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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11e (Robbins/Judge)

Chapter 11 Leadership

1) John Kotter's view argues that management focuses on coping with complexity, whereas
leadership focuses on coping with ________.
A) conflict
B) success
C) day-to-day matters
D) morale
E) change
Answer: E
Explanation: E) John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that management is about
coping with complexity. Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up
formal plans, designing rigid organization structures, and monitoring results against the plans.
Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a
vision of the future; then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to
overcome hurdles.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 150
Objective: Management and Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

2) Leadership is best defined as ________.


A) the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals
B) the process of drawing up formal plans and monitoring their implementation
C) the process of carrying out the vision and strategy provided by management
D) coordinating and staffing the organization and handling day-to-day problems
E) the proper use of the influence gained exclusively as a result of one's organizational position
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Leadership can be defined as the ability to influence a group toward the
achievement of a vision or set of goals. Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by
formal appointment.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 150
Objective: Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

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3) Which of the following statements regarding leadership is true?
A) All leaders are managers.
B) Formal rights ensure good leadership.
C) All managers are leaders.
D) All leaders are hierarchically superior to followers.
E) Nonsanctioned leadership is as important as formal influence.
Answer: E
Explanation: E) The source of a leader's influence may be formal, such as that provided by
managerial rank in an organization. But not all leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, are all
managers leaders. Just because an organization provides its managers with certain formal rights
is no assurance they will lead effectively. Nonsanctioned leadershipthe ability to influence that
arises outside the formal structure of the organizationis often as important or more important
than formal influence.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 151
Objective: Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

4) Which theory of leadership differentiates leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal


qualities and characteristics?
A) Fiedler's model
B) attributes theory
C) LMX theory
D) contingency theory
E) trait theory
Answer: E
Explanation: E) Trait theories of leadership focus on personal qualities and characteristics. The
search for personality, social, physical, or intellectual attributes that differentiate leaders from
nonleaders goes back to the earliest stages of leadership research.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 151
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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5) Early research efforts at isolating leadership traits resulted in a number of dead ends. A
breakthrough, of sorts, came when researchers began ________.
A) organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework
B) using the Keirsey Temperament Sorter
C) using Cattell's 16 personality factors
D) focusing on Eysenck's three factor model
E) considering the Revised NEO Personality Inventory
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Early research efforts at isolating leadership traits resulted in a number of dead
ends. By the 1990s, after numerous studies and analyses, about the best we could say was that
most leaders "are not like other people," but the particular traits that characterized them varied a
great deal from review to review. A breakthrough, of sorts, came when researchers began
organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework. Most of the dozens of traits in
various leadership reviews fit under one of the Big Five, giving strong support to traits as
predictors of leadership.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 151
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

6) According to research, which of the Big Five personality traits is the most important in
effective leaders?
A) conscientiousness
B) openness
C) extraversion
D) agreeableness
E) emotional stability
Answer: C
Explanation: C) A comprehensive review of leadership literature, when organized around the
Big Five, has found extraversion to be the most important trait of effective leaders but more
strongly related to leader emergence than to leader effectiveness. Conscientiousness and
openness to experience also showed strong relationships to leadership, though not quite as strong
as extraversion.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 151
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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7) Emotional intelligence (EI) is critical to effective leadership because one of its core
components is ________.
A) conscientiousness
B) empathy
C) optimism
D) intraversion
E) perfectionism
Answer: B
Explanation: B) A core component of EI is empathy. Empathetic leaders can sense others' needs,
listen to what followers say (and don't say), and read the reactions of others. The caring part of
empathy, especially for the people with whom you work, is what inspires people to stay with a
leader when the going gets rough.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

8) Which of the following statements accurately reflects the conclusions about the trait theories
of leadership?
A) Traits were better predictors of leadership 20 years ago than they are now.
B) The Big Five traits are inadequate for predicting leadership.
C) Traits are especially useful for distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.
D) Traits do a good job of predicting the emergence of leaders.
E) Overall, traits are poor predictors of leadership.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Two conclusions can be offered about the effectiveness of the trait theory of
leadership. First, traits can predict leadership. Twenty years ago, the evidence suggested
otherwise. The Big Five seem to have rectified that. Second, traits do a better job predicting the
emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between
effective and ineffective leaders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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9) Your company's HR director is a believer in trait theories of leadership. He believes that he
can differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics.
The HR director plans to promote Lawrence, a highly extroverted manager with a great deal of
ambition and energy to the position of VP, Manufacturing. He asks for your expertise in helping
him to apply trait theory to leadership selection within your company. The director believes that
because of his innate characteristics, Lawrence will be highly effective at helping the company
achieve its production goals. You advise the director against basing his decision purely on traits
because ________.
A) research has identified emotional stability as the strongest predictor of leadership
effectiveness
B) studies have found that the Big Five traits are difficult to identify in leaders
C) studies have shown that traits are poor predictors of leadership effectiveness
D) research has found that conscientiousness is a better predictor of effectiveness than
extroversion
E) research has shown that effective managers are often unlikely to become effective leaders
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of
leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. The fact that an
individual exhibits the traits and others consider that person to be a leader does not necessarily
mean the leader is successful at getting his or her group to achieve its goals. The context matters,
too.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 2

10) Which of the following theories of leadership implies that individuals can be trained to
become leaders?
A) trait theories
B) LMX theory
C) contingency theories
D) behavioral theories
E) Fiedler model
Answer: D
Explanation: D) The failures of early trait studies led researchers in the late 1940s through the
1960s to wonder whether there was something unique in the way effective leaders behave. While
trait research provides a basis for selecting the right people for leadership, behavioral studies
implied we could train people to be leaders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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11) The Ohio State Studies narrowed the independent dimensions of leader behavior to two that
substantially accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by employees:
consideration and ________.
A) employee-orientation
B) empathy
C) constructing vision
D) initiating structure
E) charisma
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Seeking to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior, the Ohio State
Studies determined that two dimensions accounted for most effective leadership behavior:
initiating structure and consideration. Initiating structure is the extent to which leaders are likely
to define and structure their roles and those of their employees in the search for goal attainment.
Consideration is the extent to which a leader's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust,
respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Ohio State Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

12) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies,
initiating structure refers to the extent to which ________.
A) a person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas,
and regard for their feelings
B) a leader engages in participative management
C) a leader is accepting of and respects individual differences among various team members
D) a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search
for goal attainment
E) a leader initiates efforts to communicate personally with employees
Answer: D
Explanation: D) As a behavioral dimension of leaders, initiating structure is the extent to which
a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for
goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and
goals.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Initiating Structure
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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13) Kimberley, a manager at a large company, tends to assign group members to particular tasks,
expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance, and emphasizes the meeting of
deadlines. In the light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Kimberley, as a leader, is
________.
A) low in task orientation
B) high in consideration
C) relationship oriented
D) employee oriented
E) high in initiating structure
Answer: E
Explanation: E) Initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is likely to define and
structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes
behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. A leader high in initiating
structure is someone who "assigns group members to particular tasks," "expects workers to
maintain definite standards of performance," and "emphasizes the meeting of deadlines."
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 2

14) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies,
________ is the extent to which a person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust,
respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.
A) consideration
B) initiating structure
C) production orientation
D) task orientation
E) position power
Answer: A
Explanation: A) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio
State Studies, consideration is the extent to which a person's job relationships are characterized
by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Consideration
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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15) Jim, a VP at a large company, helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and
approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support. In the light
of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Jim, as a leader, is ________.
A) task oriented
B) high in consideration
C) high in initiating structure
D) low in relationship orientation
E) production oriented
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Consideration is the extent to which a person's job relationships are
characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. A leader
high in consideration helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable,
treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 152
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 2

16) The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies
are ________.
A) absolute leadership and contingency leadership
B) transformational leaders and authentic leaders
C) employee-oriented leaders and production-oriented leaders
D) initiating structure and consideration
E) initiation and completion
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Leadership studies at the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center
located behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared related to performance effectiveness:
the employee-oriented leader and the production-oriented leader. The employee-oriented leader
emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs of employees
and accepting individual differences among them; the production-oriented leader emphasized the
technical or task aspects of the jobconcern focused on accomplishing the group's tasks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 153
Objective: University of Michigan Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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17) The University of Michigan studies define a(n) ________ leader as one who takes a personal
interest in the needs of his/her subordinates.
A) contingency
B) task-oriented
C) employee-oriented
D) production-oriented
E) structure initiating
Answer: C
Explanation: C) According to the behavioral dimensions of leaders identified by the University
of Michigan's Survey Research Center, the employee-oriented leader emphasized interpersonal
relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual
differences among them.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 153
Objective: Employee-Oriented Leaders
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

18) If a leader's main concern is accomplishing his/her group's tasks, the University of Michigan
studies label this leader ________.
A) employee-oriented
B) high in consideration
C) relationship-oriented
D) low in initiating structure
E) production-oriented
Answer: E
Explanation: E) According to the behavioral dimensions identified by the University of
Michigan's Survey Research Center, the production-oriented leader emphasized the technical or
task aspects of the job, his main concern being accomplishing the group's tasks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 153
Objective: Production-Oriented Leaders
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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19) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigan's Survey Research
Center are closely related to those identified in the Ohio State Study. Employee-oriented
leadership is similar to ________, and production-oriented leadership is similar to ________.
A) initiating structure; consideration
B) task-orientation; relationship-orientation
C) transformational leadership; authentic leadership
D) authentic leadership; transformational leadership
E) consideration; initiating structure
Answer: E
Explanation: E) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigan's Survey
Research Center are closely related to the Ohio State dimensions. Employee-oriented leadership
is similar to consideration, and production-oriented leadership is similar to initiating structure. In
fact, most leadership researchers use the terms synonymously.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 153
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

20) Contingency theories focus on the ________ that impact leadership success..
A) leader's personal characteristics and qualities
B) leader's abilities to inspire and transform followers
C) situational variables
D) values and ethics
E) aspects of the leader's behavior
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Numerous studies have shown that predicting leadership success is more
complex than isolating a few traits or behaviors, since leadership styles that are effective in very
bad times or in very good times do not necessarily translate into long-term success. This idea led
researchers to change their focus from trait and behavior theories to situational influences on
leadership styles, or contingency theories.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Contingency Models
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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21) The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by ________.
A) Hersey and Blanchard
B) Blake and Mouton
C) Fred Fiedler
D) John Kotter
E) Douglas Surber
Answer: C
Explanation: C) The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by
Fred Fiedler. Fiedler believes that a key factor in leadership success is the individual's basic
leadership style. According to the Fiedler contingency model, effective group performance
depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation
gives the leader control.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

22) Which model represents the theory that effective group performance depends on the proper
match between a leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader?
A) leader-member exchange model
B) Fiedler's contingency model
C) Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model
D) Vroom and Yetton's leader-participation model
E) House's path-goal model of leadership
Answer: B
Explanation: B) According to Fiedler's Contingency Model, the key factor predicting leadership
success is the individual's basic leadership style. Since Fiedler assumes an individual's leadership
style is fixed, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's
style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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23) In Fiedler's model, if a respondent describes his or her least preferred co-worker in relatively
positive terms, then the respondent is considered to be ________.
A) relationship oriented
B) production-oriented
C) task-oriented
D) high in initiating structure
E) low in consideration
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Fiedler's least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire measures whether a
person is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least favorite
coworker. If respondents describe their least favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high LPC
score), they are probably relationship-oriented. In contrast, respondents who describe their least-
preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score) are viewed as primarily interested in
productivity and as being task-oriented.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

24) If a survey respondent sees his or her least preferred co-worker in unfavorable terms, Fiedler
would categorize the respondent as ________.
A) high in consideration
B) task-oriented
C) low in initiating structure
D) employee-oriented
E) relationship oriented
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Fiedler's least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire measures whether a
person is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least favorite
coworker. Respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low
LPC score) are viewed as primarily interested in productivity and as being task-oriented.
Conversely, respondents who describe their least-favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high
LPC score) are considered to be relationship-oriented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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25) Fran has just completed and scored the LPC questionnaire given to her during an evaluation
exercise. She is surprised when she finds out that she described her least preferred co-worker in
relatively positive terms because she recalls being particularly annoyed by this difficult co-
worker several times in the past. Based on your understanding of Fiedler's model, you explain to
Fran that her LPC score makes sense within the model because ________.
A) Fran tends to become very dominating when given ambiguous tasks
B) Fran is usually much more focused on productivity than on developing relationships
C) Fran tends in general to focus on building good relationships with the other employees
D) Fran has a spotty work history and has tended to switch jobs every couple of years
E) Fran is usually chosen for positions of high responsibility within your organization
Answer: C
Explanation: C) If you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms (a
high LPC score), Fiedler would label you relationship oriented. In contrast, if you see your least
preferred co-worker in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are primarily
interested in productivity and are task oriented.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 3

26) Fiedler's contingency leadership model assumes that ________.


