Click Add, and select the


performance monitoring
indicators.

9 Set the monitoring


threshold parameters.

10

----End

4.7.2 Creating a Performance Monitoring Instance


This section describes how to create a performance monitoring instance. A performance
monitoring instance can monitor the performance of multiple objects at the same time. You
can associate a created performance monitoring template and a created performance statistics
collection policy to a performance monitoring instance.

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Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Open the Create Monitoring Instance dialog box.

Step 2 Select monitoring resources.

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Select the desired


NE. Select the desired
4 port.
6

Step 3 Select the monitoring template.

(Optional) Select the desired data (Optional) If there is no desired


monitoring template if it is available. If data monitoring template, create
there is no desired template, go to step one for the instances.
10.
10

11

(Optional) If there is no desired RMON


threshold monitoring template, create one
for the instances.
(Optional) Select the desired RMON
threshold monitoring template if it is
available. If there is no desired template, 12
go to step 12.

13

NOTE

Complete step 9 and step 10 when creating a data monitoring instance.


Complete step 11 and step 12 when creating an RMON TCA monitoring instance.

Step 4 Specify the monitoring time.

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14

NOTE
Skip this step for the OptiX RTN 950, which does not support the setting of monitoring time.

Step 5 Close the dialog box.

15

NOTE

If a creation success message is displayed, the creation is successful.


If the creation fails, determine the failure cause according to the displayed error information and recreate the
instance.

----End

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4.7.3 Browsing the Real-Time Data of a Performance Monitoring


Instance
This section describes how to browse the real-time performance data of objects monitored by
a performance monitoring instance.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l There is at least one performance monitoring instance.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Open the real-time monitoring window.

Step 2 View real-time performance data.

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(Optional) Set the


3 performance display
mode. The default value is
(Optional) Set the timeline granularity. 4 line chart.
The default value is 10s.

----End

4.7.4 Browsing the Historical Data of a Performance Monitoring


Instance
This section describes how to browse the performance data of objects monitored by a
performance monitoring instance in a specific time range.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l There is at least one performance monitoring instance.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Open the historical performance data window.

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1 Right-click the desired


performance monitoring
instance.

Step 2 View historical performance data.

----End

4.8 Report Query


This section describes operations related to report query. You can obtain network information
from reports.

4.8.1 Querying the Microwave Link Information Report


You can obtain the current and recent transmit/receive power of microwave links by querying
the microwave link information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the microwave link information report.

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2 3
5

Select the desired


NEs.
4

(Optional) Output the link report.

----End

4.8.2 Querying the Network-wide License Report


By querying the network-wide license report, you can check the license information of each
NE.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the license capacity report of NEs.

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2
3

Select the desired


4 NEs.

(Optional) Output the microwave


capacity report.

Step 2 Query the air-interface license capacity report of the network.

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(Optional) Output the air-interface


capacity report.

----End

4.8.3 Querying the Microwave Configuration Report


You can output the configuration report into an XLS file.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Export the microwave configuration report of an RTN NE.

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Select the types of


configuration data to be
3 exported.

Select the desired NEs. You


can also click the icon in the
red circle to quickly locate
desired NEs.

4 Specify the directory for


saving the report.

----End

4.8.4 Querying the Board Information Report


You can obtain the logic version, and software version of each board by querying the board
information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Open the board information query window.

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1
2

4
Set Physical
Inventory Type to
Board.
3

Step 2 Specify filter conditions.

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Specify filter conditions. For


example, you can filter board
information by NE. 6
Select the
7 desired NEs.

Step 3 View query results.

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(Optional) Output the board


information report.

10

NOTE

Complete the following steps to query the board information report from the WebLCT:
Select the NE from in the NE Explorer and choose Report > Board Information Report from the Function
Tree.
Version information of all boards is displayed in Board Information Report.

----End

4.8.5 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report


You can obtain the manufacturing information about each board and the SFP module by
querying the board manufacturing information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

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Procedure
Step 1 Query the board manufacturing information report.
1

2 3
5

Select the desired


NEs.
4

(Optional) Output the board


manufacturing information report.

NOTE

Complete the following steps to query the board manufacturing information report from the WebLCT:
Select the NE from in the NE Explorer and choose Report > Board Details Information Report from the
Function Tree.
Manufacturing information of all boards is displayed in Board Details Information Report.

----End

4.8.6 Querying the ODU Information Report


You can query information (such as the production date and SN) about the ODUs on a
network by querying the ODU information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

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Procedure
Step 1 Query ODU information.

(Optional) Output the ODU


information report.
4

----End

4.9 Alarm and Performance Management Setting


This section describes operations related to alarm and performance management.

Context
NOTE
The performance management in this section does not cover Ethernet performance

4.9.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs


By performing this operation task, you can manually enable or disable performance
monitoring for NEs, or set the performance monitoring period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

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Context
NOTE
To perform batch NE configurations on the U2000, choose Performance > Set NE Performance
Monitoring Time from the main menu.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree, and then choose Performance > NE
Performance Monitoring Time from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Configure the performance monitoring parameters of the NEs.
1. Select 15-Minute or 24-Hour.
2. Select Enabled or Disabled in Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring.
3. Set the start time and end time of the performance monitoring of NEs.
NOTE

Generally, both Set 15-Minute Monitoring and Set 24-Hour Monitoring are enabled.
You can specify the start time of the performance monitoring function, only after selecting Enabled
in the Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring area.
You can specify the end time of the performance monitoring function, only after selecting Enabled
and then selecting To in the Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring area.

4. Click Apply. Close the displayed dialog box.

----End

4.9.2 Setting Severity and Auto Reporting Status of Alarms


This section describes how to set the severity and auto reporting status of specific alarms.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

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NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired object.

Step 2 Choose Alarm > Alarm Severity and Auto Reporting from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Select any items in the column Event and set Severity and Auto Reporting Status for them.

Step 4 Click Apply to save the settings.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.


NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.3 Suppressing Alarms for Monitored Objects


This section describes how to suppress specific alarms for a specific monitored object.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 2 Choose Alarm > Alarm Suppression from the Function Tree.

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Step 3 Set Monitored Object and click Query.


Step 4 Set Status in Alarm Suppression.
Step 5 Click Apply.
Step 6 Close the dialog box that is displayed.
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.4 Suppressing Alarms for NEs


This section describes how to suppress certain alarms for NEs.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE.
Step 2 Choose Alarm > Alarm Suppression from the Function Tree.

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Step 3 Set Status in Alarm Suppression.

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.


NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.5 Reversing Alarms for Service Ports


This section describes how to reverse alarms for service ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE.

Step 2 Choose Alarm > NE Alarm Attribute from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set Alarm Reversion to Enable (Manually Restore).

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.


NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Step 6 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 7 Choose Alarm > Alarm Reversion from the Function Tree.

Step 8 Set Reversion Status for the required port.

Step 9 Click Apply.

Step 10 Close the dialog box that is displayed.

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NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.6 Setting Trigger Conditions of AIS Insertion


This section describes how to set the trigger conditions of AIS insertion for specific
monitored objects.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 2 Choose Alarm > QoS Alarm > AIS Insertion from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set the trigger conditions of AIS insertion. If you select Enabled under an alarm, the AIS
signal is inserted when this alarm occurs; otherwise, the AIS signal is not inserted when this
alarm occurs.

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.


NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.7 Setting Trigger Conditions of UNEQ Insertion


This section describes how to set the trigger conditions of UNEQ insertion for service ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

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NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 2 Choose Alarm > QoS Alarm > UNEQ Insertion Switch from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set the trigger conditions of UNEQ insertion. If you select Enabled under an alarm, the
UNEQ signal (all 0s) is inserted when this alarm occurs; otherwise, the UNEQ signal is not
inserted when this alarm occurs.

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.


NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.8 Setting Bit Error Thresholds for Service Ports


This section describes how to set bit error thresholds for service ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 2 Choose Alarm > QoS Alarm > Bit Error Alarm Threshold from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set bit error thresholds.

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.

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NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.9 Setting the Alarm Threshold for Insufficient Fade Margin


This section describes how to set the alarm threshold for insufficient fade margin for an RF
port on an ODU.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Specify Alarm Threshold for Fade Margin Shortage.

----End

4.9.10 Setting Monitoring and Auto-Report Status of Performance


Events
This section describes how to set monitoring and auto-report status of specific performance
events for monitored objects.

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Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 2 Choose Performance > Performance Monitor Status from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set the following parameters: Monitor Status, 15-Minute Auto-Report, and 24-Hour Auto-
Report.

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.


NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

----End

4.9.11 Setting Performance Thresholds


This section describes how to set the thresholds of specific performance events for monitored
objects.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

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Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 2 Choose Performance > Performance Threshold from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set Threshold Value.

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.

----End

4.9.12 Resetting Performance Registers


This section describes how to reset performance registers. After performance registers are
reset, their counts are cleared and they immediately start a new counting period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board.

Step 2 Choose Performance > Reset Board Performance Register from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set Monitored Object and register types.

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Step 4 Click Reset.

Step 5 In the Hint dialog box that is displayed, click Yes.

Step 6 Close the dialog box that is displayed.

----End

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Maintenance Guide 5 Troubleshooting

5 Troubleshooting

About This Chapter

This guide describes the general troubleshooting procedure and the methods of rectifying the
common faults.

5.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure


When handling a fault, make a detailed record of the fault phenomena. The customers in
China can contact our 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in
areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.
5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions
The service interruption fault indicates the service transmission failure due to an equipment
fault or a link fault.
5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link
When an NE reports MW_LOF, MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD or MW_FEC_UNCOR due
to failure or performance deterioration of a radio link, there is a radio link fault.
5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services
When an NE reports an alarm or a performance event on the IF board, regenerator section
(RS), multiplex section (MS), higher order path (HP), or lower order path (LP), there are bit
errors in services.
5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications
When an NE reports a large number of justification events about the administrative unit (AU)
pointer or the tributary unit (TU) pointer, there are pointer justification faults.
5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment
An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting SDH services with other
SDH equipment.
5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment
An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting PDH services with other
PDH equipment.
5.8 Troubleshooting Native Ethernet Service Faults
An Ethernet service fault may be the Ethernet service interruption or Ethernet service
deterioration.

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5.9 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service on the EoS/EoPDH Plane


The Ethernet services transmitted on the EoS/EoPDH plane can be transmitted over a TDM
network. The faults of the EoS/EoPDH-plane Ethernet services include service interruption
and service degradation.
5.10 Troubleshooting MPLS Tunnels
This section describes how to troubleshoot MPLS tunnels by using the MPLS OAM function
or MPLS Ping/Traceroute function.
5.11 Troubleshooting CES Services
This section describes how to troubleshoot CES services that are interrupted or degraded.
5.12 Troubleshooting ATM Services
This section describes how to troubleshoot ATM services that are interrupted or degraded.
5.13 Troubleshooting Ethernet Services Carried by PWs
This section describes how to troubleshoot Ethernet services that are carried by PWs and
transmitted in the PSN. These Ethernet services are considered faulty when they are
interrupted or deteriorate.
5.14 Troubleshooting L3VPN Services
L3VPN service faults means that services are unavailable after the L3VPN function is
configured. This section describes how to troubleshoot L3VPN services.
5.15 Troubleshooting DCN Faults
A data communication network (DCN) fault causes an NE to be unreachable due to failed or
unstable communications between the NE and the NMS.
5.16 Troubleshooting Orderwire Faults
If orderwire calls cannot get through when services are normal, there is an orderwire fault.
5.17 Typical Cases
This section describes typical microwave link troubleshooting cases.

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5.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure


When handling a fault, make a detailed record of the fault phenomena. The customers in
China can contact our 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in
areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

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General Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-1 General troubleshooting procedure

Start

Record the fault phenomena

2 Yes Other troubleshooting


Caused by external factors?
procedures

3 No
Analyze fault causes and locate
the fault

Is the fault Yes


rectified?

4 No

Report to Huawei

Make a solution together

Attempt to rectify the fault

No
Is the service restored?

Yes

Observe the operation

No Is the fault
rectified?

Yes
Fill in the troubleshooting
report

End

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Table 5-1 General troubleshooting procedure


Comment Description
No.

1 When recording the fault phenomena, make a true and detailed record of
the entire process of the fault. Record the exact time when the fault occurs
and the operations performed before and after the fault occurs. Save the
alarms, performance events, and other important information. You can use
the click-to-collect function on the NMS to collect data.

2 Faults owing to external factors, including the power supply, cables,


environment, and terminal equipment (such as switch devices)

3 Determine the fault type according to preliminary analysis on alarms.


Handle different types of faults as follows:
l 5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions
l 5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link
l 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services
l 5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications
l 5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment
l 5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment
l 5.8 Troubleshooting Native Ethernet Service Faults
l 5.9 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service on the EoS/EoPDH Plane
l 5.10 Troubleshooting MPLS Tunnels
l 5.11 Troubleshooting CES Services
l 5.12 Troubleshooting ATM Services
l 5.13 Troubleshooting Ethernet Services Carried by PWs
l 5.15 Troubleshooting DCN Faults
l 5.16 Troubleshooting Orderwire Faults
l 5.14 Troubleshooting L3VPN Services

4 To provide feedbacks or obtain technical support, customers in China can


contact the 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the
customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions


The service interruption fault indicates the service transmission failure due to an equipment
fault or a link fault.

Fault Causes
l The operation is improper.
The configuration data changes, the loopback is performed, the cable is replaced, or the
board is replaced.

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l The transmission NE or link is faulty.


l The interconnection is improper.
If the transmission equipment functions normally and the connection is normal, check
whether the interconnection between the transmission equipment is proper and whether
the switch equipment is faulty.

Fault Locating Methods


1. Check the operations before the service interruption to determine whether the service
interruption results from an incorrect operation.
2. Query alarms on the centralized NMS or the NMS that is used on the site, and then
locate the fault based on the alarm analysis.
If multiple NEs report alarms, analyze the alarms in the following order: equipment
alarm, line alarm, higher order path alarm, and lower order path alarm.
3. If the fault cannot be located through the alarm analysis method, locate the fault by
performing loopback section by section or replacing the corresponding parts.

NOTICE
If the fault cannot be rectified immediately, restore the services quickly by adjusting the
service route or performing a forced switching.

Troubleshooting Procedure
Handle the fault by following the emergency maintenance process.

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Figure 5-2 Description of the general procedure

Start

1 Yes
Is there an incorrect Cancel the operation
operation?

No

2 Service interruoted by Yes Contact related departments


external causes? to handle the problem

No
3

Query NE status and


alarms by using the NMS

4 Yes
NE access successful and Clear the alarm
alaarms cleared?

No
No Is the service
Proceed with the next step
Rectify the fault on site restored?

Yes

No
Is the service restored? Contact Huawei engineers

Yes
5

Check the troubleshooting result

End

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Table 5-2 Description of the main procedure


Comment Description
No.

1 The common incorrect operations are as follows:


l Modifying data configuration
l Performing loopback operations
l Shutting down the laser
l Muting the ODU
l Replacing boards/cables
l Loading the software

2 Faults owing to external factors, including the power supply, cables,


environment, and terminal equipment (such as switch devices)

3 The procedure is as follows:


1. Check the NE status.
2. If the NE is unreachable to the NMS, perform field troubleshooting
according to Figure 5-3. If alarms are reported on the NE, browse the
current alarms.

4 Generally, the following alarms can be cleared on the NMS:


l APS_MANUAL_STOP, APS_FAIL
l ARP_FAIL
l BD_NOT_INSTALLED, DBMS_ERROR, NESOFT_MM,
NESF_LOST
l ETH_APS_LOST
l ETH_APS_SWITCH_FAIL, ETH_APS_TYPE_MISMATCH
l HP_TIM, HP_UNEQ
l IMA_GROUP_LE_DOWN, IMA_GROUP_RE_DOWN
l LOOP_ALM
l J0_MM
l LPS_UNI_BI_M
l LP_SLM, LP_TIM, LP_UNEQ
l RADIO_MUTE
l MW_CFG_MISMATCH
l WRG_BD_TYPE
l ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI, ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK

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Comment Description
No.

5 After the fault is rectified, proceed as follows:


1. Check the alarms, and ensure that the system is running properly.
2. Assign personnel to monitor the operation of the system during the peak
service hour, ensuring that subsequent faults can be handled in time.
3. Fill in the field maintenance operation sheet, record the fault symptoms
and troubleshooting results, and then send them to Huawei. Table 5-3
shows the field maintenance operation sheet.

Table 5-3 Field maintenance operation sheet


Maintained on Maintained by

Actual Step Step in the Entire Troubleshooting Remarks


Procedure Result

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Figure 5-3 Field troubleshooting sub-procedure

Start

Obvious equipment Yes Repair or replace


damage? the equipment

No
1
Is the PWR indicator No Troubleshoot the
on the PIU on? power input

2 Yes
Browse alarms
locally by using the
LCT

3 Yes
Equipment
Clear the alarm
alarm?

No
4 Yes
Radio link Clear the alarm
alarm?

No
5 High order Yes
Clear the alarm
path alarm?

No
6 Low order Yes
Clear the alarm
path alarm?

No
Faulty inter- 7 Troubleshoot the
connection with Yes
inter-connection
SDH/PDH equipment? faulty

No
8
Yes Troubleshoot the
Packet service packet service fault
fault?
No

Locate the fault by


Proceed to the next No Is the service
performing loopback
operations section by step restored?
section

Yes

End

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Table 5-4 Description of the field troubleshooting sub-procedure


Comment Description
No.

1 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Check whether the circuit breaker for the input power is off. If the
circuit breaker is automatically turned off, find the cause (such as short
circuits or insufficient fuse capacity), and rectify the fault accordingly.
2. Check the power cables, especially the connectors of the power cables.
If the power cables or connectors of the power cables are incorrect,
replace the power cables or re-prepare the connectors of the power
cables.
3. Check the voltage and polarization of the input power. If the voltage or
polarization of the input power does not meet the requirements, contact
power engineers for troubleshooting.
NOTE
The fuse capacity, which should meet actual power consumption requirements of the
equipment, can be calculated as follows:
Fuse capacity (Total power consumption x 1.5)/(Rated voltage x 87.5%)
The rated voltage of the input power is - 48 V/- 60 V, and the permitted voltage
ranges between - 38.4 V and - 72.0 V.

2 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Logging In to the Web LCT (Through NMS Interface).
2. Creating NEs by Using the Search Method.
3. Logging In to an NE (Web LCT).
4. Checking Alarms.
NOTE
If you fail to log in to the created NE, ensure that the operations you performed are
correct, and then locate and rectify the fault according to the indicators of the system
control, switching, and timing board. For details about the indicators, see the IDU
Hardware Description.

3 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l HARD_BAD, BD_STATUS, FAN_FAIL
l NESF_LOST
l POWER_ALM, TEMP_ALARM
l RADIO_TSL_HIGH, RADIO_TSL_LOW
l IF_INPWR_ABN, IF_CABLE_OPEN
l VOLT_LOS

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Comment Description
No.

4 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l PG_LINK_FAIL, PG_PRT_DEGRADED
l MW_LIM, MW_LOF
l MW_BER_EXC
l RADIO_RSL_HIGH, RADIO_RSL_LOW
l R_LOS, R_LOF, R_LOC
l MS_AIS, AU_AIS, AU_LOP
l B1_EXC, B2_EXC

5 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l HP_LOM, HP_UNEQ
l B3_EXC

6 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l T_ALOS, E1_LOC
l TU_AIS, TU_LOP, LP_UNEQ
l BIP_EXC

7 See Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment or


Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment.

8 See Troubleshooting Native Ethernet Service Faults, Troubleshooting


Ethernet Service on the EoS/EoPDH Plane, Troubleshooting ATM
Services, Troubleshooting CES Services, Troubleshooting L3VPN
Services, and Troubleshooting Ethernet Services Carried by PWs.

Experience and Summary


The maintenance personnel need to perform the routine maintenance operations periodically,
to detect and rectify faults before the faults affect the services and therefore to reduce the
equipment fault rate.

5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link


When an NE reports MW_LOF, MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD or MW_FEC_UNCOR due
to failure or performance deterioration of a radio link, there is a radio link fault.

Radio Link Faults


Radio link faults are classified into:

l Equipment faults, including outdoor component faults, cable faults, and power supply
faults
l Propagation faults, including fading, interference, and poor line of sight (LOS)

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l Poor construction quality, including poor antenna/component installation, poor


grounding, and poor waterproofing

Figure 5-4 Radio link faults


Causes of radio
link faults

Propagation Poor construction Equipment


faults quality faults

Antenna Cables
Interference Fading Poor LOS installation

External Rain LOS not Antennas Poor Hardware


interference fading achieved not aligned grounding Faults

Over-reach Multipath Near-field Antennas Poor Power


interference fading blocking loosened or waterproofing faults
offset

Damaged
Reflection cable
components

Fading Phenomena and Causes


During microwave network maintenance, link fading is the main cause for radio link faults.
Link fading is more difficult to locate and handle than hardware faults.

Table 5-5 Fading phenomena and causes


Fading Type Fading Phenomena Fading Cause

Classifie Down The RSL is lower than the RSL l Multi-path fading
d by RSL fading after free space fading. The l Duct-type fading
difference can be tens of
decibels. l Rain fading

Up The RSL is higher than the RSL l Interference


fading in the free space. The difference l Long delay caused by terrain
can be 10-odd decibels. reflection

Classifie Fast The fading lasts from several l Multi-path fading


d by fading milliseconds to tens of seconds. l Duct-type fading
fading Generally, fast fading is caused
duration l Long delay caused by terrain
by multipath fading. It occurs reflection
periodically. To be specific, fast
fading occurs in the period from
18:00 to 20:00 of a day or in a
certain season of a year.

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Fading Type Fading Phenomena Fading Cause

Slow The fading lasts from tens of l Generally, slow up fading is


fading seconds to several hours. caused by interference.
l Slow down fading is caused
by rain, and therefore is also
called rain fading. Rain
fading occurs on links
working at a frequency of 10
GHz or in areas where heavy
rain occurs.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the radio link

Start

1 Yes
Is there an
Undo the operation.
incorrect operation?

No

2 Hardware Yes
alarms exist? Rectify equipment faults.

No

3 Yes
Are there IF or RF
alarms on the link?
4
No Analyze the historical RSL
records and the current
RSL value

Co-channel or adjacent-
5
RSL greater than the Yes channel interference
Troubleshoot the fault as
a non-radio link fault. receiver sensitivity? Long delay caused
by terrain reflection
No
The link is blocked.
6 Is the RSL value Yes
always less than the The antennas are offset.
designed value?
Passive components like
No hybrid couplers or flexible
waveguides are faulty.
7 Yes
Is it raining when the
Rain fading
fault occurs?

