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SOCIAL SCIENCE

Chapter - 1 : THE GLOBE – A MODEL OF THE EARTH

New words: Axis, Poles (of the earth), Equator, Latitudes, Longitudes, Meridian, Tropic of
Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Hemisphere

1. How is the Globe useful?
The Globe is helpful to us to study the shape and location of the continents,countries,
oceans and seas in a smaller scale.
2. Why are Latitudes and Longitudes drawn on the globe?
Latitudes and Longitudes are drawn on the globe to make us easier to locate any country
or city on the globe.
3. What is the Prime Meridian?
The Longitude running through the old Royal Observatory at Greenwich near London is
called Prime Meridian or Greenwich Meridian.
4. If a place has latitude of 10⁰ N, is it in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere?
The place is in the Northern Hemisphere.
5. We know that the nearer a place to the poles, the colder it is likely to be. Which city, in
a) and b) below, is likely to be colder?
a) City X: latitude 30⁰ N, longitude 25⁰ W, or City Y: latitude 60⁰ N, longitude 20⁰ E.
b) City W: latitude 40⁰ S, longitude 75⁰ E, or City Z: latitude 75⁰ S, longitude 50⁰ W.
in a), City Y is likely to be colder
b), City Z is likely to be colder.

6. Name the important latitudes on the earth.
Important latitudes on the earth are: Equator - 0⁰, Tropic of Cancer - 23½⁰ N, Arctic
Circle - 66½⁰ N, Tropic of Capricorn - 23½⁰ S, Antarctic Circle - 66½⁰ S.
7. What is an axis? What is the angle of tilt of the earth’s axis?
The globe is turned around a line passing through it. This line is called the axis. The tilt
of this axis is 23½⁰.

Why is that so? A map of the earth will have errors in the shape and size of places shown on the map because they cover very large areas.2 : MAPS NEW WORDS: Map Atlas. It is not possible to see all parts of the earth at the same time. A map of the earth will have errors in the shape and size of places shown on the map. A globe is the most accurate way to represent the earth. we generally use a map rather than a globe to study the earth. 4.SOCIAL SCIENCE GRADE: V Chapter . What is the benefit of using symbols on a map? Use of symbols make it easier to read and understand maps. 3. What is linear scale? The scale of a map is often shown as a line with distance marked on it. How is direction usually shown in maps? Usually maps are drawn with North direction at the top. What do you understand by the term ‘scale of a map’? The ‘Scale’ of a map is the ratio between distance shown on the map and the actual distance on the ground. . A globe cannot show detailed information. Symbol Answer the following questions: 1. Plains and lowlands are shown in green. What are symbols? A symbol is a shape or sign that is used to represent something. 5. This is called a linear scale. 2. However. 8. East is to the right and West to the left. 7. South is at the bottom. Why is this? We generally use a map rather than a globe to study the earth because globe is difficult to carry around. 6. Which standard colours are used in maps? Certain standard colours are used in maps to show features such as water bodies are always shown in blue. Mountains and highlands are shown in brown and yellow. Scale.

the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa. What is the difference between a tributary and a distributary? Several smaller rivers that join the main river are tributaries of that river. Deserts are Large. Seasonal rivers flow only in certain season and they are fed by rain 6. Distributaries. Delta. Low. They are called Fold Mountains. The different features that make up the Earth’s surface are called landforms. 8. What are mountain ranges? Give an example. Passes. The southern part of India is a peninsula which is covered by the Indian ocean. 2. extremely dry areas of land that get very little rainfall. plateaus and deserts. These channels are called are distributaries. A landmass which projects into the sea and is surrounded by water on three sides is called a peninsula. the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal 5. Some mountains are formed when two large landmasses push against each other. Plateaus are large areas of land that are higher than the surroundings but their tops are more or less flat. The Himalas in the north of India is the highest mountain ranges in the world. What are Fold Mountains? Give an example. Peaks. The Sahara Desert in North Africa. What is a peninsula? Give an example. Perennial rivers flow from icy glaciers. 7.SOCIAL SCIENCE GRADE: IV Chapter . The Tibetan Plateau is the highest plateau in the world. 4. Cape. Coast. 10. Mountains that occur in long rows are called mountain ranges.LANDFORMS OF THE WORLD NEW WORDS: Landforms. What is a valley? The lowland between hills or mountains is called a valley. the Atacama Desert in South America are some of the important deserts of the world. 11. Valleys. Name the highest plateau in the world. Peninsula. narrow and natural gaps between mountains are called passes. Plateaus. Four main landforms of the world are mountains. the Thar Desert in India. . 9. What are landforms? Name the main landforms of the Earth. What is a desert? Name some of the important deserts of the world. The Himalayas is an example for Fold Mountains. What is the difference between perennial and seasonal river? Rivers that flow throughout year are perennial rivers. plains. Perennial Answer the following questions: 1. Bay. The main river breaks into smaller channels while joining the sea. 3. What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau? Mountains are the rocky masses of land that rise higher than the surroundings but have high peaks. Define Passes. Tributaries.

