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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

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POTP Workshop 9/14/2016

This workshop is intended to offer a start-up in working with RTN 950A equipment
and Ethernet services.

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9/14/2016

This workshop is intended to offer a start-up in working with RTN 950A equipment
and Ethernet services.

Unique Reference:
RTN 950A V100R008C00 Product Documentation 03.zip

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

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POTP Workshop 9/14/2016

This chapter is intended to offer the background about RTN 950A, necessary for
further operations.

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OptiX RTN 900 is a new generation TDM/Hybrid/Packet integrated microwave


transmission system developed by Huawei. It provides a seamless microwave
transmission solution for mobile communication network or private networks.

RTN 905 and 910 variants = 1U high


RTN 905 = fixed type chassis
RTN 910 = boards pluggable, RTN 910A unpluggable controller
RTN 950 = 2U high, boards pluggable
RTN 950A = no protection for controller and integrated service ports instead
RTN 980 = 5U high, boards pluggable, controller protected all the time, up to 14
IF boards

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RTN 950A can provide the Hybrid/Packet microwave transmission solution for
2G/3G mobile backhaul networks. In this solution, the OptiX RTN 950A is
deployed at the access and convergence layers and provides ring protection and
multi-directional convergence functions.

Application 1 (slide):
RTN 950A supports a wide range of interfaces and service bearer technologies,
and is therefore compatible with various backhaul networks. Specifically, packet
services can be backhauled through TDM networks, and TDM services can be
backhauled through packet networks

Application 2:
RTN 950A functions as a CSG and works with routers that function as ASGs and
RSGs to provide end-to-end L3VPN services.

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RTN 950A adopts a split structure. The system consists of the IDU 950A and the
ODU. Each ODU is connected to the IDU 950A through an IF cable.
IDU 950A is the indoor unit for an OptiX RTN 950A system. It receives and
multiplexes services, performs service processing and IF processing, and
provides the system control and communications function.

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The ODU is the outdoor unit for the OptiX RTN 900. It converts frequencies and
amplifies signals.
The OptiX RTN 900 product series can use the RTN 600 ODU and RTN XMC
ODU, covering the entire frequency band from 6 GHz to 42 GHz.

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The ODU is the outdoor unit for the OptiX RTN 900. It converts frequencies and
amplifies signals.
The OptiX RTN 900 product series can use the RTN 600 ODU and RTN XMC
ODU, covering the entire frequency band from 6 GHz to 42 GHz.

There are two methods for mounting the ODU and the antenna: direct mounting
and separate mounting.

The direct mounting method is generally adopted when a small- or medium-


diameter and single-polarized antenna is used. In this situation, if one ODU is
configured for one antenna, the ODU is directly mounted at the back of the
antenna. If two ODUs are configured for one antenna, an RF signal
combiner/splitter (hence referred to as a hybrid coupler) must be mounted to
connect the ODUs to the antenna.
The direct mounting method can also be adopted when a small- or medium-
diameter and dual-polarized antenna is used. Two ODUs are mounted onto an
antenna using an orthomode transducer (OMT). The method for installing an
OMT is similar to that for installing a hybrid coupler

The separate mounting method is adopted when a large- or medium-diameter


and single- or dual-polarized antenna is used. In this situation, a hybrid coupler
can be mounted (two ODUs share one feed boom).

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RTN 950A provides an antenna solution that covers the entire frequency band,
and supports single-polarized antennas and dual-polarized antennas with
diameters of 0.3 m to 3.7 m along with the corresponding feeder system.

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Dimensions (H x W x D) of the IDU 950A chassis are 88 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm


IDU 950A chassis supports air cooling, with air inlet on the left side and air outlet
on the right side.

The dimensions (H x W x D) of the board in the extended slot of the IDU 950A
chassis are 19.82 mm x 193.80 mm x 225.80 mm. The dimensions (H x W x D)
of the system control, switching, and timing board in the IDU 950A chassis are
22.36 mm x 388.40 mm x 269.73 mm. The depth of the board refers to the
distance between the front panel and the end of the PCB.

The front panel of a board has two ejector levers and two captive screws. The
ejector levers help you remove or insert a board. The captive screws fasten a
board to the chassis.

The bar codes of some boards contain board feature codes, which further classify
boards. For example, the feature codes of some boards using SFP modules
(such as EG4) indicate the type of SFP module being used, and the feature
codes of some other boards providing E1 ports (such as SP3S) indicate the
impedance of E1 ports.

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Service interface unit


Receives/Transmits TDM E1 signals.
Receives/Transmits ATM/IMA E1 signals, and demultiplexes ATM services
from ATM/IMA E1 signals.
Receives/Transmits STM-1 signals.
Receives/Transmits FE/GE signals.
Uses the EoSDH/EoPDH function to encapsulate Ethernet services into SDH
or E1 signals.
Performs E1/ATM/Ethernet service emulation based on PWE3.

Timeslot cross-connect unit


Provides the cross-connect function and grooms TDM services.

Packet switching unit


Processes Ethernet services and forwards packets.
Processes MPLS labels and forwards packets.
Processes PW labels and forwards packets.

IF unit

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Maps service signals to microwave frame signals and demaps microwave frame
signals to service signals.
Performs conversion between microwave frame signals and IF analog signals.
Provides the O&M channel between the IDU and the ODU.
Supports FEC.

Control unit
Provides the system communications and control.
Provides the system configuration and management.
Collects alarms and monitors performance.
Processes overheads.

Clock unit
Traces the clock source signal and provides various clock signals for the
system.
Supports input and output of external clock.
Supports input or output of external time signal.
Provides the time synchronization function.

Auxiliary interface unit


Provides the orderwire interface.
Provides the synchronous/asynchronous data interface.
Provides the external alarm input/output interface.

Power unit
Accesses -48 V DC power.
Provides DC power for the IDU.
Provides -48 V DC power for the ODU.

Fan unit
Provides air cooling for the IDU.

ODU
Converts IF signals into RF signals.
Amplifies RF signals.

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CSHO boards function as system control, switching, and timing boards. They
converge and groom various services using GE/STM-1/E1 service ports and
TDM/hybrid/packet microwave ports.
CSHO boards provide 10 Gbit/s packet switching capacity, full time-division
cross-connection, system control and communication, and clock processing
functions. In addition, CSHO boards provide GE, STM-1, E1, auxiliary, and
management ports.

NMS/COM and EXT are equivalent to two ports on a hub. Therefore, no external
Ethernet link should be configured between the two ports. Otherwise, an Ethernet
loop will be formed and cause a broadcast storm on the network. The DCN
communication will be affected.

A CSHO board is inserted in slot 7 of an IDU chassis. Slot 7 occupies the space
of two ordinary slots. For the network management system (NMS) to manage
functional units on a CSHO board, the functional units are mapped into specific
logical boards and allocated logical slots on the NMS.

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IF boards must be general-purpose IF boards or XPIC IF boards working in


native E1+Ethernet or native STM-1+Ethernet mode
Service boards can be native E1 interface boards, smart E1 interface boards,
STM-1 interface boards, channelized STM-1 interface boards, or Ethernet
interface boards.
Ethernet ports on CSHO boards can carry MPLS tunnels, which allow CSHO
boards to transmit Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and pseudo wire
emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) services traversing microwave networks and
regional backhaul networks in end-to-end mode.

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The system control and communication unit comprises the CPU unit and logic
control unit. It provides the following functions:
The CPU unit controls and manages the other units on the board and collects
alarms and performance events using the control bus.
The CPU unit controls and manages the other boards in the IDU and collects
alarms and performance events using the control bus.
The CPU unit controls and manages the ODU by transmitting ODU control
signals to the SMODEM unit in the IF board over the control bus in the
backplane.
The CPU unit enables the packet switching unit using the control bus to groom
Ethernet service packets.
The CPU unit processes Ethernet protocol packets from the packet switching
unit using the control bus.
The CPU unit processes network management messages over data
communications channels (DCCs) by working with the logic control unit.
The CPU unit communicates with the network management system (NMS)
using the NMS port and NE cascade port.
The CPU unit reads information from the USB port using the control bus to
implement software loading.
The CPU unit reads outdoor cabinet monitoring signals using the control bus to
monitor and manage an outdoor cabinet.

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The logic control unit decodes address read/write signals from the CPU unit and
implements field programmable gate array (FPGA) loading.
The logic control unit cross-connects overheads between the auxiliary interface
unit, the CPU unit, and other boards. This helps to achieve the following
purposes:
Adding or dropping DCC information processed by the CPU unit
Adding or dropping orderwire and asynchronous data services
Exchanging orderwire bytes, DCC bytes, and K bytes between different
lines

The packet switching unit grooms services and processes protocol messages.
The services groomed by the packet switching unit includes native Ethernet
services, and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and pseudo wire emulation
edge-to-edge (PWE3) packets carried over Ethernet.
After receiving Ethernet services from the Ethernet interface unit on the same
board or an Ethernet board, the packet switching unit grooms the Ethernet
services based on the configurations that are delivered by the system control
and communication unit.
After receiving protocol packets from the Ethernet interface unit on the same
board or an Ethernet board, the packet switching unit transmits the protocol
packets to the system control and communication unit for processing. After
processing the protocol packets, the system control and communication unit
sends them back to the packet switching unit. The packet switching unit
transmits the protocol packets to the Ethernet interface unit or the Ethernet
board.

The cross-connect unit grooms services over the entire system using the higher
order cross-connect module and the lower order cross-connect module.

The Ethernet signal access unit receives/transmits FE/GE signals, and works
with the Layer 2 switching unit to provide Layer 2 switching functions. In addition,
it receives IEEE 1588v2 messages (not supported by SFP electrical modules),
adds timestamps to them, and sends them to the clock unit.

In the receive direction, after restructuring, decoding, and performing


serial/parallel conversion for electrical signals, the Ethernet signal access unit
performs frame delimitation and preamble processing, extracts Ethernet
frames, and performs cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and Ethernet
performance measurement. If optical signals are received, the Ethernet signal
access unit performs O/E conversion before performing the preceding
operations.
In the transmit direction, after performing frame delimitation, preamble addition,
CRC code computation, and Ethernet performance measurement, the Ethernet

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signal access unit performs serial/parallel conversion for signals, encodes the
signals, and transmits the signals to the Ethernet port. In the case of an optical
port, after performing the preceding operations, the Ethernet signal access unit
needs to perform E/O conversion for signals and then transmit them through
the optical port.

The E1 signal processing unit allows access of, codes/decodes, and


maps/demaps E1 electrical signals and processes clock overheads. Signal
processing on this unit is the same as that on the SP3S/SP3D.

The STM-1 signal processing unit allows access of STM-1 signals, extracts
clock signals, restores data, scrambles/descrambles data, and processes
overheads and pointers. Signal processing on the STM-1 signal processing unit is
the same as that on the SL1D.

The clock unit selects an appropriate clock source from external clock sources or
service clock sources at service ports based on clock priorities. After locking the
clock source by means of the phase-locked loop, the clock unit provides the
system clock and frame headers for service signals and overhead signals to other
units on the same and other boards.

The clock unit receives IEEE 1588v2 messages from the Ethernet signal access
unit on the same board or from an Ethernet service board and processes the
messages to implement clock/time synchronization.

The power supply unit performs the following functions:


Combines and then converts the two -48 V power inputs into the power supply
required by the chips of the other units on the local board.
Combines the two -48 V power inputs to provide -48 V power supply or
combines and converts the two -48 V power inputs into the +3.3 V power supply
required by boards in extended slots.
Combines and then converts the two -48 V power inputs into the -42 V power
supply required by the fan.

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ISV3 boards are multi-purpose IF boards that support Integrated IP microwave,


SDH radio, and DC-I power distribution. Once the appropriate license files are
loaded, the boards also support cross polarization interference cancellation
(XPIC).

An ISV3 board has indicators, XPIC signal ports, one IF port, one ODU power
switch, and labels on its front panel
The ODU-PWR switch is equipped with a lockup device. To turn on or turn off the
switch, you need to first pull the switch lever slightly outwards.

An ISV3 board can be inserted in any of slots 1 to 6. Its logical slot on the
network management system (NMS) is the same as its physical slot.
An ODU is not allocated a physical slot but has a logical slot on the NMS. The
logical slot ID of an ODU is equal to the logical slot ID of the connected IF board
plus 20.

Use two IF boards in paired slots to configure a 1+1 FD/SD IF protection group.
Specifically, slots 1 and 2, slots 3 and 5, and slots 4 and 6 are paired slots
respectively.
When implementing XPIC, one ISV3 pair must be installed adjacent to each other
in the same row or column

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Diagram presents scenario Functioning as Integrated IP microwave IF Boards.


In hedex can be found also scenario Functioning as SDH IF Boards.
In both cases, XPIC can be configured for expanding the capacity of the radio
hop.

E1 services can be native E1 services or CES/ATM E1 services, Ethernet


services can be native Ethernet services or ETH PWE3 services, and STM-1
services must be native STM-1 services.
ISV3 boards will transmit native E1 services only when these boards work in
native E1+Ethernet mode, and will transmit native STM-1 services only when
these boards work in native STM-1+Ethernet mode.
Service boards shown can be Ethernet interface boards, STM-1 interface
boards, E1 interface boards, or Smart E1 processing boards.

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Signal Processing in the Receive Direction

Combiner interface unit


Separates ODU control signals from microwave service signals

SMODEM unit
Demodulates ODU control signals.
Transmits ODU control signals to the system control and communication unit

IF processing unit
Filters microwave service signals.
If XPIC is disabled, converts microwave service signals into digital signals and
transmits these signals to the modem unit.
If XPIC is enabled:
Splits microwave service signals into two channels of signals, converts
one channel of signals into digital signals and transmits them to the
modem unit, and transmits the other channel of signals to the paired
board as XPIC signals.
Converts XPIC signals from the paired board into digital signals and
transmits the digital signals to the modem unit.

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Modem unit
If XPIC is disabled, performs digital demodulation.
If XPIC is enabled:
Performs digital demodulation using XPIC IF signals from the paired
board as reference signals.
Performs XPIC operations for IF signals.
Performs time domain adaptive equalization.
Performs forward error correction (FEC) decoding and generates alarms, if any.

MUX/DEMUX unit
Detects microwave frame headers and generates alarms and performance
events, if any.
Verifies parity bits in microwave frames and generates alarms and performance
events, if any.
Checks link IDs in microwave frames and generates alarms and performance
events, if any.
Detects changes in both ATPC messages and response messages, and reports
the changes to the system control and communication unit over the control bus.
Extracts orderwire bytes, auxiliary channel bytes (including F1 and serial bytes),
and DCC bytes from microwave frames, and transmits the bytes to the logic
processing unit.
Maps E1 service signals to specific positions in VC-4s and transmits the VC-4s
to the logic processing unit (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated
IP microwave are E1 services).
Demaps VC-4s from STM-1 service signals and transmits the VC-4s to the logic
processing unit (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated IP
microwave are STM-1 services).
Extracts Ethernet signals from the microwave service signals, and transmits the
Ethernet signals to the Ethernet processing unit

Ethernet processing unit


Processes GE signals received from the MUX/DEMUX unit.
Sends the processed signals to the packet switching unit.

Logic processing unit


Processes clock signals.
Transmits overhead signals to the system control and communication unit.
Transmits VC-4 signals and pointer indication signals to the cross-connect unit.

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Signal Processing in the Transmit Direction


Logic processing unit
Processes clock signals.
Processes overhead signals.
Receives VC-4 signals and pointer indication signals from the cross-connect
unit.

Ethernet processing unit


Receives GE signals from the packet switching unit.
Processes GE signals.

MUX/DEMUX unit
Demaps E1 signals from the VC-4 signals that are from the logic processing
unit (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated IP microwave are E1
services).
Adds overheads to the VC-4 signals from the logic processing unit to form
STM-1 signals (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated IP
microwave are STM-1 services).
Sets overheads for microwave frames.
Combines Ethernet signals, E1/STM-1 service signals, and microwave frame
overheads to form microwave frames.

Modem unit
Performs FEC coding.
Performs digital modulation.

IF processing unit
Performs digital/analog conversion.
Performs analog modulation.
Filters signals.
Amplifies signals.

SMODEM unit
Modulates ODU control signals from the system control and communication
unit.

Combiner interface unit

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Combines ODU control signals, microwave service signals, and -48 V power
signals, and transmits the combined signals through an IF cable.

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ISM6 boards are new-generation dual-channel IF boards. Each ISM6 board


provides two IF ports.

An ISM6 board can be inserted in any slot 1 to 6. Its logical slot on the network
management system (NMS) is the same as its physical slot.
An ODU is not allocated a physical slot but has a logical slot on the NMS.
IF1 port: The logical slot ID of an ODU is equal to the logical slot ID of the
connected IF board plus 20.
IF2 port: The logical slot ID of an ODU is equal to the logical slot ID of the
connected IF board plus 40.