No

8 Multipath fading
Does the fault occur Yes
regularly?
Terrain reflection
No
9
Troubleshoot the fault by
replacing the suspected
faulty parts.

Yes
Is the fault rectified? End

No

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Table 5-6 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the radio link
Mark Description

1 Check whether any misoperation has been performed:


l Shutting down the power supply, which caused the local or remote NE to be
unreachable to the NMS
l Muting the radio transmitter, which caused the RADIO_MUTE alarm to be
reported
l Looping back IF ports, which caused the LOOP_ALM alarm to be reported
l Configuring incorrect radio link data, which caused the
MW_CFG_MISMATCH alarm to be reported
l Enabling an AM self-check, which caused the MW_AM_TEST alarm
l Enabling IF consecutive wave output

2 Hardware fault alarms include:


l HARD_BAD
l RADIO_TSL_HIGH, RADIO_TSL_LOW

3 IF and RF alarms include:


l MW_LOF, MW_LIM, MW_RDI
l MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, MW_FEC_UNCOR
l RADIO_RSL_HIGH, RADIO_RSL_LOW
l RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH
l AM_DOWNSHIFT

4 RSL is the major reference for locating and handling propagation faults. Follow
instructions in 4.4.3 Browsing Current Performance Events of the radio link
and 4.4.4 Browsing Historical Performance Data of a Radio Link to browse
and analyze the historical RSL records and the current RSL value.

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Mark Description

5 l If the receive power fluctuates within a range less than 10 dB, mute the
opposite ODU and check the RSL at the local NE.
After the opposite ODU is muted, if the RSL value is greater than -80 dBm
for the 112 MHz channel bandwidth or if the RSL value is greater than -90
dBm for the other channel bandwidth, there may be co-channel interference
that affects long-term availability and error-second performance of the
system.
1. Follow instructions in 8.1.2 Scanning Interfering Signals or use a
frequency spectrum analyzer to locate the possible interfering frequencies.
2. If a third-party RF device is the interfering source, contact the local
frequency spectrum management department to clear the interference.
If interference is caused due to improper route planning, modify the
frequency plan to minimize the interference impacts.
l If the receive power fluctuates dramatically and quickly (by more than ten
dBs to dozens of dBs over seconds), or fluctuates periodically (for example,
always at midnight), the fault may be caused by terrain reflection. Check
whether there are rivers or lakes on the propagation path.
If excessive reflection exists, adjust the antenna height to change the path
inclination to reduce the impact of the reflection, or replan the propagation
path.

6 If the RSL value had been smaller than the designed value for a long time before
the fault occurred, the propagation trail is faulty. Proceed as follows:
l Check whether the antenna connection is loose or the antenna is unaligned. If
yes, re-align the antenna.
NOTICE
In high-corrosion areas, check whether outdoor components and fasteners are loose due
to corrosion. If yes, take rust- and corrosion-proof measures or replace the corroded
components or fasteners.
l Check whether there are any blocks in the radio transmission trail or in the
near field of the antenna. If yes, adjust the mounting height of the antenna to
avoid blocks, replan the radio link route.
l Check whether the antenna, hybrid coupler, and flexible waveguide are
damaged or suffer from water leakage, which causes high attenuation. If any
of the preceding components is damaged or suffers from water leakage,
replace the component.

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Mark Description

7 If a radio link fault occurred in poor weather conditions (such as rainy, snowy, or
foggy) and was rectified after the conditions disappeared, the fault cause was
weather fading. For a fault caused by weather fading, check whether the link
fading margin is insufficient.
1. Calculate the actual link availability. Calculate the total link fault time within
one year or half a year. Calculate the actual link availability using the
following formula: <Link availability> = <Total fault time>/<Calculation
period>.
l If the actual link availability is lower than the designed value by an order
of magnitude, the link fading margin is insufficient. Re-plan the radio link
parameters.
l If the difference between the actual link availability and the designed
value is small, no special handling operations are required.
2. Before re-planning a radio link, check whether the rain zone parameters, the
refractivity gradient, and the planning algorithm are incorrect. The practicable
measure could be as follows:
l Increase the transmit power or replace the original antenna with a new one
having a larger diameter to increase the system gain and the fading margin.
l Use a frequency band on which rain fading has smaller impacts.

8 If the receive power fluctuates greatly and fast (by more than 10 dB or several 10
dB within several seconds or several 10 seconds), fast fading occurs.
Fast fading may occur due to:
l Multi-path fading: Faults occur periodically, for example, at the day-and-night
alternating time period.
l Duct-type fading: random fast fading
To handle fast fading, proceed as follows:
l Increase the path inclination: That is, adjust the antenna mount heights at both
ends to increase the height differences between the antennas at both ends.
l Reduce surface reflection. For apparent strong reflection surfaces, for
example, large areas of water, flat lands, and bold mountain tops, adjust
antennas to move reflection points out of the strong reflection areas or mask
the reflection by using landforms.
l Reduce the path clearance. With LOS conditions guaranteed, lower antenna
mount heights as much as possible.

9 If all preceding actions cannot rectify the fault, replace the ODU at both ends.
Then, check whether services are functional. If the fault persists, replan the radio
link by changing the operating frequency, using antennas with a larger diameter,
changing the antenna heights, or changing the routes.

Experience and Summary


l During the commissioning, ensure that the antenna is aligned properly, to prevent
possible incipient faults.

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l Periodically collect and analyze the data about the changes in the transmit power and
receive power so that you can detect and then rectify the incipient faults accordingly in
time.

5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services


When an NE reports an alarm or a performance event on the IF board, regenerator section
(RS), multiplex section (MS), higher order path (HP), or lower order path (LP), there are bit
errors in services.

Fault Phenomena

Table 5-7 Bit errors


Bit Error Description Related Alarm and Performance Event
Type

IF bit errors Refer to the bit errors that l MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD


the IF board detects through l IF_BBE, IF_ES, IF_SES, IF_CSES,
the self-defined overhead IF_UAS
byte in the microwave frame

RS bit errors Refer to the bit errors that l B1_EXC, B1_SD


the line processing unit or l RS_CROSSTR
the IF board that works in
SDH mode through the B1 l RSBBE, RSES, RSSES, RSCSES,
overhead byte in the RS RSUAS
overhead NOTE
The IF board that works in PDH mode may also
detect the previous RS bit error alarms and
performance events. In this case, the IF board
detects bit error alarms and performance events
in the PDH microwave frame through the self-
defined B1 byte.

MS bit Refer to the bit errors that l B2_EXC, B2_SD


errors the line board detects l MS_CROSSTR
through the B2 byte in the
MS overhead l MSBBE, MSES, MSSES, MSCSES,
MSUAS

HP bit errors Refer to the bit errors that l B3_EXC, B3_SD


the line board detects l HP_CROSSTR
through the B2 byte in the
MS overhead l HPBBE, HPES, HPSES, HPCSES,
HPUAS

LP bit errors Refer to the bit errors that l BIP_EXC, BIP_SD


the tributary board or IF l LP_CROSSTR
board detects through the
V5 byte in the VC-12 l LPBBE, LPES, LPSES, LPCSES,
overhead LPUAS

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Fault Causes

Table 5-8 Causes of bit errors


Fault Common Fault Cause

There are IF bit l The radio link is faulty.


errors. Check whether the MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD,
MW_FEC_UNCOR or RPS_INDI alarm is reported. If yes,
the radio link is faulty.
l The services are incorrectly configured.
Check whether the MW_CFG_MISMATCH alarm is
reported. If yes, the number of E1 services is inconsistent on
both ends of the radio link.
l The IF board at the local end or opposite end is faulty.

There are RS bit l The line is faulty.


errors. The common causes for bit errors on the optical line are as
follows: the optical fiber line, the optical power is abnormal,
the fiber performance deteriorates, or the fiber connector is
not clean.
In the case of bit errors on the radio link, check whether the
MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, MW_FEC_UNCOR or
RPS_INDI alarm is reported. If yes, the radio link is faulty.
l The line processing unit or IF board is faulty.
l The clock unit is faulty.
l The quality of the clock over the network declines.
When the quality of the clock over the network declines, a
pointer justification event occurs.

There are not any RS l The line processing unit or IF board is faulty.
bit errors but there l The quality of the clock over the network declines.
are MS bit errors or
HP bit errors. When the quality of the clock over the network declines, a
pointer justification event occurs.
l The working temperature of the line processing unit or IF board
is excessively high.

There are only LP bit l The tributary board is faulty.


errors. l The cross-connect unit is faulty.
l The working temperature of the board is excessively high.
l The working temperature of the cross-connect unit is
excessively high.
l There is a power surge or an external interference source, or the
equipment is not properly grounded. (This cause does not need
to be considered during the troubleshooting of an IF board.)

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Fault Locating Methods


1. Analyze the equipment alarms and performance events that are related to service
configuration errors and bit errors.
2. When there are many types of alarms and performance events on a service path, first
analyze RS bit errors, then MS bit errors, HP bit errors, and finally LP bit errors.
3. When multiple paths have bit errors, first check whether the overlapping part of the
service paths is faulty.
4. If you fail to locate the fault by analyzing the alarms and performance events, perform
loopback operations section by section.
5. Replace the parts whose performance may deteriorate with new ones.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-6 Procedure for troubleshooting bit errors

Start

2
1
Is there an Yes
Clear the alarm
equipment alarm?

No
3
Is there a pointer Yes Troubleshoot the pointer
justification event? justification

No SDH optical
interface board Troubleshoot RS bit errors
on the SDH optical interface
board

Is there an If the
RS bit error alarm or a
Yes
alarming
performance board is
event?
4
No IF board Troubleshoot RS bit errors
on the IF board

Is there an
5
MS/ HP alarm or Yes Troubleshoot MS/HP bit
performance errors
event?
No
6
Is there an LP Yes Troubleshoot LP bit
alarm? errors

No
Locate the fault by performing No Is the fault
loopback operations section Proceed with the next step rectified?
by section

Yes

End

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Table 5-9 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting bit errors


Comment Description
No.

1 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l TEMP_ALARM
l HARD_BAD

2 See 5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications.

3 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Check whether the line board reports the B1_EXC, B1_SD, or
RS_CROSSTR alarm.
2. Interchange the Tx fiber core and the Rx fiber core at both ends of the
service path. If bit errors change after the exchange, it indicates that the
fiber is faulty. Otherwise, the equipment at both ends of the service path
is faulty.
3. In the case of a fiber fault, check whether the fiber between the
equipment and the ODF and the section of the fiber that is led out of the
telecommunications room are pressed. In addition, check whether the
fiber connectors are clean.
4. In the case of faults at both ends of the service path, use a fiber jumper
to loop back the optical ports. If the fault persists after the loopback, the
line board may be faulty.
5. In the case of faults at both ends of the service path, you can also
replace the board where the line unit is located or interchange
between the board and another board of the same type that is working
normally. If the alarm changes after the exchange, it indicates that the
board is faulty.

4 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Check whether the IF board reports the MW_BER_EXC,
MW_BER_SD, MW_FEC_UNCOR, MW_LOF, RPS_INDI,
B1_EXC, B1_SD, or RS_CROSSTR alarm.
2. If any of the alarms are reported, see 5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio
Link and rectify the fault.

5 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Perform a loopback on the line board that reports the alarm.
If the fault persists after the loopback, replace the line board.
If the fault is rectified after the loopback, replace the line board at the
transmit end.
2. If you fail to rectify the fault by replacing the line board, check whether
there is a power surge or an external interference source or whether the
equipment is not properly grounded.

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Comment Description
No.

6 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Replace the board where the services are configured based on how
the service paths that have bit errors overlap each other.
2. If you fail to rectify the fault by replacing the board, check whether
there is a power surge or an external interference source or whether the
equipment is not properly grounded.

Experience and Summary


NOTE

The TDM services mentioned refer to Native TDM services.


The handling procedure applies when the STM-1e port is faulty
l During the routine maintenance, check bit error performance events periodically and
handle them in time.
l To locate a fault, prefer the method of analyzing alarms and performance events to the
method of performing loopback operations and the method of replacing the parts.

5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications


When an NE reports a large number of justification events about the administrative unit (AU)
pointer or the tributary unit (TU) pointer, there are pointer justification faults.

Fault Phenomena
When the position of the first byte of the VC-4 in the AU-4 payload changes, the AU pointer
makes a justification accordingly. The performance events related to the AU pointer
justification are as follows:

l AUPJCHIGH
l AUPJCLOW
l AUPJCNEW
NOTE

The AU pointer justification is made at an upstream NE but is detected and reported at a downstream
NE.

When the service is configured to be at the VC-12 level, apply the reframing process to
terminate the AU pointer justification. The terminating method is to transform the AU pointer
justification into the TU pointer justification. The performance events related to the TU
pointer justification are as follows:

l TUPJCHIGH
l TUPJCLOW
l TUPJCNEW

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NOTE

The TU pointer justification is made at the NE where the AU pointer is transformed into the TU pointer,
but is detected and reported by the tributary board of the NE where services are terminated.

Fault Causes
l The clock sources or the clock source levels are configured incorrectly. As a result, there
are two clock sources on the same network or a timing loop occurs.
l The fiber connections are incorrect. As a result, a timing loop occurs.
l The quality of the clock source declines, the clock unit is faulty, or there are other clock-
related faults.
l The tributary board is faulty (only for the TU pointer justification).

Fault Locating Methods


When there are both AU pointer justifications and TU pointer justifications on a service path,
first handle the AU pointer justifications and then the TU pointer justifications.

Fault Fault Locating Method

AU pointer justification 1. Analyze and clear clock alarms.


2. Rectify the incorrect data configuration and incorrect
fiber connections.
3. Change the clock configuration to locate the station
whose clock is asynchronous with the entire network.
4. Replace the parts whose performance may deteriorate
with new ones.

TU pointer justification 1. Analyze and clear clock alarms.


2. Rectify the incorrect data configuration and incorrect
fiber connections.
3. Change the clock and service configuration to locate the
station whose clock is asynchronous with the entire
network.
4. Replace the parts whose performance may deteriorate
with new ones.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-7 Procedure for troubleshooting pointer justifications

Start

1 Yes
Is there a clock-related Clear the alarm
alarm?

No
2
Check the clock
configuration

Incorrect Yes Modify the data


configuration? configuration

No
3
Check the fiber
connection

Incorrect fiber Yes


connection? Reconnect the fibers

No
4 5
An AU pointer Yes Locate the NE whose clock
justification event? Locate the faulty board
is out of synchronization

No
6 7
A TU pointer Yes Locate the NE whose clock
justification event? Locate the faulty board
is out of synchronization

No
Proceed with the No
Is the fault rectified?
next step

Yes

End

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Table 5-10 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting pointer justifications


Comment Description
No.

1 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l TEMP_ALARM
l HARD_BAD
l LTI
l SYNC_C_LOS
l S1_SYN_CHANGE
l EXT_SYNC_LOS

2 Check the following points:


l Check whether there are two clock reference sources on the entire
network.
l Check whether a timing loop is generated.

3 Query ECC routes to check whether the fibers are connected correctly.
Check the fiber connections in the east and west directions of the NE that
reports the pointer justification event.

4 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Locate a VC-4 channel that reports an AU pointer justification event.
2. Along the service source direction of the VC-4 channel, locate the
source NE of the entire VC-4 service (not the source NE of a timeslot in
the VC-4).
3. Set the clock of the source NE to the free-run mode. Set the other NEs
to trace the clock of the source NE along the direction of the VC-4
service.
4. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the line board that is the first to
report the AU pointer justification of the VC-4 path.
The clock of the remote NE to which the line board is connected is
asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence, the line board on the
remote NE that receives the clock signal, the line board that sends the
clock signal to the remote NE, and the clock unit of the remote NE, may
be faulty.
5. Set the clock of the sink NE to the free-run mode. Set the other NEs to
trace the clock of the sink NE along the direction of the VC-4 service.
6. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the line board that is the first to
report the AU pointer justification of the VC-4 path.
The clock of the remote NE to which the line board is connected is
asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence, the line board on the NE
that receives the clock signal, the line board that sends the clock signal
to the NE, and the clock unit of the NE, may be faulty.
7. Compare the results and find out the common points.

5 Replace the possibly faulty boards.

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Comment Description
No.

6 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


1. Modify the service configuration to ensure that the NE where the clock
reference source functions as the central NE and that the other NEs have
the E1 services of the central NE.
2. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the NE that is the first to report
the TU pointer justification event.
The clock of the NE is asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence,
the line board on the NE that receives the clock signal, the line board
that sends the clock signal to the NE, and the clock unit of the NE, may
be faulty.
3. Modify the configuration data to ensure that all the NEs trace the clock
along the other direction.
4. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the NE that is the first to report
the TU pointer justification event.
The clock of the NE is asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence,
the line board on the NE that receives the clock signal, the line board
that sends the clock signal to the NE, and the clock unit of the NE, may
be faulty.
5. Compare the results and find out the common points.
NOTE
This method is also applicable to locating an AU pointer justification event.

7 Replace the possibly faulty boards. In the case of a TU pointer justification


event, check whether the line board, the clock board, and the tributary
board are faulty.

Experience and Summary


On a properly synchronized network, there are few pointer justifications (less than six per day
on each port). Hence, monitoring the pointer of an SDH transmission system is an effective
way to check the synchronization status of the system.

5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH


Equipment
An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting SDH services with other
SDH equipment.

Fault Causes
l The VC-12 numbering method of the OptiX equipment is different from the numbering
method of the equipment of certain vendors.
The OptiX equipment applies the timeslot numbering method. The numbering formula
is: VC-12 number = TUG-3 number + (TUG-2 number - 1) x 3 + (TU-12 number - 1) x
21. This method is also called as the method of numbering by order.

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Certain equipment applies the line numbering method. The numbering formula is: VC-12
number = (TUG-3 number - 1) x 21 + (TUG-2 number - 1) x 3 + TU-12 number. This
method is also called as the interleaved method.
l The overhead bytes at both ends are inconsistent.
l The indexes of the SDH interfaces do not meet the requirements.
NOTE

In the case of interconnection with ATM or Ethernet equipment, the common cause for an
interconnection failure is that the service is not set to the VC-4 pass-through service and thus the
overheads are processed in the terminating mode instead of the pass-through mode.

Fault Locating Methods


Analyze the fault phenomena and alarms that are generated on the equipment. Check the
possible fault causes one after another.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with SDH equipment

Start

Is the
Set the interconnection
interconnected equipment Yes
service to be the VC-4 pass-
the ATM/IP equipment?
through service

No
Query the VC-12 numbering
method of the interconnected
equipment

Is the Modify the data configuration.


Yes
numbering mode the Use the line numbering
line numbering? method to set the VC-12

No

1 Is there an overhead Yes


setting related alarm? Handle the alarm

No
2

Is the interface the Yes


Check the grounding
STM-1 electrical
interface?

3 No

Test the indexes of interfaces

Do the interfaces meet No Handle the faults of the


relevant standards? interconnected equipment

Yes Go to the next No


step Is the fault cleared?

Handle the faults of the local Yes


equipment

End

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Table 5-11 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with SDH
equipment
Comment Description
No.

1 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l J0_MM
l HP_TIM
l LP_TIM
l HP_SLM
l LP_SLM

2 Check the following points:


l Check whether all the equipment and the DDF in the equipment room
are jointly grounded.
l Check whether the shield layer of the coaxial cable connector on the
DDF is connected to the protection ground.
l Check whether the shield layers of coaxial cables are grounded in the
same way.
NOTE
Disconnect all the signal cables between the interconnecting equipment. Use a
multimeter to measure the level between the shield layers of the coaxial cables at the
receive and transmit ends of the SDH equipment. In addition, measure the level
between the shield layers of the coaxial cables at the receive and transmit ends of the
opposite equipment. If the potential difference is large (about 0.5 V), the fault may be
caused by the grounding.

3 Common indexes of the optical interfaces are as follows:


l Mean launched optical power
l Receiver sensitivity
l Overload optical power
l Permitted frequency deviation of the input interface
Common indexes of the electrical interfaces:
l Permitted frequency deviation of the input interface
l Allowed attenuation of the input interface

Experience and Summary


To rectify an interconnection fault, you must be familiar with the characteristics of the
interfaces on the interconnected equipment.

5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH


Equipment
An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting PDH services with other
PDH equipment.

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Fault Causes
l There is an impedance mismatch between interfaces.
l The equipment is not grounded properly.
l The cable performance deteriorates.
l The indexes of the PDH interfaces do not meet the requirements.

Fault Locating Methods


Analyze the fault phenomena and alarms that are generated on the equipment. Check the
possible fault causes one after another.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-9 Procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with PDH equipment

Start

1
Check the impedance of
the interfaces.

Is there an Yes Replace the cable or the


impedance mismatch? tributary board

No

2
Is the cable a Yes
Check the grounding.
coaxial cable?

No
3

Check the cables.

No
Is in good conditions? Adjust the cables.

Yes
4
Test the indexes of
Interfaces.

Troubleshoot the faults on


Do the interfaces No
the interconnected
meet standards? Equipment.

Yes
No
Troubleshoot the faults Proceed with the next step. Is the fault rectified?
on the local equipment.

Yes

End

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Table 5-12 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with PDH
equipment
Comment Description
No.

1 Check the impedance of the E1 path. Ensure that the impedance of the E1
path is consistent with the cable type.

2 Check the following points:


l Check whether all the equipment and the DDF in the
telecommunications room are jointly grounded.
l Check whether the shield layers of the coaxial cable connectors on the
DDF are connected to the protection ground.
l Check whether the shield layers of coaxial cables are grounded in the
same manner.
NOTE
Disconnect all the signal cables between the interconnecting equipment sets. Use a
multimeter to measure the level between the shield layers of the coaxial cables at the
receive and transmit ends of the PDH equipment and the level between the shield
layers of the coaxial cables at the receive and transmit ends of the equipment at the
opposite end. If the potential difference is large (about 0.5 V), the fault may be caused
due to the improper grounding.