A) an individual's leadership style is essentially fixed
B) an individual can use the LPC to change his/her style to a more productive style
C) there is no ideal way to match leadership styles with situations
D) all leaders can learn to adapt to different contingencies
E) each person's style will change in accordance with the situation at hand
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Fiedler assumes an individual's leadership style is fixed. This means if a
situation requires a task-oriented leader and the person in the leadership position is relationship
oriented, either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be replaced to achieve
optimal effectiveness.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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27) Fiedler labels the degree of confidence, trust, and respect that subordinates have in their
leader as ________.
A) leader-member relations
B) task structure
C) positional power
D) leader-member exchange
E) leader-member orientation
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions to leadership
success, including leader-member relations, task structure, and position power. Leader-member
relations is the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Leader-Member Relations
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

28) Which of the following situational dimensions identified by Fiedler relates to the degree to
which job assignments are procedurized, that is, structured or unstructured?
A) leader-member relations
B) task orientation
C) task structure
D) initiating structure
E) productivity oriented
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions in which certain
types of leaders might excel or fail, including leader-member relations, task structure, and
position power. Task structure is the degree to which job assignments are procedurized (that is,
structured or unstructured). Leaders who are task-oriented, Fielder proposes, perform best when
the situation is very favorable or very unfavorable.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Task Structures
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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29) In the context of Fiedler's model, the situational dimension termed ________ relates to the
degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline,
promotions, and salary increases.
A) task structure
B) leader-member exchange
C) position power
D) initiating structure
E) leader-member relations
Answer: C
Explanation: C) In the context of Fiedler's model, the situational dimension termed position
power relates to the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing,
discipline, promotions, and salary increases.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 154
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

30) If you were using the Fielder contingency model of leadership to establish a scenario in your
company which gives managers maximum control, which of the following combinations of
situational dimensions would you seek to achieve?
A) high task structure, good leader-member relations, and strong position power
B) limited position power, good leader-member relations, and low task structure
C) less structured jobs, strong position power, and moderate leader-member relations
D) broad employee responsibilities, low position power, and moderate leader-member relations
E) good leader-member relations, low position power, unstructured jobs
Answer: A
Explanation: A) The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance
depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation
gives the leader control. Fiedler states that the better the leadermember relations, the more
highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 154
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 3

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31) According to the Fiedler contingency model of leadership, task-oriented leaders perform best
in situations of ________, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in ________
situations.
A) moderate control; high and low control
B) high control; low and moderate control
C) high and moderate control; low control
D) high and low control; moderate control
E) moderate and low control; high control
Answer: D
Explanation: D) In the Fiedler contingency model, combining the three contingency dimensions
yields eight possible situations in which leaders can find themselves. Fiedler recently condensed
these eight situations down to three. According to him, task-oriented leaders perform best in
situations of high and low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate
control situations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Matching Leaders and Situations
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

32) Which of the following leadership theories argues that because of time pressures, leaders
establish a special relationship with a small group of their subordinatesthe in-group, who are
trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention, and are more likely to receive
special privileges?
A) situational leadership theory
B) leader-member exchange
C) path-goal
D) expectancy
E) Fiedler's theory
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Leadermember exchange (LMX) theory proposes that, because of time
pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These
individuals make up the in-group. Members of the in-group are trusted, get a disproportionate
amount of the leader's attention, and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers
fall into the out-group.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 156
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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As you have observed your department manager and her interactions with the department's
employees, you have come to believe in LMX theory. Sarah and Joe get less of the manager's
time. Sally gets fewer of the preferred rewards that the manager controls and John has a
relationship with the manager based on formal authority interactions. Rebecca is trusted. Jennifer
gets a disproportionate amount of the manager's attention and is more likely to receive special
privileges.

33) According to LMX theory, the in-group is likely to be composed of ________.


A) Rebecca and Jennifer only
B) Jennifer only
C) Rebecca only
D) John, Rebecca, and Jennifer only
E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only
Answer: A
Explanation: A) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a
leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an "in" or an "out,"
and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those
employees with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 156
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: In-Group
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 3

34) According to LMX theory, which of the following employees is likely to be included in the
out-group?
A) Rebecca only
B) Jennifer only
C) Sarah and Jennifer only
D) Sarah and Joe only
E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only
Answer: E
Explanation: E) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a
leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an "in" or an "out,"
and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those
employees with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 156
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Out-Group
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 3

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35) According to the LMX theory, a leader implicitly categorizes followers as "in" or "out"
________.
A) after careful performance analysis
B) on a temporary basis
C) early in the interaction
D) because of political pressure
E) only after several months of working together
Answer: C
Explanation: C) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a
leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an "in" or an "out,"
and that relationship is relatively stable over time.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

36) According to research relating to the LMX theory of leadership, which of the following does
not appear to characterize in-group members?
A) demographic characteristics similar to those of the leader
B) attitudes similar to those of the leader
C) personality characteristics similar to those of the leader
D) gender opposite to that of the leader
E) higher level of competence than out-group members
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Just how the leader chooses who falls into each category is unclear, but there is
evidence in-group members have demographic, attitude, and personality characteristics similar to
those of their leader or a higher level of competence than out-group members. Leaders and
followers of the same gender tend to have closer (higher LMX) relationships than those of
different genders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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37) Which of the following is true according to research testing the LMX theory of leadership?
A) There is substantive evidence that leaders differentiate among followers.
B) Disparities in how leaders treat different followers are largely random.
C) The in-group shows no measurable difference in positive outcomes compared to the out-
group.
D) In-group members usually show lesser "citizenship" behavior at work.
E) In-group members are no more satisfied with their leader than out-group members.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Research to test LMX theory has been generally supportive, with substantive
evidence that leaders do differentiate among followers; these disparities are far from random; and
followers with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, engage in more helping or
"citizenship" behaviors at work, and report greater satisfaction with their superior.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

38) Believing that in-group members are the most competent, leaders invest their resources in
them. This, in turn, leads the in-group members to show higher levels of performance at their
jobs. This chain of events reflects the concept of ________.
A) assumption fallacy
B) reverse engineering
C) self-fulfilling prophecy
D) Newcomb's paradox
E) predestination paradox
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Followers with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, engage in
more helping or "citizenship" behaviors at work, and report greater satisfaction with their
superior. These positive findings for in-group members reflect the concept of self-fulfilling
prophecy; leaders invest their resources with those they expect to perform bestthe in-group
membersand thus unwittingly fulfill their prophecy.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156-157
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

39) Who was first researcher to consider charismatic leadership in terms of OB?
A) Max Weber
B) Robert House
C) Fred Fiedler
D) John Kotter
E) Douglas Surber
Answer: B
Explanation: B) The first researcher to consider charismatic leadership in terms of OB was
Robert House. According to House's charismatic leadership theory, followers attribute heroic or
extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 157
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

19
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40) Which theory of leadership proposes that followers attribute heroic or extraordinary
leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors?
A) transformational leadership theory
B) authentic leadership theory
C) transactional leadership theory
D) attributional leadership theory
E) charismatic leadership theory
Answer: E
Explanation: E) According to House's charismatic leadership theory, followers attribute heroic
or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. A number of studies
have attempted to identify the characteristics of charismatic leaders: they have a vision, they are
willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision, they are sensitive to follower needs, and they
exhibit extraordinary behaviors.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 157
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

41) Which of the following is not a key characteristic of a charismatic leader?