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An ISM6 board provides two IF ports. The two IF ports can be used to implement
XPIC, 1+1 HSB/FD/SD, or PLA/EPLA/EPLA+ in one microwave direction, or
provide radio links in different directions.

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Signal processing in the receive direction

Combiner interface unit


Separates ODU control signals from microwave service signals.

SMODEM unit
Demodulates ODU control signals.
Transmits ODU control signals to the system control and communication unit.

IF processing unit
Filters signals, performs analog/digital conversion, and transmits the converted
signals to the modem unit.

Modem unit
If XPIC is disabled, performs digital demodulation.
If XPIC is enabled, performs XPIC operations for IF signals.
Performs time domain adaptive equalization.
Performs forward error correction (FEC) decoding and generates alarms, if
any.

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MUX/DEMUX unit
Detects microwave frame headers and generates alarms and performance
events, if any.
Verifies parity bits in microwave frames and generates alarms and performance
events, if any.
Checks link IDs in microwave frames and generates alarms and performance
events, if any.
Detects changes in both ATPC messages and response messages, and reports
the changes to the system control and communication unit over the control bus.
Extracts orderwire bytes, auxiliary channel bytes (including F1 and serial bytes),
and DCC bytes from microwave frames, and transmits the bytes to the logic
processing unit.
Maps E1 service signals to specific positions in VC-4s and transmits the VC-4s
to the logic processing unit (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated
IP microwave are E1 services).
Demaps VC-4s from STM-1 service signals and transmits the VC-4s to the logic
processing unit (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated IP
microwave are STM-1 services).
Extracts Ethernet signals from the microwave service signals, and transmits the
Ethernet signals to the Ethernet processing unit.

Ethernet processing unit


Processes GE signals received from the MUX/DEMUX unit.
Sends the processed signals to the packet switching unit.

Logic processing unit


Processes clock signals.
Transmits overhead signals to the system control and communication unit.
Transmits VC-4 signals and pointer indication signals to the cross-connect unit.

Signal processing in the transmit direction

Logic processing unit


Processes clock signals.
Processes overhead signals.
Receives VC-4 signals and pointer indication signals from the cross-connect
unit.

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Ethernet processing unit


Receives GE signals from the packet switching unit.
Processes GE signals.

MUX/DEMUX unit
Demaps E1 signals from the VC-4 signals that are from the logic processing
unit (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated IP microwave are E1
services).
Adds overheads to the VC-4 signals from the logic processing unit to form
STM-1 signals (if native TDM services transmitted over Integrated IP
microwave are STM-1 services).
Sets overheads for microwave frames.
Combines Ethernet signals, E1/STM-1 service signals, and microwave frame
overheads to form microwave frames.

Modem unit
Performs FEC coding.
Performs digital modulation.

IF processing unit
Performs digital/analog conversion.
Performs digital modulation.
Filters signals.
Amplifies signals.

SMODEM unit
Modulates ODU control signals from the system control and communication
unit.

Combiner interface unit


Combines ODU control signals, microwave service signals, and -48 V power
signals, and transmits the combined signals through an IF cable.

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The working principles of different types of ODUs are similar.


The ODU is located between the IDU and the antenna system, implementing the
functions of frequency conversion and amplification of signals.

Processing of the signals to be transmitted


The multiplexer unit divides the input signals transmitted through the IF cable
into the 350 MHz IF TX signals, O&M uplink signals, and -48 V DC power
signals.
The IF TX signals are processed as follows:
1. The IF TX signals are up-converted, filtered, and amplified to RF TX
signals. Then, the RF TX signals are sent to the AMP unit.
2. The AMP unit amplifies the power of the RF TX signals. The power of
the RF TX signals can be controlled by the IDU software.
3. The amplified RF TX signals are sent to the antenna through the
duplexer isolation unit.
The O&M uplink signals are the 5.5 MHz signals modulated in Amplitude Shift
Keying (ASK) mode. The signals are sent to the CTRL unit and demodulated.
The -48 V DC power signals are sent to the PWR unit. The PWR generates
secondary power supplies for each module of the ODU.

Processing of the received signals

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1. The duplexer isolation unit separates the RF input signals from other
signals received by the antenna.
2. The RF signals are amplified through the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
unit.
3. The amplified RF signals are down-converted, filtered, and amplified to
140 MHz IF RX signals and transmitted to the multiplexer unit.
4. The multiplexer unit combines the IF RX signals and O&M downlink
signals and then transmits the combined signals to the IDU through IF
cable.
The CTRL unit performs the ASK modulation on the O&M downlink signals to
generate 10 MHz signals. The modulated signals are transmitted to the
multiplexer unit. The CTRL unit provides the RSSI interface and monitors the
RX level through the RSSI circuit.

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Path: Description>IDU Hardware Description>Boards

For ODUs:
Device Type same as Version Description
Appearance visual description
Installation mode
Interfaces same as Front Panel
Labels explains how to understand ODU type by reading labels (ODU type,
frequency band and subband, T/R spacing, Low/High)

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The microwave type is determined by the IF board and the configured working
mode.

The ISU2/ISX2/ISV3/ISM6 board can work in SDH mode to support transmission


of one STM-1 or two STM-1s.

Service signal processing flow of the SDH microwave in the transmit direction

CSHO (SDH interface unit)


Receives STM-1 signals and performs descrambling.
Processes overheads and pointers.
Demultiplexes VC-4 signals.
Transmits the VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHO.

CSHO (tributary unit)


Receives E1 signals.
Performs HDB3 decoding.
Maps E1 service signals into VC-12 signals.
Multiplexes the VC-12 signals into VC-4 signals.

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Transmits the VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHO.

CSHO
The timeslot cross-connect unit grooms service signals to the VC-4 signals of
the ISU2 board.

ISU2
Maps VC-4 signals into STM-1 microwave frame payload, and adds microwave
frame overheads and pointers to form complete microwave frames.
Performs FEC coding.
Performs digital modulation.
Performs D/A conversion.
Performs analog modulation.
Combines the analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals.
Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power to the ODU through the IF
cable.

ODU
Splits the analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power.
Converts the analog IF signals into RF signals through up conversions and
amplification.
Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through the waveguide.

Service signal processing flow of the SDH microwave in the receive direction

ODU
Isolates and filters RF signals.
Converts the RF signals into analog IF signals through down conversions and
amplification.
Combines the IF signals and the ODU O&M signals.
Transmits the combined signals to the IF board through the IF cable.

ISU2
Splits the received analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals.
Performs A/D conversion for the IF signals.
Performs digital demodulation.
Performs time domain adaptive equalization.
Performs FEC decoding.

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Synchronizes and descrambles the frames.


Extracts overheads from microwave frames.
Extracts VC-4 signals from the microwave frames, and transmits the VC-4
signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHO.

CSHO
The timeslot cross-connect unit grooms service signals to the VC-4 signals of
the SDH interface unit and tributary unit.

CSHO (SDH interface unit)


Adds overheads and pointers, and maps VC-4 signals into STM-1 signals.
Performs scrambling and outputs STM-1 signals.

CSHO (tributary unit)


Demultiplexes VC-12 signals from VC-4 signals.
Demaps E1 service signals from the VC-12 signals.
Performs HDB3 coding.
Outputs E1 signals.

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The Hybrid/Packet integrated IP microwave (Integrated IP microwave for short)


can transmit one type among or a combination of Native TDM services, Native
Ethernet services, and PWE3 packet services according to software settings.
Therefore, the Integrated IP microwave achieves a smooth upgrade from Hybrid
microwave to Packet microwave.

The IFU2/ISU2/ISX2/ISV3/ISM6 boards support Integrated IP microwave.

The Hybrid/Packet integrated IP microwave has the following features:


Transmits one, or several of the TDM services, MPLS/PWE3 services, and
Native Ethernet services.
Supports the AM function. E1 services and packet services can be configured
with priority. When AM is switched to the reference mode, the services with
higher priority are transmitted with preference.

RTN 950A supports VLAN sub-interfaces, therefore transmitting MPLS/PWE3


Ethernet services and Native Ethernet services over one port.

Service signal processing flow of the Hybrid microwave in the transmit direction

CSHO (tributary unit)

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Receives E1 signals.
Performs HDB3 decoding.
Maps E1 service signals into VC-12 signals.
Multiplexes the VC-12 signals into VC-4 signals.
Transmits the VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHO.

CSHO (Ethernet interface unit)


Receives FE/GE signals.
Performs decoding.
Aligns frames, strips preamble codes, and processes CRC codes.
Forwards Ethernet frames to the packet switching unit of the CSHO.

CSHO
Based on the service configuration, the timeslot cross-connect unit grooms VC-
12 signals to the VC-4 signals of the ISU2 board.
The packet switching unit processes Ethernet frames based on the
configuration and the Layer 2 protocol, and then forwards the processed
Ethernet frames to the ISU2 through the microwave port.

ISU2
Selects the proper modulation scheme based on the current channel quality.
Demultiplexes the VC-12 signals to be transmitted from VC-4 signals.
Demaps E1 service signals from the VC-12 signals.
Maps the E1 service signals and Ethernet frames into the microwave frame
payload, and adds microwave frame overheads to form complete microwave
frames.
Performs FEC coding.
Performs digital modulation.
Performs D/A conversion.
Performs analog modulation
Combines the analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals.
Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power to the ODU through the IF
cable.

ODU
Splits the analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power.
Converts the analog IF signals into RF signals through up conversions and
amplification.

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through the waveguide.

Service signal processing flow of the Hybrid microwave in the receive direction

ODU
Isolates and filters RF signals.
Converts the RF signals into analog IF signals through down conversions and
amplification.
Combines the IF signals and the ODU O&M signals.
Transmits the combined signals to the IF board through the IF cable.

ISU2
Splits the received analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals.
Performs A/D conversion.
Performs digital demodulation.
Performs time domain adaptive equalization.
Performs FEC decoding.
Synchronizes and descrambles the frames.
Extracts overheads from microwave frames.
Extracts E1 service signals from the microwave frames and maps the E1
service signals into VC-12 signals.
Multiplexes the VC-12 signals into VC-4 signals and transmits the VC-4 signals
to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHO.
Extracts Ethernet frames from microwave frames, and transmits the Ethernet
frames to the packet switching unit of the CSHO.

CSHO
Based on the service configuration, the timeslot cross-connect unit grooms VC-
12 signals to the VC-4 signals of the tributary unit.
The packet switching unit processes Ethernet frames based on the
configuration and the Layer 2 protocol, and then forwards the processed
Ethernet frames to the Ethernet interface unit.

CSHO (tributary unit)


Demultiplexes VC-12 signals from VC-4 signals.
Demaps E1 service signals from the VC-12 signals.
Performs HDB3 coding.
Outputs E1 signals

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

CSHO (Ethernet interface unit)


Aligns frames, adds preamble codes, and processes CRC codes.
Performs coding.
Outputs FE/GE signals

Service signal processing of the Packet microwave in the transmit direction

ML1
Receives TDM E1 signals and ATM/IMA E1 signals.
Extracts service payloads from TDM E1 signals and performs the PWE3
encapsulation to form the Ethernet frames that carry PW packets.
Demultiplexes ATM cells from ATM/IMA E1 signals and performs the PWE3
encapsulation to form the Ethernet frames that carry PW packets.
Forwards Ethernet frames to the packet switching unit of the CSHO.

CSHO (Ethernet interface unit)


Receives FE/GE signals.
Performs decoding.
Delimits frames, strips preambles, and processes cyclic redundancy check
(CRC) codes.
Forwards Ethernet frames to the packet switching unit of the CSHO.

CSHO
Performs Layer 2 processing for the Ethernet signals that are transmitted from
the Ethernet interface unit based on the configuration and the Layer 2 protocol,
and then performs PWE3 encapsulation to form the Ethernet frames that carry
PW packets.
Processes the Ethernet frames that carry and isolate PW packets based on the
service configuration and the Layer 3 protocol, and then forwards the processed
Ethernet frames to ISU2.

ISU2
Selects the proper modulation scheme based on the quality of the channel.
Receives the Ethernet signals transmitted from the CSHO.
Forms Ethernet service signals and microwave frame overheads into
microwave frames.
Performs FEC coding.
Performs digital modulation.

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

Performs D/A conversion.


Performs analog modulation
Combines the analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals.
Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power to the ODU through the IF
cable

ODU
Splits the analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power.
Converts the analog IF signals into RF signals through up conversions and
amplification.
Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through the waveguide.

Service signal processing of the Packet microwave in the receive direction

ODU
Isolates and filters RF signals.
Converts the RF signals into analog IF signals through down conversions and
amplification.
Combines the IF signals and the ODU O&M signals.
Transmits the combined signals to the IF boards.

ISU2
Splits the received analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals.
Performs A/D conversion.
Performs digital demodulation.
Performs time domain adaptive equalization.
Performs FEC decoding.
Synchronizes and descrambles the frames.
Extracts overheads from microwave frames.
Extracts Ethernet frames from microwave frames, and transmits the Ethernet
frames to the packet switching unit of the CSHO.

CSHO
Processes the Ethernet frames that carry PW packets based on the service
configuration and the Layer 3 protocol, and then forwards the processed
Ethernet frames.
Forwards Ethernet frames to the ML1 directly. In the case of the Ethernet
frames that need to be forwarded to the Ethernet interface unit, extracts

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

Ethernet frames from PW packets, performs layer 2 processing based on the


configuration and the Layer 2 protocol, and then forwards the Ethernet frames
to the Ethernet interface unit.

ML1
Extracts ATM cells, and TDM E1 service payloads from PW packets.
Multiplexes the ATM cells into the ATM/IMA E1 signals inversely.
Performs HDB3 coding.
Outputs E1 signals.

CSHO (Ethernet interface unit)


Delimits frames, adds preambles, and processes CRC codes.
Performs coding.
Outputs FE/GE signals.

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When cooperated with ISV3 boards, ODUs may support QPSK Strong, 16QAM
Strong, 512QAM Light, and 1024QAM Light working modes.
When cooperated with ISM6 boards, ODUs may also support QPSK Strong and
16QAM Strong working modes.

Strong and light indicate FEC coding strength.


Strong FEC improves receiver sensitivity by increasing error-correcting codes
Light FEC expands service capacity by reducing error-correcting codes

Based on Ethernet frame compression, enhanced Ethernet frame compression


has the following enhanced functions:
Not only L2 and L3 frame headers but also Ethernet payloads of services that
are not sensitive to delay are compressed.
Payload compression can be performed for specified QoS queues.

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Paths:
Description>Product Description>Technical Specifications
Description>Product Description>Compliance Standards

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

RTN 950A supports fixed modulation and adaptive modulation.


When the AM technology is adopted, in the case of the same channel spacing,
the microwave service bandwidth varies according to the modulation scheme; the
higher the modulation efficiency, the higher the bandwidth of the transmitted
services.

Priorities of E1 services: are assigned based on the number of E1 services


that each modulation scheme can transmit. When modulation scheme
switching occurs, only the E1 services whose number is specified in the new
modulation scheme can be transmitted and the excess E1 services are
discarded.
Priorities of packet services: With the QoS technology, packet services are
scheduled to queues with different priorities. The services in different queues
are transmitted to the microwave port after running the queue scheduling
algorithm. When modulation scheme switching occurs, certain queues may be
congested due to insufficient capacity at the air interface. As a result, certain
services or all the services in these queues are discarded.

The lowest-efficiency modulation scheme (also called reference scheme or


modulation scheme of guaranteed capacity) and the highest-efficiency
modulation scheme (also called nominal scheme or modulation scheme of full
capacity) used by the AM can be configured.

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In AM, when modulation schemes are switched, the transmit frequency, receive
frequency, and channel spacing remain unchanged.
In AM, modulation schemes are switched step-by-step.
In AM, modulation scheme switching is hitless. When the modulation scheme is
downshifted, high-priority services will not be affected when low-priority services
are discarded. The switching is successful even when 100 dB/s channel fast
fading occurs.

The adaptive modulation (AM) Boost function increases the transmit power of an
ODU by 1 to 3 dB when IF boards are working in AM full capacity mode. As a
result, the fading margin and working time of radio links also increase.
The transmit power in AM full capacity mode increases only when the AM
guaranteed capacity mode is QPSK, 16QAM, or 32QAM and the AM full
capacity mode is 64QAM, 128QAM, or 256QAM.
The transmit power can increase only when IF boards are working in AM full
capacity mode, but cannot increase when IF boards are working at any of the
step intervals.

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The XPIC technology works with the co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP)


technology so that the transmitter transmits two electromagnetic waves whose
polarization directions are orthogonal to each other to the receiver over the same
channel. The receiver recovers the original two channels of signals after
canceling the interference between the two electromagnetic waves through the
XPIC processing.
The XPIC technology doubles the transmission capacity with channel unchanged.