3 Check the following points:


l Check whether the wires of the cable are correctly connected.
l Check whether the cable is broken or pressed.
l Check whether the cable signal is interfered (for example, when the
trunk cable is bound with the power cable, the cable signal is interfered
by the power signal).
NOTE
Checking the cables involves checking the cables from the DDF to the client side
and checking the cables from the DDF to the transmission equipment side.

4 Check the following indexes:


l Input jitter tolerance
l Permitted frequency deviation of the input interface
l Output jitter
l Output frequency deviation

Experience and Summary


NOTE

The PDH services mentioned refer to Native E1 services.

In the case of interconnection with PDH equipment, improper grounding is the most common
cause for an interconnection failure.

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5.8 Troubleshooting Native Ethernet Service Faults


An Ethernet service fault may be the Ethernet service interruption or Ethernet service
deterioration.

Fault Phenomena
The Ethernet service interruption indicates that the Ethernet service is interrupted. The
Ethernet service deterioration indicates that the Ethernet service is abnormal. For example, the
network access speed is low, the equipment delay is long, the packet loss occurs, or incorrect
packets exist in the received or transmitted data.

Table 5-13 Common faults of Ethernet services

Symptom Alarm

Ethernet Hardware Such as HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM,


services are alarms WRG_BD_TYPE, BD_STATUS, COMMUN_FAIL,
interrupted. and LASER_MOD_ERR.

Link alarms Such as ETH_LOS, ETH_LINK_DOWN,


ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK, LOOP_ALM,
PORTMODE_MISMATCH, and LAG_DOWN.

Service alarms Such as ETH_CFM_AIS, ETH_CFM_LCO, and


ETH_NO_FLOW.

Radio link Such as MW_LOF, MW_LIM.


alarms

Ethernet Hardware Such as HARD_BAD, and TEMP_ALARM.


services suffer alarms
degradation.
Link alarms Such as PORTMODE_MISMATCH, and
LAG_MEMBER_DOWN.

Service alarms Such as FLOW_OVER, MAC_EXT_EXC,


MAC_FCS_EXC, and DROPRATIO_OVER.

Radio link Such as AM_DOWNSHIFT, MW_BER_EXC, and


alarms MW_BER_SD.

Fault Causes
l The possible human factors are as follows:
An Ethernet board loopback or a transmission line loopback occurs.
The parameter settings of the Ethernet ports, such as the port enabled state, working
mode, and flow control, are different from the parameter settings of the Ethernet
ports on the interconnected equipment.
The service configuration is incorrect.

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l The equipment at the local end is faulty.


l The line board is faulty or has bit errors.
l A LAG or PLA/EPLA/EPLA+/Super EPLA group has faulty member links, resulting in
decreased Ethernet bandwidth.
l When the AM function is enabled, the Ethernet service bandwidth decreases due to the
downward AM switch.
l The interconnected equipment is faulty.
l The network cable is faulty.
l External electromagnetic interference is severe.

Fault Locating Methods


Locate the Ethernet service fault using the intelligent fault diagnosis function.

Troubleshooting Ethernet Services

Figure 5-10 Procedure for troubleshooting faults in Ethernet services

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Table 5-14 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet services configured in
an end-to-end manner
Comment Description
No.

1 Check the following points:


l Whether a loopback is set for the Ethernet port
l Whether a loopback is set for the transmission line
l Whether the Ethernet port parameters, such as port enabling/disabling
status, working mode, and flow control, are configured consistently at
the local end and peer end
l Whether Ethernet protocol and Ethernet service configurations
(especially Ethernet port attributes) are correct

2 Intelligent fault diagnosis uses OAM to implement fault diagnosis over


services, PWs, and tunnels, and the physical layer, and supports the output
of diagnostic results for further troubleshooting.

3 Query Ethernet service rates on various ports to analyze the service


rates and locate faults.
l If the Ethernet port connecting the peer equipment has a too high or too
low receive rate, the peer equipment is faulty.
l If the rate of the port approaches or reaches the license capacity of the
IF port, the license capacity is too low and you need to apply for a
license allowing for a higher capacity.
l If the transmit rate of the port approaches or reaches the maximum
Ethernet bandwidth of the IF port, the bandwidth of the IF port is too
low and needs to be increased by the network planning personnel.
l If the transmit rate of the port is much lower than the receive rate of the
Ethernet port, or if the receive rate of the port is much higher than the
transmit rate of the Ethernet port, the local end is faulty. Locate the fault
as follows:
Check the Ethernet service configuration and QoS configuration.
By Querying port flow classification or packet loss performance
of egress queues on the NMS, check whether QoS settings are
correct according to the packet loss data.
Check the Ethernet interface board, IF board, and system control,
switching and timing board by means of board replacement.
If the transmitted traffic is equal to the received traffic, create flows specific
to the VLANs in the port policy, and check if sufficient bandwidth is
available for the flows by querying flow traffic.

Experience and Summary


To troubleshoot an Ethernet service fault, you must be familiar with the characteristics,
working mode, and configured protocols of interfaces on the Ethernet equipment.

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5.9 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service on the EoS/EoPDH


Plane
The Ethernet services transmitted on the EoS/EoPDH plane can be transmitted over a TDM
network. The faults of the EoS/EoPDH-plane Ethernet services include service interruption
and service degradation.

Fault Phenomena
The Ethernet service interruption indicates that the Ethernet service is completely interrupted.
The Ethernet service deterioration indicates that the Ethernet service is abnormal. For
example, the network access speed is low, the equipment delay is long, the packet loss occurs,
or incorrect packets exist in the received or transmitted data.

Table 5-15 Common faults of Ethernet services

Symptom Alarm Board

Ethernet HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, EMS6/EFP8


services are WRG_BD_TYPE, or BD_STATUS
interrupted.
ALM_GFP_dLFD or ALM_GFP_dCSF

ETH_LOS or LOOP_ALM

LAG_PORT_FAIL,
LAG_VC_PORT_FAIL, LCAS_TLCT, or
LCAS_TLCR

Ethernet HARD_BAD or TEMP_ALARM


services are
abnormal. FLOW_OVER

LCAS_FOPT, LCAS_FOPR, LCAS_PLCT,


or LCAS_PLCR

Fault Causes
l The possible human factors are as follows:
An Ethernet board loopback or a transmission line loopback occurs.
The parameter settings of the Ethernet ports, such as the port enabled state, working
mode, and flow control, are different from the parameter settings of the Ethernet
ports on the interconnected equipment.
The configuration of the encapsulation/mapping protocol or the LCAS protocol is
inconsistent on both ends of the link.
The timeslot binding of VCTRUNKs is inconsistent on both ends of the link
The service configuration is incorrect.
l The equipment at the local end is faulty.

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l The line board is faulty or has bit errors.


l The interconnected equipment is faulty.
l The network cable is faulty.
l The external electromagnetic interference is severe.

Fault Locating Methods


1. Rectify the human-caused faults such as a loopback and a data configuration error.
2. Locate the fault cause according to the equipment alarms.
3. Locate the fault cause according to the RMON performance events and alarms.

Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-11 Procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults

Start

11 Yes
Incorrect operation? Cancel this operation

No

2 An equipment alarm Yes


Clear the alarm
or alarm on the radio
link?
No

Yes Query the port and service


3 An Ethernet Clear the alarm traffic and analyze the fault
alarm? causes
No

4 A loop formed by the Yes


Release the loop
E-LAN service trails?

No

Any abnormal Yes Troubleshoot the fault according


5
RMON performance to the flow of handling RMON
events? performance events

No

Fault on the Yes Troubleshoot faults on the


opposite
opposite equipment
equipment?
No
Troubleshoot equipment
faults by performing Proceed No Is the fault
loopbacks section by with the rectified?
next step
section or replacing boards
Yes

En
d

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Table 5-16 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults
Comment Description
No.

1 Check the following points:


l Whether a loopback is set for the Ethernet port
l Whether a loopback is set for the transmission line
l Whether the parameter settings of the Ethernet port, such as the port
enabled state, working mode, and flow control, are the same as the
parameter settings of the Ethernet port on the interconnected equipment
l The configuration of the encapsulation/mapping protocol or the LCAS
protocol is inconsistent on both ends of the link.
l The timeslot binding of VCTRUNKs is inconsistent on both ends of the
link.
l Check whether the Ethernet protocol and the Ethernet service
configuration (especially the attributes of the Ethernet port) are correct.

2 Pay special attention to the following equipment alarms:


l POWER_ALM
l FAN_FAIL
l HARD_BAD
l BD_STATUS
l NESF_LOST
l TEMP_ALARM
l RADIO_RSL_HIGH
l RADIO_RSL_LOW
l RADIO_TSL_HIGH
l RADIO_TSL_LOW
l IF_INPWR_ABN
Pay special attention to the following line alarms:
l MW_LIM
l MW_LOF
l R_LOS
l R_LOF
l MS_AIS
l AU_AIS
l AU_LOP
l B1_EXC
l B2_EXC

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Comment Description
No.

3 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l ETH_LOS
l FLOW_OVER
l ALM_GFP_dCSF
l ALM_GFP_dLFD
l FCS_ERR
l LCAS_PLCT
l LCAS_TLCT
l LCAS_PLCR
l LCAS_TLCR
l LCAS_FOPT
l LCAS_FOPR

4 If the LOOP_ALM alarm is reported after the configuring the Advanced


Attributes of Ethernet Interfaces operation is performed, it indicates that the
network to which Ethernet ports are connected has loops.

5 For RMON performance events, see B Performance Event Reference.

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Figure 5-12 Procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event

Start

1
View the statistics group
performance on an Ethernet port

2
Yes Rectify the fault of line bit
Is there any FCS error? errors

No
3
Is there any collision Yes Check the working mode
or fragment? of the port

No
4
Is there any Yes Handle the flow control
PAUSE frame? problem or increase the
bandwidth
No
5
Yes Handle the problem on
Are broadcast packets excessive broadcast
excessive? packets
No

Use a meter to perform the test

Yes
Is the test passed? Rectify the fault of the
interconnected equipment
No

6 Yes
Is it a MTU setting
Modify the MTU value
problem?
No
Proceed with No Is the fault
Rectify the equipment fault by the next step rectified?
loopback section by section or
replacing the board Yes

End

Table 5-17 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event
Comment Description
No.

1 View the statistics group performance on an Ethernet port to obtain the


real-time performance statistics data of the Ethernet port.

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Comment Description
No.

2 The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:


l Check the Ethernet cable. If the Ethernet cable is not qualified, replace it
with a new one.
l Change the Ethernet port that accesses the services on the Ethernet
board. If the new port does not have the RMON performance of an FCS
error, it indicates that the hardware of the original port is faulty.
Otherwise, the hardware of the Ethernet port on the equipment at the
opposite end is faulty.

3 Check the following points:


l Whether the port operating rates on the equipment at both ends are the
same
l Whether the working modes (full duplex or half duplex) of the Ethernet
port on the equipment at both ends are the same
l Whether the Ethernet port is set to auto-negotiation mode at one end and
the Ethernet port is set to full duplex mode at the opposite end (When
the Ethernet port is set to auto-negotiation mode at one end, the Ethernet
port must not be set to full duplex mode at the opposite end.)

4 Check the following points:


l Whether the flow control method is the same.
l Whether the Ethernet service traffic exceeds the bandwidth of the
VCTRUNK.

5 Check for the cause for excessive broadcast packets (for example, you have
set the loopback for the Ethernet interface board or set the VB filtering
table incorrectly) and solve the problem. If the problem is caused on the
equipment at the opposite end, set the threshold of broadcast packet
suppression for an Ethernet port to reduce broadcast packets.

6 Test the MTU of the network by using a test meter. The maximum frame
length that is set for a port should be longer than the MTU of the network.

Experience and Summary


To troubleshoot an Ethernet service fault, you must be familiar with the characteristics,
working mode, and configured protocols of interfaces on the Ethernet equipment.

5.10 Troubleshooting MPLS Tunnels


This section describes how to troubleshoot MPLS tunnels by using the MPLS OAM function
or MPLS Ping/Traceroute function.

Fault Phenomena
NOTE
In this section, an MPLS tunnel refers to a static label switched path (LSP).

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Common faults of MPLS tunnels are as follows:


l MPLS tunnels fail to be created, and services are unavailable.
l MPLS tunnels are faulty, and services are interrupted.
l MPLS APS switching fails, services are interrupted, and packet loss or bit errors occur.

Table 5-18 Common faults of MPLS tunnels


Symptom Alarm Board

MPLS HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, CSH


tunnels are WRG_BD_TYPE, BUS_ERR,
faulty. BD_STATUS,
MPLS_TUNNEL_OAMFAIL,
MPLS_TUNNEL_LOCV,
MPLS_TUNNEL_Excess,
MPLS_TUNNEL_MISMATCH,
MPLS_TUNNEL_MISMERGE,
MPLS_TUNNEL_UNKNOWN,
MPLS_TUNNEL_BDI,
MPLS_TUNNEL_FDI,
MPLS_TUNNEL_SD,
MPLS_TUNNEL_SF,
MPLS_TUNNEL_AIS,
MPLS_TUNNEL_RDI,
MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPMEG,
MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPMEP,
MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPPER

MW_CFG_MISMATCH ISV3, ISU2, ISX2, IFU2 or


MW_LIM IFX2
MW_LOF

Fault Causes
l Incorrect operations are performed.
The transmission link is looped back.
Service configuration data is inconsistent between the local end and the opposite
end.
Service configuration is incorrect.
l The local NE is faulty.
l The transmission link is faulty or has bit errors.
l Service bandwidth decreases due to an AM downshift.
l The opposite NE is faulty.
l External electromagnetic interference is severe.

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Fault Locating Methods


1. Check whether the data is modified, whether the line is looped back, and whether any
boards are replaced.
2. Handle the link alarms on the MPLS server trail.
3. Locate the faulty section by using the LSP Traceroute or MPLS-TP OAM function.
4. Locate the fault by replacing boards.

Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-13 Procedure for troubleshooting MPLS tunnels

Start

1 Yes
Any incorrect Cancel the operation.
operation?

No

2 Yes
Any equipment- or
link-related alarm? Clear the alarm.

No

3 Yes
Clear the alarm using
Any alarm related to MPLS
LB/LT/LSP Ping/LSP Tracerout.
tunnel ?

No

Any fault in
Yes
interconnection
Handle the fault.
equipment?

No

Troubleshoot equipment faults by No


Contact Huawei Faults are rectified?
performing loopbacks on sections
technical engineers.
or replacing boards.

Yes

End

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Table 5-19 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting MPLS tunnels


Comment Description
No.

1 Check the following points:


l Whether a loopback is set for E1 ports
l Whether a loopback is set for the transmission link
l Whether the parameter settings such as the working mode of Ethernet
ports match those of the opposite NE
l Whether the parameter settings such as frame format and frame mode at
E1 ports match those of the opposite NE
l Whether MPLS service configuration is correct, especially whether
tunnel attributes are set correctly

2 Pay special attention to the following equipment alarms:


l POWER_ALM
l FAN_FAIL
l HARD_BAD
l BD_STATUS
l BUS_ERR
l NESF_LOST
l TEMP_ALARM
l RADIO_RSL_HIGH
l RADIO_RSL_LOW
l RADIO_TSL_HIGH
l RADIO_TSL_LOW
l IF_INPWR_ABN
l AM_DOWNSHIFT
l MW_CFG_MISMATCH
Pay special attention to the following line alarms:
l MW_LIM
l MW_LOF
l MW_BER_EXC
l MW_BER_SD
l MW_RDI
l MW_FEC_UNCOR

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Comment Description
No.

3 Check whether the tunnel is faulty using LSP Ping, LSP Tracerout, or
MPLS-TP Tunnel OAM.
Pay special attention to the following alarms:
l ARP_FAIL
l MPLS_TUNNEL_BDI
l MPLS_TUNNEL_Excess
l MPLS_TUNNEL_FDI
l MPLS_TUNNEL_LOCV
l MPLS_TUNNEL_MISMATCH
l MPLS_TUNNEL_MISMERGE
l MPLS_TUNNEL_OAMFAIL
l MPLS_TUNNEL_SD
l MPLS_TUNNEL_SF
l MPLS_TUNNEL_UNKNOWN
l MPLS_TUNNEL_AIS
l MPLS_TUNNEL_RDI
l MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPMEG
l MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPMEP
l MPLS_TUNNEL_UNEXPPER

Experience and Summary


Learn about the working principle and protocol configuration of MPLS tunnels before
troubleshooting MPLS tunnels.

5.11 Troubleshooting CES Services


This section describes how to troubleshoot CES services that are interrupted or degraded.

Fault Phenomena
CES services are interrupted if they are completely unavailable. CES services are degraded if
they have packet loss or incorrect packets.

Table 5-20 Common faults of CES services

Symptom Alarm Board

CES HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, CSH, CSHU, CSHUA,


services are WRG_BD_TYPE, BUS_ERR, ML1, MD1, CQ1
interrupted. BD_STATUS, CES_LOSPKT_EXC

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Symptom Alarm Board

AM_DOWNSHIFT ISV3, ISU2, ISX2, IFU2,


MW_CFG_MISMATCH IFX2

CES HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, CSH, CSHU, CSHUA,


services are CES_JTROVR_EXC, ML1, MD1, CQ1
degraded. CES_JTRUDR_EXC,
CES_MALPKT_EXC,
CES_MISORDERPKT_EXC,
CES_STRAYPKT_EXC

AM_DOWNSHIFT ISV3, ISU2, ISX2, IFU2,


MW_CFG_MISMATCH IFX2

Fault Causes
l Incorrect operations are performed.
The transmission link is looped back.
Service configuration data is inconsistent between the local end and the opposite
end.
Service configuration is incorrect.
l The clock source is asynchronous.
l Jitters and delays on the network are too great.
l The local NE is faulty.
l The transmission link is faulty or has bit errors.
l Service bandwidth decreases due to an AM downshift.
l The opposite NE is faulty.
l External electromagnetic interference is severe.

Fault Locating Methods


1. Check whether the data is modified, whether the line is looped back, and whether any
boards are replaced.
2. Check whether the PW works properly by using the PW ping function. If the PW is
faulty, check whether the MPLS tunnel works properly by using the LSP ping function.
If the MPLS tunnel works properly, check whether the PW has the same configuration at
both ends. If the configuration is the same, replace the board on the NNI side.
3. If the PW works properly, check whether the PE data configured at both ends is the
same. If the PE data is different, change the PE data to the same.
4. Check whether UNI-side data and CE-side data are consistent.
5. Analyze the RMON performance events of CES services.
6. Check whether there is impedance mismatch on channels and whether any electrical
cables are connected incorrectly.
7. Replace smart E1 interface boards.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-14 Procedure for troubleshooting CES services

Start

1 Yes
Any incorrect Cancel the operation
operation?

No

2 Yes
Any equipment- or
link-related alarm? Clear the alarm

No

Yes
3
Any alarm related to Clear the alarm
tunnels/PWs?

No

4
Any alarm related to Yes
CES services? Clear the alarm

5 Yes
Any alarm on E1
ports? Clear the alarm

No

6
Any RMON Yes
performance event? Handle the performance event

No

7 Any fault of Yes


interconnection with
Handle the fault
PDH equipment

No

Troubleshoot equipment faults by No


Contact Huawei Faults are rectified?
performing loopbacks on sections
technical engineers
or replacing boards

Yes

End

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Table 5-21 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting CES services


Commen Description
t No.

1 Check the following points:


l Whether a loopback is set for the E1 port
l Whether a loopback is set for the transmission link
l Check whether the parameter settings of CES services, PWs, and tunnels
are consistent at the source end and sink end.
l Check whether the parameter settings of physical ports (including frame
format, code, electrical port impedance, and overhead byte), are consistent.
l Check whether the network bandwidth is sufficient for the service traffic.

2 Pay special attention to the following equipment alarms:


l POWER_ALM
l FAN_FAIL
l HARD_BAD
l BD_STATUS
l BUS_ERR
l NESF_LOST
l TEMP_ALARM
l RADIO_RSL_HIGH
l RADIO_RSL_LOW
l RADIO_TSL_HIGH
l RADIO_TSL_LOW
l IF_INPWR_ABN
l AM_DOWNSHIFT
l MW_CFG_MISMATCH
Pay special attention to the following line alarms:
l MW_LIM
l MW_LOF
l MW_BER_EXC
l MW_BER_SD
l MW_RDI
l MW_FEC_UNCOR

3 Check whether the PW is faulty using the PW ping function.


If the PW fails to be pinged, check the following:
l Check whether the hardware and cable connections on the UNI side are
normal.
l Check whether PWE3 service configurations on the UNI side are correct.
l Check whether port working mode and tag attribute configurations on the
UNI side are consistent with those at the peer end.

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Commen Description
t No.

4 Run PW ping or LSP Tracerout to check whether the MPLS tunnel is faulty.
Handle the tunnel fault by referring to instructions in 5.10 Troubleshooting
MPLS Tunnels.
Check whether PW configurations are correct. If the configurations are
incorrect, re-configure the PW according to the network plan.

5 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l CES_JTROVR_EXC
l CES_JTRUDR_EXC
l CES_LOSPKT_EXC
l CES_MALPKT_EXC
l CES_MISORDERPKT_EXC
l CES_STRAYPKT_EXC

6 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l T_ALOS
l UP_E1_AIS
l LFA
l LMFA
l ALM_E1RAI

7 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l CES_MISORDERPKT
l CES_LOSPKT
l CES_MALPKT
l CES_JTRUDR
l CES_JTROVR
l CES_STRAYPKT

8 Troubleshoot the interconnection with the PDH equipment.

Experience and Summary


Learn about the working principle and protocol configuration of CES services before
troubleshooting CES services.

5.12 Troubleshooting ATM Services


This section describes how to troubleshoot ATM services that are interrupted or degraded.

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Fault Phenomena
ATM services are interrupted if they are completely unavailable. ATM services are degraded
if they have packet loss or incorrect packets.