A) sensitivity to follower needs
B) unconventional behavior
C) vision and articulation
D) focus on maintaining status quo
E) willingness to take risks
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Charismatic leadership theory, developed by Robert House, is based on the idea
that when followers observe certain behaviors displayed by a leader, they view that leader as
having extraordinary or even heroic leadership abilities. Recent studies have sought to identify
these specific behaviors. Charismatic leaders appear to possess key characteristics, including
sensitivity to follower needs, unconventional behavior, vision and articulation, and willingness to
take risks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 157
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

20
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42) Which of the following is true regarding whether charismatic leaders are born or made?
A) Charismatic individuals are not born with traits that make them charismatic.
B) Charismatic leaders are usually not achievement oriented.
C) Charisma cannot be learned.
D) Most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors.
E) Personality has shown no link to charismatic leadership.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. Personality is also
related to charismatic leadership; charismatic leaders are likely to be extraverted, self-confident,
and achievement oriented. Although a small minority thinks charisma is inherited and cannot be
learned, most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 158
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

43) According to evidence, what is the first step a charismatic leader takes to influence
followers?
A) developing a formal vision statement
B) engaging in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior
C) setting an example for followers through actions and words
D) articulating an appealing vision
E) communicating high performance expectations
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Evidence suggests that charismatic leaders follow a four-step process to
influence followers. This process begins with articulating an appealing vision, a long-term
strategy for attaining a goal by linking the present with a better future for the organization.
Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances and reflect the uniqueness of the organization.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 158
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

44) Which of the following is true about the effectiveness of charismatic leadership?
A) Research shows scant correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance.
B) Charisma may not always be generalizable.
C) Charisma appears most successful when the environment is stress-free.
D) Charismatic leaders usually surface when the organization is stable and successful.
E) Charismatic leadership qualities are best utilized in lower-level management jobs.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and
high performance and satisfaction among followers. However, charisma may not always be
generalizable; its effectiveness may depend on the situation. Charisma appears most successful
when the follower's task has an ideological component or the environment includes a high degree
of stress and uncertainty. It's more difficult to utilize a person's charismatic leadership qualities in
lower-level management jobs.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 159
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

21
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45) Leaders who clarify role and task requirements to accomplish established goals exhibit a(n)
_________ style of leadership.
A) transformational
B) transactional
C) charismatic
D) authentic
E) situational
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Recent studies, including the Ohio State Studies, Fiedler's model, and path-goal
theory, have focused on the differences between transformational leaders and transactional
leaders. In contrast to transformational leaders who inspire their followers to transcend their self-
interests for the good of the organization, transactional leaders encourage their followers to
achieve goals by defining specific goals and task requirements.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 160
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

46) ________ leaders inspire followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the
organization and can have an extraordinary effect on their followers.
A) Transformational
B) Transactional
C) Task oriented
D) Laissez-faire
E) Transcendental
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Transformational leaders can have an extraordinary effect on their followers,
inspiring them toward selfless goals that benefit the larger organization. These types of leaders
inspire their followers by paying attention to their concerns, helping them rethink old problems
in new ways, and encouraging them to achieve goals as a group.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 160
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

47) In terms of the full range of leadership model, which leader behavior is the least effective?
A) management by exception (active)
B) contingent reward
C) management by exception (passive)
D) individualized consideration
E) laissez-faire
Answer: E
Explanation: E) According to the full range of leadership model, laissez-faire is the most passive
and therefore least effective of leader behaviors. Management by exceptionactive or passive
is slightly better than laissez-faire.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 160
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

48) According to the full range of leadership model, which of the following leader behaviors will
22
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enable leaders to motivate followers to perform above expectations and transcend their self-
interest for the sake of the organization?
A) management by exception (active)
B) contingent reward
C) individualized consideration
D) management by exception (passive)
E) laissez-faire
Answer: C
Explanation: C) According to the full range of leadership model, leadership behaviors including
laissez-faire, management by exception (active or passive), and contingent reward will not get
employees to go above and beyond the call of duty. Only with the four styles of transformational
leadershipindividualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and
idealized influenceare leaders able to motivate followers to perform above expectations and
transcend their self-interest for the sake of the organization.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 160
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

49) Richard is a transactional leader who has just assigned a series of tasks to a project team.
Which of the following is most likely to be true about the team's performance under Richard's
guidance?
A) They will set new standards of productivity for the department, exceeding Richard's
expectations.
B) They will meet the goals set for them but are unlikely to go beyond those goals.
C) They will tend to be unclear about the roles assigned to each team member.
D) They will be highly motivated by what they view as Richard's heroic or extraordinary
qualities.
E) They will tend to put the interests of the company above individual self-interest.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Transactional leaders set goals for their employees and define roles and
expectations. Unlike transformational leaders, however, transactional leaders are unlikely to
motivate their employees to exceed expectations or go beyond the call of duty.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4

23
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50) Researchers are conducting a study of a company called Acme Corp., which they believe to
be led by a transformational leader. Which of the following, if true, would most support the
conclusion that Acme's leader is a transformational leader?
A) Acme's top managers often disagree over defining the organization's goals.
B) Acme's goals tend to be very ambitious and to hold personal value for employees.
C) Acme has a centralized decision-making structure.
D) Acme's performance has held at average levels for the past three years.
E) Acme's compensation plans are designed to reward short-term results.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) In companies with transformational leaders, followers are more likely to pursue
ambitious goals, agree on the strategic goals of the organization, and believe the goals they are
pursuing are personally important. There is greater decentralization of responsibility, managers
have more propensity to take risks, and compensation plans are geared toward long-term results.
All these factors result in superior organizational performance.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4

51) Two companies, Roland Media and Go! Corp, are both headed by transformational leaders.
However, Roland Media showed much greater profitability over a 5-year time period than did
Go! Corp. Which of the following best explains why Roland Media performed better than Go!
Corp under transformational leadership?
A) Roland Media's leader goes through a complex bureaucratic structure, whereas Go! Corp's
leader regularly interacts with the company's workforce to make decisions.
B) Unlike Go! Corp's employees, Roland Media's employees don't readily give up decision-
making authority.
C) Roland Media is a small, privately held firm, whereas Go! Corp is a large, complex public
company.
D) Roland Media is headquartered in a low power distance region, whereas Go! Corp is
headquartered in a country that is high in power distance.
E) Roland Media's employees tend to be more highly individualistic than do Go! Corp's
employees.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Transformational leadership is most effective in small, privately held
companies. It is less effective in complex organizations. Transformational leaders are more
effective in improving group potency in teams higher in power distance and collectivism. They
are less effective when leaders must deal with bureaucratic structures, when employees are
highly individualistic, and when employees don't easily give up decision-making authority.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 162
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4

24
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
52) Which of the following would best serve as evidence to support the conclusion that an
individual is an authentic leader?
A) The leader is cautious about information sharing and tends to provide updates only to top
management.
B) In business exchanges, the leader puts the company's bottom line before his or her ideals.
C) The leader acts in the company's best interest as long as those interests don't conflict with his
personal ambitions.
D) The leader constantly questions his or her values.
E) The leader inspires a great deal of trust in his or her followers.
Answer: E
Explanation: E) Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and
act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them ethical
people. The primary quality produced by authentic leadership, therefore, is trust. Authentic
leaders share information, encourage open communication, and stick to their ideals.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 163
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

53) The concept of authentic leadership focuses on ________.