RTN 950A supports one to five XPIC groups. Each XPIC group uses one
frequency and consists of the following items:
Two single-IF boards supporting the XPIC function or one dual-channel IF
board
Two ODUs
One dual-polarized antenna in separate mounting mode or one dual-polarized
antenna with an OMT in direct mounting mode

4 combinations:
two single-IF boards supporting the XPIC function and separately-mounted,
dual-polarized antenna (left-down figure)
two single-IF boards supporting the XPIC function and directly-mounted, dual-
polarized antenna with OMT

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dual-channel IF board and separately-mounted, dual-polarized antenna


dual-channel IF board and directly-mounted, dual-polarized antenna with OMT
(right-down figure)

Transmit frequency, transmit power, T/R spacing, ATPC parameters (ATPC


enabling status and ATPC adjustment thresholds), channel spacing, modulation
scheme, and AM parameters to the same values for the links in the horizontal and
vertical polarization directions in an XPIC workgroup.

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1+1 HSB is an operation mode of 1+1 protection. In 1+1 HSB mode, the
equipment uses a 1+1 hot standby configuration for the IF boards and ODUs at
both ends of a radio link hop.
If NE2 detects a failed ODU or IF board on the main channel, NE2 switches to
the standby channel to receive services.

Services are interrupted during 1+1 HSB switching

Compared with 1+0 non-protection, 1+1 HSB greatly improves reliability of radio
links.

The switching priority varies according to the switching condition:


Clear switching (external switching)
Lockout of protection (external switching)
Forced switching (external switching)
Fault on the main device
Reverse switching (valid only when the reverse switching is enabled)
Manual switching (external switching)
Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

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Principle Figures (right-side) are for Integrated IP microwave mode.

RTN 950A supports one to five 1+1 HSB protection groups.


One 1+1 HSB protection group uses one channel and consists of the following
items:
Two single-IF boards of the same type or one dual-channel IF board
Two ODUs of the same type
One antenna (equipped with one hybrid coupler)

2 combinations:
one antenna/single-IF board (upper left)
one antenna/dual-channel IF board (lower left)

NOTE: On the NMS, you can configure an ISV3 board on the OptiX RTN 950A to
work in IS2 or IS3 mode. When working in the IS2 mode, an ISV3 board is
equivalent to an ISU2 or ISX2 board.

NOTE: The hybrid coupler can be balanced or unbalanced. Generally, the


unbalanced hybrid coupler is used.

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Radio type can be SDH radio or Integrated IP microwave


Number of protection groups: 1 to 5
Protection type Revertive mode or Non-revertive mode
WTR time 5 to 12 minutes
Reverse switching Supported
Alarms and events of protection groups Supported

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1+1 FD is an operation mode of 1+1 protection. In 1+1 FD mode, the system


uses two channels that have frequency spacing between them for transmitting
and receiving the same service signal. The receive end selects a signal with
better quality from the two received signals. With 1+1 FD protection, the impact of
fading on signal transmission is reduced. In addition, 1+1 FD supports 1+1 HSB
switching.

1+1 FD supports two types of switching: HSB switching and HSM switching. The
two types of switching are triggered by different conditions.
Services are interrupted during HSB switching. HSM switching does not affect
services.

HSB switching occurs on the equipment side. Equipment-side switching has the
same switching action and impact as 1+1 HSB switching but is triggered by
different conditions. Actually the switching conditions are the same as for 1+1
HSB except there is no Reverse switching .

HSM switching occurs on the channel side. Channel-side switching can be


classified into the following types:
Automatic switching refers to the HSM switching that is automatically
triggered. After the automatic switching, the IF board receives the baseband
signal from its paired IF board. For RTN 950A, the condition for triggering

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

automatic HSM switching is MW_FEC_UNCOR.


Revertive switching. After automatic HSM switching occurs, the IF board
attempts to perform revertive switching at specific intervals. If no service alarm
is detected on the main channel during the switching, the IF board releases the
switching.

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One 1+1 FD protection group uses two channels and consists of the following
items:
Two single-IF boards of the same type or one dual-channel IF board
Two ODUs
One antenna (equipped with one balanced hybrid coupler) or two antennas
If the two transmit frequencies used in a 1+1 FD protection group are within the
frequency combining range of one hybrid coupler, use one antenna equipped with
one balanced hybrid coupler. Otherwise, use two antennas.

4 combinations:
one antenna/single-IF board
two antennas/single-IF board
one antenna/dual-channel IF board
two antenna/dual-channel IF board

In HSB switching, the cross-connect unit receives TDM services from the standby
IF board to implement service protection on the TDM plane, and the packet
switching unit performs LAG switching to implement service protection on the
packet plane. In HSM switching, the IF board receives baseband signals from the
standby receive channel to implement service protection.

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This section considers Integrated IP microwave (Native E1+Ethernet) services


transmitted on two single-IF boards as an example to describe 1+1 FD switching
principle. 1+1 FD switching is triggered only on the faulty NE. The normal NE is
not affected.

Number of protection groups: 1 to 5


Switching mode: HSB, HSM
Protection type: Revertive mode, Non-revertive mode
WTR time 5 to 12 minutes
Reverse switching: Not supported
Restriction on the valid slot of the IF board(inter-board 1+1 FD): Pairs of IF boards
must be configured in paired slots, for example, slot 3 and slot 5, slot 4 and slot 6,
or slot 1 and slot 2. Two ports on a dual-channel IF board can form a 1+1 FD
protection group. Two dual-channel IF board can form two inter-board 1+1 FD
protection groups only when the two ports on each dual-channel IF board form an
XPIC group. The port number of the two IF ports on dual-channel IF board in an
inter-board 1+1 FD protection group must be the same.
Alarms and events of protection groups: Supported
Configuration of conditions of reporting protection group alarms: Supported

In the Transmit Direction 1+1 FD before switching upper right before


animation
1. The service interface unit receives E1 service signals, multiplexes them into
VC-4s, and forwards the VC-4s to the cross-connect unit.
2. The cross-connect unit forwards the E1 service signals in the VC-4s to both
the main and standby IF boards.
3. The service interface unit receives Ethernet service signals and forwards them
to the packet switching unit.
4. The packet switching unit, based on the 1+1 microwave protection group
configurations, configures the GE links that are connected to the main and
standby IF boards into a LAG. The packet switching unit forwards the Ethernet
service signals to the main IF board.
5. The MUX unit on the main IF board multiplexes the E1 service signals and
Ethernet service signals into Integrated IP microwave frames. The MUX unit on
the standby IF board multiplexes the E1 service signals into Integrated IP
microwave frames.
6. The MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards receive the Integrated
IP microwave frames from the MUX unit on the main IF board, modulate the
Integrated IP microwave frames into IF signals, and forward the IF signals to
the main and standby ODUs respectively.
7. The main ODU converts the IF signals into RF signals at frequency f1 and

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

forwards them to the corresponding antenna. The standby ODU converts the
IF signals into RF signals at frequency f2 and forwards them to the
corresponding antenna.

After 1+1 FD HSB switching upper right after animation


1. The packet switching unit forwards Ethernet service signals to the standby IF
board by means of LAG switching.
2. The cross-connect unit forwards E1 service signals to both the main and
standby IF boards.
3. The MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards receive Integrated IP
microwave frames from the MUX unit on the standby IF board, modulate the
Integrated IP microwave frames into IF signals, and forward the IF signals to
the main and standby ODUs respectively.
4. The main ODU converts the IF signals into RF signals at frequency f1 and
forwards them to the corresponding antenna. The standby ODU converts the
IF signals into RF signals at frequency f2 and forwards them to the
corresponding antenna.
After 1+1 FD HSM switching:
The IF boards and ODUs process signals in the same way as before the
switching.

In the Receive Direction 1+1 FD before switching lower right before


animation
1. The antennas receive RF signals at different frequencies, and forward them to
the main and standby ODUs respectively.
2. The main and standby ODUs convert the RF signals into IF signals, and
forward them to the main and standby IF boards respectively.
3. The MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards demodulate Integrated
IP microwave frames from the IF signals. The Integrated IP microwave frames
demodulated on the standby IF board are forwarded to the MUX unit on the
main IF board using the protection bus.
4. The MUX units on the main and standby IF boards receive the Integrated IP
microwave frames from the MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards
respectively, and demultiplex the Integrated IP microwave frames into E1
service signals and Ethernet service signals.
5. The main and standby IF boards forward the E1 service signals to the cross-
connect unit.
6. The main IF board forwards the Ethernet service signals to the packet
switching unit.
7. The cross-connect unit receives the E1 service signals from the main IF board
and forwards them to the service interface unit.
8. The packet switching unit receives the Ethernet service signals from the main

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

IF board.
9. The packet switching unit forwards the Ethernet service signals to the service
interface unit.

After HSB switching lower right after animation


1. The Integrated IP microwave frames demodulated by the MODEM unit on the
main IF board are forwarded to the MUX unit on the standby IF board using the
protection bus. The MUX units on the main and standby IF boards receive the
Integrated IP microwave frames from the MODEM units on the main and
standby IF boards respectively.
2. The MUX units on the main and standby IF boards demultiplex the Integrated
IP microwave frames into E1 service signals and Ethernet service signals.
3. The packet switching unit receives the Ethernet service signals from the
standby IF board by means of LAG switching.
4. The cross-connect unit and the packet switching unit receive the E1 service
signals from the standby IF board.

After HSM switching lower right after second animation


1. The main IF board receives the Integrated IP microwave frames that are
transmitted from the MODEM unit on the standby IF board using the protection
bus. The MUX unit on the main IF board demultiplexes the Integrated IP
microwave frames into E1 service signals and Ethernet service signals.
2. The Ethernet connections from the packet switching unit to the main and
standby IF boards remain unchanged. The cross-connect unit and the packet
switching unit receive the service signals from the main IF board.

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

1+1 SD is an operation mode of 1+1 protection. In 1+1 SD protection mode, the


system uses two antennas that have a space distance between them, to receive
same RF signals, and then the equipment selects a signal with better quality from
the two received RF signals.
In 1+1 SD protection, the two antennas at the receive end receive same RF
signals from the transmit end. If the main antenna receives deteriorating
microwave signal. At this time, the microwave signal received by the standby
antenna may not deteriorate as space diversity is used. The service unit then
selects the service signal on the standby channel. This effectively protects the
services.

1+1 SD supports two types of switching: HSB switching and HSM switching. The
two types of switching are triggered by different conditions.
Services are interrupted within the HSB switching time.HSM switching does not
affect services.

Trigger Conditions of 1+1 HSB Switching


HSB switching occurs on the equipment side. Equipment-side switching has the
same switching action and impact as 1+1 HSB switching

The switching priority varies according to the switching condition:

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

Clear switching (external switching)


Lockout of protection (external switching)
Forced switching (external switching)
Fault on the main device
Reverse switching (valid only when the reverse switching is enabled)
Manual switching (external switching)
Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

Trigger Conditions of 1+1 HSM Switching


HSM switching occurs on the channel side. Channel-side switching can be
classified into the following types:
Automatic switching refers to the HSM switching that is automatically
triggered. After the automatic switching, the IF board receives the baseband
signal from its paired IF board. For RTN 950A, the condition for triggering
automatic HSM switching is MW_FEC_UNCOR.
Revertive switching. After automatic HSM switching occurs, the IF board
attempts to perform revertive switching at specific intervals. If no service alarm
occurs on the main channel at this time, the IF board releases the switching.

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950A supports one to five 1+1 SD protection groups.


One 1+1 SD protection group uses one channel and consists of the following
items:
Two single-IF boards of the same type or one dual-channel IF board
Two ODUs of the same type
Two antennas

In the Transmit Direction


1+1 SD before switching (upper-right before animation)
1. The service interface unit receives E1 service signals, multiplexes them into
VC-4s, and forwards the VC-4s to the cross-connect unit.
2. The cross-connect unit forwards the E1 service signals in the VC-4s to both
the main and standby IF boards.
3. The service interface unit receives Ethernet service signals and forwards
them to the packet switching unit.
4. The packet switching unit, based on the 1+1 microwave protection group
configurations, configures the GE links that are connected to the main and
standby IF boards into a LAG. The packet switching unit forwards the
Ethernet service signals to the main IF board.
5. The MUX unit on the main IF board multiplexes the E1 service signals and
Ethernet service signals into Integrated IP microwave frames. The MUX unit

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

on the standby IF board multiplexes the E1 service signals into Integrated IP


microwave frames.
6. The MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards receive the Integrated
IP microwave frames from the MUX unit on the main IF board, modulate the
Integrated IP microwave frames into IF signals, and forward the IF signals to
the main and standby ODUs respectively.
7. The main ODU converts the IF signals into RF signals and forwards them to
the antenna. The standby ODU is muted, that is, the standby ODU receives
but does not transmit RF signals.

After 1+1 SD HSB switching (upper-right after animation)


1. The packet switching unit forwards Ethernet service signals to the standby IF
board by means of LAG switching.
2. The cross-connect unit forwards E1 service signals to both the main and
standby IF boards.
3. The MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards receive Integrated IP
microwave frames from the MUX unit on the standby IF board, modulate the
Integrated IP microwave frames into IF signals, and forward the IF signals to
the main and standby ODUs respectively. The standby ODU converts the IF
signals into RF signals and forwards them to the antenna. The main ODU is
muted.

After 1+1 SD HSM switching: The IF boards and ODUs process signals in the
same way as before the switching

In the Receive Direction


1+1 SD before switching (lower-right before animation)
1. The antennas receive RF signals, and forward them to the main and standby
ODUs respectively.
2. The main and standby ODUs convert the RF signals into IF signals, and
forward them to the main and standby IF boards respectively.
3. The MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards demodulate Integrated
IP microwave frames from the IF signals. The Integrated IP microwave frames
demodulated on the standby IF board are forwarded to the MUX unit on the
main IF board using the protection bus.
4. The MUX units on the main and standby IF boards receive the Integrated IP
microwave frames from the MODEM units on the main and standby IF boards
respectively, and demultiplex the Integrated IP microwave frames into E1
service signals and Ethernet service signals.
5. The main and standby IF boards forward the E1 service signals to the cross-
connect unit.
6. The main IF board forwards the Ethernet service signals to the packet

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

switching unit.
7. The cross-connect unit receives the E1 service signals from the main IF board
and forwards them to the service interface unit.
8. The packet switching unit receives the Ethernet service signals from the main
IF board.
9. The packet switching unit forwards the Ethernet service signals to the service
interface unit.

After 1+1 SD HSB switching (lower right after first animation)


1. The Integrated IP microwave frames demodulated by the MODEM unit on the
main IF board are forwarded to the MUX unit on the standby IF board using the
protection bus. The MUX units on the main and standby IF boards receive the
Integrated IP microwave frames from the MODEM units on the main and
standby IF boards respectively.
2. The MUX units on the main and standby IF boards demultiplex the Integrated
IP microwave frames into E1 service signals and Ethernet service signals.
3. The packet switching unit receives the Ethernet service signals from the
standby IF board by means of LAG switching.
4. The cross-connect unit receives the E1 service signals from the standby IF
board.

After 1+1 SD HSM switching (lower right after second animation)


1. The MUX unit on the main IF board receives the Integrated IP microwave
frames that are transmitted from the MODEM unit on the standby IF board
using the protection bus. The MUX unit on the main IF board demultiplexes the
Integrated IP microwave frames into E1 service signals and Ethernet service
signals.
2. The Ethernet connections from the packet switching unit to the main and
standby IF boards remain unchanged. The cross-connect unit and the packet
switching unit receive the service signals from the main IF board.

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N+1 (N<=7) protection provides protection for microwave channels. The IF board,
ODU, and radio link on the working channel can be protected through the N+1
protection. The N+1 protection provides N working channels and one protection
channel. When the working channel becomes faulty, the normal services on the
working channel can be switched to the protection channel for transmission.
When the working channel is restored to normal, the protection channel can
transmit extra services.

Switching conditions of the N+1 protection:


Lockout of protection (external switching)
Forced switching (external switching)
Signal Failure (SF)
Signal Degradation (SD)
Manual switching (external switching)
Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)
Exercise switching (external switching)

The switching impacts of Integrated IP microwave and SDH microwave are


different
In the case of TDM services, the working TDM services are interrupted within
the N+1 protection switching time (shorter than 50 ms). The extra TDM

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

services are interrupted from the time when the normal services are switched to
the protection channel to the time when the services are restored to the working
channel.
In the case of Ethernet services (including Native Ethernet and packet
services), the Ethernet services are interrupted within the air-interface LAG
protection switching time (shorter than 500 ms).

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MICROWAVE WORKSHOP 9/14/2016

The switching on the TDM plane is realized based on the automatic bridging of
the cross-connect unit.
before switching, the NE sends and receives normal services on the
working channel, and sends and receives extra services on the
protection channel.
After detecting that the signals on a working channel fail, the IF board
notifies the system control and communication unit.
the system control and communication unit controls the cross-connect
unit to cross-connect the working services to the protection channel.
The system control and communication unit also interacts with the NE at
the opposite end through byte K to enable the NE at the opposite end to
perform synchronous switching. In this case, the extra services that are
transmitted on the protection channel are interrupted.
In the case of Ethernet services, N+1 protection for the Integrated IP microwave
uses LAG consisting of IF ports to implement switching on the packet plane
before switching, the LAG uses the load sharing mode to allocate the
service traffic to each link according to the result of the hash algorithm.
After detecting that the signals on a working channel fail, the IF board
notifies the system control and communication unit.
the system control and communication unit control the packet switching
unit to allocate the service traffic from the failed link to the other normal
links according to the result of the hush algorithm. The system control

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and communication unit also interacts with the NE at the opposite end
through byte K to enable the NE at the opposite end to perform
synchronous switching.