Table 5-22 Common faults of ATM services


Symptom Alarm Board

ATM HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, CSH, CSHU, CSHUA,


services are WRG_BD_TYPE, BUS_ERR, ML1, MD1
interrupted. BD_STATUS, ALM_IMA_LIF,
ALM_IMA_LODS,
ALM_IMA_RE_RX_UNUSABLE,
ALM_IMA_RE_TX_UNUSABLE,
IMA_GROUP_LE_DOWN,
IMA_GROUP_RE_DOWN, LCD

AM_DOWNSHIFT ISV3, ISU2, ISX2, IFU2,


MW_CFG_MISMATCH IFX2

ATM HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, CSH, CSHU, CSHUA,


services are ALM_IMA_LIF, ALM_IMA_LODS, ML1, MD1
degraded. ALM_IMA_RE_RX_UNUSABLE,
ALM_IMA_RE_TX_UNUSABLE, OCD

AM_DOWNSHIFT ISV3, ISU2, ISX2, IFU2,


MW_CFG_MISMATCH IFX2

Fault Causes
l Incorrect operations are performed.
The transmission link is looped back.
Service configuration data is inconsistent between the local end and the opposite
end.
Service configuration is incorrect.
l The local NE is faulty.
l The transmission link is faulty or has bit errors.
l Service bandwidth decreases due to an AM downshift.
l The opposite NE is faulty.
l External electromagnetic interference is severe.

Fault Locating Methods


1. Check whether the data is modified, whether the link is looped back, and whether any
boards are replaced.
2. Check whether the PW works properly by using the PW ping function. If the PW is
faulty, check whether the MPLS tunnel works properly by using the LSP ping function.
If the MPLS tunnel works properly, check whether the PW has the same configuration at
both ends. If the configuration is the same, replace the board on the NNI side.

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3. If the PW works properly, check whether the PE data configured at both ends is the
same. If the PE data is different, change the PE data to the same.
4. Check whether UNI-side data and CE-side data are consistent.
5. Analyze the RMON performance events of ATM services.
6. Check whether there is impedance mismatch on channels and whether any electrical
cables are connected incorrectly.
7. Replace smart E1 processing boards.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

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Figure 5-15 Procedure for troubleshooting ATM services

Start

1
Any incorrect Yes
Cancel the operation
operation?

No

2
Any equipment- or Yes
link-related alarm? Clear the alarm

No

3
Yes
Any alarm related to Clear the alarm
PWs?

No

4
Any alarm related to Yes
tunnels? Clear the alarm

No

5
Any alarm related to Yes
Clear the alarm
ATM services?

No

6
Any alarm on E1 Yes
ports? Clear the alarm

No

7
Any RMON Yes
performance event? Handle the performance event

No

8 Any fault of Yes


interconnection with
Handle the fault
PDH equipment

No

Troubleshoot equipment faults by No


Contact Huawei Faults are rectified?
performing loopbacks on sections
technical engineers
or replacing boards

Yes

End

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Table 5-23 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting ATM services


Comment Description
No.

1 Check the following points:


l Whether a loopback is set for the E1 port
l Whether a loopback is set for the transmission link
l Whether the parameter settings of ATM VPI/VCI, PWE3 CW, PW, and
Tunnel are consistent between the source end and the sink end.
l Whether the parameter settings of interconnected ports are consistent
Whether E1 frame format, coding, overhead bytes, and E1 timeslot
mode (30/31) are correctly configured
Whether IMA parameters (including protocol version, clock mode,
frame length, and maximum differential delay) are correctly
configured
l Check whether the network bandwidth is sufficient for the service
traffic.

2 Pay special attention to the following equipment alarms:


l POWER_ALM
l FAN_FAIL
l HARD_BAD
l BD_STATUS
l BUS_ERR
l NESF_LOST
l TEMP_ALARM
l RADIO_RSL_HIGH
l RADIO_RSL_LOW
l RADIO_TSL_HIGH
l RADIO_TSL_LOW
l IF_INPWR_ABN
l AM_DOWNSHIFT
l MW_CFG_MISMATCH
Pay special attention to the following line alarms:
l MW_LIM
l MW_LOF
l MW_BER_EXC
l MW_BER_SD
l MW_RDI
l MW_FEC_UNCOR

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Comment Description
No.

3 Check whether the PW is faulty using the PW ping function.


If the PW fails to be pinged, perform the following checks:
l Check whether the hardware and cable connections on the UNI side are
normal.
l Check whether PWE3 service configurations on the UNI side are
correct.
l Check whether port working mode and tag attribute configurations on
the UNI side are consistent with those at the peer end.

4 Run LSP Ping or LSP Tracerout to check whether the MPLS tunnel is
faulty.
Handle the tunnel fault by referring to instructions in 5.10 Troubleshooting
MPLS Tunnels.
Check whether PW configurations are correct. If the configurations are
incorrect, re-configure the PW according to the network plan.

5 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l ALM_IMA_LIF
l ALM_IMA_LODS
l ALM_IMA_RE_RX_UNUSABLE
l ALM_IMA_RE_TX_UNUSABLE
l IMA_GROUP_LE_DOWN
l IMA_GROUP_RE_DOWN
l OCD
l LCD

6 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l T_ALOS
l UP_E1_AIS
l LFA
l LMFA

7 Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l ATMPW_UNKNOWNCELLS
l ATM_UNCORRECTED_HCSERR

8 Troubleshoot the interconnection with the PDH equipment.

Experience and Summary


Learn about the working principle and protocol configuration of ATM services before
troubleshooting ATM services.

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5.13 Troubleshooting Ethernet Services Carried by PWs


This section describes how to troubleshoot Ethernet services that are carried by PWs and
transmitted in the PSN. These Ethernet services are considered faulty when they are
interrupted or deteriorate.

Fault Symptoms
Ethernet services are interrupted if they are unavailable. Ethernet services deteriorate if they
have great delays, packet loss, or incorrect packets.

Table 5-24 Common faults of Ethernet services

Symptom Alarm Board

Ethernet HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, EG4, EG4P, EM6TA, EM6FA, EM6F


services are WRG_BD_TYPE, BUS_ERR, or EM6T
interrupted. BD_STATUS

COMMUN_FAIL, LAG_DOWN

ETH_LOS,
ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK, or
LOOP_ALM

LASER_MOD_ERR EG4, EG4P, EM6F

Ethernet HARD_BAD or EG4, EG4P, EM6TA, EM6FA, EM6F


services TEMP_ALARM or EM6T
deteriorate.
PORTMODE_MISMATCH, EG4, EG4P, EM6TA, EM6FA, EM6F
FLOW_OVER or or EM6T
LAG_MEMBER_DOWN
MAC_FCS_EXC
MAC_EXT_EXC
DROPRATIO_OVER

AM_DOWNSHIFT ISV3, ISU2, ISX2, IFU2 or IFX2


MAC_FCS_EXC
MAC_EXT_EXC
DROPRATIO_OVER

Fault Causes
l Incorrect operations are performed.
The transmission link is looped back.
Service configuration data is inconsistent between the local end and the opposite
end.

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Service configuration is incorrect.


l The local NE is faulty.
l The transmission link is faulty or has bit errors.
l Service bandwidth decreases due to an AM downshift.
l The opposite NE is faulty.
l External electromagnetic interference is severe.

Fault Locating Methods


1. Check whether the data is modified, whether the link is looped back, and whether any
boards are replaced.
2. Check whether the PW works properly by using the PW ping or MPLS-TP PW OAM
function. If the PW is faulty, check whether the MPLS tunnel works properly by using
the LSP ping or MPLS-TP Tunnel OAM function. If the MPLS tunnel works properly,
check whether the PW has the same configuration at both ends. If the configuration is the
same, replace the board on the NNI side.
3. If the PW works properly, check whether the PE data configured at both ends is the
same. If the PE data is different, change the PE data to the same.
4. Check whether UNI-side data and CE-side data are consistent.
5. Analyze the RMON performance events of Ethernet services.
6. Check whether there is impedance mismatch on channels and whether any electrical
cables are connected incorrectly.
7. Replace the Ethernet interface board.

Troubleshooting Ethernet Services

Figure 5-16 Procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet services

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Table 5-25 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet services configured in
an end-to-end manner
Comment Description
No.

1 Check the following points:


l Whether a loopback is set for the Ethernet port
l Whether a loopback is set for the transmission link
l Whether the Ethernet port parameters, such as port enabling/disabling
status, working mode, and flow control, are configured consistently at
the local end and peer end
l Whether Ethernet protocol and Ethernet service configurations
(especially Ethernet port attributes) are correct

2 Intelligent fault diagnosis uses OAM to implement fault diagnosis over


services, PWs, and tunnels, and the physical layer, and supports the output
of diagnostic results for further troubleshooting.

3 Query Ethernet service rates on various ports to analyze the service


rates and locate faults.
l If the Ethernet port connecting the peer equipment has a too high or too
low receive rate, the peer equipment is faulty.
l If the rate of the port approaches or reaches the license capacity of the
IF port, the license capacity is too low and you need to apply for a
license allowing for a higher capacity.
l If the transmit rate of the port approaches or reaches the maximum
Ethernet bandwidth of the IF port, the bandwidth of the IF port is too
low and needs to be increased by the network planning personnel.
l If the transmit rate of the port is much lower than the receive rate of the
Ethernet port, or if the receive rate of the port is much higher than the
transmit rate of the Ethernet port, the local end is faulty. Locate the fault
as follows:
Check the Ethernet service configuration and QoS configuration.
By Querying port flow classification or packet loss performance
of egress queues on the NMS, check whether QoS settings are
correct according to the packet loss data.
Check the Ethernet interface board, IF board, and system control,
switching and timing board by means of board replacement.
If the transmitted traffic is equal to the received traffic, Create flows
specific to the VLANs in the port policy, and check if sufficient bandwidth
is available for the flows by Querying flow traffic.

Experience and Summary


Learn about the working principle and protocol configuration of Ethernet services carried by
PWs before troubleshooting these services.

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5.14 Troubleshooting L3VPN Services


L3VPN service faults means that services are unavailable after the L3VPN function is
configured. This section describes how to troubleshoot L3VPN services.

Fault Causes
l Data configurations are incorrect.
VPN instance configurations are incorrect.
BGP configurations are incorrect.
IGP configurations are incorrect.
Tunnel configurations are incorrect.
Tunnel policy configurations are incorrect.
l Equipment is faulty.
The local microwave equipment is faulty.
The peer equipment is faulty.
l Links are faulty, or bit errors occur.

Fault Locating Method


1. Collect L3VPN-related alarms and analyze the causes. L3VPN-related alarms include
BGPBACKTRANSITION, GSP_RSVP_NB_AUTH_ERR,
GSP_RSVP_NB_DOWN, GSP_TNNL_DOWN, ISISADJACENCYCHANGE,
L3V_TRAP_THRE_EXCEED, L3V_TRAP_VRF_DOWN, and RT_TBL_LACK.
2. Check whether any alarms indicating Ethernet link, microwave link, or equipment faults
are reported. The following table lists these alarms.

Alarm Type Alarm

Alarms indicating Ethernet link faults ETH_LOS, ETH_NO_FLOW,


ETH_AUTO_LINK_DOWN,
ETH_PWR_SUPPLY_FAIL

Alarms indicating microwave link faults MW_LIM, MW_LOF,


MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD,
MW_RDI, MW_FEC_UNCOR

Alarms indicating equipment faults POWER_ALM, FAN_FAIL,


HARD_BAD, BD_STATUS,
BUS_ERR, NESF_LOST,
TEMP_ALARM,
RADIO_RSL_HIGH,
RADIO_RSL_LOW,
RADIO_TSL_HIGH,
RADIO_TSL_LOW,
IF_INPWR_ABN, IF_CABLE_OPEN

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Troubleshooting Processes
L3VPN service troubleshooting processes include the traffic-related fault troubleshooting
process and the route-related fault troubleshooting process.

Start

Yes Does the local VPN No


instance routing
table contain VPN
routes?

Traffic- Route-
related fault related fault

l Traffic-related fault troubleshooting process

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Figure 5-17 Traffic-related fault troubleshooting process

Traffic-
related fault

Tracert the VPN IP


address at the local
1 end to locate the
fault.

2
Use LSP Ping
Yes to check whether the tunnel No
where a service fault has
occurred is working
properly.
3
Correct the tunnel
5 configurations.
No Is the VPN instance Yes
bound with a tunnel
policy?

Bind the VPN


4 with a tunnel
policy.

No No
Is the fault Is the fault
rectified? rectified?
6
Yes No Yes Yes
Is the tunnel
policy correct?

7 Correct the
tunnel policy.

Is the fault No
rectified?

Yes
Contact Huawei
technical
support.

End

l Route-related fault troubleshooting process

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Figure 5-18 Route-related fault troubleshooting process

Route-
related fault

Yes Does the BGP routing No


table contain VPN routes?

1
3
Are the VPN No
instance Yes No
configurations Does the IGP routing table
correct? contain a route to the
peer?
2 Correct the VPN instance
configurations, such as RT.
4 6

No Are the BGP Yes Yes Are the IGP No


configurations configurations
correct? correct?

Correct the BGP Correct the IGP


5 9 configurations.
configurations. No Does the VPN instance
routing table on the peer 7
contain VPN routes?
No Are interfaces enabled Yes
or configured with IP
addresses?
Rectify the fault.
Enable the interfaces
8 and configure IP
addresses for them. Yes Are the No
Ethernet/
microwave links
faulty?

Rectify the link Yes


faults. Is the
equipment
faulty?

No
Rectify the
equipment fault.

Is the fault Is the fault Is the fault Is the fault


rectified? Yes rectified? Yes rectified? Yes rectified? Yes

No No No No

Contact Huawei
technical
support.

End

Summary
Learn about the principles and protocol configuration of the L3VPN feature before
troubleshooting L3VPN services.

5.15 Troubleshooting DCN Faults


A data communication network (DCN) fault causes an NE to be unreachable due to failed or
unstable communications between the NE and the NMS.

Context
If links or lines that bear DCN channels, including data communication channels (DCCs) and
inband DCN channels, are faulty, the DCN communication is interrupted. In this case, handle
the fault in the same manner as a service fault. In other cases, the DCN communication
between an NE and the NMS is interrupted or unstable, but the services between them are
normal for the moment. This fault also needs to be rectified in time, otherwise, you will fail to
check the NE information, obtain NE alarms, or change NE configurations when the services
become faulty.

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Fault Symptoms and Causes

Table 5-26 Fault symptoms and causes


Symptom Possible Cause

NEs connected through their l Cause 1: Services are interrupted.


service ports like air l Cause 2: DCN parameters are incorrectly set.
interfaces and Ethernet ports
are unreachable to their l Cause 3: System control boards are faulty.
NMS.

NEs connected through their l Cause 1: The network cable of the NMS is disconnected
NMS ports are unreachable or damaged.
to their NMS. l Cause 2: DCN parameters are incorrectly set.
l Cause 3: System control boards are faulty.

A few NEs are unreachable l Cause 1: DCN parameters are incorrectly set.
or their connection to the l Cause 2: An NE ID or NE IP address conflict occurs
NMS is unstable. between NEs on the DCN subnet.
l Cause 3: The DCN subnet is too large.
l Cause 4: The system control unit of the NE is faulty.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-19 Procedure for troubleshooting DCN faults

Start

1
Locate a
faulty NE

2
Icon of the Yes Yes Check for hardware
The NMS cannot Hardware
faulty NE in alarms and check
reach the NE fault? cable connections
gray
NO
NO 3
Settings Yes Check settings
incorrectly or undo
modified? modifications
NO
4
Yes
Large DCN Divide the DCN
subnet? subnet

5
NM Yes
Too low DCN Increase the DCN
Information channel bandwidth channel bandwidth
loss?

NO
6
No response to Yes Wait for the
SCC boards are
commands from the completion of SCC
being reset
NMS resetting

NO Fault
rectified
Yes
Contact Huawei
technical service End
engineers

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Table 5-27 Procedure description for troubleshooting DCN faults


Mark Operation Typical Symptom Measures

1 Locate the Locate the faulty NE l If the faulty NE has a service fault, rectify the
faulty NE. based on a DCN service fault first.
networking diagram. l If an unreachable NE connects to its NMS through
l If all NEs within an an external DCN, verify that the external DCN
area are unreachable equipment or the cable used for DCN connection is
to their NMS, the working correctly.
unreachable NE
closest to a normal
NE is probably the
faulty NE.
l If only one NE is
unreachable to its
NMS, the NE is the
faulty NE.

2 Handle l The faulty NE reports l Handle hardware alarms based on the maintenance
hardware faults. hardware alarms like and fault management procedure.
HARD_BAD. l Remove and then install, or replace the network
l Check whether the cable and optical fibers.
NMS/COM port on
the faulty NE is
connected to a correct
cable or whether the
network cable of the
faulty NE is damaged.

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Mark Operation Typical Symptom Measures

3 Modify The following operations l Check for unplanned NE IDs and NE IP addresses
incorrect are performed before a in the ECC routing table of the faulty NE's
configurations. faulty NE becomes upstream NE. If there is an unplanned NE ID or IP
unreachable to its NMS: address in the ECC routing table, the faulty NE is
l Modifying NE incorrectly configured. To rectify the fault, log in
attributes or NE to the faulty NE using the unplanned NE ID and
communication NE IP address on the NMS and correct the
settings settings.
l Adding a new NE to l Change the DCC settings or inband DCN settings
the network, or of the faulty NE to interrupt the DCN channel
replacing the faulty between the faulty NE and its upstream NE. Then,
NE or its system check for the ID and IP address of the faulty NE in
control board the ECC routing table of the upstream NE. If the
ID and IP address of the faulty NE exist in the
ECC routing table of the upstream NE, another NE
on the ECC subnet has the same ID and IP address
as the faulty NE. In this case, correct the settings to
ensure that each NE on the ECC subnet has a
unique ID and IP address.
l If the inband DCN is enabled for the faulty NE and
its upstream NE, verify that the VLAN ID is
correctly set on the upstream NE.
l Verify that static routes are correctly set on the
faulty NE's upstream NE.
l Verify that OSPF parameters are correctly set on
the faulty NE's upstream NE. OSPF parameter
settings must be consistent for all NEs on the same
ECC subnet.

4 Analyze the Check the number of NEs If there is a large number of NEs in the routing table,
DCN subnet in the IP routing table or the DCN subnet is too large in size and some NEs on
size. ECC routing table of the the DCN subnet may occasionally become
faulty NE's upstream NE. unreachable to their NMS. It is recommended that an
DCN subnet consist of no more than 120 NEs, if a 192
kbit/s bandwidth is provided. If L2 DCN is used, an
L2 DCN subnet consists of not more than 30 NEs.

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Mark Operation Typical Symptom Measures

5 Troubleshoot Some NEs may l Verify that a minimum of 192 kbit/s bandwidth is
NMS occasionally become allocated to the inband DCN. If the allocated
information unreachable to their bandwidth is lower than 192 kbit/s, packets from
loss. NMS. the NMS may be lost.
l Check whether the QoS priority allocated to the
inband DCN by a third-party network is high
enough if inband DCN packets are transmitted
over the third-party network. Lower QoS priority
of inband DCN packets may cause NEs
unreachable to the NMS due to congestive packet
loss. The per-hop behavior (PHB) priority of
inband DCN packets must not lower than
expedited forwarding (EF).

6 Troubleshoot l The NE fails to be l Search for the IP address of the faulty NE on the
no-response logged in to onsite. NMS.
problems. l The NE does not l If the IP address is not found, or if the IP address is
respond to commands. found but the NMS still cannot reach the faulty
NE, restart the OptiX RTN 950 after a power-off,
in a authorized maintenance window which service
can be interrupted.

5.16 Troubleshooting Orderwire Faults


If orderwire calls cannot get through when services are normal, there is an orderwire fault.

Fault Causes
l The phone set is set incorrectly.
l The phone line is connected incorrectly.
l The orderwire is configured incorrectly.
l The orderwire unit is faulty.
l The system control unit is faulty.
l The line unit or radio link is faulty.

Fault Locating Methods


l Check whether the phone set is set correctly, whether the phone line is connected
correctly, and whether the orderwire is configured correctly.
l Replace the possibly faulty board to locate the fault.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

Figure 5-20 Procedure for troubleshooting orderwire faults

Start

Check the phone setting

Is the phone No
Modify the phone setting
correctly set?

Yes

Is the phone line No


Reconnect the phone line
correctly connected?

Yes
2
Check the orderwire
configuration

Is the configuration No
Modify the configuration
correct?

Yes
3
Replace the possibly faulty No
Proceed with the next step Is the fault rectified?
board

Yes

End

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Table 5-28 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting orderwire faults

Comment Description
No.

1 Check the following points:


l Check whether the ring current switch "RING" on the phone set is set to
"ON".
l Check whether the dialing mode switch is set to "T", namely, the dual
tone multi-frequency mode.
l An orderwire phone set should be in on-hook state when it is not in
communication, and the upper-right red indicator in the front view of
the orderwire phone set should be off.
If the red indicator is on, it indicates that the phone set is in off-hook
state. Press the "TALK" button in the front of phone set to hook it up. In
certain occasions, the maintenance personnel press the "TALK" button
is pressed by mistake. As a result, the phone set stay in off-hook state all
the time and the orderwire call from the other NEs cannot get through.

2 Check the following points:


l Whether all orderwire phone numbers on a subnet are of the same length
l Whether all orderwire phone numbers on a subnet are unique
l Whether the overhead bytes of all the NEs on a subnet are the same
l Whether the orderwire port is set correctly

3 Locate the fault by replacing the board in which the orderwire unit, line
unit, and system control unit reside.

Experience and Summary


To troubleshoot orderwire faults, you must check the orderwire phone periodically.

5.17 Typical Cases


This section describes typical microwave link troubleshooting cases.

5.17.1 Transient Link Unavailability Due to Multi-path Fading

Fault Symptoms
A 20 km long cross-ocean 1+1 hot standby (HSB) radio link was interrupted intermittently,
and alarms such as B1_SD, MW_LOF, and R_LOF, were reported and lasted several seconds
to dozens of seconds.

