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Protection Skills

For Electricians

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Introduction .................................................................................................................2

Learning Tasks

1-Describe a Distribution Feeder Bus Configuration ............................................3


2-Describe Torque Control of CO Relay ...............................................................4
3-Describe Feeder Bus Relay Connections ..........................................................8
4-Low Voltage Breaker "A" Switch Breaker Failure Protection ............................9

Self Tests
Self Test Questions ...........................................................................................:...13
Self Test Answers ..................................................................................................14

Performance Activities

1-Analyze Disturbances Based on Relay Target and Alarm Information ............15

Resources
1-AC Connections for Strawberry Hill 25B34 Protection ......................................19
2-DC Connections for Strawberry Hill 25B34 Protection ......................................21
3-Protection Information Sheet for Fort St. John (Sheets 7 and 8) .....................23
4-Operating One-Line Diagram Fort St. John .......................................................25

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INTRODUCTION

As with feeder protection, there is no standard scheme for feeder bus protection.
However, if you can understand the operation of the typical schemes described in this
unit, it will help you deal with the variations that you will encounter in the field.

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LEARNING TASK 1

DESCRIBE A DISTRIBUTION FEEDER BUS CONFIGURATION

As with feeder protection, selectivity is a major consideration with feeder-bus


protection. We do not want the transformer protection to operate on a feeder bus fault,
except as a backup. The shaded area in Figure 1 shows which part of the power
system is protected by the feeder-bus protection.

Like feeders, the feeder-bus can also be considered to be radial. For any fault on the
bus, fault current flows from the substation transformers but not from the feeder. The
bus protection needs to be coordinated with the feeder protection as we discussed in
Unit Cl. In other words, we don't want the bus protection to operate on a feeder fault
except as a backup to the feeder protection. Likewise, the bus protection must be
coordinated with the transformer protection.

To accomplish these objectives, inverse-time overcurrent relays such as the CO-relay,


are usually used for this protection. The CO-relay can be timed to coordinate with
both the feeder and transformer protection.

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LEARNING TASK 2

DESCRIBE TORQUE CONTROL OF CO RELAYS-

The purpose of torque control on a CO relay is to allow the bus protection to distinguish between a
heavy load and a bus fault. This is important because we don't want the bus protection to operate on
a heavy load. The demand for electric heat during cold winter conditions, for example, may cause
the load current to be greater than the operate value of a bus protection relay. However, with a bus
fault, there is usually also a significant drop in voltage. It is the combination of high current and low
voltage that is used to trigger a bus protection operation. A CO relay with torque control will not
operate on high current unless a low voltage condition is also detected. -

Heavy Load Bus Fault


High Current High Current
Normal Voltage Low Voltage

CO RELAY INDUCTION DISK

For torque to be developed to cause rotation of an induction disk, out-of-phase fluxes must be
produced. For the induction disk element shown in Figure 1, no out-of-phase fluxes are present.
Regardless of how much current is applied to the disk, it will not rotate because of the lack of out-of-
phase fluxes.

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However, if a shading coil were added as shown in Figure 2, the relay could operate.
The shading coil causes a phase shift in the flux in the right leg. As long as enough
current is applied to produce enough torque to overcome the spring restraint, the disk
will turn, closing the relay contacts

To distinguish between a heavy load and a fault, an undervoltage relay is used in the
feeder bus protection scheme. The undervoltage relay closes a contact in the shading.
coil circuit (see Figure 3) and allows operation of the bus relay. The bus relay won't
operate on a heavy load alone because there is no undervoltage condition.

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In the past, a now obsolete model of the undervoltage relay would sometimes fail to
operate, preventing operation of the CO relay on a bus fault. To improve dependability,
some feeder bus protection schemes are equipped with a potentiometer which is
installed across the shading coil as shown in Figure 4. The potentiometer puts more
resistance in the shading coil circuit causing less current to flow. Therefore, there is
less phase shift and less torque. The CO relay can operate but less sensitively.

A potentiometer installed across the shading coil increases pickup 2 to 2.5 times over
when the lag coil is shorted by the undervoltage coil. The potentiometer across the lag
coil makes it less sensitive to bus faults but prevents it from operating on heavy feeder
loads.

DISTANCE ELEMENT TORQUE CONTROL OF CO RELAYS

A distance relay is set to look a certain distance into a circuit. This distance is referred
to as the reach of the relay. The relay will detect all phase faults that occur within its
reach. This concept is discussed in further detail in Unit D on line protection.

An example of a feeder bus protection using a distance relay is shown in Figure 6.


When the distance relay senses a fault, it inserts the shading coil which causes a

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Protection Skills for Electricians Page 9

phase shift in fluxes. The disc can now turn if there is sufficient current to produce enough torque
to overcome the spring restraint.

In some cases, the source may be so strong that the bus voltage does not decrease significantly
during a bus fault. Therefore, an undervoltage relay cannot be used for torque control of a CO relay.
In such cases, a distance relay is used.
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LEARNING TASK 3
DESCRIBE FEEDER BUS RELAY CONNECTIONS

FEEDER BUS PROTECTION AC CONNECTIONS

The AC connections for Strawberry Hill 25B34 protection are shown in Resource
C2-1. Refer to the drawing as you read through the description below.