NOTE: After an N+1 protection group is created on the U2000, the corresponding
LAG of the IF ports is automatically created. The default main port of the LAG is
the Integrated IP microwave port on the first working board in the N+1 protection
group.

System Configuration for N+1 (N = 2) Protection (upper-left)


System Configuration for N+1 (N = 3) Protection with XPIC Enabled (lower-
left)

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ATPC technology enables a transmitter to automatically change its output power


within the ATPC control range based on the change in the RSL of a receiver. In
this way, the RSL of the receiver remains in a fixed range, and the interference
with the neighboring system and the residual error rate are reduced.

When the ATPC function is enabled, the following conditions are possible:
If the receive signal level (RSL) at the receiver is 2 dB lower than the central
value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, the receiver
notifies the transmitter of an increase in the transmit power. Therefore, the
RSL can be within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central
value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold.
NOTE:
If the actual transmit power of the ODU reaches the preset maximum
transmit power whereas the RSL at the receiver fails to be within the
value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value of the ATPC
upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, adjustments are no
longer made.
The preset maximum transmit power of the ODU should not be more
than the rated maximum transmit power of the ODU.
If the maximum transmit power of the ODU is not set, the transmit
power of the ODU can increase at most to the rated maximum transmit
power of the ODU.

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If the RSL at the receiver is 2 dB higher than the central value of the ATPC
upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, the receiver notifies the
transmitter of a decrease in the transmit power. Therefore, the RSL can be
within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value of the
ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold.

ATPC function uses the ATPC overhead in a microwave frame.

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PLA allows all Ethernet transmission paths in several Integrated IP microwave


links connected to the same equipment to be aggregated as a PLA. For MAC
users, a PLA works as a single link. PLA is also called L1 LAG. Native TDM
services on the Integrated IP microwave links are irrelevant to the PLA.

Different from air-interface LAG, PLA dynamically allocates Ethernet traffic based
on the real-time Ethernet bandwidth over each member radio link to achieve
almost the same Ethernet bandwidth utilization on member radio links. Except
being free from the Ethernet frame type and packet length, the load sharing
mechanism used by PLA even does not require the same Ethernet bandwidth on
radio links involved. Moreover, this load sharing mechanism is also able to ensure
almost the same Ethernet bandwidth utilization on member links when the
Ethernet bandwidth changes differently on each member link.

Before PLA Switching


In the transmit direction:
1. the packet switching unit performs shaping for Ethernet traffic based on
the real-time Ethernet bandwidth provided by the PLA group, and
transmits the Ethernet traffic to the IF board where the main port is
located through the backplane bus.
2. The PLA module on board A runs the traffic balancing algorithm and
schedules Ethernet traffic to boards A and B based on the real-time

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bandwidth provided by board A and that provided by board B.


3. The MUX unit combines the Ethernet traffic on the radio link where the
main port is located (referred to as the main radio link), the Native TDM
traffic, and overheads on the main radio link as microwave frames. The
modem unit processes (such as modulates) the microwave frames and
sends the frames to the ODU.
4. The PLA module on board A transmits the Ethernet traffic on the radio
link where the slave port is located (referred to as the slave radio link) to
the board B through the HSM bus. The MUX unit on board B combines
the Ethernet traffic on the slave radio link, the Native TDM traffic, and
overheads on the slave radio link as microwave frames. The modem
unit processes (such as modulates) the microwave frames and sends
the frames to the ODU.
5. board B transmits information such as its air-interface working mode
and Ethernet service bandwidth to board A. board A dynamically adjusts
traffic on the main and slave radio links based on the real-time
bandwidth provided by the main and slave radio links each. In addition,
board A calculates the total Ethernet bandwidth provided by the PLA
group and transmits the result to the packet switching unit. In this
manner, the PLA module on board A is capable of dynamically and
evenly scheduling traffic between boards A and B.
In the receive direction:
1. The MUX unit on the main IF board A' extracts the Ethernet traffic and
transmits the traffic to the PLA module.
2. The PLA module on board A' receives the Ethernet traffic that is
separated by the MUX unit on the slave IF board B', through the HSM
bus.
3. The PLA module on board A' align and decapsulates frames contained
in the Ethernet traffic separated from boards A' and B', and transmits
the traffic to the packet switching unit through the backplane bus.

Ethernet Bandwidth Adjustment: if the Ethernet bandwidth provided by the


slave radio link decreases, board A transmits OAM packets to the packet
switching unit, notifying the current traffic volume. Based on the received traffic
volume, the packet switching unit performs shaping for the Ethernet traffic to
ensure that appropriate Ethernet traffic volume is transmitted over board A. At the
same time, the PLA module on board A allocates less Ethernet traffic to the slave
radio link.

After link protection switching


After a link in a PLA group fails, the PLA module responsible for allocating and
scheduling traffic stops transmitting traffic to the failed link but transmits traffic only
to the other functional link. In this case, only one link is available and therefore the
PLA group provides lower Ethernet bandwidth.

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If the main radio link fails, the PLA module on board A stops transmitting Ethernet
traffic to the main radio link but transmits Ethernet traffic only to the slave radio
link.
After the main radio link recovers, the PLA module on board A automatically
enables Ethernet traffic to be transmitted on both the main and slave links.

After NE-level protection switching


Equipment faults (including cold resets) are classified into main IF board faults
and slave IF board faults.
Main IF board faults:
If board A is faulty, the packet switching unit switches Ethernet traffic from board A
to board B; the PLA module on board B is then responsible for scheduling the
traffic.
After the fault on board A is rectified, Ethernet traffic will not be switched back
from board B to board A. Instead, the PLA module on board B runs the traffic
balancing algorithm and schedules traffic to boards A and B based on their real-
time Ethernet bandwidth.
Slave IF board faults:
If board B is faulty, the LPA switching principles are the same as those used when
the slave link fails.

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This feature conflicts with the following features:


N+1 protection
LAG

Dependencies and Limitations Between PLA/EPLA/EPLA+ and Other


Features

The protocol type of the inband DCN must be the same for all members in a
PLA/EPLA/EPLA+ group

The main ports in two 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection groups are allowed to form
an EPLA group, but a 1+1 IF protection group must be created prior to the
EPLA/EPLA+ group.
The main ports in two 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection groups are not allowed to
form a PLA group.

EPLA/EPLA+ does not support Ethernet frame header compression.


The master and slave ports in a PLA group must use the same Ethernet frame
header compression mode.
The ISU2 or ISX2 boards configured with PLA do not support Layer 3 Ethernet

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frame header compression.

For PLA/EPLA/EPLA+, by-group RMON measurement is recommended.


PLA/EPLA/EPLA+ does not support RMON measurement by port.

An AES_MAC_ERR alarm will trigger PLA/EPLA/EPLA+ switching.

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Compared with wired transmission links, microwave links are open physical links.
Microwave signals may be captured by a third party. If a third party can parse
captured microwave signals based on the microwave frame format, it can obtain
user data.
Generally, user data containing sensitive information is encrypted at the network
or application layer. Radio equipment only needs to transparently transmit
encrypted user data instead of encrypting the data. However, more and more
customers attach great importance to network security currently. To meet the
requirements of carriers and enterprise customers that have high requirements
for network security, AES-based encryption at air interfaces can be used to
improve the security of user data transmitted over microwave links.

AES-based encryption at air interfaces uses the Advanced Encryption Standard


(AES) to encrypt user data transmitted over microwave links.

Encrypted content = All payloads in microwave frames


Encryption algorithm = 256-bit AES-CCM
Implementation = Based on hardware

Encryption impact
Microwave capacity decreases slightly (not greater than 300 kbit/s). The

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maximum number of E1 services supported in some modulation schemes


decreases by one after AES-based encryption at air interfaces is enabled.
The network delay increases slightly. The increment on a unidirectional
microwave link is not more than the time for transmitting 40 bytes.

AES-based encryption at air interfaces is supported only by ISV3 boards in IS3


mode.
AES-based encryption at air interfaces does not encrypt overheads in microwave
frames. Therefore, to encrypt network management messages, you must disable
the outband DCN and use only the inband DCN.

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Path: Description>Feature Description>Microwave Features

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SNCP is a service protection scheme based on the dual fed and selective
receiving mechanism that switches services to the protection SNC when the
working SNC fails or degrades. The subnet can be a chain, a ring, or a more
complex network.

SNCP protection is based on ITU-T G.841 - Types and characteristics of SDH


network protection architectures, complies with the switching time imposed by
standard of 50 ms.

Note: In case SNCP and radio protection are overlapping, is recommended


to configure the hold-off timer of SNCP to more than 50ms. If selection
nodes of SNC protection are same as those of radio protection, hold-off
timer can be left as 0.

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Linear MSP refers to the MS protection function provided in the point-to-point networking. With the
MS protection function, signals can be switched from the working span to the protection span
between two multiplex section terminations (MSTs). Switching time will be less than 50ms.

MSP classification criteria:


1. Based on the protection mechanism
a) 1+1 (dedicated protection, dual feed/selective receiving)
b) 1:N (shared protection, protection channel can be used for opportunistic traffic)
2. Based on the switching mode
a) Single-ended switching (switching occurs only at one end)
b) Dual-ended switching (switching occurs at both ends at the same time)
3. Regarding to the revertive mode
a) Revertive (when switching cause was eliminated and WTR counter reached 0, traffic
will be reverted to working path)
b) Non-revertive (after switching cause was eliminated, traffic will not be reverted to
initial path)
The OptiX RTN 905 1E supports the following linear MSP modes:
1+1 single-ended revertive mode
1+1 single-ended non-revertive mode
1+1 dual-ended revertive mode
1+1 dual-ended non-revertive mode
1:N dual-ended revertive mode
Note:
OptiX RTN 905 1E support transparent transmission of K bytes over radio.
MSP supports two MSP protocols: new protocol and restructured protocol. Is
recommended to choose new protocol as it has better compliance with standard and is
more reliable.

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The basic network topologies of the OptiX RTN 950A are chain networks and ring
networks.

Chain
The microwave link of a required air interface capacity can be established
based on the capacity of an access link. An ordinary link uses 1+0 non-
protection configuration. An important link uses the 1+1 protection
configuration.
The microwave link of a required air interface capacity can be established
based on the capacity of the aggregation link, and the microwave link uses 1+1
protection configuration. The microwave link can use XPIC 1+1 configuration,
which will double the capacity of a channel. Alternatively, the microwave link
can use N+1 protection, which will increase the service capacity between sites
to N times.
The OptiX RTN 950A supports aggregation of radio signals in multiple
directions, which helps a nodal site aggregate and transmit signals over
multiple hops of microwave links.

Ring
On a ring network comprised of TDM radio links, SNCP can be configured to
protect SDH/PDH services.

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On a ring network comprised of Hybrid radio links, SNCP can be configured to


protect SDH/PDH services while ERPS can be configured to protect Ethernet
services.
On a ring network comprised of Packet radio links, MPLS 1:1 APS or PW 1:1
APS can be configured to protect packet services.

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RTN 950A supports power over Ethernet function. It can be cooperated with the
OptiX RTN 310/380 (full outdoor equipment) directly, and works as service
convergence nodes.

The OptiX RTN 310/380 integrates service interfaces, IF modules, and an RF


modules. The OptiX RTN 950A does not need to use IF boards when working
with the OptiX RTN 310/380. The OptiX RTN 950A can be equipped with an
EG4P board which provides power over Ethernet function. The EG4P board is
connected to the OptiX RTN 310/380 with P&E cables, which transmits Ethernet
signals and supplies power for the OptiX RTN 310/380.

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Huawei offers a complete transmission network management solution compliant


with TMN for different function domains and customer groups on
telecommunication networks.
The NM solutions consist of the following:
The Web LCT, a Web-based local maintenance terminal, is used to manage
local and remote NEs on a per-NE or hop basis.
The iManager U2000, a network-level management system, is used to manage
Huawei transmission equipment such as the OptiX RTN, PTN, MSTP, and
WDM equipment.
The Mobile LCT, a mobile local maintenance terminal, allows users to use
mobile devices, such as mobile phones, to manage local and remote NEs on a
per-NE or hop basis.

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The external DCN consists of data communication devices, such as Ethernet


switches and routers.
The internal DCN consists of NEs that are connected using DCN channels.

Internal DCN splits in


Inband DCN (by default is activated on all interfaces of the node). The inband
DCN refers to a DCN networking mode that uses partial service bandwidth as
a data communication channel. RTN 950A uses Integrated IP microwave ports
or the Ethernet service bandwidth on FE/GE ports or partial bandwidth of ML-
PPP links to transmit network management messages.
Outband DCN (by default enabled for radio link and STM-1 links). The outband
DCN refers to a DCN networking mode whose data communication channel
does not use service bandwidth. RTN 950A uses DCC bytes (in microwave
frames or SDH frames, or on or external clock ports), an NMS port, or NE
cascade port to transmit network management messages.

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Huawei's IP DCN solution allows an NMS to manage NEs by encapsulating NMS


messages in the TCP/IP protocol stack and transmitting them over DCN channels
between the NEs.

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Gateway NE:
The application layer of the NMS directly communicates with the application layer
of a gateway NE. Generally, an NE at the boundary of the internal DCN and
external DCN is a gateway NE. An NE located inside a DCN can also function as
a gateway NE. The NEs between the NMS and the gateway NE inside a DCN
forward DCN packets at L2 or L3.
In order for an NE, not directly connected to DCN cloud to function as a GNE is to
have IP connectivity to NMS.

Non-gateway NE:
The application layer of the NMS communications with the application layer of a
non-gateway NE through the application layer of a gateway NE. The NEs
between the gateway NE and non-gateway NE forward DCN packets at L2 or L3.

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Principles of Packet Transfer in the Gateway Access Mode


1. The NMS transfers application layer packets to the gateway NE through the
TCP connection between them.
2. The gateway NE extracts the packets from the TCP/IP protocol stack and
reports the packets to the application layer.
3. The application layer of the gateway NE queries the address of the
destination NE in the packets. If the address of the destination NE is not that
of the local NE, the gateway NE queries the core routing table of the
application layer according to the address of the destination NE to obtain the
related route and the communication protocol stack of the transfer NE. The
transfer NE uses IP as its communication protocol stack. Therefore, the
gateway NE transfers the packets to the transfer NE through the IP protocol
stack.
4. After receiving the encapsulated packets, the network layer of the transfer NE
queries the destination IP address of the packet. If the destination IP address
is not the IP address of the local NE, the transfer NE queries the IP routing
table according to the destination IP address to obtain the related route and
then transfers the packet.
5. After receiving the packet, the network layer of the destination NE reports the
packet to the application layer through the transport layer because the
destination IP address of the packet is the IP address of the local NE. The
application layer functions according to the packet sent from the NMS.

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Principles of Packet Transfer in the Direct Connection Mode


Different from in the gateway access mode, the original gateway NE acts as an
ordinary transfer NE and packet transfer is implemented at the network layer in
the direct connection mode.

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The IP address of the gateway NE (NE1) belongs to the 10.0.0.0 network


segment, which is different from the network segment (129.9.0.0) to which the
IP addresses of the non-gateway NEs belong.
On NE1, configure a static route to the NMS (10.2.0.100), or set the interface
IP address (10.0.0.2) of Router2 as the default gateway.
On the NMS, configure a static route to NE1 (10.0.0.1), or set the interface IP
address (10.2.0.200) of Router1 as the default gateway.
If the NMS requests direct access of a non-gateway NE (NE2 or NE3), you
also need to perform the following configurations:
On NE1, enable the OSPF route flooding function, so that NE2 and NE3
can obtain the routes to the NMS.
On the NMS, configure a static route to the network segment
(129.9.0.0) to which the IP addresses of the non-gateway NEs belong.
(Skip this operation if the default gateway has been configured.)
Configure the routes on Router1 and Router based on the network
segment (129.9.0.0) to which the IP addresses of the non-gateway NEs
belong.

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This workshop is intended to offer a start-up in working with RTN 950A equipment
and Ethernet services.

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Site commissioning refers to commissioning that is performed on a hop and


sites at both ends of the radio link by connecting the commissioning tool to the
NE at a single site. Site commissioning ensures that the sites and the radio
link between the sites work properly, and is also performed in preparation of
system commissioning.
System commissioning refers to commissioning that is performed on all the
NEs in the network by connecting the commissioning tool to a gateway NE
where it configures the commissioning data for each site. System
commissioning ensures that various services are transmitted properly and
protection functions are implemented over the microwave transmission
network.