Cause Analysis and Handling Procedure


1. Checked the ODU receive power that was recorded during the alarm period.

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The difference between the maximum receive power and the minimum receive power
was more than 40 dB, and the minimum receive power was close to or less than the
receiver sensitivity. Therefore, it was inferred that the fault was caused by spatial fading.
2. Checked the network planning design.
The ODU operated at the 8 GHz band, which was less prone to rain fading, and therefore
multipath fading caused intermittent link interruptions. In addition, 1+1 HSB protection
does not well protect radio links against multipath fading.
3. Replaced 1+1 HSB protection with 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection.

Conclusions and Suggestions


l Routinely check whether the receive power reaches the designed value. If not, it is
recommended that you check the configuration, adjust antennas, or replace ODUs so the
receive power reaches the designed value.
l Minimize the impact of multipath fading by using one of the following methods,
depending on the actual conditions:
Use low capacity, low-order modulation schemes, and low bandwidths.
Increase the height difference between antennas at both ends providing that line-of-
sight (LOS) is guaranteed.
Add two antennas and configure an SD protection group.

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5.17.2 Transoceanic Link Transient Unavailability Due to


Insufficient Height Difference between Diversity Antennas

Fault Symptoms
The received signal levels (RSLs) at both ends of a 1+1 SD cross-ocean radio link fluctuated
dramatically, leading to bit errors or even link interruptions.

Cause Analysis and Handling Procedure


1. Checked the alarms reported by NEs at both ends of the radio link.
The NEs did not report any hardware alarms but frequently reported radio link alarms
and service interruption alarms.
2. Checked the RSLs of the main and standby ODUs at each end.
The RSLs of the main and standby ODUs at each end fluctuated dramatically, with a
fluctuation range over 30 dB. Therefore, the fault was possibly caused by multipath
fading.
3. Checked the network plans and the mounting height difference between the main and
standby antennas at each end.
The mounting height difference between the main and standby antennas at each end was
only 4 meters, so space diversity performance was poor.
NOTE
To protect long-distance cross-ocean radio links against multipath fading, take the following measures
during network planning:
l Ensure that the fading margin is greater than or equal to 30 dB.
l Increase the mounting height difference between the main and standby antennas at both ends of a
1+1 SD radio link.
4. Adjusted the mounting heights of the main antennas to 24 meters and those of the
standby antennas to 10 meters.
The following figure shows the simulation result and illustrates satisfactory diversity
compensation.

NOTE

The value of K generally ranges from 0.67 to 1.33. In this case, the RSLs of the main and standby
antennas are not correlated with each other. When designing mounting heights for main and standby
antennas, keep appropriate antenna spacing for minimizing the impact of reflection on radio links.
When reflection causes high attenuation on the main path, the attenuation on the standby path is low.

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Conclusions and Suggestions


When planning cross-ocean radio links, especially long-distance cross-ocean radio links, take
measures to minimize the impact of multipath fading. 1+1 SD protection is recommended for
these radio links. When mounting the main and standby antennas at one end, keep an
appropriate mounting height difference between them so attenuation has no impact on RSLs.
In addition, the main and standby antennas can be tilted slightly upwards providing that RSLs
be not affected.

5.17.3 Link Unavailability Due to Inter-building Reflection

Fault Symptoms
On a 900-meter 1+0 microwave hop, working with 18 GHz HP ODUs, at 28 MHz channel
bandwidth and in 256QAM modulation, with XPIC disabled. One end of the link
continuously reports MW_LOF alarms and the other end reports MW_RDI alarms.

On this microwave hop, ODUs are mounted onto 0.3-meter diameter dual-polarized antennas
in separate-mount manner. Both ends of the radio hop are located on roofs. Antennas are
installed at the middle of poles about 5 meters high standing on the roofs.

Cause Analysis and Handling Procedure


1. The total hop spans only 900 meters. The receive power is ideal but the MSE is poor.
The faulty microwave link end is surrounded by many buildings, most of which have
glass walls. Therefore, it is suspected that some signals are reflected for many times
between the buildings before reaching the receive end or that some microwave signals
are reflected twice when traveling through the glass walls before reaching the receive
end. See Figure 5-21.

Figure 5-21 Microwave link between buildings

Site A

Site B

Reflected signal

Main signal

2. To suppress signal reflection, do as follows:

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Change the pole position.


Adjust the antenna elevation.
Increase the antenna mount height.
Use antennas with a larger diameter.
NOTE

Move poles near the building roof edges to decrease the inter-building reflection possibility or number
of reflection times. Generally, antennas can be adjusted upwards, downwards, leftwards, or rightwards.
During antenna adjustment, notice the MSE changes and ensure that the RSL is within its allowed
range.
The larger the antenna diameter, the denser the beams. The smaller the beam angle at the receive end,
the powerful the capabilities to suppress reflection.
3. By means of the preceding methods, you can adjust the MSE values at both ends to be
-30 dB to clear alarms.

Conclusions and Suggestions


The addressed problem is characterized by satisfactory receive power, poor MSE, and failure
in clearing alarms. To find out the cause, check whether the equipment hardware is faulty,
whether the equipment operates abnormally, and whether any exceptions occur on the path
from an antenna to an indoor unit (IDU). Then narrow down the cause on the space link, and
determine whether reflection and refraction are possible according to the topography.

5.17.4 Unidirectional Link Availability Due to Interference

Fault Symptoms
A 1+0 microwave link between NE A and NE B was configured with QPSK/28M modulation
and 8G/HP ODUs. The link is available only in one direction after the link is expanded from
mode 5 (QPSK/28M/16E1) to mode 7 (128QAM/28M/STM-1).

Cause Analysis and Handling Procedure


1. The ODU supports 128QAM modulation scheme according to query results of NE data
in mode 7 and query of ODU product manual.
2. The receive power is unlikely to fade because the RSL is stable and the link is only 1.27
Km long.
3. The MSE values on the NE A are -35.35 dB and -34.57 dB in the mode 5 and the mode 7
respectively. The MSE values on the NE B are -26.77 dB and -20.56 dB in the mode 5
and the mode 7 respectively. The MSE value on the NE B is greatly different from the
required modulation threshold from -24 dB to -35 dB in the mode 7. The modulation
threshold of the MSE value in the mode 7 is from -24 dB to -35 dB. When the link is
normal, the MSE value of NE B is also low. It is suspected that interference exists.
Because the anti-interference capability in QPSK modulation is more powerful than that
in 128QAM modulation, signal modulation is successful in QPSK modulation but fails
in 128QAM modulation.
4. Scan the frequency on the NE B to find out the interference source. Change the operating
frequency to eliminate interference.

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Conclusions and Suggestions


For unidirectional link availability in case of modulation upshift, the possible causes are as
follows:
l The ODU cannot support the new IF mode of high modulation and of large capacity after
the link capacity is expanded.
l The link is interrupted because the receive power cannot meet the sensitivity requirement
in the new IF mode.
l The link is interrupted because the MSE value cannot reach the demodulation threshold
due to interference occurrence on the link.

Check the above items to prevent the link from being interrupted before the link capacity
expansion.

5.17.5 Bit Errors on Microwave Links

Fault Symptoms
Bit errors were detected in a microwave link hop (between NE A and NE B) during
acceptance checks. The distance between two ends of the link hop was 2.5 km. The link was
configured with 0.6 m antennas, 15G ODUs, and QPSK/28M modulation.

Cause Analysis and Handling Procedure


1. Checked the alarms and logs of the two NEs.
The NEs did not report any hardware alarm. NE A reported an MW_FEC_UNCOR
alarm, but NE B did not.
2. Checked the RSLs at the two NEs.
The RSL at NE A was -62 dBm and that at NE B was -70 dBm. These two values were
greater than the receiver sensitivity (-85 dBm) in mode 5.
3. Checked for interference signals by muting the ODU at NE B.
The RSL at NE A was -80 dBm. Therefore, interference signals existed.
4. Used one of the following methods for eliminating interference signals:
Using frequencies that are not affected by interference signals (tests showed that the
sub-bands supported by the ODU were all interfered)
Using antennas with a diameter greater than 0.6 meters (the workload is heavy and
interference signals are also amplified)
Changing a polarization direction (cross-polarization discrimination of 30 dB can
be achieved)
5. Changed the polarization direction of the radio link.
The fault was rectified.

Conclusions and Suggestions


If the RSL of an ODU is normal or apparently greater than the receiver sensitivity, frequent
and intermittent radio link interruptions or bit errors are generally caused by interference
signals.

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5.17.6 Poor Reliability Due to Network Planning Errors


Fault Symptoms
A radio link frequently but intermittently reported MW_RDI, R_LOC, and RPS_INDI alarms,
and HSB switchovers were triggered.

Table 5-29 Link information


Protection 1+1 HSB

IF mode IF mode 7 (128QAM/28M/STM-1)

ODU type SPA ODUs operating at the 8 GHz


frequency band

Receiver sensitivity -70.5 dBm

Transmit power 20 dBm

Receive power -39.5 dBm

Planned availability 99.994%

Predicted annual interruption time 1877 seconds

Cause Analysis and Handling Procedure


1. Queried historical receive power values of the radio link.
The receive power decreased to a value close to the receiver sensitivity when an alarm
was reported. Most alarms were reported during the night or in the early morning. When
the weather was favorable at noon, the receive power was normal. Therefore,
intermittent radio link interruptions were caused by multipath fading.
2. Checked annual interruption time predicted for the radio link.
The actual annual interruption time was longer than the predicted time of 1877 seconds.
Therefore, the fading margin was insufficient.
3. Checked the network planning methods.
The ITU-R-P.530-7/8 method was used. The area covered by the radio link was in the
Middle East, and therefore the ITU-R-P.530-9 method should be used.
4. Used the ITU-R-P.530-9 method to predict annual interruption time without changing
other conditions.
The obtained value was about 175833 seconds, which was longer than the value obtained
using the ITU-R-P.530-7/8 method.

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Figure 5-22 Using the ITU-R-P.530-7/8 method

Figure 5-23 Using the ITU-R-P.530-9 method

5. Deleted 1+1 HSB protection settings and configured 1+1 SD protection. The link
availability met service requirements.

Conclusions and Suggestions


Network planning is crucial to radio link performance. For radio links that are frequently
interrupted due to fading, it is recommended that you first check their network planning
information.

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Maintenance Guide 6 Part Replacement

6 Part Replacement

About This Chapter

Part replacement is a method frequently used to locate faults. The replacement operation
varies according to the specific part type.

Background Information

Table 6-1 Part replacement description

Part Name Operation Tool

CQ1 6.4 Replacing the Channelized l ESD wrist strap


STM-1 Processing Board l Screwdriver
SL1D, SL1DA 6.3 Replacing the SDH Optical l U2000
Interface Board l Fiber extractor
EG4, EG4P, 6.7 Replacing the Ethernet
EM6T, EM6F, Interface Board
EMS6,
EM6TA,
EM6FA, and
EFP8

CF card 6.9 Replacing the CF Card

CST, CSH, 6.10 Replacing the System


CSHU and Control, Switching and Timing
CSHUA Board

AUX 6.11 Replacing the Auxiliary


Board

SP3D and 6.5 Replacing the PDH Interface l ESD wrist strap
SP3S Board l Screwdriver
l U2000

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Part Name Operation Tool

ISM6, ISV3, 6.8 Replacing an IF Board


ISX2, ISU2,
IF1, IFU2, and
IFX2

PIU 6.13 Replacing the Power Board

ML1 and MD1 6.6 Replacing the Smart E1


Interface Board

FAN 6.12 Replacing the Fan Board l ESD wrist strap


l U2000

ODU 6.15 Replacing an ODU l Wrench (torque wrench)


l U2000
l Silicon
l Waterproof adhesive tape

IF cable 6.16 Replacing an IF Cable l Multimeter


l Wrench
l Electrician's knife
l File
l Connector installation fittings
and accessories
l IF cable
l Waterproof adhesive tape

SFP 6.14 Replacing the SFP l ESD wrist strap


l Tweezer Fiber extractor
l U2000

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Maintenance Guide 6 Part Replacement

6.1 Removing a Board


Removing a board is a basic operation for replacing a board.

Procedure
Step 1 Insert one end of the ESD wrist strap into the ESD connector on the cabinet. Wear the ESD
wrist strap.

Figure 6-1 Wear the ESD wrist strap

Step 2 Optional: If cables are connected to the board, make labels for the cables and then remove
the cables.
NOTE

Use fiber removers to remove fibers or network cables.

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Figure 6-2 Tweezer fiber remover

Step 3 Remove the board.


1. Loosen the screws on the panel of the board.

Figure 6-3 Removing a board (1)

2. Hold the left and right ejector levers with hands. Push them outwards to disengage the
board from the backplane.

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Figure 6-4 Removing a board (2)

NOTE

As shown in Figure 6-5, there is a latch on each ejector lever of the System control
Switch&Timing board. To remove the System control Switch&Timing board, you need to push the
latches when pulling the ejector levers outward.

Figure 6-5 Removing the System control Switch&Timing board

3. Pull out the board gently along the slot guide rail.

Figure 6-6 Removing a board (3)

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NOTICE
Remove the board slowly to prevent the components on the boards from colliding.

Step 4 Put the removed board into the antistatic box or bag.

----End

6.2 Inserting a Board


Inserting a board is a basic operation for replacing a board.

Procedure
Step 1 Insert one end of the ESD wrist strap into the ESD connector on the cabinet. Wear the ESD
wrist strap.

Figure 6-7 Wear the ESD wrist strap

Step 2 Insert the board.


1. Hold the ejector levers on the panel with both hands. Push them outwards so that the
angle between the ejector lever and the panel is about 45 degrees.
2. Push the board gently along the slot guide rail until the board cannot slide further.

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Figure 6-8 Inserting a board (1)

NOTICE
Insert the board slowly to prevent the components on the boards from colliding.

3. Press the two ejector levers inward with force.

Figure 6-9 Inserting a board (2)

4. Tighten screws on the panel.

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Figure 6-10 Inserting a board (3)

Step 3 Optional: If cables are connected to the board, recover the original cable connections
according to the labels that are made previously.

----End

6.3 Replacing the SDH Optical Interface Board


When the SDH optical interface board is replaced, the unprotected services on the board are
interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be
replaced.
l The spare SDH optical interface board must be available, and the version and type of the
spare board must be the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. You
can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to
be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000
l Fiber remover

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Optional: If the services on the board are configured with SNCP, ensure that the services are
already switched to the protection channel.

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1. Query the SNCP protection group.


2. Perform the forced switching, if the port on the board functions as the current working
channel, the current protection channel is not on the board, and the state of the current
protection channel is normal or SD.
Step 3 Optional: If the services on the board are configured with linear MSP, ensure that the services
are already switched to the protection channel.
1. Query the linear MSP group.
2. Perform the forced switching, if the port on the board functions as the current working
channel, the current protection channel is not on the board, and the state of the current
protection channel is normal or SD.
Step 4 Remove the board.

Step 5 Check whether the version and SFP type of the spare board are the same as the version and
SFP type of the board to be replaced.
Step 6 Insert the board.

Step 7 After the board starts to work, check the STAT indicator on the board. The STAT indicator
should be on and green.
Step 8 Query the current alarms of the board.
There should be no new alarms on the board.
Step 9 Optional: If the forced switching has been performed on the board, release the forced
switching.
Step 10 Optional: If the linear MSP switching has been performed for the services, release the forced
switching.

----End

6.4 Replacing the Channelized STM-1 Processing Board


When the channelized STM-1 processing board is replaced, the unprotected services on the
board are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be
replaced.
l The spare channelized STM-1 processing board must be available, and the version and
type of the spare board must be the same as the version and type of the board to be
replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version
of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver

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l U2000
l Fiber remover

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Optional: If the services on the board are configured with linear MSP, ensure that the services
are already switched to the protection channel.
1. Query the linear MSP group.
2. Perform the forced switching, if the port on the board functions as the current working
channel, the current protection channel is not on the board, and the state of the current
protection channel is normal or SD.

Step 3 Remove the board.

Step 4 Check whether the version and SFP type of the spare board are the same as the version and
SFP type of the board to be replaced.

Step 5 Insert the board.

Step 6 After the board starts to work, check the STAT indicator on the board. The STAT indicator
should be on and green.

Step 7 Query the current alarms of the board.


There should be no new alarms on the board.

Step 8 Optional: If the linear MSP switching has been performed for the services, release the forced
switching.

----End

6.5 Replacing the PDH Interface Board


When the PDH interface board is replaced, the services on the board are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be
replaced.
l The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board
must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000

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Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Remove the board.

Step 3 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and
type of the board to be replaced.

Step 4 Insert the board.

Step 5 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should
be on and green.

Step 6 Query the current alarms of the board.


There should be no new alarms on the board.

----End

6.6 Replacing the Smart E1 Interface Board


When the Smart E1 Interface board is replaced, the services on the board are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be
replaced.
l The spare board must be available, and the version and type of the spare board must be
the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board to be replaced.

Step 2 Remove the board.

Step 3 Verify that the spare board has the same board version and board type as the board to be
replaced.

Step 4 Insert the spare board.

Step 5 After the substitute board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT
indicator is on and green.

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NOTE

Smart E1 boards are hot-swappable. After the spare board is installed, it enters initialization state and starts to
work 2 minutes later.

Step 6 Query the current alarms of the substitute board.


There is no new alarm on the board.

----End

6.7 Replacing the Ethernet Interface Board


When the Ethernet interface board is replaced, the unprotected services on the board are
interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be
replaced.
l The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board
must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000
l Fiber remover

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Optional: If the services are configured with MPLS APS, ensure that the services are already
switched to the protection tunnel.
1. Querying MPLS APS Status.
2. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 3 Optional: If the services are configured with PW APS, ensure that the services are already
switched to the protection PW.
1. Querying PW APS Status.
2. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 4 Remove the board.

Step 5 Check and ensure that the board version and the model of the SFP module on the spare board
are the same as the board version and the model of the SFP module on the board to be
replaced.

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Step 6 Insert the board.


NOTE

Ethernet interface boards are hot-swappable. After the substitute board is installed, it enters initialization state
and starts working two minutes later.
If dynamic ARP is disabled on the NE at the opposite end of an MPLS tunnel, you need to change the static
ARP table entries of the opposite NE.

Step 7 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should
be on and green.
Step 8 Query the current alarms of the board.
There should be no new alarms on the board.
Step 9 Optional: If the forced switching has been performed for the services, release the forced
switching.

----End

6.8 Replacing an IF Board


When an IF board is replaced, unprotected services on the board are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be
replaced.
l The spare board must be available, and the version and type of the spare board must be
the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000

Precautions
IF boards support hot swap. After a substitute board is installed, it enters the initialization
state and starts working two minutes later.
If an IF port carries an MPLS tunnel and dynamic ARP is disabled on the peer NE of the
MPLS tunnel, you need to change the static ARP table entries of the peer NE.

NOTICE
To replace a dual-channel IF board, turn off the soft power switch of the connected ODU
before removing an IF cable.

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Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Optional: If the services on the board are configured with SNCP, ensure that the services are
already switched to the protection channel.
1. Query the SNCP protection group.
2. If the port on the board functions as the current working channel, the current protection
channel is not on the board, perform the forced switching.

Step 3 Optional: If the services on the radio link are configured with 1+1 protection, switch the
service to the protection IF board.
1. Query the IF 1+1 protection group.
2. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 4 Optional: If the services on the radio link are configured with N+1 protection, ensure that the
services are already switched to the protection IF board.
1. Query the IF N+1 protection group.
2. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 5 Optional: If the services are configured with MPLS APS, ensure that the services are already
switched to the protection tunnel.
1. Querying MPLS APS Status.
2. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 6 Optional: If the services are configured with PW APS, ensure that the services are already
switched to the protection PW.
1. Querying PW APS Status.
2. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 7 Optional: If the IF board is configured with the XPIC function, see 8.1.3 Muting/Unmuting
an ODU and mute the ODU at the opposite end.

Step 8 Perform the following steps according to the IF board types.

If... Then...
A single-channel IF board needs to be Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the IF
replaced board.
NOTICE
To turn off the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch
lever outwards slightly and set the switch to the "O"
position.

A dual-channel IF board needs to be Turn off the soft power switch of the ODU.
replaced

Step 9 Remove the board.

Step 10 Check and verify that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and
type of the board to be replaced.

Step 11 Ensure that the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the spare IF board is turned off.

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NOTE

Skip this step when replacing a dual-channel IF board (ISM6).

Step 12 Insert the board.

Step 13 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should
be on and green.

Step 14 Perform the following steps according to the IF board types.

If... Then...
A single-channel IF board needs to be Turn on the ODU-PWR switch on the front
replaced panel of the IF board.
NOTICE
To turn on the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch
lever outwards slightly and set the switch to the "I"
position.

A dual-channel IF board needs to be Turn on the soft power switch of the ODU.
replaced

Step 15 Query the current alarms of the board.


There should be no new alarms on the board.

Step 16 Optional: If the forced switching has been performed for the services, release the forced
switching.

Step 17 Optional: If the forced protection switching has been performed for the radio link, release the
forced switching.

Step 18 If the IF board is configured with the XPIC function, see 8.1.3 Muting/Unmuting an ODU
and unmute the ODU at the opposite end.

----End

6.9 Replacing the CF Card


If the NE is configured with only one System control Switch&Timing board, all the services
are interrupted during the replacement of the CF card.

Prerequisites
l You must be aware of the impact of CF card replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the CF card to be replaced.
l You must be a user with "NE maintainer" authority or higher.
l You must obtain a spare CF card that has the same capacity as the CF card to be
replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l U2000

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l Fiber remover

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Optional: If the board is configured with 1+1 protection, ensure that the services are switched
from the current working board to the protection board.
1. See 8.11 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit, and ensure
that the current working board functions as the protection board.
2. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the manual switching.
Step 3 Remove the board.

Step 4 Remove the CF card according to the illustration in the following figure.

Step 5 Check the spare CF card.

Step 6 Install the spare CF card according to the illustration in the following figure.

Step 7 Insert the board.

Step 8 After the board starts to work, observe the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should
be on and green.
Step 9 Query the current alarms of the board.
There should be no new alarms.
Step 10 Optional: If the manual switching has been performed on the board, release the manual
switching.