A) the moral aspects of being a leader
B) the unconventional behavior of the leader
C) the readiness of followers
D) the situational component of leadership
E) the transactional aspect of leadership
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and
act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them ethical
people. This concept is a promising way to think about ethics and trust in leadership because it
focuses on the moral aspects of being a leader.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 163
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

25
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54) The concept of socialized charismatic leadership seeks to integrate charismatic leadership
with ________ leadership.
A) transformational
B) production-oriented
C) relational
D) ethical
E) transactional
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Scholars have tried to integrate ethical and charismatic leadership by advancing
the idea of socialized charismatic leadershipleadership that conveys other centered (not self
centered) values by leaders who model ethical conduct. Socialized charismatic leaders are able to
bring employee values in line with their own values through their words and actions.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 163
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

55) ________ is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to
another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out.
A) Consideration
B) Trust
C) Empowerment
D) Empathy
E) Respect
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Trust is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself
vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn
out. Even though you aren't completely in control of the situation, you are willing to take a
chance that the other person will come through for you.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 164
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

56) All of the following are consequences of a relationship of trust between supervisors and
employees, except that ________.
A) trust facilitates information sharing
B) trusting groups are more effective
C) trust discourages taking risks
D) trust enhances productivity
E) company bottom-lines are positively influenced by trust
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Trust between supervisors and employees is related to a number of positive
employment outcomes.Trust encourages taking risks, facilitates information sharing, and
enhances productivity. Trusting groups are more effective.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 165
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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57) Which of the following statements accurately describes the attribution theory of leadership?
A) Leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals.
B) Good leaders attribute their successes to their team or group members.
C) Leadership qualities are attributions that are independent of performance.
D) The achievement of group goals are rarely attributed to good leadership.
E) Leadership is an attribute that individuals are born with.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution
people make about other individuals. Thus we attribute to leaders intelligence, outgoing
personality, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness. At the
organizational level, we tend to see leaders, rightly or wrongly, as responsible for extremely
negative or extremely positive performance.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 165
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

58) The President of a small Asian country was hailed as a visionary and a genius when the
nation's economy burgeoned during his first term in office. However, when the currency and the
stock-markets crashed during his government's second term, he was censured as arrogant, elitist,
and short-sighted. This scenario reflects the ________ theory of leadership.
A) traits
B) behavioral
C) LMX
D) substitutes
E) attribution
Answer: E
Explanation: E) The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution
people make about other individuals. Thus we attribute to leaders intelligence, outgoing
personality, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness. At the
organizational level, we tend to see leaders, rightly or wrongly, as responsible for extremely
negative or extremely positive performance.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 5

27
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
59) According to research, which of the following is true about demographic assumptions that
are made about leaders?
A) Leaders are likely to be assumed to be white.
B) White leaders are no more likely to be rated effective than leaders from other racial groups.
C) Teams invariably prefer male leaders.
D) Teams prefer female leaders when aggressively competing against other teams.
E) Teams prefer male leaders when the competition is within teams and calls for improving
positive relationships within the group.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Respondents in a study assumed a leader described with no identifying racial
information was white at a rate beyond the base rate of white employees in a company. In
scenarios where identical leadership situations are described but the leaders' race is manipulated,
white leaders are rated as more effective than leaders of other racial groups.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

60) Zenith Technologies has a very flat organizational system with few managers. Instead, it has
a rigid system of clear, formalized goals, clear procedures, and cohesive work groups. In this
case, the various components of the organizational system are acting as ________ to formal
leadership by replacing the support and ability offered by leaders.
A) detriments
B) traits
C) attributes
D) substitutes
E) supplements
Answer: D
Explanation: D) One theory of leadership suggests that in many situations leaders' actions are
irrelevant. Experience and training are among the substitutes that can replace the need for a
leader's support or ability to create structure. Organizational characteristics such as explicit
formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, and cohesive work groups can also replace formal
leadership.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 166
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 5

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61) Trust which is based on a mutual understanding of each other's intentions and appreciation of
the other's wants and desires is referred to as ________.
A) substitute trust
B) identification-based trust
C) attributional trust
D) assumption-based trust
E) socialized trust
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each other's
intentions and appreciation of the other's wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve
without face-to-face interaction. It's not yet clear whether it's even possible for employees to
identify with or trust leaders with whom they communicate only electronically.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 167
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

62) Because he has an internationally based team, Leo and the team do most of their business
communications via e-mail. Which of the following represents what is least likely to be true of
Leo's experience working with the team in an online environment?
A) Leo relies heavily on his written skills to communicate support and inspiration.
B) Team members must be particularly adept at reading emotions in others' messages
C) Team members tend to have high levels of identification-based trust.
D) Negotiations between team members sometimes stall due to lack of trust.
E) Leo uses written communication to reinforce what he conveys to team members verbally.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Online leaders confront unique challenges, particularly around developing and
maintaining trust. Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each other's
intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve
without face-to-face interaction. Leo's team would be least likely to experience high levels of
identification-based trust. Online negotiations might also be hindered because parties express
lower levels of trust.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 5

29
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
63) According to the GLOBE project, which of the following is true of the leadership style
preferred by Brazilian employees?
A) leaders high on consideration
B) leaders with a nonparticipative style
C) leaders who take self-governing decisions
D) leaders who act alone without engaging the group
E) task oriented leaders
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Based on the values of Brazilian employees, leaders in Brazil would need to be
team oriented, participative, and humane. Leaders high on consideration who emphasize
participative decision making and have high LPC scores would be best suited to managing
employees in this culture. Brazilians do not prefer leaders who take self-governing decisions and
act alone without engaging the group.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 168
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 6