NOTE: The commissioning data may contain only data that is required for DCN
and link availability.

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The RTN.CER file is generated by the network management center system


administrator using a special-purpose tool and it stores the administrator-level
user names and MD5/SHA256/PBKDF2-encrypted passwords of these users.

NOTE: Remove the USB flash drive from the USB interface immediately after
data loading from the USB flash drive is complete. Otherwise, data loading may
be performed again due to operations such as data configuration, NE reset,
software loading.

The indicator blinks yellow and then turns steady green.


The loading of commissioning data is complete.
When the indicator is blinking yellow, do not remove the USB flash drive.
Otherwise, the data loading may be interrupted.
After the data loading is complete, the NE will automatically reset, which takes
2 minutes to 3 minutes. After the reset is complete, the USB indicator and the
system indicator (SRV) on the NE are both steady green, indicating that the
data loading is successful.

The indicator is off.


The USB flash drive is faulty and fails to get online.
Another possible cause is that the USB flash drive is not properly inserted.

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The indicator blinks red.


The type of the USB flash drive is incorrect or an error occurs when the NE
attempts to read/write the USB flash drive.

The indicator is steady red.


The loaded commissioning data is abnormal.

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Commissioning engineers can configure site commissioning data by using the


Web LCT on site when they are:
Familiar with how to configure radio link data on the OptiX RTN 950A or ready
with the commissioning data scripts.
Aware of the radio link data plan for the site.
Equipped with a laptop on which the Web LCT is installed.

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The recommended fuse capacity of 20 A can meet requirements under the


maximum power consumption.

Customers can compute the fuse capacity according to the actual power
consumption. The fuse capacity should be larger than or equal to (total power
consumption x 1.5)/(rated voltage x 87.5%). For example, when the rated power
supply is -48 V and the total power consumption of the IDU is less than or equal
to 420 W, the fuse capacity can be set to 15 A (= [420 x 1.5]/[48 x 87.5%]).

In normal conditions, the PWRA/PWRB and FAN indicators are steady green.
Also the board indicators should conform to the following states and sequences.
The PROG indicator should blink green, turn off, and then become
steady green.
The STAT indicators should be green.
For a board other than the system control, switching, and timing board on the
IDU, the STAT indicator is on only after the corresponding logical board is
added.
The ODU indicator on an IF board is green only after the logical board of the IF
board connected to the ODU and the logical board of the ODU are created.

The ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the single-channel IF board is

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designed with a locking device. Hence, you must pull out the switches lightly
before you turn it. If the switch points to "O", the switch is turned off. If the switch
points to "I", the switch is turned on.

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Note: The NMS/COM interface on the IDU is an interface that is self-adaptive to a crossover
or straight-through network cable

*)
1. Navigate in Internet Explorer settings to Internet Options, select Programs Tab and click
Make Default
2. Navigate in Internet Explorer settings to Internet Options, select Privacy Tab and disable
Pop-up Blocker
3. Navigate in Internet Explorer settings to Compatibility View Settings and add localhost

The Login Window Fails to Be Displayed After the Web LCT Is Started
If the USER LOGIN window is not displayed, perform the following:
1. Set the Internet Explorer to be the default browser.
2. Set the security level of the Internet Explorer to medium or lower.
3. Disable the pop-up blocker. NOTE: If plug-ins that can block pop-up windows are also
installed, disable their blocking function.

Set the options of the Internet Explorer.


1. Run the Internet Explorer.
2. Choose Tool > Internet Options from the main menu of the Internet Explorer.
3. On the General tab page, click Settings in the Temporary Internet files area.
4. In Check for newer versions of stored pages, select Every visit to the page, and then
click OK.
5. Click OK.

Double click on the node or right click on the node and select NE Explorer to start configuration.

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In order to access different capabilities of the node, you will need to:
1) Select desired object from Object Tree window
2) Choose appropriate function which needs to be configured from Function Tree
3) Configure the actual setting on Configuration Area.
4) Click Apply

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NE ID/ Ext ID combination should be unique in whole network.


NE ID should be a numeric value between 1 and 49135.
EXT ID should be a numeric value between 1 and 255.
Note: When the number of NEs on a network is within the basic NE ID range, it is
not advisable to change the extended NE ID for ID uniqueness.

At installation, NE ID is tied to IP address of the node. If you replace NE ID, EXT


ID, the IP address will change too.
NE ID has 24 bits: EXT ID:8 bits + ID: 16 bits
When NE ID is changed, IP address is automatically changed too: 0x81000000 +
ID.
For example, when we want to change NE ID to 9-1, ID becomes 0x090001 and
the IP address will become: 0x81000000 +0x090001 = 0x81090001 (129.9.0.1)

Once IP address is manually changed, this relationship (NE ID IP address) is


broken.

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NE Name can have up to 64 characters.

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If NE Time-zone is not correctly configured, NE Time and alarm time will not be
properly displayed.

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If NE time is synchronized with the time on the NMS or NTP server, the time
when an alarm or abnormal event occurs can be recorded accurately.

If Standard NTP is used, proceed with configuration of NTP server address (in
the same menu)
If NM is selected, proceed with configuration of synchronization frequency. (by
default is configured as to sync each day).

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The default IP address of an NE is a temporary address and is only used for the
DCN plug-and-play of the NE. Users must modify the default IP address in a
timely manner.

Once changes are applied, if new NE IP address is not in the same subnet with
IP address of the laptop, communication with RTN will be interrupted.

Change IP, Subnet Mask, Gateway IP based on external DCN requirements.


During site commissioning, set IP addresses in compliance with the following
principles (unless otherwise specified):
The IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway of the gateway NE
must meet the external DCN requirements.
Set the IP addresses of non-gateway NEs based on their NE IDs. More
specifically, set the IP address of such an NE to 0x81000000+ID. That
is, if the ID is 0x090001, set the IP address to 129.9.0.1.

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IP In-band DCN is enabled by default on all the ports and allows the node to
establish PPP IP connection between RTNs over configured Ethernet services.

In-band DCN VLAN ID is by default 4094. Inband DCN cant be reused in


Ethernet service configuration function.
Bandwidth used for in-band DCN is by default 512 kbps and the configuration
range is between 64 and 1000 kbps.
On convergence ports it can be configured to a higher bandwidth as to avoid
bottlenecks.

In Port Settings tab configure Enabled Status as Enabled for ports which should
transmit in-band DCN and configure protocol type as IP.
Protocol Type can be configured as HWECC, IP and L2DCN.
If is required, NMS port can be configured to send VLAN tagged packets.

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Packets sent over this interfaces will be VLAN tagged with configured Ethernet
Board VLAN ID. In order to access the NE locally, you need to activate VLAN ID
tagging on Laptops Ethernet interface.

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PPP connections are established only between RTNs (not limited only to
Microwave family, may include SDH, DWDM equipment which have the same
DCN architecture).
Protocol indicates how the route was added to routing table: Direct for directly
connected interfaces, OSPF for OSPF discovered routes and STATIC for routes
which were manually added or default gateway(0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0).

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OSPF is enabled by default on all in-band DCN enabled interfaces.


Default area ID is 0.0.0.0 and static redistribution is disabled.

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Select NE Name and Navigate to Function Tree->Performance -> NE


Performance Monitoring Time
Check the box for 15 Minutes and 24 Hours Performance monitoring intervals
and Enable the monitoring process by selecting Enable.

There are 16 registers to store 15 Minutes intervals performance data. This


means the NE can store historical performance of the last 4h with granularity of
15 minutes.
There are 6 registers to store 24 Hours intervals performance data. This means
the NE can store historical performance of the last 6 days with granularity of 24h
minutes.

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The maintenance personnel can change the alarm monitoring attribute by setting
the alarm suppression function. A board detects only the alarms that are not
suppressed. The alarm suppression function helps users to ignore their
unconcerned alarms.
This function is supported by all the boards.

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If Alarm Auto-Report is set to Reported, all the detected alarms are reported to
the NMS in a timely manner. If Alarm Auto-Report is set to Not Report, the
alarms are reported only when alarm query is performed on the NMS. The
maintenance personnel can change the setting on the NMS.

If required, alarm severity can be changed. (not recommended).

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In the case of a port that is not configured with services, certain alarms may be reported. To filter
the alarms that users are not concerned, set these alarms to be reversed. In this manner, the
alarm status at this port is the opposite to the actual case. That is, the status is displayed as
normal when an alarm is actually reported.
The alarm reversion function is available in three modes, namely, non-reversion, automatic
reversion, and manual reversion.
Non-revertive (Disable)
In this mode, the alarms are monitored by default and alarm reversion cannot be enabled for a
port.
Auto restore
In this mode, alarm reversion can be enabled for a port where alarms are reported. After alarm
reversion is enabled at a port, alarms are not reported. When the current alarm is cleared, the
alarm reversion automatically changes to the disabled status. That is, it changes to the non-
reversion mode. Then, the alarm reporting status at the port is the same as the actual status.
Manual restore
In this mode, alarm reversion can be enabled for a port regardless of whether any alarms are
reported at the port. After alarm reversion is enabled, the alarm reporting status at the port is
opposite to the actual status. After alarm reversion is manually disabled, the alarm reversion
status changes to the non-reversion mode. Then, the alarm reporting status at the port is the
same as the actual status.

Pay attention to the following points when you set the alarm reversion function:
For OptiX RTN 905, only R_LOS, T_ALOS, MW_LOF, ETH_LOS, and LAN_LOC alarms support
alarm reversion.
Alarm reversion is set based on ports. Configurations are required at both the NE level and the
port level.
Alarm reversion does not change the actual status of alarms on the board, as well as the
indication status of the alarm indicators.
Alarm reversion is realized on the NE software. The alarm data is the same on the NE and the
NMS, which indicates the status after the alarm reversion. If you directly query the alarm data
of a board, however, the actual alarm status is returned.

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For a simple network (such as a chain network), protection for the clock sources
is not required or the clock sources are protected according to the clock source
priority table. For a complex network (such as a ring network, a ring with chain
network, or a network consisting of intersecting rings), clock sources need to be
protected by using the standard Synchronization Status Message (SSM) protocol
or the extended SSM protocol.

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The orderwire for an NE provides a dedicated communication channel that the


network maintenance personnel can use.

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If 1+1 IF protection activation fails, check if XPIC or PLA is activated, chip


working mode for main and protection unit is the same and if cascading cable is
properly connected between main and protection unit.

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In case is necessary to configure protected Radio Link, first create an IF 1+1


protection group and then configure the radio link.

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With Adaptive Modulation activated you are allowed to enable E1 Priority feature.

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Note: The E1 service capacity in an intermediate modulation scheme can be


changed only after the E1 priority function is enabled.

To enable E1 priority function, select IF card from Object Tree and navigate to
Configuration > IF Interface. Under AM configuration Parameters, set Enable E1
Priority as Enabled.

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After antenna alignment, check whether the status of a radio link is normal and
the receive power meets requirements.

Select the IF board carrying the radio link.


Click Get Links.
Basic information about the radio link is displayed in the window.
If basic information about the radio link is displayed, the link is normal.
If basic information about the radio link is not displayed, check whether
data configurations in the radio direction are correct and whether
antennas have been properly aligned.
Click Query to query whether RX Power(dBm) at both ends meet
requirements. It is recommended that the receive power deviate from the
planned value only within the specified range.

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By checking the alarms generated by the equipment, you can determine whether
the equipment is working properly.
Prerequisites
The equipment is connected to the Web LCT.
Data configuration is complete.

For the CONFIG_NOSUPPORT, follow instructions in Configuring a Hop of Radio


Link to check whether RF parameters meet ODU requirements.
For details about the preceding alarms and about how to handle them, refer to
the OptiX RTN 950A Radio Transmission System Maintenance Guide.

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This section describes how to download a commissioning data script to an NE


using the Web LCT. The function applies to the scenario in which a site
commissioning data script has been prepared. With this function available, on-site
configuration is not required.

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When a USB flash drive is connected to an RTN, the node checks the folders on
the USB flash drive in the following order:
1. Checks for the RTN.CER file in the root directory. If the file exists, the USB
flash drive is authenticated. Otherwise, the USB flash drive fails to be identified.
2. Checks the NE software folder pkg. If the NE software version is different from
that of the local RTN 905, the RTN 905 upgrades its software.
3. Checks the patch software folder patch. If the patch software version is
different from that of the local RTN 905, the RTN 905 loads the patch software
from the folder.
4. Checks the system parameter folder sysdata. If the folder contains data, the
RTN 905 imports system parameters from the folder.
5. Checks the script folder script. If the folder contains data, the RTN 905
imports script data from the folder.
6. Checks the database folder db. If the folder contains data and the device type
under \Devicetype is the same as the NE device type, the RTN 905 loads the
database from the folder.
7. If any of the preceding folders contains no data or does not exist, the RTN 905
checks the next folder. If the RTN 905 finds none of the preceding folders, it
exports its data to the USB flash drive.

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After site commissioning is performed for each hop of the radio links, the ECC
communication between NEs is normal. In this case, an NE can be accessed by
using the U2000, and the networkwide service data can be configured.

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Following slides other steps that can be performed after commissioning,


depending if they are necessary.

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After the NE automatic reporting function is enabled, an NE is automatically


added on the U2000 topology when the NE can communicate with the U2000.

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on
the U2000.
To perform batch NE configurations on the U2000, choose Configuration > NE
Batch Configuration > Set NE Auto Creation Attributes from the main menu.

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For a port that supports multiple SFP module types, perform this task to set the
type of the SFP module to be installed on the port. If the port has no SFP module,
perform this task to delete the port on the NMS to prevent the NMS from
reporting alarms related to SFP modules.

NOTE: This operation is described for U2000. For Web LCT steps are similar. If
you configure the logical board using the Web LCT, Click the Slot Layout tab.

It is recommended that you delete the ports that have no SFP module, to
prevent the NMS from reporting alarms related to SFP modules.
For an SDH port, you can set the SFP module type in Mo mode. For an
Ethernet port, you need to delete the port and add it again if you want to reset
the SFP module type. Set the SFP module type when adding the port.
For an EG4/EG2D board, its SFP port and fixed GE port share a physical
channel. Therefore, if the SFP port has no SFP module, delete the port and
add it again. When adding the port, set Type of the SFP module to Electrical
Port.

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When SL92CSH boards and CSHU/CSHUA boards are used as system control,
timing, and switching boards, the backplane bus rate can be increased to 2.5
Gbit/s.

Only OptiX RTN 950 supports this operation.

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This workshop is intended to offer a start-up in working with RTN 950A equipment
and Ethernet services.

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When TDM services need to be transmitted on a microwave link, you need to


configure cross-connections between the service timeslots on service boards and
the service timeslots on IF boards. The timeslots for the TDM services on the IF
boards are closely related to the microwave service type and microwave capacity
of the IF boards.

E1
If an IF board transmits E1s and the E1 capacity is nxE1, the first to nth VC-12
timeslots on the IF board are available and correspond to the first to nth E1
timeslots that are transmitted over microwave. For example, if the E1 capacity is
75xE1, only the first to sixty-third VC-12 timeslots in VC4-1 and the first to twelfth
VC-12 timeslots in VC4-2 on the IF board are available. If a cross-connection is
configured between an E1 port on a service board and the second VC-12 timeslot
in VC4-2 on the IF board, the E1 services that are accessed through the E1 port
are sent to the 65th E1 timeslot that is transmitted over microwave.
STM-1
If an IF board transmits STM-1s and the STM-1 capacity is nxSTM-1, the first to
nth VC-4 timeslots on the IF board are available and correspond to the first to nth
STM-1s that are transmitted over microwave. For example, if the STM-1 capacity
is 2xSTM-1, VC4-1 and VC4-2 on the IF board are available. If a cross-
connection is configured between an E1 port on a service board and the second
VC-12 timeslot in VC4-2 on an IF board, the E1 services that are accessed
through the E1 port are sent to the second VC-12 in the second STM-1 that is

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transmitted over microwave.


NOTE: An OptiX RTN 905 2E or an ISM6 board can transmit a maximum of two
VC-4 TDM services.

A timeslot assignment diagram provides significant references for configuring


TDM services. Before planning TDM timeslots, you need to be familiar with the
meanings shown in the timeslot assignment diagram.

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Setting working mode:


Required for an E1 port that supports various service modes. Set Service
Mode to PDH or TDM.
Only MN1 and MP1 (RTN 905) boards require this step.
SP3S board integrated on CSHO does not require this step

When assigning timeslots, consider numbering scheme currently selected. It can


be changed from Configuration -> SDH/PDH Service Configuration ->
Scheme button in the lower-right part of the working area. It is recommended to
set the scheme to Interleaved.

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When assigning timeslots, consider numbering scheme currently selected. It can


be changed from Configuration -> SDH/PDH Service Configuration ->
Scheme button in the lower-right part of the working area. It is recommended to
set the scheme to Interleaved.

In above capture, E1 received on MP1 card in slot 9 port 1 is transmitted as main


over first E1 of the radio link in slot 3 and protection over STM-1 link leaving from
port 1 of CD1 card in slot 15.