----End

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6.10 Replacing the System Control, Switching and Timing


Board
All the services are interrupted during the period of replacing the system control, switching,
and timing board, if the NE is configured with only one system control switch and timing
board. If a CSH/CST board is replaced, you can restore NE data by replacing the CF card. If a
CSHU/CSHUA board is replaced, you can back up and restore NE data from a USB flash
drive. Perform the operations specific to the type of the board to be replaced.

Prerequisites
l You must be aware of the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be
replaced.
l The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board
must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.
l If a CSHU/CSHUA board is to be replaced, NE data has been obtained.
The backup NE data has been imported to a laptop where the Web LCT is installed,
if there is a backup of the NE database on the NMS.
The network plan document has been obtained if there is no backup of the NE
database on the NMS.

Impact on System
If no protection board is available, the replacement of the system control, switching, and
timing board results in service interruption.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000
l Fiber remover
l A USB flash drive with the authorization file if a CSHU/CSHUA board is to be replaced
The file folders related to the NE (\db, \pkg, \patch, \sysdata, \script, and \license)
should not exist in the USB flash drive.
The RTN.CER file of the NE should be copied to the root directory of the USB
flash drive.
The RTN.CER file, which stores the account and password information at the
system administration level (the password is encrypted), is generated by the system
administrator of a network management center using dedicated tools.

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Context
NOTE

After the NE database is restored successfully, a cold reset is automatically performed on the NE.

Procedure
Step 1 If a CSH/CST board is replaced, restore NE data by replacing the CF card.
1. Query the current alarms of the board. If the board reports the A.3.119 HARD_BAD
alarm, locate the fault according to alarm causes. If the system control, switching, and
timing board needs to be replaced, go to the next step.
2. Replace the system control, switching, and timing board.
If... Then...

One system 1. Notify the onsite maintenance personnel to switch off the power
control, supply and remove the board.
switching, and 2. Verify that the version and type of the spare board (including the
timing board patch version) are correct.
is configured
NOTE
If the spare board and the board to be replaced have different patch
versions, contact Huawei engineers for loading correct patches.
3. Remove the CF card from the original board and then install the
CF card to the spare board. For details about how to install the
CF card, see 6.9 Replacing the CF Card.
4. Insert the spare board into the chassis.
5. Switch on the power supply so that the board automatically
restores the NE databases, system parameters, software
packages, and NE logs from the CF card.
NOTE
n In the process of restoring the NE database, the PROG indicator on
the board blinks green for about 20 minutes.
n If the database restoration is successful, the NE resets automatically.
During the rest, the STAT indicator is off, and the PROG indicator is
blinking green. After the NE resets successfully, the STAT and
PROG indicators are on and green.
n If the database restoration fails, the NE does not reset, and the
PROG is red. In this case, contact Huawei technical support
engineers for rectifying the fault.
NOTE
After the NE starts up normally, the STAT and PROG indicators on the
board are green.

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If... Then...

Two system 1. Before replacing a working system control, switching, and


control, timing board, switch services from the working board to the
switching, and protection board. For details, see 8.11 Switching the System
timing boards Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit.
are configured NOTICE
When the data of the working board is being synchronized to the
protection board or synchronization data is being delivered to the chip of
the protection board, removing the working board may interrupt
services. Before removing the working board, ensure that the board is in
standby status.
Wait until the protection switchover is completed, and then go to the
next step. A protection switchover is completed only after the data of the
working board has been synchronized to the protection board and
synchronization data has been delivered to the chip of the protection
board.
2. After completing the protection switchover, Remove the board
to be replaced.
3. Check whether the version and type of the spare board are the
same as the version and type of the board to be replaced.
4. Insert the spare board.
NOTE
During the replacement process, the ACT indicator is off. After the
replacement is complete, the ACT indicator is on and green.
5. Wait for about 10 minutes to complete the backup of the data on
the main and standby system control units.
NOTE
After the NE starts up normally, the STAT and PROG indicators on the
board are green.

3. Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms.
Step 2 Perform the following steps for CSHU/CSHUA boards.

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If... Then...

One system 1. Query the current alarms of the board.


control, 2. (Optional)If the NE is running, back up the NE data to the USB
switching, and flash drive.
timing board is
configured a. Insert the USB flash drive in the USB port on the OptiX RTN
950.
The indicator beside the USB port is blinking yellow during the
data backup, and is steady green after the data backup is
complete.
b. Remove the USB flash drive after the data backup is complete.
NOTE
If the NE is not running, data backup is not required.
3. Switch off the power supply.
4. Turn off the power supply for the IDU.
If the OptiX RTN 950 uses a two-input power supply, turn off both
power inputs.
5. Replace the CSHU/CSHUA board.
a. Make labels for the cables and then remove the cables connected
to the board.
b. Remove the CSHU/CSHUA board.
c. Verify that the spare board and the board to be replaced are of
the same version and use the same type of SFP modules.
d. Insert the spare CSHU/CSHUA board into the slot.
e. Recover the original cable connections according to the labels
that are made previously.
6. See the Commissioning Guide to power on the NE.
7. Restore NE configuration data.
If the original NE is in the running state and NE database is
backed up by following Step 2.2, then insert the USB flash drive
into the USB port of the CSHU/CSHUA board
NOTE
The indicator beside the USB port is blinking yellow during data
restoration, and is steady green after the data is restored. It takes more
than 10 minutes to restore NE configuration data.
If the original NE is not in the running state and NE database is
backed up to a USB flash drive, perform the following steps:
a. Set the ID and IP address of the NE to the predefined values
by referring to Changing the NE ID and Changing the NE IP
Address.
b. Restore NE configuration data by referring to 7.4 Restoring
the Database by NMS.
If the original NE is not in the running state and NE database is
not backed up, re-configure all data on the NE according to the
network plan.

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If... Then...

8. Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new


alarms.

Two system 1. Query the current alarms of the board.


control, 2. Before replacing a working system control, switching, and timing
switching, and board, switch services from the working board to the protection
timing boards board. For details, see 8.11 Switching the System Control Unit
are configured and the Cross-Connect Unit.
NOTICE
When the data of the working board is being synchronized to the protection
board or synchronization data is being delivered to the chip of the protection
board, removing the working board may interrupt services. Before removing
the working board, ensure that the board is in standby status.
Wait until the protection switchover is completed, and then go to the next
step. A protection switchover is completed only after the data of the working
board has been synchronized to the protection board and synchronization
data has been delivered to the chip of the protection board.
3. After completing the protection switchover, Remove the board to
be replaced.
4. Check whether the version and type of the spare board are the same
as the version and type of the board to be replaced.
5. Insert the spare board.
NOTE
During the replacement process, the ACT indicator is off. After the
replacement is complete, the ACT indicator is on and green.
6. Wait for about 10 minutes to complete the backup of the data on the
main and standby system control units.
NOTE
After the NE starts up normally, the STAT and PROG indicators on the board
are green. If data backup fails, the PROG indicator is on and red.
7. Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new
alarms.

----End

6.11 Replacing the Auxiliary Board


When the auxiliary board is replaced, the services on the auxiliary board are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board
must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000
l Fiber remover

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.
Step 2 Remove the board.
Step 3 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and
type of the board to be replaced.
Step 4 Insert the spare board.
Step 5 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should
be on and green.
Step 6 Query the current alarms of the board.
There should be no new alarms on the auxiliary board.
----End

6.12 Replacing the Fan Board


The IDU cannot perform air cooling in the process of replacing the fan board. Therefore, you
need to replace the fan board quickly.

Prerequisites
l You must be aware of the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board
must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to learn about the version of the board to be replaced.
l TND1FAN VER.C and TND1FAN VER.D are exchangeable.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l U2000

Precautions

CAUTION
Do not touch the blades until the fan has stopped rotating.

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Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Move the cables away from the front panel of the fan board assembly.

Step 3 Remove the fan board.

Step 4 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and
type of the board to be replaced.

Step 5 Insert the standby fan board.

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Step 6 After the board starts to work, observe the indicators on the board. The FAN indicator should
be on and green.

Step 7 Query the current alarms of the board.


There should be no new alarms.

----End

6.13 Replacing the Power Board


If another power board works normally during the replacement period, the services at the IDU
are not affected.

Prerequisites
l You must be aware of the impact of board replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced.
l The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board
must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to learn about the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Screwdriver
l U2000

Precautions

CAUTION
Do not remove or insert the power plug when the power is on. Turn off the power switch
before removing the power cable from the PIU.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Turn off the output power switch for the IDU on the power supply equipment.

Step 3 Remove the cables connected to the board.


NOTE

When removing the power cable, press the former section of the red button and pull the red button.

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1
2

1
2

1
Press
2

1 Press the front of the red latch.


2 Properly move the red latch outwards.

Step 4 Remove the power board gently and horizontally along the guide rail.

Step 5 Ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and type of the
board to be replaced.

Step 6 Insert the spare board steadily along the guide rail.

Step 7 Reconnect the cables between the board and the power supply equipment.

Step 8 Turn on the output power switch for the IDU.

Step 9 After the board starts to work, observe the indicators on the board. The PWR indicator should
be on and green.

Step 10 Query the current alarms of the board.


There should be no new alarms on the board.

----End

6.14 Replacing the SFP


When the small form pluggable (SFP) is replaced, the unprotected services on the optical/
electrical port are interrupted.

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Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of SFP replacement.
l You must know the specific position of the SFP to be replaced.
l You must know the service protection and protection channels of the SFP to be replaced.
l The spare SFP must be available, and the version and type of the spare SFP must be the
same as the version and type of the SFP to be replaced. You can query the board
manufacturing information to obtain the version of the SFP to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap
l Tweezer fiber remover
l U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.

Step 2 Optional: If SNCP is configured for services at the optical interface, ensure that the services
are already switched to the protection channel.
1. Query the status of the SNCP group.
2. If the port on the local board functions as the working channel, the protection channel
does not involve the local board, and the protection channel is in the normal or SD state,
perform forced switching.
Step 3 Optional: If linear MSP is configured for services at the optical interface, ensure that the
services are already switched to the protection channel.
1. Query the status of the linear MSP group.
2. If the port on the local board functions as the working channel, the protection channel
does not involve the local board, and the protection channel is in the normal or SD state,
perform forced switching.
Step 4 Record the cable connections of the SFP, and then disconnect cables.

Step 5 Check the types of the spare SFP and the SFP to be replaced, and remove the SFP module.

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NOTE

l Hold the extraction lever to remove the optical module.

l Press the release button before removing the STM-1 electrical module.

1 Press the release button.

2 Remove the STM-1 electical module.

Step 6 Insert the standby SFP module and reconnect cables based on the record.

Step 7 Query the current alarms of the board.


There should be no new alarms on the board.

Step 8 Optional: If the forced switching has been performed on the board, release the forced
switching.

Step 9 Optional: If the linear MSP switching has been performed for the services, release the forced
switching.

----End

6.15 Replacing an ODU


When an ODU is replaced, the unprotected services on the ODU are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of ODU replacement.
l You must know the specific positions of the ODU to be replaced and the IF board
connected to the ODU.
l The spare ODU must be at hand, whose type must be the same as the type of the ODU to
be replaced.

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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l Ejector lever (torque wrench)
l U2000
l Silicon
l Waterproof adhesive tape

Precautions

CAUTION
l Before replacing an ODU, power off the ODU.
l Considering live-line working and radiation risks, it is advised to power off ODUs on
adjacent channels before replacing an ODU installed on a hybrid coupler.

NOTICE
l Replacing an ODU installed on a hybrid coupler may temporarily affect services on other
channels. It is advised to mute the peer ODU to minimize the impact.
l Do not damage the coating when you replace an ODU. In the case of any coating damage,
repair the coating timely.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms on the ODU and then record the results.

Step 2 Perform the following steps according to the IF board types.

If... Then...
The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the IF
single-channel IF board board.
NOTICE
To turn off the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch
lever outwards slightly and set the switch to the "O"
position.

The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn off the soft power switch of the ODU.
dual-channel IF board

Step 3 Remove the IF cable and the PGND cable from the ODU.

Step 4 Remove the ODU.

Option Description
If... Then...

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Option Description
You need to remove the RTN 600 ODU Loosen the four latches of the ODU and
with a waveguide interface disconnect the ODU from the antenna, the
hybrid coupler, or ODU adapter.
You need to remove the RTN 600 ODU Remove the ODU from the post.
with a coaxial interface
You need to remove the RTN XMC ODU Loosen the captive screws on the ODU and
disconnect the ODU from the antenna, the
hybrid coupler, or ODU adapter.

Step 5 Ensure the type of the spare ODU is the same as the type of the ODU to be replaced.

Step 6 Install the ODU.

Option Description
If... Then...
You need to install a new RTN 600 ODU with a See the RTN 600 ODU Quick
waveguide interface Installation Guide.
You need to install a new RTN 600 ODU with a See the RTN 600 ODU Quick
coaxial interface Installation Guide.
You need to install a new RTN XMC ODU See the RTN XMC ODU Installation
Guide.

Step 7 Connect the PGND cable and the IF cable to the ODU.

Step 8 Waterproof the IF interface on the ODU.

Step 9 Perform the following steps according to the IF board types.

If... Then...
The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn on the ODU-PWR switch on the front
single-channel IF board panel of the IF board.
NOTICE
To turn on the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch
lever outwards slightly and set the switch to the "I"
position.

The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn on the soft power switch of the ODU.
dual-channel IF board

Step 10 After the ODU starts to work, check the LINK indicator and ODU indicator on the IF board.
The ODU indicator and LINK indicator should be on and green.
Step 11 Query the current alarms of the ODU. There should be no new alarms on the ODU.

----End

6.16 Replacing an IF Cable


When an IF cable is replaced, the unprotected services on the IF cable are interrupted.

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Prerequisites
l You must know the impact of IF cable replacement.
l You must know the specific positions of the IF cable to be replaced and the IF board
connected to the IF jumper.
l In the case of the RG-8U IF cable or the 1/2-inch IF cable, an IF jumper is required to
connect the IF cable to the IDU and both ends of the IF cable should be terminated with
type-N connectors. In the case of the 5D IF cable, the IF cable is connected directly to
the IDU and the cable end connecting to the IDU should be terminated with the TNC
connector and the cable end connecting to the ODU should be terminated with the type-
N connector.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l Multimeter
l Ejector lever
l Electro-technical knife
l File
l Installation parts and accessories of the connector
l IF cable
l Waterproof adhesive tape

Precautions

NOTICE
To replace a dual-channel IF board, turn off the soft power switch of the connected ODU
before removing an IF cable.

Procedure
Step 1 Query and record the current alarm of the IDU.
Step 2 Perform the following steps according to the IF board types.

If... Then...
The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the IF
single-channel IF board board.
NOTICE
To turn off the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch
lever outwards slightly and set the switch to the "O"
position.

The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn off the soft power switch of the ODU.
dual-channel IF board

Step 3 Disconnect the IF cable from the IF jumper and from the ODU.
Step 4 Use a multimeter to test the connectivity of the IF cable to determine whether you need to
make new connectors for the IF cable or replace the IF cable with a new one.

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If... Then...
You need to make new connectors for the See the Installation Reference and make new
IF cable connectors for the IF cable.
You need to replace the IF cable with a Replace the IF cable with a new one.
new one

Step 5 Connect the IF cable to the IF jumper and to the ODU.

Step 6 Waterproof the connectors at the two ends of the IF cable with the waterproof adhesive tape.

Step 7 Perform the following steps according to the IF board types.

If... Then...
The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn on the ODU-PWR switch on the front
single-channel IF board panel of the IF board.
NOTICE
To turn on the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch
lever outwards slightly and set the switch to the "I"
position.

The ODU to be replaced connects to a Turn on the soft power switch of the ODU.
dual-channel IF board

Step 8 After the ODU starts to work, check the LINK and ODU indicators on the IF board.
The ODU indicator and LINK indicator should be on and green.
Step 9 Query the current alarms of the IDU.
There should be no new alarms on the IDU.

----End

6.17 Erasing Data in the Repair Parts


The storage media on the system control board stores NE configuration data. If necessary,
erase data on the board before repair.

6.17.1 Board Storage Media


The system control board has two types of storage media: CF card and flash memory.

Overview
OptiX RTN 950 has two types of storage media: CF card and flash memory. Both the CF card
and flash memory may contain configuration data. As shown in Table 6-2, the types of
storage media supported by the system control boards for the OptiX RTN 950 are listed.

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Table 6-2 Types of storage media on the system control boards


Board Storage Media

CST/CSH l Flash memory (integrated on the system


control board)
l CF card (pluggable)

CSHU/CSHUA Flash memory (integrated on the system


control board)

Positions of the Storage Media


DIP switches on the system control board are used for some special maintenance-related
operations, including formatting the flash memory.
For the positions of the CF card and the DIP switches for formatting the flash memory, see
"DIP Switches and CF Card" of the system control board in the IDU Hardware Description.

NOTE

CSHU/CSHUA boards do not provide DIP switches.

6.17.2 Removing the CF Card


If necessary, remove the CF card from the repaired system control board to ensure data
security.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap or ESD glove
l ESD bag for storing the removed CF card

NOTICE
Slowly and carefully remove the CF card, to prevent damages to the CF card or its card slot.

Procedure
Step 1 Wear an ESD wrist strap or ESD gloves during operations.
1. Put your hand through the ESD wrist strap, as shown inFigure 6-11.

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Figure 6-11 Wearing an ESD wrist strap

2. Fasten the wrist strap to ensure good contact between the ESD wrist strap and your skin.
3. Connect the ground end of the ESD wrist strap to the ESD jack in the cabinet or chassis.
Step 2 Remove the CF card.
Step 3 Place the removed CF card to an ESD bag.

----End

6.17.3 Formatting the Flash Memory


If necessary, erase data in the flash memory by setting the DIP switches.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l ESD wrist strap or ESD glove

Procedure
Step 1 Wear an ESD wrist strap or ESD gloves during operations.
1. Put your hand through the ESD wrist strap, as shown inFigure 6-12.

Figure 6-12 Wearing an ESD wrist strap

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2. Fasten the wrist strap to ensure good contact between the ESD wrist strap and your skin.
3. Connect the ground end of the ESD wrist strap to the ESD jack in the cabinet or chassis.
Step 2 Format the flash memory.
1. Remove the system control board from the chassis.
2. Set the BIOS DIP switches to binary values "1111".
When the DIP switches are set to "1111", the software will erase all data (except for
board manufacturing information), including data in the file system and the system
parameter area.

NOTE
For the positions of the DIP switches of system control boards, see "DIP Switches and CF Card"
of the system control board in the IDU Hardware Description.
3. Insert the system control board to the backup chassis, and power on the board. Observe
the RUN indicator. If the RUN indicator on the system control board blinks every 1s, the
data on the flash memory has been cleared.
NOTE
If the system control board cannot be powered on or the software fails to start, the preceding
method of clearing data from the flash memory by changing DIP switch settings is inapplicable. In
this case, contact Huawei technical support engineers.

----End

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Maintenance Guide 7 Database Backup and Restoration

7 Database Backup and Restoration

About This Chapter

The OptiX RTN 950 supports database backup and restoration through the NMS.

7.1 NE Database
An NE database stores communication data, security data, alarm data, performance data, and
configuration data of an NE in a certain structure, to facilitate data query and modification
and to ensure that the data can be restored after the NE is reset.
7.2 Backing Up the Database Manually
The NE configuration data is stored in the database of an NE. To prevent the database from
being damaged due to certain risky operations such as replacing a faulty system control,
cross-connect, and timing board or upgrading the software, you need to manually back up the
database on a regular basis and before performing any risk operation.
7.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy
You can set the policy of backing up a database to realize the function of periodically backing
up the database.
7.4 Restoring the Database by NMS
If the database is damaged, you can restore the NE database by using the database files that
are saved previously.
7.5 Recovering Databases from a USB Flash Drive
When NE data is lost or abnormal and DCN communication fails on an NE that houses a
CSHU/CSHUA board, you can recover NE databases from a USB flash drive.
7.6 Restoring Databases for an NE from Its Peer NE
This section describes how to restore databases for an NE from its peer NE. After the
databases of an NE are damaged, configure a microwave link between the NE and its peer
NE, turn up the microwave link, and restore its databases from its peer NE.

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7.1 NE Database
An NE database stores communication data, security data, alarm data, performance data, and
configuration data of an NE in a certain structure, to facilitate data query and modification
and to ensure that the data can be restored after the NE is reset.

Three types of NE databases are available:

l Memory database (MDB)


The data in the MDB varies according to the configuration and is lost when the system
control unit is reset or when the NE is powered off.
l Dynamic random database (DRDB)
The DRDB automatically stores the data that is checked successfully. The DRDB is
resident in the reserved memory. Hence, the data in the DRDB is not lost when a warm
reset is performed on the system control unit. The data, however, is lost when a cold
reset is performed on the system control unit or when the NE is powered off.
l Flash database (FDB)
The FDB includes FDB0 and FDB1. The FDB is resident in the flash memory on the
board. Hence, the data in the FDB is permanently stored.

NE Database Backup
NE configuration data, after being delivered to the system control unit, is stored in the MDB.
Upon successful verification of the configuration data, the system control unit copies the data
from the MDB to DRDB and delivers the data to boards.

Two modes are available to back up DRDB data to the FDB:

l An NE backs up DRDB data to the FDB within five minutes after NE configuration data
is modified.
l An NE backs up DRDB data to the FDB every 24 hours.

The following modes are available to back up FDB data:

l Upon a scheduled backup of DRDB data to the FDB, the NE backs up FDB data to a
dedicated partition of the flash memory (other than FDB0 and FDB1).
l On the NMS, FDB data can be backed up to an NMS server manually or at specified
intervals.
l Before backing up the NE database to a USB flash drive, it is advisable to delete all
folders and files except the RTN.CER file from the USB flash drive.
l For a CSH/CST board: A CF card stores NE databases, system parameters (including
NE-IPs, NE-IDs, subnet masks, and LSR IDs), software packages, and NE logs.
NOTE

The software packages on a CF card are synchronized with those on the system control, switching, and
timing board only during package diffusion. Automatic or manual backup is not needed for software
package synchronization.
Ensure that the software version of the system control, switching, and timing board is the same as that
in a CF card. If the software packages on the system control, switching, and timing board are
inconsistent with those in a CF card, the SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH alarm is reported.