64) According to the GLOBE project, which of the following is true of the leadership style
preferred by employees in France?
A) people-oriented leaders
B) leaders with high LPC scores
C) leaders with a participative decision-making style
D) leaders with high initiating structure
E) relationship oriented leaders
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Compared to U.S. employees, the French have a more bureaucratic view of
leaders and are less likely to expect them to be humane and considerate. A leader high on
initiating structure (relatively task oriented) will do best and can make decisions in a relatively
autocratic manner. A manager who scores high on consideration (people oriented) may find that
style backfiring in France.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 168
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 6

30
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
65) According to the GLOBE study on the global implications of leadership, employees in this
country are more likely to value team-oriented and participative leadership than U.S. employees.
However, since it has a relatively high-power-distance culture, status differences between leaders
and followers are expected. Therefore, the leader should ask employees for their opinions, try to
minimize conflicts, but not be afraid to take charge and make the final decision (after consulting
team members). Identify this country.
A) China
B) Brazil
C) Egypt
D) France
E) Sweden
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Employees in Egypt are more likely to value team-oriented and participative
leadership than U.S. employees. However, Egypt is also a relatively high-power-distance culture,
meaning status differences between leaders and followers are expected. So, a manager must be
participative yet demonstrate his or her high level of status by asking employees for their
opinions, trying to minimize conflicts, and yet not being afraid to take charge and making the
final decision (after consulting team members).
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 168
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 6

66) According to the GLOBE project, which of the following is true of the leadership style
preferred by employees in China?
A) leaders who are team-oriented and humane
B) leaders with high LPC scores
C) leaders who take self-governing decisions
D) leaders with a moderately participative style
E) leaders who act alone without engaging the group
Answer: D
Explanation: D) According to the GLOBE study, Chinese culture emphasizes being polite,
considerate, and unselfish, but it also has a high performance orientation. These two factors
suggest consideration and initiating structure may both be important. Although Chinese culture is
relatively participative compared to that of the United States, there are also status differences
between leaders and employees. This suggests a moderately participative style may work best.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 168
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 6

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Leo supervises a global team of project members based in multiple countries. Maria is Brazilian;
Jean-Paul is French, Amit is Egyptian, and Xiang is Chinese. Leo is American and is based in the
United States.

67) In the light on the findings of the GLOBE project, which team members can be expected to
respond most favorably when Leo exhibits high levels of initiating structure?
A) Jean-Paul and Xiang
B) Amit and Xiang
C) Maria and Jean-Paul
D) Amit and Maria
E) Xiang and Amit
Answer: A
Explanation: A) France and China are countries where individuals tend to value initiating
structure. The French have a bureaucratic view of leaders and expect leaders to make decisions
relatively autocratically. The Chinese have a high performance orientation that emphasizes status
differences between employees. Leaders with high initiating structures therefore have better
results in these countries.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 168
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 6

68) Which of the following team members would be least likely to respond favorably if Leo
made project-related decisions independently, without consulting the team?
A) Maria
B) Jean-Paul
C) Amit
D) Xiang
E) Maria and Jean-Paul
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Brazilians value participatory decision-making. Maria would thus be least likely
to respond favorably to autocratic decision-making on Leo's part. As one Brazilian manager
remarked in a research study, "We do not prefer leaders who take self-governing decisions and
act alone without engaging the group. That's part of who we are."
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 168
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 6

32
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
69) The team agrees that a large component of the project will be carried out at the Chinese
headquarters, with Xiang responsible for leading that support team. Based on what the GLOBE
project concludes about Chinese culture, which of the following leader behaviors would be most
effective?
A) infrequent decision-making
B) highly participatory decision-making
C) autocratic decision-making
D) decision-making without initiating structure
E) moderately participatory decision-making
Answer: E
Explanation: E) Chinese culture emphasizes being polite, considerate, and unselfish, but it also
has a high performance orientation. These two factors suggest consideration and initiating
structure may both be important. Although Chinese culture is relatively participative compared to
that of the United States, there are also status differences between leaders and employees. This
suggests a moderately participative style may work best there.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 168
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 6

70) In carrying out a transformational approach to overseeing the project, Leo strives to
implement the universal elements of transformational leadership. He most likely implements all
of the following except ________.
A) vision
B) providing encouragement
C) positiveness
D) proactiveness
E) silent leadership
Answer: E
Explanation: E) The silence of a leader is very powerful in Japan, but not necessarily in other
countries. Silent leadership is, therefore, not considered one of the university elements of
transformational leadership. The elements are: vision, foresight, providing encouragement,
trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness, and proactiveness.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 168
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 6

33
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
71) The term leadership is synonymous with management.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Although often used interchangeably, the terms leadership and management have
two different meanings. John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that management is
the ability to cope with complexity. Leadership, by contrast, is defined as the ability to cope with
change.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 150
Objective: Management and Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

72) Nonsanctioned leadership is usually less important than formal influence.


Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Nonsanctioned leadershipthe ability to influence that arises outside the formal
structure of the organizationis often as important or more important than formal influence. In
other words, leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by formal appointment.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 151
Objective: Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

73) All managers are leaders.


Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Even if an organization provides its managers with certain formal rights, there is
no guarantee that they will become effective leaders. In many cases, leaders emerge from within
a group and not necessarily by formal appointment.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 150
Objective: Management and Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

74) A comprehensive review of the leadership literature, when organized around the Big Five,
has found conscientiousness to be the most important trait of effective leaders.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: A comprehensive review of the leadership literature, when organized around the
Big Five, has found extraversion to be the most important trait of effective leaders but more
strongly related to leader emergence than to leader effectiveness.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 151
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

34
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
75) Traits are most useful for distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of
leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. The fact that an
individual exhibits the traits and others consider that person to be a leader does not necessarily
mean the leader is successful at getting his or her group to achieve its goals.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 151
Objective: Big Five and Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

76) Behavioral studies imply that people can be trained to be leaders.


Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Trait research provides a basis for selecting the right people for leadership. In
contrast, behavioral studies implied we could train people to be leaders.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

77) A leader designated as high on initiating structure would be likely to clearly define the roles
of his or her subordinates.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: According to the Ohio State Studies, initiating structure indicates the degree to
which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the
search for goal attainment. Initiating structure includes behavior that attempts to organize work,
foster work relationships, and achieve goals. A leader high in initiating structure is someone who
assigns group members to particular tasks, expects workers to maintain definite standards of
performance, and emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Initiating Structure
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

78) The concept of employee-oriented leadership proposed in the University of Michigan study
is similar to the initiating structure leadership dimension identified in the Ohio State Studies.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The leadership dimensions identified by the University of Michigan's Survey
Research Center are closely related to the Ohio State dimensions. Employee-oriented leadership
is similar to consideration, and production-oriented leadership is similar to initiating structure. In
fact, most leadership researchers use the terms synonymously.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 153
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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79) According to the University of Michigan studies, production-oriented leadership is defined as
the extent to which a leader tends to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Leadership studies at the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center
identified two behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared related to performance
effectiveness. Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a
personal interest in the needs of their employees and accepting individual differences among
them. Production-oriented leaders emphasized the technical or task aspects of the jobtheir
concern was in accomplishing their group's tasks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 153
Objective: University of Michigan Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

80) The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends upon the
proper match between a leader's style and the degree to which a situation gives control to the
leader.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Fiedler's contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on
the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader
control. A key factor in leadership success, Fiedler argued, is the individual's basic leadership
style. To identify a person's leadership style, Fiedler developed the least preferred coworker
(LPC) questionnaire which measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

81) In Fiedler's approach, if a respondent uses unfavorable terms to describe the co-worker in
question, the respondent can be said to be primarily task-oriented.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire asks respondents to think of all
the co-workers they have ever had and describe the one person they least enjoyed working. If
you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms (a high LPC score),
Fiedler would label you relationship oriented. In contrast, if you see your least-preferred co-
worker in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are primarily interested in
productivity and are task oriented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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82) Fiedler assumes an individual's leadership style can be changed with the appropriate training.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Fiedler assumes an individual's leadership style is fixed. This means if a situation
requires a task-oriented leader and the person in the leadership position is relationship oriented,
either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be replaced to achieve optimal
effectiveness.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Task Structures
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

83) According to Fiedler, leader-member relations concerns the degree to which a leader takes a
personal interest in the needs of his or her employees and accepts individual differences among
them.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: According to Fiedler, leader-member relations concerns the degree of confidence,
trust, and respect members have in their leader.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 154
Objective: Position Power
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

84) According to Fiedler's contingency model, task-oriented leaders are most effective in
situations of high or low control.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: According to Fiedler's contingency model, task-oriented leaders perform best in
situations of high and low control, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in
moderate control situations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 155
Objective: Matching Leaders and Situations
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

85) Studies regarding the Fiedler model have shown that respondents' questionnaire scores tend
to be relatively stable.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The logic underlying the LPC questionnaire is not well understood, and
respondents' scores are not stable. The contingency variables are also complex and difficult for
practitioners to assess.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Objective: Problems with Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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86) The leader-member exchange theory, the in-group is subject to frequent changes, so as to
give every employee a fair chance.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Leadermember exchange (LMX) theory proposes that early in the history of the
interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower
as an "in" or an "out," and that relationship is relatively stable over time.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

87) Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those employees with whom they want a closer linkage
and punishing those with whom they do not.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those employees with whom they want a closer
linkage and punishing those with whom they do not. But for the LMX relationship to remain
intact, the leader and the follower must invest in the relationship.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

88) Leaders and followers of the same gender tend to have lower LMX than those of opposite
genders.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: There is evidence in-group members have demographic, attitude, and personality
characteristics similar to those of their leader or a higher level of competence than out-group
members. Leaders and followers of the same gender tend to have closer (higher LMX)
relationships than those of different genders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Objective: Evaluation of Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

89) Most experts believe that individuals may be trained to exhibit charismatic behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Although individuals inherit certain tendencies, most experts believe that
charismatic behaviors may be learned. Studies have suggested the effectiveness of a three-step
process to teach potential leaders to exhibit charismatic behaviors. This process includes
developing and maintaining an optimistic view, drawing others to this view by creating a bond
with followers, and bringing out the potential in others by tapping into their emotions.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 158
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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90) As a transactional leader, a CEO is more likely to be most effective if he lets employees
make decisions and avoids intervening when business problems arise.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Transactional leaders can display three different styles: laissez-faire, management
by exception, and contingent reward. A laissez-faire approach, in which the leader lets followers
make decisions and avoids intervening in business affairs, is the least effective of the
transactional approaches.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 160
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4

91) Transactional and transformational leadership are opposing approaches to getting things
done.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Transactional and transformational leadership aren't opposing approaches to
getting things done. They complement each other, though they're not equally important.
Transformational leadership builds on transactional leadership and produces levels of follower
effort and performance beyond what transactional leadership alone can do. But the reverse isn't
true.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 160
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

92) In companies with transformational leaders, there is greater decentralization of responsibility.


Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Transformational leaders are more effective because they are more creative but
also because they encourage those who follow them to be creative, too. In companies with
transformational leaders, there is greater decentralization of responsibility, managers have more
propensity to take risks, and compensation plans are geared toward long-term results, all of
which facilitate corporate entrepreneurship.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 161-162
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

93) Socialized charismatic leadership conveys self centered values by leaders.


Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Scholars have tried to integrate ethical and charismatic leadership by advancing the
idea of socialized charismatic leadershipleadership that conveys other centered (not self
centered) values by leaders who model ethical conduct. Socialized charismatic leaders are able to
bring employee values in line with their own values through their words and actions.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 164
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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94) The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people make
about other individuals.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people
make about other individuals. Thus we attribute to leaders intelligence, outgoing personality,
strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 165
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

95) Attribution theory suggests what's important is projecting the appearance of being a leader
rather than focusing on actual accomplishments.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Attribution theory suggests what's important is projecting the appearance of being
a leader rather than focusing on actual accomplishments. Leader-wannabes who can shape the
perception that they're smart, personable, verbally adept, aggressive, hardworking, and consistent
in their style can increase the probability their bosses, colleagues, and employees will view them
as effective leaders.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 166
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

96) Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each other's intentions and
appreciation of the others wants and desires, is the easiest to achieve without face-to-face
interaction.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each other's
intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve
without face-to-face interaction.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

97) According to findings of the GLOBE project, Brazilians prefer leaders who take self-
governing decisions and act alone without engaging the group.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Based on the values of Brazilian employees, a manager in Brazil would need to be
team oriented, participative, and humane. Leaders high on consideration who emphasize
participative decision making and have high LPC scores would be best suited to managing
employees in this culture. Brazilians do not prefer leaders who take self-governing decisions and
act alone without engaging the group.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 168
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 6

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98) The GLOBE study reveals that there are some universal aspects to leadership.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The GLOBE study reveals there are some universal aspects to leadership. A
number of elements making up transformational leadershipvision, foresight, providing
encouragement, trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness, and proactivenessappear associated
with effective leadership, regardless of the country.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 168
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 6

99) Distinguish between leadership and management.