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Note: During PRBS test, selected E1 services will be interrupted.

For E1 cards, E1 PRBS direction can be configured as Cross-connection or


Tributary.
PRBS can also be started from ISV3 card. (Only radio direction is
supported in this case).

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Setting working mode:


Required for an E1 port that supports various service modes. Set Service
Mode to PDH or TDM.
Only MN1 and MP1 (RTN 905) boards require this step.
SP3S board integrated on CSHO does not require this step

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A bridge refers to a functional unit that is used to connect two or more local area
networks (LANs).
A bridge is essential for E-LAN services. After an Ethernet frame enters a bridge
through a specific Ethernet port, the bridge can set up the mapping between this
Ethernet port and the source MAC address contained in the Ethernet frame by
self-learning. This mapping is an entry in a MAC address table. A bridge can use
the following self-learning modes:
Shared VLAN learning (SVL) a bridge creates an entry in the MAC address
table based on the source MAC address and the source port of a frame. This
entry is valid to all VLANs.
Independent VLAN learning (IVL) a bridge creates an entry in the MAC
address table based on the source MAC address, VLAN ID, and source port of
a frame. This entry is valid only to the VLAN represented by the VLAN ID
carried in the frame.

After receiving an Ethernet frame, a bridge processes it as follows:


If the bridge uses the SVL mode, the bridge searches for the destination MAC
address of the Ethernet frame in the MAC address table. If the bridge uses the
IVL mode, the bridge searches for the VLAN ID and destination MAC address
of the Ethernet frame in the MAC address table.
If the bridge finds a mapping entry in the MAC address table, it forwards the
Ethernet frame to the mapping Ethernet port. If the bridge fails to find a

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mapping entry, it broadcasts the Ethernet frame in a proper broadcast domain.


The bridge updates the MAC address table based on the source MAC address
of the Ethernet frame.

A dynamic entry is obtained by a bridge in SVL/IVL mode. A dynamic entry will


be aged out, and will be lost after the Ethernet processing unit is cold reset.
A static entry is manually added to a MAC address table by a network
administrator on the NMS. A static entry will not be aged out. Generally, a static
entry is configured if a piece of equipment with a known MAC address is
mounted to a port and the equipment has constant heavy traffic. A static entry
will be preserved after the Ethernet processing unit is reset.
A blacklist entry is also called a disabled MAC entry or blackhole entry. If the
source MAC address or destination MAC address of a data frame is defined in
a blacklist entry, this data frame is discarded. A blacklist entry is configured by a
network administrator. A blacklist entry will not be aged out, and will be
preserved after the Ethernet processing unit is reset.

To prevent a broadcast storm resulting from a service loop, you can configure a
split horizon group for the E-LAN services at the specified nodes. After the
configuration, the logical ports in a split horizon group cannot forward packets to
each other.

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According to specific rules, a real network topology can be divided into several
logical subnets, namely, VLANs. The broadcast packet of a VLAN can transmit
only within the range of this VLAN. That is, one VLAN corresponds to a specific
broadcast domain.

The four-byte 802.1Q header consists of tag protocol identifier (TPID) and tag
control information (TCI). TCI consists of priority code point (PCP), canonical
format indicator (CFI), and VLAN identifier (VID).
A TPID is a two-byte field, which indicates whether an Ethernet frame is a
tagged frame. This field has a fixed value of 0x8100. When a tagged frame
arrives at a piece of network equipment that cannot identify tagged frames, the
network equipment directly discards the tagged frame.
A PCP indicates the priority of an Ethernet frame. This field can be used to
raise requirements for QoS.
A CFI is a one-bit field, which is used in certain physical ring networks. This
field is not processed on Ethernet networks.
A VID is a 12-bit field, which indicates the VLAN to which a frame belongs. A
VID ranges from 0 to 4095.

Note: VLAN ID 0 and 4095 are reserved, only 4094 VLAN IDs are available
for service transportation (1-4094).

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Based on different methods for processing tagged frames and untagged frames,
TAG attributes are classified into Tag Aware, Access, and Hybrid.

After arriving at a port, an untagged frame may be discarded or added with a


PVID to form a tagged frame. Therefore, all frames are tagged frames before
leaving a port.

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The point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service are the basic E-Line
model. Point-to-point transmission does not involve service bandwidth sharing,
service isolation, or service distinguishing; instead, Ethernet services are
transparently transmitted between two service access points.

In service model 1, Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2, which carry no


VLAN IDs or carry unknown VLAN IDs, are accessed to NE1 through port 1 and
port 2 respectively. Port 1 and port 2 transparently transmit Ethernet service 1
and Ethernet service 2 to port 3 and port 4, respectively. Port 3 and port 4 then
transmit Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to NE2. Service processing on
NE2 is the same as on NE1.

In service model 2, Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2, which carry no


VLAN IDs or carry unknown VLAN IDs, are accessed to NE1 through port 1 and
port 2 respectively. Port 1 and Port 2 process the incoming packets based on
their own TAG attributes. Then, Port 1 and Port 2 send Ethernet service 1 and
Ethernet service 2 to Port 3 and Port 4 respectively. Port 3 and Port 4 process the
incoming packets based on their own TAG attributes. Then, Port 3 and Port 4
send Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to NE2. Service processing on
NE2 is the same as on NE1.

NOTE: In service model 2, ports process the received Ethernet frames according

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to their TAG attributes. Therefore, service model 2 is not a real transparent


transmission model and is not recommended.

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VLANs can be used to separate several E-Line services so that these services
share one physical channel for transmission. These E-Line services are called
VLAN-based E-Line services.

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VLANs can be used to divide a bridge into sub-switching domains. Services from
different users are separated when they are transmitted in different sub-switching
domains. These services are called 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services.

NE2 and NE3 receive services G and H and send them to the convergence node
NE1. Services G and H carry different VLAN IDs, so 802.1Q bridges are
configured on each node and VLAN sub-switching domains are divided for
differentiating and separating services G and H.

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Service 1 carries a VLAN ID of 100, and it is transmitted to NE1 through port 1.


On a transmission network, the VLAN ID of service 1 may be in conflict with the
VLAN IDs of other services. To avoid this situation, the VLAN ID of service 1 must
be changed to another value before it is transmitted on the transmission network
and then be changed to the original value after it is transmitted out of the
transmission network. Therefore, a VLAN forwarding table is configured at NE1
and NE2, so that the VLAN IDs of services between port 1 and port 3 can be
changed as required. For service 1, when it traverses NE1, the VLAN ID is
changed from 100 to 200 and then changes back to 100 again at NE2.

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QinQ is a Layer 2 tunnel protocol based on IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation. The QinQ technology
encapsulates a private virtual local area network (VLAN) tag into a public VLAN tag. Packets
carrying two VLAN tags are transmitted on the backbone network of an operator.
The inner VLAN tag is a customer VLAN (C-VLAN) tag and the outer VLAN is a supplier VLAN (S-
VLAN) tag.

As compared with multiprotocol label switching (MPLS), QinQ provides a cheaper and easier-to-
implement Layer 2 VPN solution. Services are differentiated by using two VLAN tags in data
packets, which increases the number of available VLAN IDs. The inner VLAN tag is a customer
VLAN (C-VLAN) tag and the outer VLAN is a supplier VLAN (S-VLAN) tag.

The QinQ technology brings the following benefits:


The number of available VLAN IDs can reach 4094 x 4094. This meets the increasing
requirements for VLAN IDs.
Customers and operators can plan VLAN resources independently and flexibly. Network
configuration and maintenance are simplified.
A cheaper and easier-to-implement Layer 2 VPN solution can be provided based on the QinQ
technology as compared with MPLS.
Ethernet services can be extended from local area networks (LANs) to wide area networks
(WANs).

The differences between an S-TAG and a C-TAG are as follows:


Tag protocol identifiers (TPIDs) are different.
As defined in IEEE 802.1ad, the TPID in an S-TAG is 0x88a8 and the TPID in a C-TAG is
0x8100.
A C-TAG contains a canonical format indicator (CFI) whereas an S-TAG contains a drop
eligible indicator (DEI).
The DEI and priority code point (PCP) in an S-TAG indicate the S-TAG priority.

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Service 1 and service 2 contain tagged frames and untagged frames. Service 1 is
transmitted to NE1 through port 1, and service 2 is transmitted to NE1 through
port 2. Port 1 adds an S-VLAN tag to service 1, and port 2 adds another S-VLAN
tag to service 2. Service 1 and service 2 are then transmitted to Port 3. Port 3
transmits service 1 and service 2 to NE2.

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Service 1 and service 2 carry different unknown C-VLAN tags. Service 1 is


transmitted to NE1 through port 1, and service 2 is transmitted to NE1 through
port 2. Port 1 adds an S-VLAN tag to service 1, and port 2 adds another S-VLAN
tag to service 2. Service 1 and service 2 are then transmitted to port 3. Port 3
transmits service 1 and service 2 to NE2.

Note: For port 1 and 2 is necessary to set Tag to Tag Aware.

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Service 1 and service 2 carry different C-VLAN tags. Service 1 is transmitted to


NE1 through port 1, and service 2 is transmitted to NE1 through port 2. Port 1
adds an S-VLAN tag to service 1, and port 2 adds another S-VLAN tag to service
2. Service 1 and service 2 are then transmitted to port 3. Port 3 transmits service
1 and service 2 to NE2.

Note: For port 1 and 2 is necessary to set Tag to Tag Aware.

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Service 1 and service 2 carry the same S-VLAN tag. Service 1 is transmitted to
NE1 through port 1, and service 2 is transmitted to NE1 through port 2. Port 1
changes the S-VLAN tag carried in service 1 and port 2 changes the S-VLAN tag
carried in service 2 so that the service 1 and service 2 carry different S-VLAN
tags. Service 1 and service 2 are then transmitted to port 3. Port 3 transmits
service 1 and service 2 to NE2.

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*) When the port encapsulation mode is 802.1Q, set TAG Attribute to Tag
Aware.

NE2 and N3 receive services G and H and send them to the convergence node
NE1. Services G and H carry a same C-VLAN tag, so S-VLAN tags are added for
differentiating and separating these services.

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Traffic classification:
Supports one DiffServ (DS) domain.
Maps Ethernet services into 8 different per-hop behaviors (PHBs) based on C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN
priorities, IP differentiated services code point (DSCP) values, or MPLS experimental bits (EXP) values.
(CS7, CS6, EF, AF4, AF3, AF2, AF1, BE).
Supports enabling/disabling of DSCP demapping at egress ports.
Traffic policing:
Supports committed access rate (CAR) based on complex traffic classification at ports and supports the
setting of the committed information rate (CIR), peak information rate (PIR), committed burst size (CBS),
and peak burst size (PBS).
Traffic classification:
Supports traffic classification by MAC address, VLAN ID, VLAN priority, IP address, DSCP value, protocol
type, port ID.
Congestion avoidance:
Supports tail drop at both microwave ports and Ethernet ports.
Supports weighted random early detection (WRED) at both microwave ports and Ethernet ports.
Queue scheduling:
Supports eight levels of priority scheduling at both Ethernet ports and microwave ports.
Flexibly sets the queue scheduling scheme for each Ethernet port and microwave port. The queue
scheduling schemes include strict priority (SP), weighted round robin (WRR), and SP+WRR.
Traffic shaping:
Supports traffic shaping for egress queues and egress ports.
Supports the setting of PIR in increments of 64 kbit/s and the setting of PBS, in order to avoid egress
traffic bursts.

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Traffic classification is the basis for implementing differentiated services. Simple


or complex traffic classification is applied when service flows enter a DiffServ
(DS) domain. Simple traffic classification is port-based, while complex traffic
classification is flow-based (more refined).

To apply simple traffic classification to a port, you need to configure mapping for a
DS domain and bind the DS domain to the port.
In the ingress direction:
An NE maps the QoS priorities (C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities,
DSCP values, or MPLS EXP values) carried by packets to different per-
hop behaviors (PHBs), and schedules the packets to PHB-specific
queues.
The NE also marks the discarding priorities of the packets through
coloring. When congestion occurs in a queue, packets in the queue are
discarded based on packet colors.
In the egress direction, the NE maps the packets' PHBs back to the QoS
priorities carried by the packets, so that other NEs can provider services based
on the QoS priorities.

A default DS domain is available on OptiX RTN 950A. All Ethernet ports and
Integrated IP microwave ports belong to this domain unless other DS domains
are configured

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Traffic classification is the basis for implementing differentiated services. Simple


or complex traffic classification is applied when service flows enter a DiffServ
(DS) domain. Simple traffic classification is port-based, while complex traffic
classification is flow-based (more refined).

If a flow at a port matches both simple and complex traffic classification rules
configured for the port, complex traffic classification takes effect.
Complex traffic classification, more sophisticated than simple traffic classification,
supports flow-specific QoS control over a port.

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ERPS refers to the automatic protection switching (APS) protocol and protection
switching mechanisms for Ethernet rings. ERPS is applicable to Layer 2 Ethernet
ring topologies, and provides protection for E-LAN services on an Ethernet ring.
When a ring network is configured with ERPS, under normal conditions, the RPL
owner blocks the port on a certain side so that all the services are transmitted
through the port on the other side. In this manner, service loops can be
prevented. If a ring link or a ring node fails, the RPL owner unblocks the
preceding port and the services that cannot be transmitted over the faulty point
can be transmitted through this port. In this manner, ring protection is achieved.

Complies with ITU-T G.8032/Y.1344: Ethernet Ring Protection Switching (2010).

Note:
In ERPS V2, both ports at the end of RPL link are blocked, compared with V1
where only one end (at the RPL owner) was blocked.
Is possible to use hybrid topology, of nodes supporting ERPS v1 and ERPS v2,
but is mandatory to configure an node supporting ERPS v2 as RPL owner.
ERPS v2 was introduced with version: V100R005C01.
A maximum of eight ERPS instances are supported per NE (in v1 and v2). Is
recommended to use the same ERPS instance ID for all the nodes belonging to
the ring.

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1. When the Ethernet ring network is normal, the east (E) port on the RPL owner (NE D)
is blocked.
2. The link between NE A and NE B becomes faulty.
3. NE A and NE B detect the local SF condition. After the hold-off timer expires, NE A
and NE B block the ports that are connected to the faulty link and empty their MAC
address tables.
4. NE A and NE B quickly transmit three R-APS (SF) messages to the Ethernet ring
network to prevent switching delay caused by accidental loss of R-APS messages. NE A
and NE B transmit the R-APS (SF) messages to the Ethernet ring network at the
specified interval when the SF condition persists.
5. The ring nodes that receive the R-APS (SF) messages empty their MAC address
tables. When the RPL owner receives the R-APS (SF) message, it unblocks the RPL
connection point.
6. The ERPS is complete and the ring network becomes stable.
7. The fault on the link between NE A and NE B is rectified.
8. NE A and NE B detect that the SF condition is cleared. NE A and NE B start the guard
timer, quickly transmit three R-APS (NR) messages to the other ring nodes, and then
transmit the R-APS (NR) messages at the specified interval. The guard timer prevents
frequent switching events on NE A and NE B because of the receipt of R-APS
messages. After the guard timer expires, NE A and NE B can receive new R-APS
messages.
9. When the RPL owner receives the R-APS (NR) message, it starts the WTR timer.
When the WTR timer expires, the RPL owner blocks the RPL connection point, quickly
transmits three R-APS (NR, RB) messages, and then transmits the R-APS (NR, RB)
messages at the specified interval. In addition, the RPL owner empties the MAC address
table.
10. When NE A and NE B receive the R-APS (NR, RB) messages, they unblock the
blocked ring ports and stop transmitting the R-APS (NR) messages. In addition, NE A,
NE B, and NE C empty their MAC address tables when receiving the R-APS (NR, RB)
messages. The Ethernet ring network returns to normal.

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In manual aggregation, a LAG is manually created, and the Link Aggregation


Control Protocol (LACP) is not enabled. A port can be in the Up or Down state.
The system determines whether to aggregate ports according to their states
(Up or Down), working modes, and rates.
In static aggregation, a LAG is manually created, and the LACP protocol is
enabled. By running LACP, a LAG can determine the state of each member
port. A member port can be in the selected, standby, or unselected state.
Compared with manual aggregation, static aggregation controls link
aggregation more accurately and effectively.
In load-sharing mode, each member link in a LAG carries traffic based on the
load balancing algorithm, and the link bandwidth increases. When members in
the LAG change or some links fail, traffic is reallocated automatically.
In non-load sharing mode, only one member link in a LAG functions as the
active link and carries traffic, and the other links are in the standby state. When
the active link fails, the system selects a standby link to take over. This is
equivalent to a hot standby mechanism.
Maximum number of slave ports in a LAG is limited to 3 (in load sharing mode)
and 1 in (non-sharing mode)
Note: Ensure that the load sharing is set to the same type at both ends. It is
recommended that the LAG used for protection use load non-sharing at both
ends and the LAG for increasing bandwidths use load sharing at both ends.