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NOTE

For a CSH/CST board, when you use the NMS to back up FDB data, system parameters such as NE-
IPs, NE-IDs, or subnet masks are not backed up, but LSR IDs are backed up.
For a CSHU/CSHUA board, when you use the NMS to back up FDB data, system parameters such as
NE-IPs, NE-IDs, or subnet masks are backed up as well as LSR IDs.

The NE automatically backs up its database locally, and also backs up its database and system
parameters such as NE ID and NE IP address to the peer NE at an interval of 72 hours.

NE Database Restoration
l When an NE is warm reset, the system control unit checks whether configuration data is
available in the DRDB. If configuration data is available in the DRDB, the system
control unit restores data from the DRDB. If the configuration data in the DRDB is
damaged, the system control unit restores data from FDB0 and FDB1.
l When the NE is cold reset, the system control unit restores data from FDB0 and FDB1.
l When the data in both FDB0 and FDB1 is damaged, data can be restored from the
dedicated partition of the flash memory.
l On the NMS, the FDB data in flash memory can be restored from an NMS server
without interruption of TDM services.
l For a CSHU/CSHUA board: If a USB flash drive is inserted in the USB port and the
FDB data in the USB flash drive is newer than that in the flash memory, the NE backs up
the FDB data from the USB flash drive to the flash drive.
l For a CSH/CST board: After you hold down the CRV button on the system control,
switching, and timing board for 8s, the data stored on the CF card will be synchronized
to the board. To synchronize the NE databases, system parameters, and NE logs from the
system control, switching, and timing board to the CF card, enable the regular backup
function. The default backup interval is 24 hours.

7.2 Backing Up the Database Manually


The NE configuration data is stored in the database of an NE. To prevent the database from
being damaged due to certain risky operations such as replacing a faulty system control,
cross-connect, and timing board or upgrading the software, you need to manually back up the
database on a regular basis and before performing any risk operation.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
l You must log in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

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Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/
Restoration from the Main Menu.

Step 2 In NE View, click Find.

Step 3 In the Find NE dialog box, set the search conditions and search for the NE that requires
database backup.
Step 4 Click OK.

Step 5 Click Backup.


NOTE

Press and hold the Ctrl button on the keyboard, you can select multiple NEs to back up the data at one
time.

Step 6 Set the data backup path to NMS Server or NMS Client according to the requirements.

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Step 7 Click Start to start backing up the NE data. In NE View, Operation Status indicates the
progress of backing up the data. After the data backup is successful, Operation Status
displays a message, indicating that the operation is successful.

----End

7.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy


You can set the policy of backing up a database to realize the function of periodically backing
up the database.

7.3.1 Setting the User-Defined Backup Policy


Through this task, you can set the backup policy for a specific NE.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
l You must log in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Background Information
Each NE has a default data backup policy.

l Database packages are backed up once at 2:00.


l The default backup policy is disabled by default.

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l A maximum of five database packages can be backed up.


l Data changes do not trigger any backup operations.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Backup Policy Management
from the Main Menu.

Then, the NE Backup Policy Management dialog box is displayed.

Step 2 In Auto Backup Policy window, set NE type.


The version, name, and IP address of the selected NE are displayed.

Step 3 Click New Policy.

Step 4 Optional: Click to import the information of the NEs.

Step 5 Optional: Click to export the information of the NEs.


The information of the selected NEs is stored in the specified location.

Step 6 In NE Table, select one or more NEs.

Step 7 Click Next.


Then, the Setting Policy dialog box is displayed.

Step 8 Set Policy Name, Period Backup Policy, and Period Save Policy.

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NOTE

l If The Added NE's Policy Status is set to Enable, the NMS performs the backup operation within
the specified period, day, and time.
l If The Added NE's Policy Status is set to Disable, the backup policy is still in the Disable state
although the policy period reaches the specified period, day, and time.

Step 9 Click Advanced Settings, and set Backup Type, Max Backup Num, and Configuration
Change Backup for a certain type of NEs.

Step 10 Click OK.

Step 11 Click OK.

----End

7.3.2 Enable the Backup Policy of the Device


Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the running state.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Backup Policy Management
from the Main Menu.

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Step 2 In Auto Backup Policy window, set NE type.


The version, name, and IP address of the selected NE are displayed.

Step 3 Right click the selected NE, Click Enable Backup Policy.

----End

7.3.3 Disable the Backup Policy of the Device


Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the suspended state.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.

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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Backup Policy Management
from the Main Menu.

Then, the NE Backup Policy Management dialog box is displayed.


Step 2 In Auto Backup Policy window, set NE type.
The version, name, and IP address of the selected NE are displayed.
Step 3 Right click the selected NE, Click Disable Backup Policy.

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----End

7.4 Restoring the Database by NMS


If the database is damaged, you can restore the NE database by using the database files that
are saved previously.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
l The data to be restored must be backed up.
l You must log in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Precautions
A backup database can be used to restore configurations only for a system control board in the
same type as that on the original NE.

Before restoring the database of an NE, ensure that the KMC key for the NE is the same as
the key for the backup database. If they are different, database restoration fails. For details
about KMC key settings, see Configuring a KMC Key.

A V100R009C00 NE can restore its database from a backup database of an NE earlier than
V100R009C00. An NE earlier than V100R009C00 can restore its database only from a
backup database of an NE in the same version.

Context
If NE configurations have been modified after the database is backed up, using the backup
database to restore configurations may interrupt DCN communication or services. Therefore,
you must manually configure service parameters if NE configurations have been modified
after the database is backed up.

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Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/
Restoration from the Main Menu.
NOTE

The equivalent operations on the Web LCT are as follows:

In NE List, click .
In Login, click OK.
For the DC, the default user name is szhw and the default password is Changeme_123. For the license tool,
the default user name is lct and the default password is Changeme_123. If the user name or password has
been changed, use the latest one.
The NE Data Backup/Restoration window is displayed.
Step 2 In NE View, click Find.
Then, the Find NE dialog box is displayed.
Step 3 In the Find NE dialog box, set the search conditions to search for the NEs that need to restore
databases.

Step 4 Click OK.


Step 5 Select the NE whose data needs to be recovered, and click Recover.
NOTE

You can select multiple NEs to recover the data at one time.
Then, the Recover dialog box is displayed.
Step 6 Select Browse in File Name.

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Then, the Select File dialog box is displayed.


Step 7 Select files from NMS Server or NMS Client, and then choose the files to be recovered.
Click OK.
Step 8 Set Activate Type to With Service Interruption and select Deliver To Board Activate.

NOTE

l If Activate Type is No Reboot, only database files are overwritten and the NE will not be warm
reset. The database does not take effect until the NE is reset.
l If Activate Type is With Service Interruption, database files will be overwritten, the NE will be
warm reset, and then the database will take effect.
l If Deliver To Board Activate is selected, the EFP8/EMS6 board will be instructed to perform a cold
reset during database activation.
l If Deliver To Board Activate is unselected, the EFP8/EMS6 board will not be cold reset.
NOTE

If the NE transmits data services, select Deliver to Board.


Services are interrupted during the activation of databases.

Step 9 In the Recover dialog box, click Start.

Step 10 Click Yes in the prompt dialog box.

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The system starts recovering the selected data files on the specified NE.
In the NE list of NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of recovering the data.
After the data is recovered, Operation Status displays a message, indicating that the
operation is successful.
Step 11 In NE View, right-click the NE and choose Active Database from the shortcut menu.

The Active Database dialog box is displayed.


Step 12 Click Start to start activating the database.
In NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of activating the database. After the
database is activated, Operation Status indicates that the operation is successful.

----End

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Maintenance Guide 7 Database Backup and Restoration

7.5 Recovering Databases from a USB Flash Drive


When NE data is lost or abnormal and DCN communication fails on an NE that houses a
CSHU/CSHUA board, you can recover NE databases from a USB flash drive.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
l The NE database has been backed up.
l You have logged in to the NE on the NMS.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

USB flash drive

Precautions
Before restoring the database of an NE, ensure that the KMC key for the NE is the same as
the key for the backup database. If they are different, database restoration fails. For details
about KMC key settings, see Configuring a KMC Key.

A V100R009C00 NE can restore its database from a backup database of an NE earlier than
V100R009C00. An NE earlier than V100R009C00 can restore its database only from a
backup database of an NE in the same version.

Procedure
Step 1 Copy all NE database files backed up on the NMS server to the \db directory in the USB flash
drive.
NOTE

Other directories related to the NE (\pkg, \patch, \sysdata, \script, and \license) cannot exist.

Step 2 Copy the RTN.CER and RTNEXTRA.CER files of the NE to the root directory of the USB
flash drive.
NOTE

The RTN.CER and RTNEXTRA.CER files, which store the account and password information at the
system administration level (the password is encrypted), are generated by the system administrator of a
network management center using dedicated tools. For details about how to generate the file, refer to
instructions in Preparing the Certificate File for NE Access from a USB Flash Drive.

Step 3 Insert the USB flash drive in the USB port on the OptiX RTN 950.
NOTE

During the database recovering process, do not perform operations such as data configuration, NE resets, and
software loading.

Step 4 Check the data loading status based on the indicator on the USB flash drive.

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Maintenance Guide 7 Database Backup and Restoration

Status of the USB Data Loading Status Operation


Indicator

The indicator blinks yellow The loading of Remove the USB flash
and then turns steady green. commissioning data is drive.
complete.
NOTE
l When the indicator is
blinking yellow, do not
remove the USB flash
drive. Otherwise, the data
loading may be
interrupted.
l After the data loading is
complete, the NE will
automatically reset, which
takes 2 minutes to 3
minutes. After the reset is
complete, the USB
indicator and the system
indicator (SRV) on the NE
are both steady green,
indicating that the data
loading is successful.

The indicator is off. The USB flash drive is l Copy the commissioning
faulty and fails to get online. data to another USB
NOTE flash drive.
Another possible cause is that l Repeat 1 to load the
the USB flash drive is not
commissioning data to
properly inserted.
the NE.

The indicator blinks red. The type of the USB flash l Copy the commissioning
drive is incorrect or an error data to another USB
occurs when the NE flash drive.
attempts to read/write the l Repeat 1 to load the
USB flash drive. commissioning data to
NOTE the NE.
Preparing Documents and
Tools provides the USB flash
drive types that the OptiX
RTN 950 supports.

The indicator is steady red. The loaded commissioning Reload the data:
data is abnormal. l Save the correct NE
software and
commissioning data
scripts in the correct
directories of the USB
flash drive.
l Repeat 1 to load the
commissioning data to
the NE.

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----End

7.6 Restoring Databases for an NE from Its Peer NE


This section describes how to restore databases for an NE from its peer NE. After the
databases of an NE are damaged, configure a microwave link between the NE and its peer
NE, turn up the microwave link, and restore its databases from its peer NE.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.

A microwave link between the NE and its peer NE has been configured, and the DCN channel
has been set up.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Precautions
NE database backup or recovery is not supported over IF1 links.

If failed to restore database, please other methods (eg. download database).

A backup database can be used to restore configurations only for a system control board in the
same type as that on the original NE.

Before restoring the database of an NE, ensure that the KMC key for the NE is the same as
the key for the backup database. If they are different, database restoration fails. For details
about KMC key settings, see Configuring a KMC Key.

A V100R009C00 NE can restore its database from a backup database of an NE earlier than
V100R009C00. An NE earlier than V100R009C00 can restore its database only from a
backup database of an NE in the same version.

Context
If NE configurations have been modified after the database is backed up, using the backup
database to restore configurations may interrupt DCN communication or services. Therefore,
you must manually configure service parameters if NE configurations have been modified
after the database is backed up.

A backup database can be used to restore configurations only for a system control board in the
same type as that on the original NE.

Procedure
Step 1 Restore databases for the NE from its peer NE.

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3
2

Step 2 Check the execution results.


Select the NE.

Execution results.
5

----End

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Maintenance Guide 8 Common Maintenance Operations

8 Common Maintenance Operations

About This Chapter

This section introduces common maintenance operations.

8.1 Microwave Link Troubleshooting


This section describes common maintenance operations related to microwave link
troubleshooting.
8.2 Ethernet Service Troubleshooting
This section describes common maintenance operations related to Ethernet service
troubleshooting.
8.3 TDM/CES Service Troubleshooting
This section describes common maintenance operations related to TDM/CES service
troubleshooting.
8.4 Software Loopback
Software loopback refers to the loopback operation that is implemented by using the NMS.
During software loopback, you need not visit the engineering site. Hence, software loopback
is used more widely than hardware loopback.
8.5 Hardware Loopback
Hardware loopback refers to the loopback operation performed by changing the physical
connection.
8.6 Reset
Reset is an important method of troubleshooting software faults. Reset is classified into cold
reset, warm reset.
8.7 Setting the Automatic Release Function
To protect the communication between the NMS and NE against improper operations, an NE
supports the automatic release of the ODU muting, software loopback, and other operations
that require you to exercise caution. The automatic release time is five minutes by default.
You can set whether to enable the automatic release function and the automatic release time
through the NMS.
8.8 Querying Power Consumption of Boards
This section describes how to query power consumption of the ODU and each board.

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8.9 Querying Optical Power and Alarm Thresholds of SDH Ports


This section describes how to query the RX/TX optical power and alarm thresholds of SDH
ports.
8.10 Preventing Service Loops
You can enable the automatic service loopback detection function or the automatic broadcast
packet suppression function to prevent service loops.
8.11 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit
When the is configured with two system control, cross-connect, and timing boards, you can
manually switch the system control unit and the cross-connect unit as required.
8.12 Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters
The optical connectors are easily contaminated in the maintenance process. The minute dust
particles that can be seen only in the microscope can also affect the quality of optical signals.
In this case, the system performance deteriorates. Hence, the fiber connectors or adapters that
are terminated need to be cleaned in time.

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Maintenance Guide 8 Common Maintenance Operations

8.1 Microwave Link Troubleshooting


This section describes common maintenance operations related to microwave link
troubleshooting.

8.1.1 Monitoring Radio Link Indicators


This section describes how to collect high-density samples about the RSL and MSE indicators
of radio links for monitoring. The longest monitoring duration is 48 hours.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The time and time zone of an NE on which microwave link indicators are sampled must
be the same as those on the NMS.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Navigate to the interface for monitoring the RSL and MSE indicators of radio links.

Step 2 Configure parameters for monitoring the RSL and MSE indicators of radio links.

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Maintenance Guide 8 Common Maintenance Operations

Set the monitoring 3 6


duration. The
maximum value is Set the monitored
48 hours. object.

Step 3 Query the monitoring result.

Set the query type.


The query result of the MSE
is displayed in green and that
of the RSL is displayed in red.
Set the time range of
7 the query.
8
9

----End

8.1.2 Scanning Interfering Signals


You can learn whether intra-frequency or inter-frequency interference exists by scanning
frequency spectra in microwave channels.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.
l Mute the ODU at the opposite end, before scanning the reference signal.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

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Maintenance Guide 8 Common Maintenance Operations

Background Information
When interfering signals are scanned, services and DCN communication are interrupted.

Both local frequency scanning and remote frequency scanning are supported. You can obtain
results of remote frequency scanning after DCN communication restores.

Procedure
Step 1 Scan interfering signals.
1
Select an ODU, and specify the scanning range, frequency
3 adjustment step, and bandwidth parameters.

4
5

Select Mute Peer Transmit Status to mute the peer


transmitter and specify the auto unmute time.
2

The NE will increment its transmit frequency based on the specified


frequency adjustment step and within the specified scanning range, and
detect and record receive frequency values accordingly.

For remote frequency scanning, you can query the


results after DCN communication restores.

----End

8.1.3 Muting/Unmuting an ODU


The transmission status of an ODU can be "mute" or "unmute". In the "unmute" state, an
ODU can receive and transmit microwave signals. In the "mute" state, an ODU can only
receive microwave signals because its transmitter does not work.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The corresponding IF boards and the ODUs connected to the IF boards must be added to
the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

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Procedure
l Mute/Unmute an ODU.

2
4

Typically, Configure Transmission Status should be set


to unmute.
In the mute state, an ODU can only receive microwave
signals.
In the unmute state, an ODU can transmit and receive
microwave signals.

----End

8.1.4 Turning On/Off the Soft Power Switch of an ODU


This section describes how to turn on or off the soft power switch of an ODU connected to a
dual-channel IF board through software.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
l The mapping IF board and ODUs have been added on the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
l Turn on/off the soft power switch of an ODU.

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3
4
1
Select the
desired IF port. 5

----End

8.1.5 Performing a PRBS Test for the IF Board


If a special test tool is unavailable, you can perform the PRBS test by using the embedded test
system on the IF Board.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.
Different service mode has different PRBS direction.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Precautions

Figure 8-1 PRBS test of the IF Board


Two PRBS test types are available, PRBS frames are transmitted through the specified E1
timeslot or transmitted as Ethernet frames.

IF board ODU ODU IF board

PRBS
transmitter
1 1 1

PRBS
transmitter

NE at the local end NE at the opposite end


1 IF port outloop

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NOTICE
l During the PRBS test, the services in the tested path are interrupted.
l The PRBS test can be performed only in one path and in one direction at one time.
l The standby IF unit does not support the PRBS test. Before you perform the PRBS test for
the standby IF Board of a 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection group, you must switch the standby
IF Board to the working state.

Procedure
Step 1 Configure an outloop on the peer IF board by referring to instructions in 8.4.7 Setting
Loopback for the IF Board and .
Step 2 Start a PRBS test on the IF board.
Select the desired IF board.
Configure the
test time. 5
1 4

Select the desired PRBS test type. 3


Three PRBS test types are available: Select an E1 path.
1. PRBS frames are sent to the air-interface This parameter is
direction as Ethernet frames. mandatory only for
2. PRBS frames are sent to the cross-connect E1 PRBS tests.
direction through a specified E1 timeslot.
3. PRBS frames are sent to the air-interface
direction through a specified E1 timeslot.

2 6

Step 3 View test results.

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8
View test results.

Green indicates no
exception.

9 View the test


report.

No bit error is found,


indicating that the link
works properly.

10

----End

8.2 Ethernet Service Troubleshooting


This section describes common maintenance operations related to Ethernet service
troubleshooting.

8.2.1 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port


Through the operation, you can learn about the attributes of an Ethernet port, such as rate.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

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Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Query the attributes of the FE or GE port on the packet plane.
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.
1. In NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object Tree.
2. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the
Function Tree.
3. Click the Advanced Attributes tab.
4. Check the parameters such as Port Physical Parameters, Transmitting Rate, and
Receiving Rate.

Step 2 Optional: Querying the attributes of the port.


NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.


1. In NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object Tree.
2. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Microwave Interface from the
Function Tree.
3. Click the Advanced Attributes tab.
4. Check the parameters such as Transmitting Rate and Receiving Rate.

Step 3 Optional: Query the attributes of the external port on the EFP8 board.
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.
1. In NE Explorer, select the EFP8 board from the Object Tree.
2. Choose Configuration > Ethernet Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from
the Function Tree.
3. Select External Port.
4. Click the Advanced Attributes tab.
5. Check the parameters such as Transmitting Rate and Receiving Rate.
NOTE

By performing this operation, you can query the attributes of the external ports on the EFP8 board (PORT1 to
PORT8) and the attributes of the bridging port on the EFP8 board (PORT9).

----End

8.2.2 Searching for Service Paths Based on VLANs


For E-Line services, this operation can display the transmission path of the VLAN service
flow on one access port. For E-LAN services, this operation can display the broadcast domain
to which the VLAN belongs.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.

End-to-end Ethernet services have been deployed.

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Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Search for an E-Line service path.

Step 2 Optional: Search for an E-LAN service path.

----End

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8.2.3 Searching for Service Paths Based on MAC Addresses


For E-LAN services, this operation allows the information of a MAC address learned by each
NE on a service path to be displayed, illustrating the entire service path through which
packets with the MAC address being the source address travel.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
End-to-end Ethernet services have been deployed.

Procedure
Step 1 Search for an E-LAN service path.

Step 2 Query the Learning of MAC Addresses.

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----End

8.2.4 Checking the Layer 2 Protocols Used by Ethernet Services


This section describes how to check the Layer 2 protocols, including ERPS, MSTP, and STP,
used by E-LAN services based on service paths.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
End-to-end Ethernet services have been created and the related fibers/cables have been
created.

Procedure
Step 1 Search for an E-LAN service path.

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Step 2 Check the Layer 2 protocols used by the E-LAN services.

----End

8.2.5 Performing Intelligent Service Fault Diagnosis for Ethernet


Services
This section describes how to intelligently diagnose faults of Ethernet services based on
service paths.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
End-to-end Ethernet services have been deployed.

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Procedure
Step 1 Search for services.

Step 2 Select a service to be diagnosed by specifying a service port.

Step 3 Diagnose the service and display the result.

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----End

8.2.6 Performing E-LAN Service Loopback Detection


This section checks whether a loopback occurs on Ethernet services based on service paths.
Users can quickly rectify a data storm on a loop after finding out the loopback point.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
End-to-end Ethernet services have been created and the related fibers/cables have been
created.

Procedure
Step 1 Search for an E-LAN service path.

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Step 2 Perform E-LAN service loopback detection.

NOTE

If a service is looped back, can be seen from the icons .

----End

8.2.7 Monitoring Ethernet Service Performance and Traffic


Volume Based on Service Paths
This section describes how to monitor Ethernet service performance based on service paths.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.

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End-to-end Ethernet services have been created and the related fibers/cables have been
created.

Procedure
Step 1 Search for service paths.

Step 2 Query the real-time and historical performance data of each measured object on each service
path.
The following figure shows how to query the real-time performance data of priority queues on
a port. Querying the real-time and historical performance data of other measured objects is
similar.

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----End

8.2.8 Querying Ethernet Service QoS Configurations Based on


Service Paths
This section describes how to query Ethernet service QoS configurations based on service
paths.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.
End-to-End Ethernet services and associated fibers have been created.

Procedure
Step 1 Search out service paths.

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Step 2 Select the service to be diagnosed by specifying service ports.

Step 3 Query QoS configurations.