Answer: John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that management is about coping
with complexity. Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal
plans, designing rigid organization structures, and monitoring results against the plans.
Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a
vision of the future; then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to
overcome hurdles. Although Kotter provides separate definitions of the two terms, both
researchers and practicing managers frequently make no such distinctions. Not all leaders are
managers, nor, for that matter, are all managers leaders. Just because an organization provides its
managers with certain formal rights is no assurance they will lead effectively. Leaders can
emerge from within a group as well as by formal appointment. Organizations need strong
leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness. We need leaders today to challenge
the status quo, create visions of the future, and inspire organizational members to want to achieve
the visions. We also need managers to formulate detailed plans, create efficient organizational
structures, and oversee day-to-day operations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 150-151
Objective: Implications of Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

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100) Identify and explain the two dimensions of leadership described in the Ohio State studies.
Answer: The Ohio State studies proposed that two categories accounted for most of the
leadership behavior described by employees. They called these two dimensions initiating
structure and consideration.
a) Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or
her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that
attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. A leader high in initiating structure is
someone who "assigns group members to particular tasks," "expects workers to maintain definite
standards of performance," and "emphasizes the meeting of deadlines."
b) Consideration is described as the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships
that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.
A leader high in consideration helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and
approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 152
Objective: Ohio State Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

101) According to the Fielder model of leadership, how can leader effectiveness be improved?
Answer: Fiedler views an individual's leadership style as fixed. Therefore, there are only two
ways to improve leader effectiveness. First, you can change the leader to fit the situationas a
baseball manager puts a right- or left-handed pitcher into the game depending on the hitter. If a
group situation rates highly unfavorable but is currently led by a relationship-oriented manager,
the group's performance could be improved under a manager who is task oriented. The second
alternative is to change the situation to fit the leader, by restructuring tasks or increasing or
decreasing the leader's power to control factors such as salary increases, promotions, and
disciplinary actions.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 155
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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102) Summarize the leader-member exchange theory.
Answer: The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of time pressures,
leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals
make up the in-groupthey are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention,
and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out-group. They get
less of the leader's time, fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have leader-
follower relations based on formal authority interactions. The theory proposes that early in the
history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes
the follower as an "in" or an "out" and that relationship is relatively stable over time. The theory
and research surrounding it provide substantive evidence that leaders do differentiate among
followers; that these disparities are far from random; and that followers with in-group status will
have higher performance ratings, lower turnover intentions, greater satisfaction with their
superior, and higher overall satisfaction than will the out-group. These positive findings for in-
group members are consistent with our knowledge of the self-fulfilling prophesy.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 156
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

103) Are charismatic leaders born or made?


Answer: Individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. Personality is also related
to charismatic leadership; charismatic leaders are likely to be extraverted, self-confident, and
achievement oriented. Although a small minority thinks charisma is inherited and cannot be
learned, most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors. After
all, just because we inherit certain tendencies doesn't mean we can't learn to change. One set of
authors proposes a three-step process. First, develop an aura of charisma by maintaining an
optimistic view; using passion as a catalyst for generating enthusiasm; and communicating with
the whole body, not just with words. Second, draw others in by creating a bond that inspires them
to follow. Third, bring out the potential in followers by tapping into their emotions.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 158
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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104) Describe the full range of leadership model.
Answer: According to the full range of leadership model, laissez-faire is the most passive and
therefore least effective of leader behaviors. Management by exceptionactive or passiveis
slightly better than laissez-faire, but it's still considered ineffective. Management-by-exception
leaders tend to be available only when there is a problem, which is often too late. Contingent
reward leadership can be an effective style of leadership but will not get employees to go above
and beyond the call of duty. Only with the four remaining stylesall aspects of transformational
leadershipare leaders able to motivate followers to perform above expectations and transcend
their self-interest for the sake of the organization. Individualized consideration, intellectual
stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence all result in extra effort from
workers, higher productivity, higher morale and satisfaction, higher organizational effectiveness,
lower turnover, lower absenteeism, and greater organizational adaptability. Based on this model,
leaders are generally most effective when they regularly use each of the four transformational
behaviors.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 161
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

44
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105) Distinguish between charismatic, transformational, and authentic leadership. Could an
individual display all three types of leadership?
Answer: Charismatic leaders are those who are perceived to have heroic or extraordinary
leadership abilities when they exhibit certain behaviors. Charismatic leaders have a vision, are
willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive to follower needs, and exhibit
unconventional behaviors.
Transactional leaders inspire their followers by paying attention to their concerns, helping them
rethink old problems in new ways, and encouraging them to achieve goals as a group. They can
have an extraordinary effect on their followers, inspiring them toward selfless goals that benefit
the larger organization. As a result, transformational leadership is strongly correlated with lower
turnover rates, higher productivity, lower employee stress and burnout, and higher employee
satisfaction.
Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those
values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them ethical people. The
primary quality produced by authentic leadership, therefore, is trust. Authentic leaders share
information, encourage open communication, and stick to their ideals. The result: people come to
have faith in them.
Some researchers, such as Robert House, believe that charismatic and transactional leadership
are essentially synonymous. A leader who scores high on transformational leadership qualities is
likely to score high on charisma as well. Both charismatic and transformational leaders could
display the qualities of authentic leadership and engender trust in their followers as well. In fact,
scholars have tried to integrate ethical and charismatic leadership by advancing the idea of
socialized charismatic leadershipleadership that conveys other centered (not self centered)
values by leaders who model ethical conduct. Therefore, it could be possible for a single leader
to display all three types of leadership.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 157-165
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4

106) If you were to believe in the attribution theory of leadership, what advice would you give
people who were aiming to become leaders?
Answer: Attribution theory suggests what's important is projecting the appearance of being a
leader rather than focusing on actual accomplishments. Leader-wannabes who can shape the
perception that they're smart, personable, verbally adept, aggressive, hardworking, and consistent
in their style can increase the probability their bosses, colleagues, and employees will view them
as effective leaders.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 5

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
107) What are the challenges of leading people who are physically separated from you and with
whom you communicate electronically?
Answer: Networked communication is a powerful channel that can build and enhance leadership
effectiveness. But when misused, it can undermine much of what a leader has achieved through
verbal communication. Online leaders have to think carefully about what actions they want their
digital messages to initiate. Online leaders also confront unique challenges, the greatest of which
appears to be developing and maintaining trust. Identification-based trust, based on a mutual
understanding of each other's intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, is
particularly difficult to achieve without face-to-face interaction. It's not yet clear whether it's
even possible for employees to identify with or trust leaders with whom they communicate only
electronically. Online negotiations can also be hindered because parties express lower levels of
trust. Thus, the tentative conclusion is that, for an increasing number of managers, good
leadership skills may include the abilities to communicate support, trust, and inspiration through
keyboarded words and accurately read emotions in others' messages. In electronic
communication, writing skills are likely to become an extension of interpersonal skills.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

108) In the light of the findings of the GLOBE project, what elements of transformational
leadership appear universal?
Answer: The GLOBE study has revealed that there are some universal aspects to leadership,
including vision, foresight, providing encouragement, trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness,
and proactiveness.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 168
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 6

46
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