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LPT-enabled NE1 and NE2 will disconnect from router A and router B if access
link 1, access link 2, or the service network becomes faulty. As a result, router A
and router B will immediately detect the link failure between them, and switch to a
backup network for communication.

Applicable on the following network setups:


Layer 2 services
QinQ services that exclusively occupy UNIs
PW-carried E-Line services that exclusively occupy UNIs

Is required to enable LPT only on access nodes at the edge of a Layer 2 network,
edge of a QinQ network or PE nodes.

Fault Detection Modes


The strict mode or non-strict mode can be used in point-to-multipoint LPT for
detecting faults.
Strict mode: A primary point triggers LPT switchover when all of its secondary
points detect faults.
Non-strict mode: A primary point triggers LPT switchover when anyone of its
secondary points detects a fault.

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In the point-to-point LPT mechanism, one primary point corresponds to one


secondary point. Therefore, only the strict mode is available for point-to-point LPT.

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MPLS has two planes:


control plane is connectionless, featuring powerful and flexible routing
functions to meet network requirements for a variety of new applications. This
plane is mainly responsible for label distribution, setup of label forwarding
tables, and setup and removal of label switched paths (LSPs).
forwarding plane - data plane, is connection-oriented and supports Layer 2
networks such as ATM and Ethernet networks. The forwarding plane adds or
deletes IP packet labels, and forwards the packets according to the label
forwarding table.

Note: The OptiX RTN 905 does not support dynamic MPLS tunnel. (no LDP)

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On an MPLS network, each LSR has a unique identifier; that is, a 16-byte LSR
ID. An LSR ID can be based on the IPv4 address or IPv6 address.

Note: Currently, the OptiX RTN 905 supports only LSR IDs based on the
IPv4 address

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LSRs on an LSP can be classified into the following types:


Ingress - An LSP ingress node pushes a label onto the packet for MPLS
packet encapsulation and forwarding. One LSP has only one ingress node.
Transit - An LSP transit node swaps labels and forwards MPLS packets
according to the label forwarding table. One LSP may have one or more
transits nodes.
Egress - An LSP egress node pops the label and recovers the packet for
forwarding. One LSP has only one egress node.

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ARP: It is used to translate an IP address (logical address) at the network layer


into a MAC address (physical address) at the data link layer. When the TAG
attribute of a UNI port is Tag ware (default), an ARP packet that is transmitted or
received through an NNI port has a VLAN ID that is the default VLAN ID of the
NNI port. Therefore, the TAG attribute and default VLAN ID of an NNI port must
be the same as those of a peer NNI port, respectively.

The system MAC address is the MAC address of the system control, switching,
and timing board.

FE, GE, and microwave ports all use Ethernet frames to bear MPLS packets.

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Label Space
The value range for label distribution is called a label space. Two types of label
space are available:
Per-platform label space: An LSR uses one label space; that is, the labels are
unique per LSR.
Per-interface label space: Each interface on an LSR uses a label space; that
is, the labels are unique per interface, but can be repeated on different
interfaces.

The OptiX RTN 905 supports only global label space. For an OptiX RTN 905 NE,
all ingress labels must be unique to each other and all egress labels also
must be unique to each other.

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NE A process an MPLS packet as follows:


1. Receives a packet, and finds the LSP ID based on the FEC of the packet.
2. Finds the NHLFE based on the LSP ID and then obtains the information such as outgoing interface,
next hop, outgoing label, and operation. The label operation for an ingress node is Push.
3. Pushes an MPLS label to the packet, and forwards the encapsulated MPLS packet to the next hop.

NE B process an MPLS packet as follows:


1. Finds the LSP ID based on the label value of the MPLS packet received at the incoming interface.
2. Finds the NHLFE based on the LSP ID and then obtains the information such as outgoing interface,
next hop, outgoing label, and operation. The label operation for a transit node is Swap.
3. The outgoing label value of the NHLFE is 21. Thus, NE B replaces the old label value of 20 with a new
label value of 21 and then sends the MPLS packet carrying the new label to the next hop.

NE C process an MPLS packet as follows:


1. Finds the LSP ID based on the label value of the MPLS packet received at the incoming interface.
2. Finds the NHLFE based on the LSP ID and then obtains the information such as outgoing interface,
next hop, outgoing label, and operation. The label operation for a transit node is Swap.
3. The outgoing label value of the NHLFE is 22. Thus, NE C replaces the old label value of 21 with a new
label value of 22 and then sends the MPLS packet carrying the new label to the next hop.

NE D processes an MPLS packet as follows:


1. Finds the LSP ID based on the label value of the MPLS packet received at the incoming interface.
2. Finds the NHLFE based on the LSP ID and then determines that the label operation is Pop.
3. Pops the MPLS label and forwards the MPLS packet.

Note: If the value of the new label is equal to or greater than 16, the label operation is Swap. If the
value of the new label is less than 16, this label is special and needs to be processed according to
the specific value of the label.

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CE
A CE is a device where one end of a service originates and/or terminates. The CE is not aware
that it is using an emulated service rather than a native service.

PE
A PE is a device that provides PWE3 to a CE. Located at the edge of a network, a PE is
connected with a CE through an AC.
In the PWE3 network reference model, the mapping relationship between an AC and a PW is
determined once a PW is created between two PEs. As a result, Layer 2 services on CEs can be
transmitted over a PSN.

AC
An AC is a physical or virtual circuit attaching a CE to a PE. An AC can be, for example, an
Ethernet port, a VLAN, or a TDM link.

PW
A PW is a mechanism that carries emulated services from one PE to another PE over a PSN. By
means of PWE3, point-to-point channels are created, separated from each other. Users' Layer 2
packets are transparently transmitted on a PW.
PWs are available in two types depending on whether signaling protocols are used or not.
Specifically, a PW that does not use signaling protocols is called a static PW, whereas a PW that
does use signaling protocols is called a dynamic PW.

Tunnel
A tunnel provides a mechanism that transparently transmits information over a network. In a
tunnel, one or more PWs can be carried. A tunnel connects a local PE and a remote PE for
transparently transmitting data.
PSN tunnels are available in several types, but the OptiX RTN 905 supports only MPLS tunnels.
In this document, PWE3 is generally based on the MPLS tunnel (LSP), unless otherwise specified.

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The local PE (PE1) forwards packets as follows:


1. Extracts the local service packets that are transmitted by CE1 from the AC.
2. Pre-processes the service payloads before PWE3 emulation.
3. Uses the forwarder to map service payloads to the corresponding PW.
4. Encapsulates the data transmitted on a PW into PWE3 packets in standard
format. The process involves generation of the control word, and adding of the
PW label and tunnel label (tunnel label A) to the data.
5. Maps the PW into the MPLS tunnel for transmission.

The P device forwards packets as follows:


When PWE3 packets transmitted from PE1 to PE2 traverse the P device, the
tunnel label in the packets is swapped. That is, tunnel label A is changed to tunnel
label B.

The remote PE (PE2) forwards packets as follows:


1. Demultiplexes the PW from the MPLS tunnel.
2. Decapsulates the PW, and removes the tunnel label (tunnel label B), PW
label, and control word.
3. Extracts service payloads from the PW.
4. Restores service payloads to the local service packets.
5. Selects an AC by using the forwarder, and forwards the packets to CE2 at the
remote end over the AC.

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If port is Layer 2 it can carry native Ethernet services.


If port is Layer 3 it can carry MPLS tunnels.
If port is Layer Mix it can carry native Ethernet services and MPLS tunnels.

If you set Encapsulation Type to Null, the port transparently transmits the received
packets.
If you set Encapsulation Type to 802.1Q, the port identifies the packets that comply
with the IEEE 802.1q standard.
If you set Encapsulation Type to QinQ, the port identifies the packets that comply with
the IEEE 802.1ad QinQ standard.

Note:
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to QinQ, you need
to set QinQ Type Domain. The default value is 88A8.
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to Null or 802.1Q,
you cannot set QinQ Type Domain. In this case, QinQ Type Domain is displayed as
FFFF and cannot be changed.
If all the accessed services are frames with the VLAN tag (tagged frames), set TAG to
Tag Aware.
If all the accessed services are frames without the VLAN tag (untagged frames), set
TAG to Access.
If the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set TAG to
Hybrid.
Default VLAN ID is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.
VLAN Priority is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.

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NOTE:
If Port Mode is Layer 2, the port can carry native Ethernet services.
If Port Mode is Layer 3, the port can carry tunnels.
If Port Mode is Layer Mix, the port can carry both tunnels and Native Ethernet services.

Encapsulation Type specifies the method of the port to process the received packets.
This parameter is valid only when Port Mode is Layer 2.
If Encapsulation Type is set to Null, the port transparently transmits the received
packets.
If Encapsulation Type is set to 802.1Q, the port identifies the packets that comply with
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
If Encapsulation Type is set to QinQ, the port identifies the packets that comply with the
IEEE 802.1ad QinQ standard.

When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to QinQ, you need
to set QinQ Type Domain. The default value is 88A8.
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to Null or 802.1Q,
you cannot set QinQ Type Domain. In this case, QinQ Type Domain is displayed as
FFFF and cannot be changed.
If all the accessed services are frames that contain the VLAN tag (tagged frames), set
Tag to "Tag Aware".
If all the accessed services are frames that do not contain the VLAN tag (untagged
frames), set Tag to "Access".
If the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set Tag to
"Hybrid".
Default VLAN ID is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.
VLAN Priority is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.

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For the OptiX RTN 905 1E, the total number of VLAN IDs configured for all
Ethernet services cannot exceed 1024.

Note: If is necessary to modify VLAN IDs of this service, navigate to


Configuration->Ethernet Service Management->E-Line Service, select
desired E-Line service and in UNI tab on the lower part of the window,
configure for each UNI port the allowed VLAN IDs.

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Please note that when VLAN Forwarding function is enabled, VLANs filtered by
UNI ports are not the same.

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RTN 950A supports 16 traffic class queues.

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The Scheduling Weight parameter indicates the percentage of the bandwidth


resources gained by the WRR queue.
This parameter must be set to 0 for SP queues.
The parameters must be set to a value rather than 0 for WRR queues.

If a WRR queue does not carry services, it is advised to set this parameter for the
WRR queue to a small number.

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This section describes parameters for creating a port WRED policy (WRED
stands for weighted random early detection).

Packets with different colors have different discard thresholds and discard ratios.
In the case of congestion, lower priority packets are discarded first so that higher
priority packets can pass

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These rules will be applied on traffic at ingress port.

CoS specifies the PHB service class queue mapped by the traffic classification
packets. If this parameter is set to empty (-), the traffic classification packets map
the PHB service class queue according the mapping specified in the topic about
Diffserv domain management.

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If port is Layer 2 it can carry native Ethernet services.


If port is Layer 3 it can carry MPLS tunnels.
If port is Layer Mix it can carry native Ethernet services and MPLS tunnels.

If you set Encapsulation Type to Null, the port transparently transmits the received
packets.
If you set Encapsulation Type to 802.1Q, the port identifies the packets that comply
with the IEEE 802.1q standard.
If you set Encapsulation Type to QinQ, the port identifies the packets that comply with
the IEEE 802.1ad QinQ standard.

Note:
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to QinQ, you need
to set QinQ Type Domain. The default value is 88A8.
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to Null or 802.1Q,
you cannot set QinQ Type Domain. In this case, QinQ Type Domain is displayed as
FFFF and cannot be changed.
If all the accessed services are frames with the VLAN tag (tagged frames), set TAG to
Tag Aware.
If all the accessed services are frames without the VLAN tag (untagged frames), set
TAG to Access.
If the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set TAG to
Hybrid.
Default VLAN ID is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.
VLAN Priority is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.

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NOTE:
If Port Mode is Layer 2, the port can carry native Ethernet services.
If Port Mode is Layer 3, the port can carry tunnels.
If Port Mode is Layer Mix, the port can carry both tunnels and Native Ethernet services.

Encapsulation Type specifies the method of the port to process the received packets.
This parameter is valid only when Port Mode is Layer 2.
If Encapsulation Type is set to Null, the port transparently transmits the received
packets.
If Encapsulation Type is set to 802.1Q, the port identifies the packets that comply with
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
If Encapsulation Type is set to QinQ, the port identifies the packets that comply with the
IEEE 802.1ad QinQ standard.

When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to QinQ, you need
to set QinQ Type Domain. The default value is 88A8.
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to Null or 802.1Q,
you cannot set QinQ Type Domain. In this case, QinQ Type Domain is displayed as
FFFF and cannot be changed.
If all the accessed services are frames that contain the VLAN tag (tagged frames), set
Tag to "Tag Aware".
If all the accessed services are frames that do not contain the VLAN tag (untagged
frames), set Tag to "Access".
If the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set Tag to
"Hybrid".
Default VLAN ID is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.
VLAN Priority is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.

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Service Name: This parameter is set based on the service plan or user
preference.
BPDU Private Service: This parameter takes a fixed value of No.
Customer: This parameter is set as required by a user.
Remarks: This parameter is set as required by a user.

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Note: One NE cannot be involved in multiple LB tests simultaneously.

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If port is Layer 2 it can carry native Ethernet services.


If port is Layer 3 it can carry MPLS tunnels.
If port is Layer Mix it can carry native Ethernet services and MPLS tunnels.

If you set Encapsulation Type to Null, the port transparently transmits the received
packets.
If you set Encapsulation Type to 802.1Q, the port identifies the packets that comply
with the IEEE 802.1q standard.
If you set Encapsulation Type to QinQ, the port identifies the packets that comply with
the IEEE 802.1ad QinQ standard.

Note:
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to QinQ, you need
to set QinQ Type Domain. The default value is 88A8.
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to Null or 802.1Q,
you cannot set QinQ Type Domain. In this case, QinQ Type Domain is displayed as
FFFF and cannot be changed.
If all the accessed services are frames with the VLAN tag (tagged frames), set TAG to
Tag Aware.
If all the accessed services are frames without the VLAN tag (untagged frames), set
TAG to Access.
If the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set TAG to
Hybrid.
Default VLAN ID is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.
VLAN Priority is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.

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NOTE:
If Port Mode is Layer 2, the port can carry native Ethernet services.
If Port Mode is Layer 3, the port can carry tunnels.
If Port Mode is Layer Mix, the port can carry both tunnels and Native Ethernet services.

Encapsulation Type specifies the method of the port to process the received packets.
This parameter is valid only when Port Mode is Layer 2.
If Encapsulation Type is set to Null, the port transparently transmits the received
packets.
If Encapsulation Type is set to 802.1Q, the port identifies the packets that comply with
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
If Encapsulation Type is set to QinQ, the port identifies the packets that comply with the
IEEE 802.1ad QinQ standard.

When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to QinQ, you need
to set QinQ Type Domain. The default value is 88A8.
When Encapsulation Type in the General Attributes tab page is set to Null or 802.1Q,
you cannot set QinQ Type Domain. In this case, QinQ Type Domain is displayed as
FFFF and cannot be changed.
If all the accessed services are frames that contain the VLAN tag (tagged frames), set
Tag to "Tag Aware".
If all the accessed services are frames that do not contain the VLAN tag (untagged
frames), set Tag to "Access".
If the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set Tag to
"Hybrid".
Default VLAN ID is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.
VLAN Priority is valid only when TAG is set to Access or Hybrid.

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Note: the main port will be used as LAG identifier (resource) in future
configurations involving created Link Aggregation Group.

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Note: For QoS and Service verification you may follow the same steps
mentioned in procedure for E-Line services.

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Note:
If connected client has no VLAN or customer port is configured in access mode,
set Outer VLAN ID and priority as 0.
IP Ping commands can be initiated only from UNI ports.
IP ping can be enabled only for a maximum of four ports on an NE.
The CE device or transmission NE on which IP ping is initiated must support non-
strict ARP learning mode. That is, the CE must be able to learn MAC addresses
based on ARP request packets.

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If test is unsuccessful output will be:


[Timeout]SN: 3
[Timeout]SN: 2
[Timeout]SN: 1

*) CE = Customer Equipment

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Ping test implies ICMP request and ICMP reply, so each end needs to resolve the
MAC address for source and destination IP address via ARP in order for ping to
be successful.

Note: To modify IP address and Next Hop IP address of the interface is


necessary to disable (&Apply) current configuration and then to enable the vlan
subinterface again with the new parameters.