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----End

8.2.9 Using IP Ping Commands to Locate Ethernet Service Faults


The OptiX RTN 950 can respond to IP ping commands, facilitating Ethernet fault diagnosis.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Context
Two types of IP ping functions are supported:
l Near-end IP ping

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The near-end IP ping function is typically used to check whether the link between a
customer edge (CE) device and a near-end transmission NE is faulty. Near-end IP ping
can be initiated from the CE device to a UNI on the near-end transmission NE, or from a
UNI on the transmission NE to the near-end CE device. For example, the RNC initiates
IP ping packets to the UNI port on NE1, as shown in Figure 8-2.
l Far-end IP ping
The far-end IP ping function is typically used to check whether the link between a CE
device and a far-end transmission NE is faulty. Far-end IP ping can be initiated from the
CE device to a UNI on the far-end transmission NE, or from a UNI on the transmission
NE to the far-end CE device. For example, the RNC initiates IP ping packets to the UNI
port on NE2, as shown in Figure 8-2.

Figure 8-2 Application of the IP ping functions


Far-end IP Ping

Near-end IP Ping

NodeB RNC
NE2 NE1
Near-end IP Ping

Far-end IP Ping

Precautions
l IP ping can be enabled only for UNI Ethernet ports.
l IP ping can be enabled only for a maximum of four ports on an NE.
l On OptiX RTN 950 that houses the CSH board, E-Aggr services do not support far-end
IP ping.
l If IP ping packets initiated by the local CE do not carry any VLAN ID (for example,
when the port tag attribute is access), the protocol VLAN ID must be set to 0 or /. This
enables NEs enabled with the IP ping function to select the correct service for
transmitting IP ping packets based on the PVIDs of UNI ports.
l The CE device or transmission NE on which IP ping is initiated must support non-strict
ARP learning mode. That is, the CE must be able to learn MAC addresses based on ARP
request packets.
l The maximum length of the IP ping packet is 1494 bytes.

Sample IP Ping Connection


Figure 8-3 shows the test procedure, using the Ethernet service between PORT1 on NE1 and
PORT1 on NE2 as an example.

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Figure 8-3 Networking diagram

137.0.0.2/
255.255.255.0 137.0.0.4/ 137.0.0.3/ 137.0.0.1/
255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0

PORT 1 PORT 1

VLAN ID=100 VLAN ID=100

NodeB NE 2 NE 1 RNC

The Ethernet service between NE1 and NE2 has the VLAN ID 100. The tag attributes of both
PORT1s on NE2 and NE1 are tag aware.
You can perform IP ping on a transmission NE by initiating the ping from the transmission
NE or from a CE device. The following describes the two methods of initiating IP ping.

Procedure
l Initiate IP ping from a transmission NE.
a. Configure near-end IP ping on NE1.
i. In the NE Explorer, select the desired NE and choose Configuration > IP
Ping Test
.
ii. Enable IP ping for the port and configure related parameters.

NOTE

If NE1 and the RNC are on the same network segment, set Next Hop IP Address to
the IP address of the RNC. If NE1 and the RNC are on different network segment, set
Next Hop IP Address to the IP address of the router near NE1.
iii. Click Apply.
iv. Click IP PING TEST.

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v. Click Add.
vi. Configure near-end IP ping parameters.

b. Configure far-end IP ping on NE1.


i. Click Add.
ii. Configure far-end IP ping parameters.

NOTE

A port supports multiple IP ping tests. A maximum of 16 IP ping tests can be initiated
on a network.
c. Configure near-end IP ping on NE2 by referring to a.

d. On NE1, click Start to initiate near-end IP ping. If response packets are received
from the RNC, go to the next step. If no response packets are received from the
RNC, the link between NE1 and the RNC is faulty.
e. On NE1, click Start to initiate far-end IP ping. If response packets are received
from the NodeB, the link is normal. If no response packets are received from the
NodeB, go to the next step.
f. On NE2, click Start to initiate near-end IP ping. If response packets are received
from the NodeB, the link between NE1 and NE2 is faulty. If no response packets
are received from the NodeB, the link between NE2 and the NodeB is faulty.
l Initiate IP ping from a CE device.

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a. On NE1, configure IP ping parameters to implement the near-end IP ping function.


i. In the NE Explorer, click the NE and choose Configuration > IP Ping Test.
ii. Set the IP ping parameters.

NOTE

If NE1 and the RNC are on the same network segment, set Next Hop IP Address to
the IP address of the RNC. If NE1 and the RNC are not in the same network segment,
set Next Hop IP Address to the IP address of the router port on the NE1 side.
iii. Click Apply.
b. On NE1, configure the far-end IP ping agent.
i. In the NE Explorer, click the NE and choose Configuration > IP Ping Test.
ii. Set the far-end IP ping agent to NE2.

iii. Click Apply.


c. Refer to a to configure IP ping parameters on NE 2, to implement the far-end IP
ping function.

NOTE

Next Hop IP Address applies to near-end IP ping only. It is recommended to set Next Hop IP
Address here to the IP address of the NodeB, so that NE2 can respond to near-end IP ping
commands.
d. On the RNC, initiate IP ping to the NodeB (that is, ping 137.0.0.2).

If... Then...

The operation result is normal Services are normal. Therefore, end


fault diagnosis.

The operation times out Go to the next step.

e. On the RNC, initiate IP ping to NE1 (that is, ping 137.0.0.3).

If... Then...

The operation result is normal Go to the next step.

The operation times out A fault occurs between NE1 and the
RNC. Handle the fault.

f. On the RNC, initiate IP ping to NE2 (that is, ping 137.0.0.4).

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If... Then...

The operation result is normal A fault occurs between NE2 and the
NodeB. Handle the fault.

The operation times out Handle the transmission network fault.

----End

8.2.10 Monitoring Ethernet Packets Through Port Mirroring


To monitor and analyze the Ethernet packets at a port, you can enable the port mirroring
function so that the received or transmitted packets on the port are duplicated to another
Ethernet port to which the Ethernet tester is connected. Then, you can monitor and analyze the
packets.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Context

Figure 8-4 Schematic diagram of Ethernet port mirroring


NE under port mirroring

Forwarding
Mirroring Port
Ethernet equipment port

Duplication Ethernet equipment


Monitoring
port

Ethernet tester

The port mirroring can be performed in two directions.


For the physical ports:

l In the ingress direction


Also in the upstream direction. The equipment duplicates the packets received from the
mirroring port to the observing port, and then transmits the packets from the observing
port to the Ethernet tester.

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l In the egress direction


Also in the downstream direction. The equipment duplicates the packets transmitted by
the mirroring port to the observing port, and then transmits the packets from the
observing port to the Ethernet tester.
For the VCTRUNK of EFP8/EMS6:
l In the upstream direction, the ports mirror the data transmitted from the VCTRUNK to
the TDM side.
l In the downstream direction, the ports mirror the data transmitted from the TDM side to
the VCTRUNK.

Precautions
EG4/EG4P boards of the OptiX RTN 950 do not support port mirroring in the egress
direction.

Procedure
Step 1 Configure the port mirroring function for Ethernet boards other than EMS6/EFP8.

Step 2 Configure the port mirroring function for EMS6/EFP8 boards.

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----End

8.2.11 Monitoring Ethernet Packets by Using Port Traffic


Mirroring
If the Ethernet packets at a port need to be observed and analyzed, you can enable the port
traffic mirroring function. It duplicates packets received by a port to another Ethernet port that
is connected to an Ethernet tester, so that the Ethernet tester observes and analyzes the
packets.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

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Context

Figure 8-5 Traffic mirroring over Ethernet ports


NE with port traffic
mirroring enabled
Forwarding
Mirroring Port
Ethernet equipment port
Duplicating Ethernet equipment
Monitoring service traffic
port

Ethernet tester

Port traffic mirroring duplicates only service traffic matching the specified rule to the
listening port.

Precautions
NOTE

l One NE supports a maximum of four port traffic mirroring (only ingress) or port mirroring
configurations.
l One port supports only one port traffic mirroring configuration. If port traffic mirroring is
configured, ingress port mirroring cannot be configured.
l Port traffic mirroring takes effect only to services packets that are not dropped by the port for OptiX
RTN 950 housing CSHU/CSHUA boards.
l The port traffic mirroring setting on a slave port in a LAG must have traffic classification rules
consistent with those on the master port for the OptiX RTN 950 housing CSH boards. Before
deleting a slave port, delete traffic mirroring configurations on the port.
l Port traffic mirroring cannot be configured on the slave port in a LAG forOptiX RTN 950 housing
CSHU/CSHUA boards.
l Traffic classification rules can be specified by C-VLAN ID, C-VLAN PRI, S-VLAN ID, S-VLAN
PRI, IP DSCP, or DMAC but L2 and L3 rules cannot coexist for OptiX RTN 950 housing CSH
boards.
l Traffic classification rules can be specified by source IP address, destination IP address, protocol
type, source port, destination port, ICMP packet type code, source MAC address, destination MAC
address, C-VLAN ID, C-VLAN PRI, S-VLAN ID, S-VLAN PRI, or IP DSCP, but L2 and L3 rules
cannot coexist for OptiX RTN 950 housing CSHU/CSHUA boards.
l Port traffic mirroring by VLAN-based traffic classification cannot be configured for the following
services on OptiX RTN 950 using CSH boards: point-to-point transparently-transmitted E-Line
services, VLAN-based E-Line services (VLAN switching table configured), QinQ-based E-Line
services, PW-carried E-Line services, or IEEE 802.1ad-based E-LAN services.
l MPLS packets can be mirrored only by Ethernet frame header before the MPLS label.
l Only data boards support port traffic mirroring.
l After port traffic mirroring is configured, traffic mirroring rules must not be modified or deleted.

Procedure
Step 1 Configure the port traffic mirroring function.

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Select the NE.

Configure the mirror name, direction of


mirror source function point, mirror
source function point, and mirror
observation point.
4

Configure the traffic


classification rules.
7
5
9

Configure the parameter of


traffic classification rules.

8
6
2

----End

8.2.12 Configuring IP Packet Coloring and Statistics Collection


IP packet coloring and statistics collection is an IP network performance measurement
technology. It marks IP service packets and counts the marked packets, thereby achieving
accurate packet loss measurement from end to end or by segment.

Prerequisites
l Only OptiX RTN 950(CSHU/CSHUA), OptiX RTN 950A, OptiX RTN 905 1E/2E and
OptiX RTN 910A support this operation.
l You are an NMS user with administrator rights or higher rights.
l Native Ethernet services or PW-carried Ethernet services have been created.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Click a desired NE in the NE Explorer and choose Diagnose&Maintenance > IP Packet
Marking from the main menu.

Step 2 (Optional) Set the coloring bit. The default value is IP FLAG BIT0.

Step 3 Click New. The Create IP Packet Marking tab is displayed.

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1. Set the following parameters: ID, Name, Role, Action, and Auto Stop After(minutes).

2. Set the packet matching rules and the logical relationship between the matching rules.

Step 4 Set the measurement point.

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NOTE

l Uplink/Downlink nodes can be set as VUNI or QinQ measurement points.


l Intermediate nodes can be set as VUNI, QinQ, or tunnel measurement points.
l For a VUNI measurement point, set the following parameters: Direction, Service, Port,
VLAN, and Priority.

l For a QinQ measurement point, set Direction, Service, and QinQ Link.

l For a tunnel measurement point, set Direction, Tunnel ID, Port, PW Label, Service
Tag Role, and PW Type.

Step 5 Click Start to start a test.

Step 6 Click Stop to stop a test or wait for the test to automatically stop.
NOTE

l To stop a test, stop the test for an uplink node and then for a downlink node.
l To delete measurement instances, delete the measurement instance from an uplink node and then from a
downlink node.

Step 7 After the test is over, query the test result.

----End

8.2.13 Capturing Headers of Specified Ethernet Packets


You can capture headers of ingress/egress Ethernet packets at a port for further analysis. The
number and type of Ethernet packets to be captured can be specified.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.

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l Ethernet services have been created, and service packets are being forwarded.
l The port is not configured with complex traffic classification.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
Headers of Layer 2 and Layer 3 packets can be captured. The header length of smallest Layer
2 packets is 16 bytes, consisting of an SMAC (6 bytes), a DMAC (6 bytes), and a VLAN
header (4 bytes). The header length of largest Layer 3 packets is 74 bytes, consisting of a
longest frame header (34 bytes), an IPv4 header (20 bytes), and a TCP header (20 bytes).

NOTE

This operation is intended to detect transmission faults or errors as required, but may require the collection
and storage of some communication content (at most the first 74 bytes of transmitted packets collected and
stored). Huawei is forbidden to collect or storage communication content without your awareness. It is
recommended that you enable the related function in line with the objective and scope allowed by the local
laws and regulation. You should also take proper measures before performing this operation, to ensure
communication confidentiality.

Precautions
l In a link aggregation group (LAG), physical link aggregation (PLA) group, or enhanced
PLA (EPLA) group, the packet header capturing function can be enabled only for the
master port.
l On the OptiX RTN 950 that houses a CSH board, packet headers cannot be captured
from the slave port of an inter-board LAG.
l One-off packet header capturing allows you to capture a maximum of 1000 packets. In
consecutive packet header capturing, the NMS stores the latest 5000 packets captured.
l The OptiX RTN 950 that houses a CSH board allows header capturing only from ingress
packets.
l On the OptiX RTN 950 that houses a CSH board, headers of Layer 2 packets cannot be
captured by inner VLAN or Ethernet type, and headers of Layer 3 packets cannot be
captured by source IP address, sink IP address, TOS, ICMP CODE, TCP source port, or
UDP source port.
l On the OptiX RTN 950 that houses a CSHU/CSHUA board, headers of Layer 3 packets
cannot be captured by source MAC address or sink MAC address.
l On the OptiX RTN 950 that houses a CSH board, the packet header capturing function
cannot be enabled for Layer 3 ports or mixed (Layer 2+Layer 3) ports.
l On the OptiX RTN 950 that houses a CSH board, Ethernet ports of EM6T/EM6TA/
EM6F/EM6FA boards and IF ports of IFU2/IFX2 boards supports rule-based packet
header capturing, not allowing port-based packet header capturing.
l On OptiX RTN 950 that houses the CSHU/CSHUA board, Layer 3 ports allow MPLS
packet capturing only based on the Ethernet header before the MPLS label.

Procedure
l Capture headers of Layer 2 packets.

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Select the
desired NE. 3
Set basic parameters.

Specify Layer 2 service


parameters.
4

View packet capture results and analyze 5


network status based on the results.

l Capture headers of Layer 3 packets.


1

Select the 3
desired NE.
Set basic parameters.

Specify Layer 3 service parameters.


4

View packet capture results and analyze 5


network status based on the results.

----End

8.2.14 Using the Ethernet Test Frames


By using the Ethernet test frames, you can check the connectivity of VCTRUNKs. Only the
EFP8 board supports this operation.

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Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.
l The service traffic is encapsulated or mapped by using the GFP method.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Background Information
The Ethernet board uses the specific GFP management frame or Ethernet frame as the test
frame. One frame is transmitted to the opposite Ethernet board per second. After receiving the
test frame, the Ethernet board returns the response frame. Upon receiving the response frame,
the Ethernet service processing board at the local end can judge the connectivity of the
VCTRUNK in between.

Figure 8-6 Ethernet test frames between Ethernet boards

Test frame

Local Remote
Ethernet Ethernet
board board
Response frame

Precautions

NOTICE
Do not use the test frames when the network traffic is heavy.

Procedure
Step 1 In NE Explorer, select the EFP8 board.

Step 2 Choose Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Test from the Function Tree.
Then, the Ethernet Test dialog box is displayed.

Step 3 Select the test port and click Clear Counters. Select Clear All Counters.

Step 4 Set Send Mode and Frames to Send.

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NOTE

It is recommended that you choose "Burst mode", and a maximum of 10 frames can be transmitted each
time.

Step 5 Click Apply.


The system starts transmitting and receiving test frames.

Step 6 After Status displays Finished Sending, click Query.

Step 7 Check Counter of Frames Sent and Counter of Received Response of Test Frame.
Test frames are used to check the network connectivity. If some of the test frames are lost but
no alarm is reported on the SDH side, you can infer that the network is normal. If all the test
frames are lost, you can infer that the network is faulty.

----End

Related Information
If you choose the continue mode, the local port transmits test frames continuously until the
test is disabled.

8.2.15 Checking L3VPN Service Performance Using NQA


OptiX RTN 950 can function as the server of NQA UDP jitter. Performance of L3VPN
services between an OptiX RTN 950 and CX600 can be verified by enabling the NQA UDP
jitter test on the CX600.

Prerequisites
l You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.
l L3VPN services have been correctly deployed.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Context
NQA UDP jitter indicates the difference between the receiving interval and transmission
interval of two neighboring packets between a server and a client. Figure 8-7 shows the
process for testing the NQA UPD jitter:
1. The client sends test packets to the server at a certain interval.
2. After the server receives a test packet, it adds a time stamp and returns the packet to the
client.
3. After the client receives a returned test packet, it calculates the time difference between
the sending and receiving of the packet to get the jitter time.

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Figure 8-7 NQA UDP jitter test process


Optix RTN 950 CX 600
(Server) (client)

t1 tn

Adding time t1' tn'


stamp
Calculating
delay variation

t1 tn Packet transmission interval on the client

t1' tn' Packet receive interval on the server

UDP jitter test case packet

The packets received by the client can be used to calculate the maximum jitter time, minimum
jitter time, average jitter time, and delay between the client and the server, which can clearly
demonstrate the network performance.

NOTE

When NQA UDP jitter is used to calculate unidirectional delay, time on the client and the server must be
synchronous.
OptiX RTN 950 can only be used as the server of NQA UDP jitter.

Precautions
None.

Sample Connection
The following steps are based on the test for services between the UNI (Vlanif 100) of RSG5
and the UNI (the VLAN sub-interface 1-EG4-1.1 on 1-EG4-1) of CSG1 in Figure 8-8.

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Figure 8-8 Networking diagram

Last Mile Access Aggregation MBB core

CSG1
1-EG4-1
20.20.0.8/27 P11
RSG5 RNC

2
4-
NodeB ASG3

G
E
1-
RR7

RR8
eNodeB
ASG4
RSG6
S-GW/MME
P12
CSG2

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance -> Performance Monitoring Management on the main menu of the
NMS to navigate to the performance monitoring and management interface.

Step 2 On the function tree of the interface, choose Test Path -> Network Path -> UDP Jitter Path
to navigate to the interface for configuring UDP jitter.

Step 3 On the lower right corner of the interface, click Create to navigate to the interface for
creating a monitoring instance.

Step 4 Set parameters for filtering NEs on the interface for setting the filtering criteria and click OK.
NOTE
When there are many NEs, set the filtering criteria to facilitate the selection of the server and client for a UDP
jitter test. When there are only a few NEs, click OK to skip the setting of filtering criteria.

Step 5 Select the server and client for the UDP jitter test from the resource list.

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NOTE
By default, OptiX RTN 950 is used as the server of the test and a CX600 is the client.

Step 6 Click Next and Generate Test to generate a path.

Step 7 Click Next to configure the monitoring template. You can select a created template or create a
new template.

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Figure 8-9 Selecting a monitoring template

Figure 8-10 Creating a monitoring template

Step 8 Click Next to set the default SLA parameters.

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NOTE

Select a UDP jitter path, and configure parameters for the path. Set the parameters as follows:
l Set the destination address of the path to the IP address of the interface for the server to bind the VRF
instance.
l Set the VRF name to the name of the L3VPN instance on the sever.
l Retain the default value for the source address.

Step 9 Click Next to configure the monitoring time range.

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NOTE
If the monitoring time range is not set, the UDP jitter test instance will keep on monitoring L3VPN services.

Step 10 (Optional) Click Create Scheduled Policy to set the timing policy for monitoring.

Step 11 Click Next to display the progress of the creation.

Step 12 Click Close to return to the performance monitoring and management interface. On the
performance monitoring list, the created UDP jitter monitoring instance is in the running
status.

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Step 13 Double-click the monitoring instance to view the monitoring status of L3VPN services in
graphical format.

----End

8.3 TDM/CES Service Troubleshooting


This section describes common maintenance operations related to TDM/CES service
troubleshooting.

8.3.1 Setting the On/Off State of the Laser


When performing operations such as testing a fiber cut, you can set the on/off state of the
laser rather than removing and re-inserting the optical fiber on site.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired SDH optical interface board or the channelized STM-1 processing board
from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.

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Operation object Operation Steps

SDH optical interface board 1. Choose Configuration > SDH


Interface from the Function Tree.
2. Choose By Function.
3. Select Laser Switchfrom the drop-down
list.
4. Select a port, and then set Laser Switch.

channelized STM-1 processing board 1. Choose Configuration > Interface


Management > SDH Interface from
the Function Tree.
2. Select Basic Attributes.
3. Select a port, and then set Laser
Interface Status.

Step 2 Click Apply.


A confirmation dialog box is displayed.

Step 3 Click OK.


A prompt is displayed.

Step 4 Click OK.

----End

8.3.2 Setting the ALS Function


The SDH optical interface board supports the automatic laser shutdown (ALS) function. This
function enables the board to turn off a laser when the board does not transmit services, the
optical fiber is faulty, or the received optical signals are lost.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired SDH optical interface board from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.

Step 2 Choose Configuration > Automatic Laser Shutdown from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Select a port, and then set Automatic Shutdown to Enabled.

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Step 4 Click Apply to save the settings.

Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed.

----End

8.3.3 Performing a PRBS Test for the Smart E1 Processing Board


If a special test tool is unavailable, you can perform the PRBS test by using the embedded test
system on the Smart E1 processing Board.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Context
The OptiX RTN 950 supports the PRBS test in the UNI direction and in the NNI direction.
The PRBS test in the UNI direction can be performed to check the cable connect to the Smart
E1 processing Board, as shown in Figure 8-11.

Figure 8-11 PRBS test in the tributary direction


Smart E1
processing unit
PRBS
Transmitter

PRBS
Recevicer

1 Loopback at the port

The PRBS test in the NNI direction can be performed to check the connection between the
Smart E1 processing Board and the remote NE, as shown in Figure 8-12.

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Figure 8-12 PRBS test in the NNI direction


Smart E1 Cross-connect Smart E1
processing unit Unit processing unit
OUT
PRBS
transmitter
Inloop at an
E1 port
PRBS IN
receiver

NE at the local end NE at the opposite end

Precautions

NOTICE