The Strawberry Hill protection scheme has two current sources: one via 25CB13 and
the other via 25CB4. Therefore, the bus protection must be connected to current
transformers (CTs) associated with each of these breakers. Phase and ground CO
timed and instantaneous elements are used in the Strawberry Hill scheme. The phase
timed CO elements are torque controlled by undervoltage relays 27BA34, 27BB34
and 27BC34.

FEEDER BUS PROTECTION DC CONNECTIONS

The DC connections for Strawberry Hill 25B34 protection are shown in


Resource C2-2. The CO relays operate into a standard self reset scheme as
described earlier in Unit B-6.

As shown in Resource C2-2, the operation of the Strawberry Hill protection initiates
tripping of 25CB4 and 25CB13. In addition, it initiates the breaker failure protections
associated with these two breakers. Refer to LT4 of this unit for more on breaker
failure protection. Also note that the feeder breaker failure protection which operates
95BF trips the 25B34 protection.

Unit C-2 Describe CO-Relay Feeder-Bus


Protection
LEARNING TASK 4
LOW VOLTAGE BREAKER "A" SWITCH BREAKER FAILURE
PROTECTION

This scheme is often used for feeder bus breaker failure protection. If the bus
protection operates and a breaker fails to trip, it is necessary to trip the adjacent zone
to clear the fault. In Figure 1, for example, assume there is a fault at 25B1. The fault
should initiate tripping of 25CB 1 and 25CB3. However, if 25CB 1 fails to trip, the Ti
protection must be operated to clear the fault.

A breaker "a" contact detects the tripping of the breaker. If the breaker has not
tripped within a set time following breaker tripping initiation, then tripping of the
adjacent zone is initiated. Figure 2 shows the protection scheme.
Fig. 2 Protection scheme for breaker failure

To illustrate how the protection scheme operates, read through the sequence
that follows. It describes what should happen in the event of a fault at 25B1 and 4
failure of 25CB1 to trip. As you read the description refer to Figures 1 and 2.

1. a) a fault occurs at 25B1.


b) 25B1 protection operates and initiates tripping of 25CB1 and 25CB3

2. a) 25CB3 trips
b) 25CB3 contact opens to stop 25CB3 breaker failure protection operation.

3. a) 25CB1 fails to trip.


b) 25CB1 contact remains closed because breaker has not tripped.
c) 25B1 protection remains closed because fault had not been cleared.
d) Timer TBF1 times out to trip T1 protection.

If maintenance is being done on 25CB2, for example, and the breaker is


isolated but in the closed position, and a fault occurs on 25CB1, a breaker
failure protection operation will result. This is because the bus protection
operation will not trip the breaker. Therefore, when a breaker is isolated, keep
the breaker in the open position as much as possible to prevent a breaker
failure protection operation.

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EARLY TRIP
Included in the breaker failure protection scheme is an early trip feature which
prevents widespread tripping as a result of protection testing errors. Its purpose is
to trip the breaker quickly to stop breaker failure protection operation. In the
sequence below, assume protection testing is proceeding and tripping of 25CB 1 is
blocked. However, the initiation of 25CB1 beaker failure protection is not blocked and
25B1 protection is operated.

1. During testing of 25B1 protection, tripping of 25CB1 is blocked but initiation of


25CB1 breaker failure protection is not blocked.

2. 25B1 protection is test operated. This results in 25CB 1 breaker failure


protection being initiated without 25CB 1 tripping being initiated.

3. Early trip quickly trips breaker to prevent breaker failure protection operation.
Only 25CB is tripped.

SIGNIFICANCE OF CB AUXILIARY CONTACTS

The circuit breaker auxiliary contacts are essential to the operation of auxiliary "a"
breaker failure protection schemes and it is important that they are properly
maintained. Some important points to remember about the circuit breaker auxiliary
contacts follow.

Circuit breaker auxiliary contacts are used to detect whether the breaker
has failed to trip.

It is important that the "a" contact is closed when the breaker is closed to
allow initiation of breaker failure protection.

It is important that the "a" contact is open when the breaker is open to
stop breaker failure protection operation.

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SELF TEST QUESTIONS
1. Why is it appropriate to use an inverse-time overcurrent relay, such as a CO, for
feeder-bus protection?
2. What is the purpose of the shading coil in a CO relay with torque control?

3. What is the purpose of torque control on a CO relay?

4. Heavy load is characterized by high current and normal voltage while a


feeder bus fault is usually characterized by high current and voltage.

5. What device is normally used to distinguish between heavy load and a fault in
a feeder bus protection scheme?

6. What happens if a breaker fails to open after the protection system initiates a trip?

7. How does the breaker "a" breaker failure protection scheme know whether or not
the breaker has opened following initiation of a trip by a protection?

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SELF TEST ANSWERS
1. so that bus protection can be timed to coordinate with feeder and transformer
protection
2. The purpose of the shading coil in a CO relay is to produce out-of-phase fluxes.

3. The purpose of torque control on a CO relay is to allow the feeder bus protection
to distinguish between a heavy load and a feeder bus fault.
4. low

5. an undervoltage relay

6. The protection system initiates tripping of the adjacent zone to clear the fault.

7. An auxiliary contact in the breaker is used to detect tripping.

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