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OptiX RTN 905 supports Ethernet service OAM that uses the management
architecture defined in IEEE 802.1ag. This management architecture specifies
maintenance points (MPs), maintenance domains (MDs), maintenance
associations (MAs), allowing services to be managed by section and by layer.
Maintenance Domain (MD) are management space on a network, typically
owned and operated by a single entity. MDs are configured
with Names and Levels, where the eight levels range from 0 to 7. A
hierarchical relationship exists between domains based on levels. The larger
the domain, the higher the level value. Recommended values of levels are as
follows:
Customer Domain: Largest (e.g., 7)
Provider Domain: In between (e.g., 3)
Operator Domain: Smallest (e.g., 1)
Maintenance Association (MA) is defined as a "set of MEPs, all of which are
configured with the same MAID (Maintenance Association Identifier) and MD
Level, each of which is configured with a MEPID unique within that MAID and
MD Level, and all of which are configured with the complete list of MEPIDs.
Maintenance association End Point (MEP) defines the boundary for the
domain. A MEP sends and receives CFM frames through the relay function,
drops all CFM frames of its level or lower that come from the wire side
Maintenance domain Intermediate Point (MIP) is a point internal to a
domain, not at the boundary. CFM frames received from MEPs and other MIPs
are cataloged and forwarded, all CFM frames at a lower level are stopped and
dropped. MIPs are passive points, respond only when triggered by CFM trace
route and loop-back messages.

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A maintenance domain (MD) defines the range and level of the Ethernet OAM.
MDs of different ranges and levels can provide users with differentiated OAM
services.
This operation needs to be performed on all nodes involved in service continuity
check procedure which require creation of MIPs or MEPs.

Select NE Name and navigate to Function Tree->Configuration->Ethernet OAM


Management -> Ethernet Service OAM management
Click New -> New Maintenance Domain.
Fill in Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Domain Level.

Note: MD Name and Level need to be the same on all nodes.

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A maintenance domain (MD) can be divided into several independent


maintenance associations (MAs). After creating MAs, you can associate specific
Ethernet services with MAs, which facilitates Ethernet OAM operations.
This operation needs to be performed on all nodes involved in service continuity
check procedure (which include MIPs or MEPs).

CC Test Transmit Period can be configured at 3.3 ms, 10 ms, 100 ms, 1s, 10s, 1
min, 10 min

Note: MA Name and CC Test Transmit Period need to be the same on all
nodes involved.

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MEPs initiate and terminate all Ethernet OAM packets. After creating MEPs, you
can check the Ethernet link between MEPs in the same MA by performing OAM
operations.
This operation needs to be performed on the end nodes.

*) Direction can be configured as Ingress or Egress.


Ingress CC packets are sent from the port towards internal switch of RTN.
Egress CC packets are sent from the port towards customer connected
equipment.

**)MEP ID identifies the monitoring port inside selected MD/MA and should be
unique.

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To ensure that an MEP can respond to the OAM operations initiated by the other
MEPs in the same MA, you need to set the other MEPs to be the remote MEPs
of this MEP.

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This step is optional.

An MIP can only respond to specific OAM packets. By creating MIPs, you can
divide the Ethernet link between two MEPs in the same maintenance association
(MA) into several segments, thereby facilitating the Ethernet link checking.

* MIP ID needs to be unique relative to IDs already defined in MA.

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A continuity check (CC) test checks the status of a unidirectional link automatically and
periodically. If a CC test started at the source end finds that the link is faulty, the sink reports the
corresponding alarm.
Only an MEP can start a CC test and function as the receive or respond end in the test.
During a CC check, the source MEP constructs and transmits continuity check message
(CCM) packets periodically. After receiving the CCM packets from the source MEP, the sink
MEP directly enables the CC function. If the sink MEP fails to receive the CCM packets from
the source MEP within the specified period (3.5 times the transmission interval), it reports an
alarm automatically.
A CC test does not affect services.

In case CC fails there will be an alarm (ETH_CFM_LOC) reported on node where sink MEP is
defined.

If test is successful in Detection Result text area you should see:


----LB STATISTIC INFORMATION----
MDIndex: 2
MAIndex: 1
MEPID: 2
Sink Type: MPID
Sink MPID: 1
SendNum: 3
ReceiveNum: 3
LossRate: 0
MinTimeDelay(ms): 5
MaxTimeDelay(ms): 9
AverageTimeDelay(ms):7

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This workshop is intended to offer a start-up in working with RTN 950A equipment
and Ethernet services.

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You can learn about the basic information such as whether the NE fails to
communicate with the NMS and whether any alarms are reported by checking the
NE status.

NOTE: By default, the color of the NE icon on the U2000 indicates the NE status.

from the WebLCT:


a) Query Communication status and Login status of the NE in NE List.
b) If Login status is Offline, log in to the NE.
c) Select the NE and click Log in.
d) Set User Name and Password.
NOTE:
The default user name is lct.
The lct account owns system-level rights.
The default password of the lct account is Changeme_123.
e) View NE status and alarm status.

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You can learn about the board status in a visual manner by checking the slot
diagram.

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A current alarm refers to an alarm that is not cleared.


By U2000, you can browse the network-wide alarms based on the alarm severity
by clicking the alarm indicators in the upper right corner
By default, the number shown by each indicator indicates the number of current
network-wide alarms, which are not cleared, of the specific severity.
Red: critical alarm
Orange: major alarm
Yellow: minor alarm
Purple: warning
Light blue: event

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You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by
browsing historical alarms. A historical alarm refers to an alarm that is already
cleared.

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You can know the running status of the equipment by browsing current SDH/PDH
performance events. The counter of current performance events measures all the
performance events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and
the current time.
The performance monitoring function must be enabled in advance, in order to be
able to browse performance.

In a similar way can be browsed also:


History performance (notice History Performance Data tab in the screenshot)
UAT
Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records

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Remote network monitoring (RMON) is used for performance statistics and


management of Ethernet ports. Being one of the most widely used network
management standards, RMON also supports configuring and reporting of
performance threshold-crossing alarms.

The current performance statistics of an RMON performance item are the count
of performance events within the current sampling period (which is usually a few
seconds). The historical performance statistics of an RMON performance item
are calculated using the corresponding method based on counts in sampling
periods within a specific statistical period. The following table lists calculation
methods for historical performance statistics.

The RMON performance that the ISU2/ISX2/ISV3/ISM6 board supports includes


basic performance (example from slide table), extended performance, port
traffic classification performance, port priority performance, and Port DS domain
performance.

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After setting the RMON statistics group. you can browse real-time Ethernet
performance statistics.

NOTE: If you click Start, the register of the statistics group is not reset to clear
the existing data.

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If the radio link requires troubleshooting, query the change trend for the historical
transmit power and receive power for reference.
The corresponding IF boards and the ODUs connected to the IF boards must be
added to the NE Panel.

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If the radio link requires troubleshooting, query the change trend for the historical
transmit power and receive power for reference.
The corresponding IF boards and the ODUs connected to the IF boards must be
added to the NE Panel.

If you select Current Performance in step 3, you get Current Performance


Events of the radio link

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To query the traffic, physical bandwidth, or bandwidth utilization of Ethernet ports


within a certain period, you need to enable the monitoring for the object before
that period starts. The FE/GE ports and the ports on the packet plane support
this operation.

After the flow monitoring function is enabled, the system saves the statistics
about the received traffic and transmitted traffic with an interval of 15 minutes. In
normal cases, the system stores the statistics that are collected in the last 30
days. In the system, every measurement entry shows the average transmit rate
and average receive rate within a period of 15 minutes. You can query the
statistics in the last 30 days.

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on
the U2000.

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Routine maintenance operations are performed to detect and rectify hidden faults
before the hidden faults cause damage to equipment and affect services.
*) Required if there is a pollution source nearby:
3.7 km away from salty waters (such as an ocean and salty water)
3 km away from severe pollution sources (such as iron refinery works, and coal
mines)
2 km away from intermediate pollution sources (such as chemical plants, rubber
processing works, and electroplating workshops)
1 km away from light pollution sources (such as food processing works, leather
working plants, and heating boilers).

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Most Microwave link faults are classified into:


Equipment faults: hardware fault or power faults
Propagation faults: interference, fading or poor Line Of Sight
Poor construction quality: related to Antenna Installation (antenna not aligned,
loosened) or Cable (poor grounding, poor waterproofing)

Fading may be classified based on:


RSL variation
Down fading: The RSL is lower than the RSL after free space fading.
The difference can be tens of decibels. (may be caused by: multi-path
fading, duct-type fading, rain fading)
Up fading: The RSL is higher than the RSL in the free space. The
difference can be 10-odd decibels. (may be caused by: interference,
long delay caused by terrain reflection)
Fading duration
Fast fading: The fading lasts from several milliseconds to tens of
seconds. (may be caused by: multi-path fading, duct-type fading, long
delay caused by terrain reflection)
Slow fading: The fading lasts from tens of seconds to several hours
(slow up fading is caused by interference, slow down fading may be
caused by rain (for links above 10 GHz))

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If Ethernet services are interrupted check for:


Hardware alarms such as HARD_BAD, LASER_MOD_ERR, and
TEMP_ALARM
Link alarms such as ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK, ETH_LINK_DOWN, ETH_LOS,
and LOOP_ALM
Service alarms such as ETH_CFM_AIS, ETH_CFM_LOC, and
ETH_NO_FLOW

If Ethernet services are experiencing bad performance check for:


Hardware alarms such as HARD_BAD and TEMP_ALARM
Service alarms such as DROPRATIO_OVER, FLOW_OVER, MAC_EXT_EXC,
MAC_FCS_EXC, and PORT_EXC_TRAFFIC
Upstream alarms such as AM_DOWNSHIFT, MW_BER_EXC, and
MW_BER_SD

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There are different scenarios caused by a DCN malfunction.


If NEs that receive network management messages through service ports (such
as air interfaces and Ethernet ports) are unreachable to the NMS, possible
causes are:
Cause 1: Services are interrupted.
Cause 2: DCN parameters are incorrectly set.
Cause 3: System control units are faulty.

If NEs that receive network management messages through NMS ports are
unreachable to the NMS, possible causes are:
Cause 1: Network cables are disconnected or damaged.
Cause 2: DCN parameters are incorrectly set.
Cause 3: System control units are faulty.

If few NEs are unreachable to the NMS or their connections to the NMS are
unstable, possible causes are:
Cause 1: DCN parameters are incorrectly set.
Cause 2: An NE ID or NE IP address conflict occurs on the DCN subnet.
Cause 3: The DCN subnet is oversized.
Cause 4: System control units are faulty.

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When removing:
Use fiber removers to remove fibers or network cables.
Remove the board slowly to prevent the components on the boards from
colliding.

When inserting:
Insert the board slowly to prevent the components on the boards from colliding.
Ensure correct type of board. If the board is not for the specific slot or if the
board is pushed too fast and hard, there is risk to bend pins on the backplane.

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When an IF board is replaced, unprotected services on the board are interrupted.


The version and type of the spare board must be the same as the version and
type of the board to be replaced.
IF boards support hot swap. After a substitute board is installed, it enters the
initialization state and starts working two minutes later.

Protection mechanisms: SNCP, IF 1+1, IF N+1, MPLS APS, PW APS

If A single-channel IF board needs to be replaced Turn off the ODU-PWR


switch on the IF board.
NOTICE: To turn off the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch lever outwards slightly
and set the switch to the "O" position.

If A dual-channel IF board needs to be replaced Turn off the soft power switch
of the ODU

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This section describes how to turn on or off the soft power switch of an ODU
connected to a dual-channel IF board through software.
Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on
the U2000.

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You can obtain the manufacturing information about each board and the SFP
module by querying the board manufacturing information report.
Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on
the U2000.

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All the services are interrupted during the period of replacing the system control,
switching, and timing board.
The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare
board must be the same as those of the board to be replaced.

The RTN.CER file, which stores the account and password information at the
system administration level (the password is encrypted), is generated by the
system administrator of a network management center using dedicated tools.

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NOTE: When removing the power cable, press the former section of the red
button and pull the red button.

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After the NE database is restored successfully, a cold reset is automatically


performed on the NE.

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Prerequisites:
You must know the impact of ODU replacement.
You must know the specific positions of the ODU to be replaced and the
IDU connected to the ODU.
The spare ODU must be at hand, whose type must be the same as the
type of the ODU to be replaced.
Necessary materials:
Ejector lever (torque spanner), Silicon, Waterproof adhesive tape
Precautions:
Before you replace an ODU that is installed on the coupler, power off
the ODU to be replaced, but do not power off or mute the other ODU.
Otherwise, the services may be affected. The interface of the coupler
ejects little RF radiation, thus meeting the safety standards for
microwave radiation.
Do not damage the coating when you replace an ODU. In the case of
any coating damage, repair the coating timely.

If A single-channel IF board needs to be replaced Turn off the ODU-PWR


switch on the IF board.
NOTICE: To turn off the ODU-PWR switch, pull the switch lever outwards slightly
and set the switch to the "O" position.

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If A dual-channel IF board needs to be replaced Turn off the soft power switch
of the ODU.

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When an IF cable is replaced, the unprotected services on the IF cable are


interrupted.

In the case of the RG-8U IF cable or the 1/2-inch IF cable, an IF jumper is


required to connect the IF cable to the IDU and both ends of the IF cable should
be terminated with type-N connectors. In the case of the 5D IF cable, the IF cable
is connected directly to the IDU and the cable end connecting to the IDU should
be terminated with the TNC connector and the cable end connecting to the ODU
should be terminated with the type-N connector.

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An NE database stores communication data, security data, alarm data,


performance data, and configuration data of an NE in a certain structure, to
facilitate data query and modification and to ensure that the data can be restored
after the NE is reset.

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With this method, all configuration from initial NE will be restored on spare NE.
(software version, communication parameters, service configuration, user
database).

Note: During the database recovering process, do not perform operations such
as data configuration, NE resets, and software loading

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When a USB flash drive is connected to an RTN 905, the RTN 905 checks the
folders on the USB flash drive in the following order:
1. Checks for the RTN.CER file in the root directory. If the file exists, the USB
flash drive is authenticated. Otherwise, the USB flash drive fails to be identified.
2. Checks the NE software folder pkg. If the NE software version is different from
that of the local RTN 905, the RTN 905 upgrades its software.
3. Checks the patch software folder patch. If the patch software version is
different from that of the local RTN 905, the RTN 905 loads the patch software
from the folder.
4. Checks the system parameter folder sysdata. If the folder contains data, the
RTN 905 imports system parameters from the folder.
5. Checks the script folder script. If the folder contains data, the RTN 905
imports script data from the folder.
6. Checks the database folder db. If the folder contains data and the device type
under \Devicetype is the same as the NE device type, the RTN 905 loads the
database from the folder.
7. If any of the preceding folders contains no data or does not exist, the RTN 905
checks the next folder. If the RTN 905 finds none of the preceding folders, it
exports its data to the USB flash drive.

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Database restoration is service affecting. During the activation phase the NE will
perform a cold reset.

Is not possible to restore a database performed when NE was running an older


software release when the NE is running on a newer (different) software version.

Note: Before database recovery on a NE is necessary to manually configure


the ID and Ext ID of the node to be same as the one in the database.

Node ID is specified inside file: dbf.pkg

Example: neid=589826

NEID = EXT_ID * 65536 + ID = 9*65536 + 2


Ext ID: 9
ID: 2

Connect to spare node, manually configure ID and EXT ID and then you can
perform database restoration.

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Database restoration function will not restore: ID, EXT ID and


communication parameters.

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The NE configuration data is stored in the database of an NE. To prevent the


database from being damaged due to certain risky operations such as replacing a
faulty system control, cross-connect, and timing board or upgrading the software,
you need to manually back up the database on a regular basis and before
performing any risk operation.

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NOTE: Press and hold the Ctrl button on the keyboard, you can select multiple
NEs to back up the data at one time.

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If the database is damaged, you can restore the NE database by using the
database files that are saved previously.

If NE configurations have been modified after the database is backed up, using
the backup database to restore configurations may interrupt DCN communication
or services. Therefore, you must manually configure service parameters if NE
configurations have been modified after the database is backed up.

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NOTE:
If Activate Type is No Reboot, only database files are overwritten and the NE
will not be warm reset. The database does not take effect until the NE is reset.
If Activate Type is With Service Interruption, database files will be
overwritten, the NE will be warm reset, and then the database will take effect.
If Deliver To Board Activate is selected, the EFP8/EMS6 board will be
instructed to perform a cold reset during database activation.
If Deliver To Board Activate is unselected, the EFP8/EMS6 board will not be
cold reset.

NOTE:
If the NE transmits data services, select Deliver to Board.
Services are interrupted during the activation of databases.

After step 10:


The system starts recovering the selected data files on the specified NE.
In the NE list of NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of
recovering the data.
After the data is recovered, Operation Status displays a message, indicating
that the operation is successful.

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This section describes how to restore databases for an NE from its peer NE. After
the databases of an NE are damaged, configure a microwave link between the
NE and its peer NE, turn up the microwave link, and restore its databases from its
peer NE.
Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on
the U2000.

Prerequisite: A microwave link between the NE and its peer NE has been
configured, and the DCN channel has been set up.

If NE configurations have been modified after the database is backed up,


using the backup database to restore configurations may interrupt DCN
communication or services. Therefore, you must manually configure
service parameters if NE configurations have been modified after the
database is backed up.

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Introduction to Documentation (Multimedia)


- Shows how to find info in hedex, with screenshots, for different category (e.g.
Technical specs, Alarm meanings)

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This workshop is intended to offer a start-up in working with RTN 950A equipment
and Ethernet services.

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