12. . agriculture and domestic purposes. Rivers provide water for drinking. These sediments make the soil richest. Why is that so? (HOTS) Great civilisations are developed along the rivers because the rivers bring down sediments from the mountains. The Delta made by the Brahmaputra and the Ganga is the largest delta in the world. Name the largest delta in the world. 13. Great civilisations in the world are developed along rivers.

India can be divided into five main regions. They are the Northern Mountains. the Northern Plains. Hence India is called a land of vastly varied landforms. Indonesia and Srilanka are the neighbours of India. Bhutan. 2.2 : INDIA NEW WORDS: Diverse. China. Nepal. mountains. a long coastline. Fertile. plateaus. Maldives. which is chosen by the people of that state. 7.SOCIAL SCIENCE GRADE: IV Chapter . the Coastal plains and islands and the western desert. the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east. forests and islands. Union territories. . the Deccan Plateau. 6. What is the difference between a state and a union territory? A state has its own government. Why do we say that India is a land of vastly diverse landforms? There are plains. 3. Which are the ocean bodies that surround peninsular India? The ocean bodies that surround Peninsular India are the Indian Ocean on the south. Afghanistan. What is the position of India among the nations in terms of area? India is the seventh largest country of the world in terms of area. Pakistan. List the physical features of India. Where is India located? Who are its neighbours? India is located in the south of the continent of Asia. What is the political division of India? Politically India is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories. a desert. Bangladesh. 5. A Union territory is directly governed by the central government. 4. Myanmar. hills. Rugged Answer the following questions: 1.

Some of them are made of rocks. Uranus and Neptune are the planets of our solar system. What is the difference between solar system and a constellation? The Sun and eight planets that travel around the sun together is the solar system. 4. Saturn. What are stars? Star is a huge ball of hot.SOCIAL SCIENCE GRADE: III Chapter . Star. Saturn. Stars have their own heat and light. They are usually round in shape. Earth. Solar system. Venus. Orion. Uranus. Earth. 5. Planet. 7. Venus. Planets do not have heat or light of their own. The Universe is a vast expanse of space 2. Groups of stars are called constellations. Leo. Mercury. Constellations. 3. Jupiter. Jupiter. 6.1 : THE EARTH IN THE UNIVERSE NEW WORDS: Universe. the Great Bear. What is the difference between a star and a planet? A star is a huge ball of hot. A group of stars that appear to form a pattern is called a constellation. What is the Solar System? Name the different planets of the Solar System? The Sun and the planets together form the Solar system. Mars. the Great Bear and Orion are some well- known constellations. Planet is a heavenly body which travel around a star. Neptune Answer the following questions: 1. burning gases. . Describe the Universe. What are planets? Planets are heavenly bodies that travel around a star. Mars. burning gasses. Some planets are made of rocks. Mercury. What are constellations? Name a few well known constellations.

What is the shape of the earth? Give two ways in which you can prove this.SOCIAL SCIENCE GRADE: III Chapter .2 : EARTH – THE LIVING PLANET NEW WORDS: Unique. What is the horizon? The place at which the land and sky appear to meet is called the horizon. 4. Describe the sky. What is an atmosphere? A layer of air that surrounds the Earth is called an atmosphere. Coast Answer the following questions: 1. Horizon. Who is an astronaut? A person who travels in space in a spacecraft is an astronaut. Astronaut. Therefore we say earth is a unique planet. 5. 3. A vast space surrounding the earth is sky. Why do we say that the planet earth is unique? There is no other place in the universe where there is life. Atmosphere. 2. . The shape of the earth is round like a ball. Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the earth. 7. Who was Ferdinand Magellan? Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese sailor. 6. Astronauts looked at the earth from outer space and found that it looked like a huge ball.